Cold war• What was the cold war?• Period between 1945 and 1991, tension and rivalry in various aspects between the USA and USSR(Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)• No conventional war took place during this time between the two countries• What does conventional war mean?• Most of the world sided either with the USA or USSA• If war erupted between the two. What would have been the outcome?
1. Changing of the Nature of war• Hiroshima and Nagasaki• USA dropped nuclear weapons on these cities in an attempt to end World War Two• Nearly 200 000 people died.• These nuclear weapons were made possible by the Manhattan project.
Activity 1.1 and 1.2• Read the sources together
• During WW2 they were allies• After WW2 they were superpowers• And as a result rivals• The USA controlled the West, the USSR the East• Iron curtain was the term coined by Winston Churchill in a speech after WW2
Spheres of influence• What does this concept mean?• So the USSR had a sphere of influence thanks to Josef Stalin in eastern Europe etc.• The USA had its sphere of influence in the west due to the Truman Doctrine. What was it?• It was a policy of the USA to send financial or technical aid to any country that it considered to be under threat of a communist takeover.
Complete Activity 2.1• Read the Sources together
3. Cold War and the nuclear age• In 1949 both the USA and USSR possessed nuclear missiles.• Why was this dangerous?• 1961 – Hydrogen bomb comes into existence• Why is this significant?• A thousand times more destructive than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima.• This would result in…
4.Competing Ideologies – Capitalism vs Communism• What is an ideology?• Set of ideas which promote a certain goal or vision.
Capitalism• Economic system• People are free to own a business and make a profit• Linked to democracy• People can elect a government to represent them• Individual freedoms are viewed as extremely important
USA• Multi-party democracy• One of the wealthiest economies• Free market• Privately owned• Profit system• Uneven distribution of wealth• Individual rights more important than social equality• Limited human rights restrictions• Eg, freedom of speech• Media owned by private companies• Rare censorship
• One party rule USSR• Government elected from Communist Party• Large and powerful economy• Government run economy• Business and farms owned by government• Profit goes to government and used for the people• Wealth is more evenly distributed• Lower Gross National Income compared to USA• Many social services for free• Individual rights less important than communal rights• Strict limitations on some human rights• Right to work and education guaranteed• Media owned by the government• Censorship is at a high level than in the USA
5. The Arms Race• 1961 – Both countries have nuclear capabilities – aimed at each other• This could actually reduce the chance of war. Why?• Despite this, in 1962 Nuclear War almost happened.• How?• Cuban Missile Crises!
Cuban Missile Crises• Background – 1959 - Castro overthrew the American backed dictator.• America had many companies and interests in Cuba.• In 1961 the USA tried to overthrow Castros government with an invasion at the Bay of Pigs• This failed massively.• As a result, the USSR supplied Cuba with equipment, including missiles enabling her to to defend herself from the USA
6. Conflict over territory• Chile – 1970 – Salvador Allende was democratically elected as president.• In 1973 he appointed Augusto Pinochet as his commander In chief of the army.• Pinochet was working with the CIA to overthrow the socialist Allende• Pinochet let a military coup de etat and declared himself president• His rule was ruthless
Sputnik• 4 October 1957• Soviets launched the first satellite• USSR used the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile or ICBM
What follows?• 1958 – USA launch its first satellite• 1959 – Soviets send a spacecraft around the moon• 12 April 1961 – The USSR sent a cosmonaut into space. He circled the earth once and came back to earth unharmed• 10 months later the USA send astronaut John Glen into space. He orbits earth.
Perestroika• Restructuring• Perestroika means mass initiative. It is the conference of development of democracy, socialist self-government, encouragement of initiative and creative endeavour, improved water and disciplined, more glasnost, criticism and self- criticism in all spheres of our society. It is utmost respect for the individual and consideration for personal dignity.• Perestroika is the all-round intensification of the Soviet economy, the revival and development of the principles of democratic centralism in running the national economy, the universal introduction of economic methods, the renunciation of management by injunction and by administrative methods, and the overall encouragement of innovation and socialist enterprise.• Perestroika means a resolute shift to scientific methods, an ability to provide a solid scientific basis for every new initiative. It means the combination of the achievements of the scientific and technological revolution with a planned economy• Perestroika means priority development of the social sphere aimed at ever better satisfaction of the Soviet peoples requirements for good living and working conditions, for good rest and recreation, education and health care. It means unceasing concern for cultural and spiritual wealth, for the culture of every individual and society as a whole.• Perestroika means the elimination from society of the distortions of socialist ethics, the consistent implementation of the principles of social justice. It means the unity of words and deeds, rights and duties. It is the elevation of honest, highly-qualified labor, the overcoming of leveling tendencies in pay and consumerism. . .
Glasnost• a Soviet policy permitting open discussion of political and social issues and freer dissemination of news and information•