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PSA:
CARATTERISTICHE
FENOMENO INCENDIO
Prof. Ing. Franco Bontempi
Ing. Chiara Crosti
Facolta’ di Ingegneria Civile e Ind...
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INCENDIO
• Incendio = combustione autoalimentata ed
incontrollata di materiali combustibili.
• Carattere estensivo (diff...
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CARATTERE ESTENSIVO
Diffusione nello spazio
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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1. WILDFIRE
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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2. URBANFIRE
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ANTINCENDIO
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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The Great Fire of London Sunday, 2 September
to Wednesday, 5 September 1666.
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PROGE...
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The Great Fire of the City of New York,
16 December 1835
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE...
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The Great Fire of Chicago, October 7-10, 1871
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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3. ALL’ESTERNO DI UN EDIFICIO
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ANTINCENDIO
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4. ALL’INTERNO DI UN EDIFICIO
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ANTINCENDIO
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ANTINCENDIO
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NUMERICAL
MODELING
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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CARATTERE INTENSIVO
Andamento temporale
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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ISO 13387: Example of Design Fire
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ANTINCENDIO
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www.francobontempi.
orgEVOLUZIONE NEL TEMPO DELLA
POTENZA TERMICA
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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Summary of periods of typical fire development
Incipient
period
Growth period Burning period Decay period
Fire
Behavior...
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flashover
STRATEGIE
ATTIVE
(approccio
sistemico)
STRATEGIE
PASSIVE
(approccio
strutturale)
Tempo t
TemperaturaT(t)
anda...
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F
L
A
S
H
O
V
E
R
passive
 Create fire
compartments
 Prevent damage
in the elements
 Prevent loss of
functionality i...
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Fire Safety Strategies
active
protection
passive
protection
no failures
doesn’t
trigger
Y
N
Y
N
spreads
extinguishes
da...
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CARATTERE ACCIDENTALE
Evento
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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DOI:10.3267/HE2008
Situazioni HPLC
High Probability Low Consequences
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PROGETTAZIONE...
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LPHC events www.francobontempi.
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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HPLC
High probability
Low Consequences
LPHC
Low Probability
High
Consequences
release of energy SMALL LARGE
numbers of ...
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Perrow
LINEAR interactions NONLINEAR
LOOSEcouplingsTIGHT
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE...
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LOW
AMBIGUITY
UNCERTAINTY
HIGH
TIGHT
COUPLING
INTERACTIONS
CONNECTIONS
LOOSE
NON LINEAR
BEHAVIOR
LINEAR
LOW
AMBIGUITY
U...
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3300183 183777 627
+77.00 m
+383.00 +383.00
+54.00
+118.00
+52.00 +63.00
3300183 183777 627
+77.00 m
+383.00 +383.00
+5...
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3300183 183777 627
+77.00 m
+383.00 +383.00
+54.00
+118.00
+52.00 +63.00
3300183 183777 627
+77.00 m
+383.00 +383.00
+5...
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3300183 183777 627
+77.00 m
+383.00 +383.00
+54.00
+118.00
+52.00 +63.00
3300183 183777 627
+77.00 m
+383.00 +383.00
+5...
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DOI:10.3267/HE2008 Approcci di analisi
HPLC
Eventi Frequenti con
Conseguenze Limitate
LPHC
Eventi Rari con
Conseguenze ...
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Scenari (D.M. 14 settembre 2005)
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Il Progettista, a seguito della classificazione e della caratterizzazione delle azi...
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Overview of scenario analysis
Determine geometry,
construction and
use of the building
Establish maximum likely
fuel lo...
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ISO 13387: Example of Event Tree
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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CONTROLLING FIRE SPREAD
• The larger a fire, the greater its destructive
potential.
• The control of fire movement, or ...
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ISO 13387: Examples of Fire Spread Routes
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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Fire spread within the room of origin
• Fire spread within the room of origin depends largely on
heat release rate of t...
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Fire spread to adjacent rooms (1)
• Spread of fire and smoke to adjacent rooms is a major
contributor to fire deaths. F...
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Fire spread to adjacent rooms (2)
• Concealed spaces are one of the most dangerous paths for the
spread f fire and smok...
