Machine Vision In Electronic & Semiconductor Industry

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What is machine vision system (vision system)
Definition
Operation scope
Engineering domain
Applications in general
Industries that use vision systems
Vision system components - Introduction
Image processing - Introduction
Vision system functions - Introduction
Vision system performance
Introduction to applications in electronic & semiconductor manufacturing
Semiconductor front-end inspection & metrology
Semiconductor back-end inspection & metrology
IC assembly applications
IC handling, inspection & metrology
Leadframe inspection & metrology
PCBA/Substrate assembly inspection

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Machine Vision In Electronic & Semiconductor Industry

  1. 1. Machine Vision In Electronic & Semiconductor Industry Francy Abraham Machine Vision Technologist
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>What is machine vision system (vision system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering domain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications in general </li></ul><ul><li>Industries that use vision systems </li></ul><ul><li>Vision system components - Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Image processing - Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Vision system functions - Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Vision system performance </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to applications in electronic & semiconductor manufacturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiconductor front-end inspection & metrology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiconductor back-end inspection & metrology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IC assembly applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IC handling, inspection & metrology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadframe inspection & metrology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCBA/Substrate assembly inspection </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Machine Vision - Introduction <ul><li>What is machine vision? </li></ul><ul><li>A utomatic non-contact acquisition and analysis of images to obtain desired data for use in controlling a process or activity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Operation Scope <ul><li>Operate beyond Human Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UV/DUV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Machine Vision: Engineering Domain <ul><li>Optics/Electro-optics </li></ul><ul><li>Illumination </li></ul><ul><li>CCD/CMOS Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Grabber </li></ul><ul><li>Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Precision Mechanical Scan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute Encoders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Image Processing (Software) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixel Count </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation/NC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blob Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern Matching/GP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuzzy Logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many more … </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Industries That Use Machine Vision <ul><li>Semiconductor </li></ul><ul><li>PCB/A </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul>(Partial List) <ul><li>Electronic Components </li></ul><ul><li>Food Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Device </li></ul><ul><li>Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Metals </li></ul>
  7. 7. Vision System Applications <ul><li>Quality Assurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metrology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaw Detection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defect Detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign Particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test & Calibration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor calibration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Real-Time Process Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical fiber drawing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot steel strip rolling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Collection & Sorting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail Sort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machine Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Material Handling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Storage, Retrieval, Routing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gauging/Metrology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not contact measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robotic/Machine Guidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize, Locate, Guide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ID Tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OCR, 1D & 2D barcode </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Counting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counting bottles Or cans in a conveyor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect Obstacles and alarm or stop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Road Pricing </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Vision System Components <ul><li>Single or array of sensors to detect electromagnetic energy, usually 2D array </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism to collect reflected/transmitted energy </li></ul><ul><li>Image formation hardware/electro-opto-mechanical assemblies </li></ul><ul><li>Image acquisition hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Image processing hardware & software </li></ul><ul><li>I/O interfaces & User Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Data communication </li></ul>
  9. 9. Images in Vision Systems <ul><li>Two dimensional array </li></ul><ul><li>Each element is called a pixel </li></ul><ul><li>Each pixel is a representation of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>surface information – 2D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height information – 3D (Voxel) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The information can be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each pixel normally has a integer value (0 - 255) for 8 bit </li></ul><ul><li>There are images with 10bit, 12bit, 16bit or 24 bit pixel resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>The co-ordinate system has origin at top left corner </li></ul>
  10. 10. Image Processing Methods <ul><li>Pixel Counting </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholding </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity & segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Blob analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Edge Detection </li></ul><ul><li>Template Matching </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Character Recognition (OCR) </li></ul><ul><li>Barcode Reading – 1D, 2D codes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Vision System Functions <ul><li>Location & Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Gauging/Metrology </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection/ Flaw Detection </li></ul><ul><li>Verification </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking & Guidance </li></ul>
  12. 12. Vision System Performance <ul><li>Perform Beyond Human Vision </li></ul><ul><li>High Speed </li></ul><ul><li>High Magnification/Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Highly Repeatable in controlled environment </li></ul><ul><li>No fatigue - 24/7 </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>Good for unsafe and hazardous environment </li></ul><ul><li>Operate well in space constrained environments </li></ul>
  13. 13. Semiconductor: Front-end Applications <ul><li>SEM </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsometer </li></ul><ul><li>Reflectometer </li></ul><ul><li>X-ray Fluroscence </li></ul><ul><li>Interferometer </li></ul><ul><li>Wave-front Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Dark Field Imaging </li></ul>
  14. 14. Macro-inspection <ul><li>On-the-fly 2D inspection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image arithmetic, Template matching, Blob Analysis, Pixel counting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Speed 3D Inspection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser triangulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High speed con-focal Imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interferometer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White light, Moire </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Machine Vision Enabled Equipments <ul><li>Die Sorter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick & Place Guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crack & Chip out detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Die contamination check </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Die active area check </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wafer Bump inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flip-chip Bonder </li></ul><ul><li>(Film frame to substrate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick & Place Guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision guided die attach </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Machine Vision Enabled Equipments <ul><li>Die Bonder </li></ul><ul><li>Pad Location & alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Glue Metrology </li></ul><ul><li>Die placement </li></ul><ul><li>Die position check </li></ul><ul><li>Wire Bonder </li></ul><ul><li>Locate and align die pad and leadframe pad position </li></ul>
  17. 17. IC, Lead, Pad & Ball Inspection <ul><li>Contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Package size </li></ul><ul><li>Pin1 marking </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>OCV </li></ul><ul><li>Cracks </li></ul><ul><li>Chip out </li></ul><ul><li>Warpage </li></ul><ul><li>Lead pitch/bend </li></ul><ul><li>Sweep </li></ul><ul><li>Lead co-planarity </li></ul><ul><li>Lead length </li></ul><ul><li>Lead width </li></ul><ul><li>Stand off </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Ball </li></ul><ul><li>Over sized ball </li></ul><ul><li>Under sized ball </li></ul><ul><li>Extra ball </li></ul><ul><li>Ball residue </li></ul><ul><li>Ball Height </li></ul><ul><li>Co planarity </li></ul>
  18. 18. IC Inspection & Sorting Equipments Laser Mark & Inspection Transfer & Sort with 2D & 3D Inspection <ul><li>(Tray to Tray </li></ul><ul><li>Strip to Strip) </li></ul><ul><li>Package Visual Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>(Tray to Tray </li></ul><ul><li>Tray to Tape) </li></ul><ul><li>Package 2D & 3D Inspection </li></ul>( Tape to Tube )
  19. 19. IC Lead-frame Inspection
  20. 20. PCBA/Substrate Inspection

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