The Age of Faith: The Church, the State and the People
1. Introduction2. Political Fragmentation and Feudalism3. Economy and Society in the Middle Ages4. Gender Relations : From Flexibility to Polarity5. The Age of Faith : The Church, The State and The People
By 1000, Europe uniﬁed by Christian religion Europe = Christendom Church omnipresent and very powerful Salvation = a priority Those who pray: First order of society Arrival of the Just in Heaven
•Those Who Prayed•Those Who Fought•Those WhoToiled
Seculus = century, Theworld (temporal)Monastery (men)Convent (women)
Christianity = official state religion in 4th century (Theodosius) Had an organization and structure (pope, bishops, priests, etc.) Church in every city Bishops involved in local affaires Bishop Saint Ambrose and Theodosius
Germanic invasions -> many Germans pagan But survival of the Church Barbarians converted to Christianity = legitimacyRoman=ChristianRegulus = rule Baptism of Clovis
Era of cooperation between kings and Church: Clerics performed functions abandoned by Roman state: management and literacy Secular leaders select Church leaders, interfere with election of pope
Inﬂuence and omnipresence of the Church can be seen through: 1. Monasticism 2. The power of the papacy (the Church as a divine monarchy) 3. Rituals and devotional lifeTriumphant 1000-1300Alliies
Context First monasteries in 4th and 5th centuries Search for purity when persecutions ended Impulse for holiness: new expression in monasticism
Benedict of Nursia (480-550) Monte Cassino in 529 Benedictine Rule: Chastity Poverty Obedience Daily Life Study and contemplation Prayers and chants Productive work St. Benedict delivering his rule REGULAR CLERGY
A day in the life of a Cistercian monk: a simulation Note: The secular clergy, as opposed to the regular clergy,did not belong to a religious order, which means they did not place themselves under a rule, did not take vows and lived in the world. Monastic school
Institutionalized the practice of asceticism Renounced body for the sake of spirit’s salvation (denial of body’s needs) Prized virginity over marriage Exalted martyrdom Willing to die rather than to renounce faith Monk burning his fingers to avoid temptation
Medieval monastic orders: Cluny (10th century) Cistercian (11th century) Franciscan (13th century): mendicant order, mobile & urban Dominican (13th century): great preachers & important role in Inquisition
From 1000, Church asserted its independence Strong popes, esp. Gregory VII Gregorian Reforms: Redress morals of the clergy (celibacy) Free Church from laymen: Pope named bishops and priests Cardinals chose pope Pope and cardinals
That the Roman church was founded by God alone. That the Roman pontiff alone can with right be called universal. That he alone can depose or reinstate bishops. That he alone may use the imperial insignia. That of the pope alone all princes shall kiss the feet. That it may be permitted to him to depose emperors. That he himself may be judged by no one. That the Roman church has never erred; nor will it err to all eternity, the Scripture bearing witness. That he may absolve subjects from their fealty to wicked men.Henderson, Ernest F. Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages. London: George Bell and Sons, 1910. pp.
Just as the founder of the universe established two great lights in the ﬁrmament of heaven, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night, so too He set two great dignities in the ﬁrmament of the universal church..., the greater one to rule the day, that is, souls, and the lesser to rule the night, that is, bodies. These dignities are the papal authority and the royal power. Now just as the moon derives its light from the sun and is indeed lower than it in quantity and quality, in position and in power, so too the royal power derives the splendor of its dignity from the pontiﬁcal authority....Thatcher and McNeal. A Source Book for Medieval History. New York, 1905.
The instruments of the Church’s power Administration and representation (central administration, legates, ambassadors, etc.) Large revenues (properties, taxes, exemptions from Canon law, sale of indulgences, etc.) A Dominican sells indulgences in a church
Disciplinary power Excommunication Interdict Inquisition Dealt with offenses against the faith and official doctrine Dominicans and Franciscans Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV
The Crusades: an example of the Church’s new conﬁdence: Holy wars against Islam Fought by European knights Orchestrated by papacy Church showed its strength ‘It is the will of God!’ Urban II
Worship of the saints Heroes to venerate Intercession of the saints Relics Pilgrimages Going to places deemed to be sacred Goal: reinvigorate one’s faith, obtain forgiveness, seek healing, obtain miracles, express devotion, Reliquary earn one’s salvation, etc.
Good works Faith is not enough Salvation earned through good works The principal good works: charitable donations to the poor, prayer and fasting
Manuscript depictingscenes from the lifeof Louis IX, knownas St. Louis. He canbe seen studyingthe bible with the aidof a teacher,donating food to amonastery, washingthe feet of the poor,collecting relics ofthe saints, and beingwhipped by a monkin penance.
Middle Ages = The Age of Faith Those who pray = ﬁrst order in society Church is a divine monarchy: very powerful and omnipresent in religious, political, social, and economic matters Monasticism: the expression of the ideal Christian life Devotion, as expressed through attendance to the mass, receiveing the sacraments, doing good works, etc., was the door to salvation
1. Describe the position of the Church after the collapse of the Roman empire and at the beginning of the medieval period. What attitude did the Germanic people adopt towards the Christian Church?2. Why were the Middle Ages called the Age of Faith? Identify at least three examples of the importance of the Christian Church and faith in the Middle Ages.3. Why were monasteries created? Deﬁne the practice of asceticism that they adopted, and explain why were their members called the ‘regular clergy’. How did their life differ from that of the secular clergy?4. How did the Church assert its independence from year 1000, and what were the instruments of the Church’s power?5. What are the Crusades, and how are they an example of the growing conﬁdence of the Church?
6. Describe the important elements of devotional life in the Middle Ages (ex: attending mass, receiving the sacraments, worshipping the saints, etc.). Why did medieval people ﬁnd it important to do all these things?7. See questions on Terry Jones’ The Monk and The Crescent and the Cross (documentary on the Crusades).