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Fire spread to others storey (1)
• Vertical shafts and stairways must be fire-stopped or separated
from the occupied sp...
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Fire spread to others storey (2)
• Vertical fire spread can also occur outside the building
envelope, via combustible c...
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Fire spread to other buildings
• Fire can spread from a burning building to adjacent buildings by
flame contact, by rad...
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IMPOSTAZIONE DELLA SICUREZZA
Rischio
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ANTINCENDIO
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RISK CONCERNwww.francobontempi.org
RISK
RISCHIO
HAZARD
PERICOLO
EXPOSURE
ESPOSIZIONE
VULNERABILITY
VULNERABLITA'
CONSEQ...
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Risk treatment
Option 1 :
RISK
AVOIDANCE
Option 2 :
RISK
REDUCTION
Option 3 :
RISK
TRANSFER
Option 4 :
RISK
ACCEPTANCE
...
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Option 1 – Risk avoidance, which usually means not proceeding to
continue with the system; this is not always a feasibl...
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Risk Analysis, Assessment,
Management (IEC 1995)
Luur,2002
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURA...
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Quantitative Risk Analysis
Luur,2002
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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Risk-based decision making
DEFINE CONTEXT
(social, individual,
political, organizational,
technological)
DEFINE SYSTEM
...
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RISK CONCERNS
DEFINE CONTEXT
(social, individual,
political, organizational,
technological)
RSK ANALYSIS
(for the syste...
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RISK CONCERNS
DEFINE CONTEXT
(social, individual,
political, organizational,
technological)
RSK ANALYSIS
(for the syste...
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RISK CONCERNS
DEFINE CONTEXT
(social, individual,
political, organizational,
technological)
RSK ANALYSIS
(for the syste...
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RISK CONCERNS
DEFINE CONTEXT
(social, individual,
political, organizational,
technological)
RSK ANALYSIS
(for the syste...
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RISK CONCERNS
DEFINE CONTEXT
(social, individual,
political, organizational,
technological)
RSK ANALYSIS
(for the syste...
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RISK CONCERNS
DEFINE CONTEXT
(social, individual,
political, organizational,
technological)
RSK ANALYSIS
(for the syste...
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RISK CONCERNS
DEFINE CONTEXT
(social, individual,
political, organizational,
technological)
RSK ANALYSIS
(for the syste...
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RISK CONCERNS
DEFINE CONTEXT
(social, individual,
political, organizational,
technological)
RSK ANALYSIS
(for the syste...
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PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE
ANTINCENDIO
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Scenarios
DEFINE SYSTEM
(the system is usually decomposed into
a number of smaller subsystems and/or
components)
HAZARD...
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Simulations
DEFINE SYSTEM
(the system is usually decomposed into
a number of smaller subsystems and/or
components)
HAZA...
95
Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Buchanan,2002
Strategie per
la gestione
dell'incendio
1
Prevenzione
...
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Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA)
Buchanan,2002
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Strategie per
la gestione
dell'incendio
1
Prevenzione
...
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FIRE SAFETY CONCEPTS TREE (NFPA)
Line 2
• La gestione dell’incendio non è necessaria se si previene l’ignizione.
• Può ...
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FIRE SAFETY CONCEPTS TREE (NFPA)
Line 4
Exposed persons and property can be managed by moving them from the building or...
99
Line 6
• There are three options for managing a fire; in the first case the fuel source can be
controlled, by limiting ...
100
Line 9 - The two strategies for controlling fire movement are:
a) fire venting: venting can be by an active system of ...
101
Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA) (1)
• Line 4 – exposed persons and property can be managed by
moving them from the bu...
102
Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA) (2)
• Line 9 - the two strategies for controlling fire movement are:
a) fire venting:...
103
Design Process - ISO 13387
A. Design constraints and possibilities
(blue),
B. Action definition and development
(red),...
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SS0a
PRESCRIBED
DESIGN
PARAMETERS
SS0b
ESTIMATED
DESIGN
PARAMETERS
SS1
initiation and
development
of fire and
fire efl...
105
STRUCTURAL
CONCEPTION
STRUCTURAL
TOPOLOGY
&
GEOMETRY
threats
No
Yes
threats
STRUCTURAL
MATERIAL
& PARTS
No
Yespassive
...
