1. The Greek World a. The Learning of Democracy b. The Birth of the Individual c. From Myths to Reason d. Women, Love and Homosexuality2. The Roman World a. From Republic to Empire b. Roman Society: Family and Values c. The Birth and Rise of Christianity
Christianity: An outgrowth of Judaism Judaism Roman Catholic Church Roman Catholic Church CHRISTIANITY (1ST Protestant Church (16th century) CENTURY C.E.) Orthodox Church (11th century) Orthodox Church (11th century)
Monotheist Fully sovereign: ruled all and subject to nothing Transcendent: above nature Attentive to human needs
Elements of Jewish and Christian faiths Two parts: The Old Testament History of the Jews The New Testament History of the ﬁrst century of the Christian Church Paul’s letter to the Romans Gospels Letters of Paul
Oppressive world Disillusion Escape from oppression was sought Christianity as an answer: reason for living, immortality, etc.
Coming of the reign of God All souls are equal Life is sacrosanct Beauty is spiritual, not physical Love = compassion, not eros Dignity in suffering Humility in face of providence Brotherhood of men Critique of Judaism
Threatened ancient Jewish traditions Political agitator God only is sovereign Monotheism City of man (temporal) < City of God (spiritual) Jesus before Pilate
1. Belief in resurrection2. St. Paul’s teachings Christianity is also for non-Jews (universal religion) Resurrection of Jesus
Roman tolerance to religious diversity Christianity beneﬁtted from association with the Roman empire (roads and universalism) Growing Roman worries Subversives: alliance to God, not Rome Did not accept state gods No participation in festivals Critique of violence Refused to do military service
Persecutions: Christians as scapegoats Effect: new converts! Christian martyrs in Colosseum
Constantine and the Edict of Milan (313 C.E.) Theodosius: Christianity becomes the state religion (392 C.E.) Christianity: A History (see questions) Theodosius I
Conclusion: A New Worldview The Classical Christian worldview: Worldview: A Human- A God-centred view centred viewIndividual Able to reason, to God loves him; should shape character behave righteously to according to rational enter heaven and standards shape character according to God’s willKnowledge Comes from reason Comes from faith; knowledge without God is purposelessUltimate good and Excellence attained Excellence attainedexcellence through one’s own efforts, through knowing, through independent obeying and loving thought and action, GodPurpose of life Enjoy life here and Be saved and have now, improve oneself eternal life and develop one’s capacities
1. What are the different branches of the Judeo-Christian family?2. Enumerate the main characteristics of the Hebraic and Christian God.3. How historical is the Bible?4. What was Jesus’ message and what elements of context may have favoured its diffusion in the Roman empire?5. What factors explain the survival of Jesus’ message?6. Describe the relationship between the early Christian Church and the Roman authorities.7. How was Christianity a challenge to Roman values and institutions? Compare the Classical and Judeo-Christian worldviews.8. See questions on the documentary Christianity: A History.