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Pp 13

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Transcript

  • 1. Economy and Society
  • 2. 1. Introduction2. Political Fragmentation and Feudalism3. Economy and Society in the Middle Ages4. Gender Relations : From Flexibility to Polarity5. The Age of Faith : The Church, The State and The People
  • 3. •Those Who Prayed•Those Who Fought•Those WhoToiled
  • 4.  Agriculture (autarky) trade industry (market)
  • 5.  Christian criticism of usury: a sin ! - pay not approved by the church - Jews: now allowed to own land (identifed by clear symbols Jews attacked by an official A Jewish moneylender
  • 6. The devil taking the soul out of the mouth of a usurer
  • 7.  Main economic sector Most people were farmers (90%) work on land they dont own Most lived on manorial estates, not privately- owned farms Peasants living on manorial estates: worked on land they dont own A serf
  • 8.  Primitive state of this agricultural society:  subsistence farming ,  Simple tools, etc.
  • 9.  Yet, technical innovations (9th-10th centuries):  Heavy metal plow  Horse collar  Three-Field system cultivation
  • 10.  Definition: economic system bounding those who ruled the landed estates (lords) with those who performed the manual labor (serfs) An element of feudal society, but not of feudalism proper (not feudalism)
  • 11. Military protection, legal defense and sustenance provided by the fief Feudalism ->vassals need a revenueLORD Lord - Vassal -> voluntary obligations: Land (fief) against military service Mutual protection, faith Trust and loyalty Lord - Serfs -> Involuntary obligation protection against labor (revenue from the land). Involves LORDS and VASSAL peasants Military service, council, collect revenue, dispense justice on his fief and protect the serfs, payments and hospitality to his lord
  • 12. Feudalism and ManorialismLORD Feudal system Voluntary obligations: Land (fief) against military service VASSAL LORD Involuntary obligations: protection against labor (revenue from the land) FIEF SERFS Manorial system
  • 13. Manorialism Mutual ‘involuntary’ obligations of the manorial system LORD Military and judicial protection, aid in times of poor harvests Cultivate their strips of land, the lord’s and the priest’s, turn portion of their harvests, owed work service (ex: build roads, SERFS clear forests)
  • 14.  The Lord  Often away for feudal obligations  Management handed over to stewards  ½ produce of the land used for/to:  Support his aides and family  Payments to his overlord  Maintain a reserve of grain
  • 15.  The serfs  Legally unfree: could not leave the land  Not slaves: could not be evicted from the land  Status passed on to their children
  • 16.  Improved conditions (9th-10th centuries)  Technical innovations led to population growth  Settlements of new lands  Conditions of serfdom were relaxed:  Larger holdings  Smaller crop deliveries  Fewer hours of work service  Lord retained ownership of land and powers of government and justice
  • 17.  Fief divided into many manorial estates Manorial estate: self- sufficient agricultural estate Would support from 50 to 300 people
  • 18.  Components 1. Arable fields (2/3) 2. Supporting areas - Strip system - Woodland - Water source Manor - - Lord’s ‘demesne’ - Meadow - Waste land - Church and priest’s house - God’s acre - Pasture - Village - Mill, oven, wine press
  • 19.  A market economy A marginal economic sector Towns
  • 20.  Rise of trade  Internal stimulus  Rising agricultural productivity  Commercial farming (surplus to sell)  Greater specialization  More money to spend on luxuries  External stimulus  Taste for spices and other luxuries from Asia  Mediterranean trade redeveloped Trading ship from India lands its cargo at Ormuz (Iran)
  • 21. Capitalism -> private ownership -> profit -> competition Definition  ‘the economic system in which all or most of the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit, originally under fully competitive conditions’ (Webster’s)  Birth of capitalism in Europe: The Italian merchants A moneylender and his wife
  • 22.  Use of money  Lords sold produce instead of consuming it  Serfs started to pay rent in cash Fairs and commercial alliances A commercial fair Banking
  • 23.  New merchant class What contributed to their rise?  Little government intervention in the economy  Governments needed:  Money  Skills Most dynamic force in towns Considered as commoners = the “third Order”
  • 24.  Sense of collective responsibility Group protection Mutual control Regulation The guild = embodiment of these principles The goldsmith
  • 25.  Guild:  Corporation of merchants or artisans  Principles:  Production and sale of goods limited to members of the guild  Standards of business practice and quality of merchandise must be upheld  Price of the commodity should be set at a just figure  Protectionism Street of drapers, with bolts of cloth and cut-out patterns on the stalls
  • 26. Guildmaster supervises the dyeing of cloth
  • 27.  Agriculture remains the main economic sector Slow pace of economic development in the countryside Emergence of commercial and capitalist elements Protectionist constraints The emergence of a new social class: the bourgeoisie
  • 28. 1. What was the main economic sector of medieval Europe?2. Describe the state of medieval agriculture.3. Define manorialism. What are the differences between manorialism and feudalism? Explain how these two systems were at the same time related and distinct.4. What were the mutual obligations/duties of the lords and the serfs in the manorial system?5. Define serfdom, and explain why and how the conditions of the serfs changed from the 9th and 10th centuries.6. Identify the main components of the manorial estate.
  • 29. 7. Describe the external and internal stimuli that were responsible for the growth of medieval towns.8. Define capitalism.9. What were some features or aspects of the new commercial economy in medieval Europe?10. Who were the bourgeois? What are the factors explaining the rise of this social class?11. Why was the development of capitalism limited during the Middle Ages? How does the guild