106
STRUCTURAL
CONCEPTION
STRUCTURAL
TOPOLOGY
&
GEOMETRY
threats
No
Yes
threats
STRUCTURAL
MATERIAL
& PARTS
No
Yespassive
...
107
FIRE DETECTION
& SUPPRESSION
No
active
structural
characteristics
threats
ORGANIZATION &
FIREFIGHTERS
No
Yes
threats
M...
108
STRUCTURAL
CONCEPTION
STRUCTURAL
TOPOLOGY
&
GEOMETRY
STRUCTURAL
MATERIAL
& PARTS
FIRE DETECTION
& SUPPRESSION
ORGANIZA...
109
HAZARD
IN-DEPTH
DEFENCE
HOLES DUE TO
ACTIVE ERRORS
HOLES DUE TO
HIDDEN ERRORS
FAILURE PATH www.francobontempi.
org
3/2...
110
Causes of system failure
100%
Time
%offailure
Unknown phenomena
Known phenomena
Research level Design code level
past ...
111
111
112
StroNGER S.r.l.
Research Spin-off for Structures of the Next Generation
Energy Harvesting and Resilience
Rome – Athens...
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PSA - Caratteristiche del Fenomeno Incendio - Bontempi

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Corso di Progettazione Strutturale Antincendio, Facolta' di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Universita' degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza - Franco Bontempi.

Sono illustrate le caratteristiche fondamentali che caratterizzano l'azione incendio.

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Transcript of "PSA - Caratteristiche del Fenomeno Incendio - Bontempi"

  1. 1. 1 PSA: CARATTERISTICHE FENOMENO INCENDIO Prof. Ing. Franco Bontempi Ing. Chiara Crosti Facolta’ di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale Universita’ degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza” www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 1 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  2. 2. 2 INCENDIO • Incendio = combustione autoalimentata ed incontrollata di materiali combustibili. • Carattere estensivo (diffusione nello spazio): 1. wildfire 2. urbanfire 3. all’esterno di un edificio 4. all’interno di un interno • Carattere intensivo (andamento nel tempo). • Natura accidentale. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 2 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  3. 3. 3 CARATTERE ESTENSIVO Diffusione nello spazio www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 3 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  4. 4. 4 1. WILDFIRE www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 4 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  5. 5. 5 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 5 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  6. 6. 6 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 6 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  7. 7. 7 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 7 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  8. 8. 8 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 8 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  9. 9. 9 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 9 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  10. 10. 10 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 10 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  11. 11. 11 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 11 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  12. 12. 12 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 12 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  13. 13. 13 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 13 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  14. 14. 14 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 14 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  15. 15. 15 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 15 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  16. 16. 16 2. URBANFIRE www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 16 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  17. 17. 17 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 17 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  18. 18. 18 The Great Fire of London Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 18 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  19. 19. 19 The Great Fire of the City of New York, 16 December 1835 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 19 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  20. 20. 20 The Great Fire of Chicago, October 7-10, 1871 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 20 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  21. 21. 21 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 21 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  22. 22. 22 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 22 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  23. 23. 23 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 23 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  24. 24. 24 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 24 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  25. 25. 25 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 25 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  26. 26. 26 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 26 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  27. 27. 3/10/20143/22/2011 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO 27 www.francobontempi. org
  28. 28. 28 3. ALL’ESTERNO DI UN EDIFICIO www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 28 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  29. 29. 29 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 29 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  30. 30. 30 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 30 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  31. 31. 31 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 31 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  32. 32. 32 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 32 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  33. 33. 33 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 33 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  34. 34. 34 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 34 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  35. 35. 35 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 35 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  36. 36. 36 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 36 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  37. 37. 37 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 37 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  38. 38. 38 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 38 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  39. 39. 39 4. ALL’INTERNO DI UN EDIFICIO www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 39 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  40. 40. 40 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 40 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  41. 41. 41 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 41 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  42. 42. 42 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 42 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  43. 43. 43 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 43 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  44. 44. 44 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 44 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  45. 45. 45 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 45 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  46. 46. 46 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 46 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  47. 47. 47 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 47 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  48. 48. 48 NUMERICAL MODELING www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 48 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  49. 49. 49 CARATTERE INTENSIVO Andamento temporale www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 49 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  50. 50. 50 ISO 13387: Example of Design Fire www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 50 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  51. 51. 51 www.francobontempi. orgEVOLUZIONE NEL TEMPO DELLA POTENZA TERMICA 3/22/2011 51 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  52. 52. 52 Summary of periods of typical fire development Incipient period Growth period Burning period Decay period Fire Behavior Heating of fuel Fuel controlled burning Ventilation controlled burning Fuel controlled burning Human behavior Prevent ignition Extinguish by hand, escape Death Detection Smoke detectors Smoke detectors, heat detectors External smoke and flame Active control Prevent ignition Extinguish by sprinklers or fire fighters; control of smoke Control by fire-fighters Passive control - Select materials with resistance to flame spread Provide fire resistance; contain fire, prevent collapse T timeBuchanan, 2002 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 52 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  53. 53. 53 flashover STRATEGIE ATTIVE (approccio sistemico) STRATEGIE PASSIVE (approccio strutturale) Tempo t TemperaturaT(t) andamento di T(t) a seguito del successo delle strategie attive flashover STRATEGIE ATTIVE (approccio sistemico) STRATEGIE PASSIVE (approccio strutturale) Tempo t TemperaturaT(t) andamento di T(t) a seguito del successo delle strategie attive FIRE MODEL HEAT TRANSFER MODEL STRUCTURAL MODEL Fire thermal exposure Thermal gradients Load capacity Curva naturale d’incendio www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 53 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  54. 54. 54 F L A S H O V E R passive  Create fire compartments  Prevent damage in the elements  Prevent loss of functionality in the building active  Detection measures (smoke, heat, flame detectors)  Suppression measures (sprinklers, fire extinguisher, standpipes, firemen)  Smoke and heat evacuation system prevention protection robustness  Limit ignition sources  Limit hazardous human behavior  Emergency procedure and evacuation  Prevent the propagation of collapse, once local damages occurred (e.g. redundancy) Fire Safety Strategies www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 54 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  55. 55. 55 Fire Safety Strategies active protection passive protection no failures doesn’t trigger Y N Y N spreads extinguishes damages Y N robustness no collapse collapse Y N triggers prevention 1 42 3 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 55 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  56. 56. 56 CARATTERE ACCIDENTALE Evento www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 56 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  57. 57. 57 DOI:10.3267/HE2008 Situazioni HPLC High Probability Low Consequences www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 57 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  58. 58. 58 LPHC events www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 58 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  59. 59. 59 HPLC High probability Low Consequences LPHC Low Probability High Consequences release of energy SMALL LARGE numbers of breakdown SMALL LARGE people involved FEW MANY nonlinearity WEAK STRONG interactions WEAK STRONG uncertainty WEAK STRONG decomposability HIGH LOW course predictability HIGH LOW HPLC – LPHC EVENTS www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 59 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  60. 60. 60 Perrow LINEAR interactions NONLINEAR LOOSEcouplingsTIGHT www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 60 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  61. 61. 61 LOW AMBIGUITY UNCERTAINTY HIGH TIGHT COUPLING INTERACTIONS CONNECTIONS LOOSE NON LINEAR BEHAVIOR LINEAR LOW AMBIGUITY UNCERTAINTY HIGH TIGHT COUPLING INTERACTIONS CONNECTIONS LOOSE NON LINEAR BEHAVIOR LINEAR Complexity
  62. 62. 62 3300183 183777 627 +77.00 m +383.00 +383.00 +54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00 3300183 183777 627 +77.00 m +383.00 +383.00 +54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00 CONTROL DEVICES SOIL BEHAVIOR MATERIAL NONLINEARITY SOIL/STRUCTURE INTERFACE CONTACT HANGERS TOWERS MAIN CABLES GEOMETRIC NONLINEARITY Nonlinearity www.francobontempi. org
  63. 63. 63 3300183 183777 627 +77.00 m +383.00 +383.00 +54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00 3300183 183777 627 +77.00 m +383.00 +383.00 +54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00 STRUCTURAL MODEL LOADING SYSTEM GEOMETRY AND MATERIAL Uncertainty www.francobontempi. org
  64. 64. 64 3300183 183777 627 +77.00 m +383.00 +383.00 +54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00 3300183 183777 627 +77.00 m +383.00 +383.00 +54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00 TRAFFIC – STRUCTURE WIND - STRUCTURE SOIL - STRUCTURE Interactions GLOBAL/LOCAL STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR www.francobontempi. org
  65. 65. 65 DOI:10.3267/HE2008 Approcci di analisi HPLC Eventi Frequenti con Conseguenze Limitate LPHC Eventi Rari con Conseguenze Elevate Complessità: Aspetti non lineari e Meccanismi di interazioni Impostazione del problema: Deterministico Stocastico ANALISI QUALITATIVA DETERMINISTICA ANALISI QUANTITATIVA PROBABILISTICA ANALISI PRAGMATICA CON SCENARI www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 65 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  66. 66. 66 Scenari (D.M. 14 settembre 2005) 66 Il Progettista, a seguito della classificazione e della caratterizzazione delle azioni, deve individuare le possibili situazioni contingenti in cui le azioni possono cimentare l’opera stessa. A tal fine, è definito:  lo scenario: un insieme organizzato e realistico di situazioni in cui l’opera potrà trovarsi durante la vita utile di progetto;  lo scenario di carico: un insieme organizzato e realistico di azioni che cimentano la struttura;  lo scenario di contingenza: l’identificazione di uno stato plausibile e coerente per l’opera, in cui un insieme di azioni (scenario di carico) è applicato su una configurazione strutturale. Per ciascuno stato limite considerato devono essere individuati scenari di carico (ovvero insiemi organizzati e coerenti nello spazio e nel tempo di azioni) che rappresentino le combinazioni delle azioni realisticamente possibili e verosimilmente più restrittive. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 66 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  67. 67. 67 Overview of scenario analysis Determine geometry, construction and use of the building Establish maximum likely fuel loads Estimate maximum likely number of occupants and their locations Assume certain fire protection features Carry out fire engineering analysis Acceptable performance Accept design Modify fire protection features Establish performance requirements No Yes Buchanan,2002www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 67 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  68. 68. 68 ISO 13387: Example of Event Tree www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 68 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  69. 69. 69 CONTROLLING FIRE SPREAD • The larger a fire, the greater its destructive potential. • The control of fire movement, or fire spread, is discussed in four categories: 1. within the room of origin; 2. to other rooms on the same level; 3. to other storey of the same building; 4. to other buildings. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 69 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  70. 70. 70 ISO 13387: Examples of Fire Spread Routes www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 70 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  71. 71. 71 Fire spread within the room of origin • Fire spread within the room of origin depends largely on heat release rate of the initially burning object. • Vertical and horizontal fire spread will be greatly increased if the room is lined with combustible materials susceptible to rapid flame spread on the walls and especially on the ceilings. • The properties of interest are ignitability, flame spread and the amount of smoke produced; these are often called early fire hazard properties or reaction to fire properties; these properties can be improved with the use of special paints or pressure treatment. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 71 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  72. 72. 72 Fire spread to adjacent rooms (1) • Spread of fire and smoke to adjacent rooms is a major contributor to fire deaths. Fire and smoke movement depends vey much on the geometry of the building. If doors are open, they can provide a path for smoke and toxic combustion products to travel from the upper layer of the fire room into the next room or corridor. • Keeping doors closed is essential to preventing fire spread from room to room. Doors through fire barrier must be able to maintain the containment function of the barrier through which they pass, whether for smoke control or fire resistance. • Door closing devices which operate automatically when a fire is detected are very effective for greatly increasing fire safety. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 72 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  73. 73. 73 Fire spread to adjacent rooms (2) • Concealed spaces are one of the most dangerous paths for the spread f fire and smoke. Concealed cavities are a particular problem in old buildings, especially if a number of new ceilings or partitions have been added over the years. • Fire can also spread to adjacent rooms by penetrating the surrounding walls. Fire resisting walls must extend through suspended ceilings to the floor or roof above so that the fire does not spread by traveling through concealed space above the wall. • The wall can be extended above the roof line to form a parapet, or the roof can be fire-rated for some distance either side of the top of the wall. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 73 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  74. 74. 74 Fire spread to others storey (1) • Vertical shafts and stairways must be fire-stopped or separated from the occupied space at each level to avoid producing a path for spread of fire and smoke from floor to floor. A particularly dangerous situation can arise if there are interconnected horizontal and vertical concealed spaces, within the building or on the façade. • This is particularly important of curtain-wall construction where the exterior panels are not part of the structure. Careful detailing and installation is necessary to ensure that the entire gap is sealed, especially at corners and junctions, to eliminate any possible path for fire spread. • Gaps such as these between structural and non-structural elements are often filed with non-rigid fire-stopping materials to allow for seismic or thermal movement. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 74 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  75. 75. 75 Fire spread to others storey (2) • Vertical fire spread can also occur outside the building envelope, via combustible cladding materials or exterior windows. • Vertical spread of fire from window is a major hazard in multi- story buildings. This hazard can be partly controlled by keeping windows small and well separated, and by using horizontal aprons which project above windows openings. • Flames from small narrow windows tend to project further away from the wall of the building than flames from long wide windows, leading to lower probability of storey fire spread. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 75 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  76. 76. 76 Fire spread to other buildings • Fire can spread from a burning building to adjacent buildings by flame contact, by radiation from windows, or by flaming brands. • Fire spread can be prevented by providing a fire-resisting barrier or by providing sufficient separation distances. If there are openings in the external wall, the probability of fire spread depends greatly on the distances between the buildings and the size of the openings. It depends also on relative buildings heights. • Collapse of exterior walls can be a major hazard for fire-fighters and bystanders, and can lead to further spread of fire to adjacent buildings. • Fire spread by flame contact is only possible if the buildings are quite close together, whereas fire spread by radiation can occur over many meters. Fire can also travel large distances between buildings if combustible vegetation is present. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 76 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  77. 77. 77 IMPOSTAZIONE DELLA SICUREZZA Rischio www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 77 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  78. 78. 78 RISK CONCERNwww.francobontempi.org RISK RISCHIO HAZARD PERICOLO EXPOSURE ESPOSIZIONE VULNERABILITY VULNERABLITA' CONSEQUENCES CONSEGUENZE ENVIRONMENT AMBIENTE (sidewalk marciapiede) SYSTEM SISTEMA (walking person pedone) (hole tombino) (path percorso) (distraction distrazione) June 2011 78www.francobontempi.org cause causa effect effetto
  79. 79. 79 Risk treatment Option 1 : RISK AVOIDANCE Option 2 : RISK REDUCTION Option 3 : RISK TRANSFER Option 4 : RISK ACCEPTANCE START STOP No No No Yes Yes Yes No 100 % 50 % 50 % 30 % 20 % 25 % 5 % www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 79 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  80. 80. 80 Option 1 – Risk avoidance, which usually means not proceeding to continue with the system; this is not always a feasible option, but may be the only course of action if the hazard or their probability of occurrence or both are particularly serious; Option 2 – Risk reduction, either through (a) reducing the probability of occurrence of some events, or (b) through reduction in the severity of the consequences, such as downsizing the system, or (c) putting in place control measures; Option 3 – Risk transfer, where insurance or other financial mechanisms can be put in place to share or completely transfer the financial risk to other parties; this is not a feasible option where the primary consequences are not financial; Option 4 – Risk acceptance, even when it exceeds the criteria, but perhaps only for a limited time until other measures can be taken. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 80 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  81. 81. 81 Risk Analysis, Assessment, Management (IEC 1995) Luur,2002 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 81 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  82. 82. 82 Quantitative Risk Analysis Luur,2002 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 82 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  83. 83. 83 Risk-based decision making DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) DEFINE SYSTEM (the system is usually decomposed into a number of smaller subsystems and/or components) HAZARD SCENARIO ANALYSIS (what can go wrong? how can it happen? waht controls exist?) ESTIMATE PROBABILITIES (of occurrences) ESTIMATE CONSEQUENCES (magnitude) DEFINE RISK SCENARIOS RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS MONITOR AND REVIEW Stewart&Melchers,1997www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 83 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  84. 84. 84 RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 84 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  85. 85. 85 RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 85 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  86. 86. 86 RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 86 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  87. 87. 87 RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 87 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  88. 88. 88 RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 88 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  89. 89. 89 RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 89 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  90. 90. 90 RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 90 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  91. 91. 91 RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 91 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  92. 92. 92 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 92 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  93. 93. 93 Scenarios DEFINE SYSTEM (the system is usually decomposed into a number of smaller subsystems and/or components) HAZARD SCENARIO ANALYSIS (what can go wrong? how can it happen? waht controls exist?) ESTIMATE CONSEQUENCES (magnitude) ESTIMATE PROBABILITIES (of occurrences) DEFINE RISK SCENARIOS SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS RISK ANALYSIS FIRE EVENT www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 93 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  94. 94. 94 Simulations DEFINE SYSTEM (the system is usually decomposed into a number of smaller subsystems and/or components) HAZARD SCENARIO ANALYSIS (what can go wrong? how can it happen? waht controls exist?) ESTIMATE CONSEQUENCES (magnitude) ESTIMATE PROBABILITIES (of occurrences) DEFINE RISK SCENARIOS SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS RISK ANALYSIS NUMERICAL MODELING www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 94 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  95. 95. 95 Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Buchanan,2002 Strategie per la gestione dell'incendio 1 Prevenzione 2 Gestione dell'evento 3 Gestione dell'incendio 4 Gestione delle persone e dei beni 15 Difesa sul posto 16 Spostamento 17 Disposibilità delle vie di fuga 18 Far avvenire il deflusso 19 Controllo della quantità di combustibile 5 Soppressione dell'incendio 10 Controllo dell'incendio attraverso il progetto 13 Automatica 11 Manuale 12 Controllo dei materiali presenti 6 Controllo del movimento dell'incendio 7 Resistenza e stabilità strutturale 14 Contenimento 9 Ventilazione 8 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 95 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  96. 96. 96 Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA) Buchanan,2002 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Strategie per la gestione dell'incendio 1 Prevenzione 2 Gestione dell'evento 3 Gestione dell'incendio 4 Gestione delle persone e dei beni 15 Difesa sul posto 16 Spostamento 17 Disposibilità delle vie di fuga 18 Far avvenire il deflusso 19 Controllo della quantità di combustibile 5 Soppressione dell'incendio 10 Controllo dell'incendio attraverso il progetto 13 Automatica 11 Manuale 12 Controllo dei materiali presenti 6 Controllo del movimento dell'incendio 7 Resistenza e stabilità strutturale 14 Contenimento 9 Ventilazione 8 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 96 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  97. 97. 97 FIRE SAFETY CONCEPTS TREE (NFPA) Line 2 • La gestione dell’incendio non è necessaria se si previene l’ignizione. • Può essere solo ridotta la probabilità che avvenga l’ignizione. • Gli incendi dolosi è difficile da prevedere dal progettista www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 97 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  98. 98. 98 FIRE SAFETY CONCEPTS TREE (NFPA) Line 4 Exposed persons and property can be managed by moving them from the building or by defending them in place; in order for people to move, the fire must be detected, the people must be notified, and there must be a suitable safe path for movement. www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 98 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  99. 99. 99 Line 6 • There are three options for managing a fire; in the first case the fuel source can be controlled, by limiting the amount of fuel or the geometry; the second options is to suppress the fire; the third is to control the fire by construction. • Control fire by construction it is necessary to both control the movement of the fire and provide the structural stability. FIRE SAFETY CONCEPTS TREE (NFPA) www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 99 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  100. 100. 100 Line 9 - The two strategies for controlling fire movement are: a) fire venting: venting can be by an active system of mechanically operated vents, or a passive system that relies on the melting of plastic skylights; in either case, the increased ventilation may increase the local severity of the fire, but fire spread within the building and the overall thermal impact on the structure will be reduced; b) containment of a fire to prevent spread is the principal tool of passive fire protection; preventing fire growing to a large size is ne of the most important components of a fire safety strategy; radiant spread of the fire to neighboring buildings must also be prevented, by limiting the size of openings in exterior walls; Smoke containment can also controlled by venting or containment; pressurizations and smoke barriers can also used. FIRE SAFETY CONCEPTS TREE (NFPA) www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 100 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  101. 101. 101 Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA) (1) • Line 4 – exposed persons and property can be managed by moving them from the building or by defending them in place; in order for people to move, the fire must be detected, the people must be notified, and there must be a suitable safe path for movement. • Line 6 – there are three options for managing a fire; in the first case the fuel source ca be controlled, by limiting the amount of fuel or the geometry; the second options is to suppress the fire; the third is to control the fire by construction. • Control fire by construction it is necessary to both control the movement of the fire and provide the structural stability. Buchanan,2002 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 101 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  102. 102. 102 Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA) (2) • Line 9 - the two strategies for controlling fire movement are: a) fire venting: venting can be by an active system of mechanically operated vents, or a passive system that relies on the meltig of plastic skylights; in either case, the increased ventilation may increase the local severity of the fire, but fire spread within the building and the overall thermal impact on the structure will be reduced; b) containment of a fire to prevent spread is the principal tool of passive fire protection; preventing fire growing to a large size is ne of the most important components of a fire safety strategy; radiant spread of the fire to nighbouring buildings must also be prevented, by limiting the size of openings in exterior walls; Smoke containment can also controlled by venting or containment; pressurizations and smoke barriers can also used. Buchanan,2002 www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 102 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  103. 103. 103 Design Process - ISO 13387 A. Design constraints and possibilities (blue), B. Action definition and development (red), C. Passive system and active response (yellow), D. Safety and performance (purple). 1033/22/2011 www.francobontempi. org PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  104. 104. 104 SS0a PRESCRIBED DESIGN PARAMETERS SS0b ESTIMATED DESIGN PARAMETERS SS1 initiation and development of fire and fire efluent SS2 movement of fire effluent SS3 structural response and fire spread beyond enclosure of origin SS4 detection, activitation and suppression SS5 life safety: occupant behavior, location and condition SS6 property loss SS7 business interruption SS8 contamination of environment SS9 destruction of heritage (0) DESIGN CONSTRAINTS AND POSSIBILITIES (1+2) ACTION DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT (3+4) SYSTEM PASSIVE AND ACTIVE RESPONSE BUSOFINFORMATION RESULTS DESIGN ACTION RESPONSE SAFETY&PERFORMANCE www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 104 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  105. 105. 105 STRUCTURAL CONCEPTION STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY & GEOMETRY threats No Yes threats STRUCTURAL MATERIAL & PARTS No Yespassive structural characteristics threats FIRE DETECTION & SUPPRESSION No Yes active structural characteristics threats ORGANIZATION & FIREFIGHTERS No Yes threats MAINTENANCE & USE No Yes threats No alive structural characteristics Yes STRUCTURAL SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM WEAKNESS www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 105 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  106. 106. 106 STRUCTURAL CONCEPTION STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY & GEOMETRY threats No Yes threats STRUCTURAL MATERIAL & PARTS No Yespassive structural characteristics threats No Yes STRUCTURAL CONCEPTION STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY & GEOMETRY threats No Yes threats STRUCTURAL MATERIAL & PARTS No Yespassive structural characteristics threats FIRE DETECTION & SUPPRESSION No Yes active structural characteristics threats ORGANIZATION & FIREFIGHTERS No Yes threats MAINTENANCE & USE No Yes threats No alive structural characteristics Yes www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 106 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  107. 107. 107 FIRE DETECTION & SUPPRESSION No active structural characteristics threats ORGANIZATION & FIREFIGHTERS No Yes threats MAINTENANCE & USE No Yes threats No alive structural characteristics Yes STRUCTURAL CONCEPTION STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY & GEOMETRY threats No Yes threats STRUCTURAL MATERIAL & PARTS No Yespassive structural characteristics threats FIRE DETECTION & SUPPRESSION No Yes active structural characteristics threats ORGANIZATION & FIREFIGHTERS No Yes threats MAINTENANCE & USE No Yes threats No alive structural characteristics Yes www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 107 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  108. 108. 108 STRUCTURAL CONCEPTION STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY & GEOMETRY STRUCTURAL MATERIAL & PARTS FIRE DETECTION & SUPPRESSION ORGANIZATION & FIREFIGHTERS MAINTENANCE & USE CRISIS www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 108 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  109. 109. 109 HAZARD IN-DEPTH DEFENCE HOLES DUE TO ACTIVE ERRORS HOLES DUE TO HIDDEN ERRORS FAILURE PATH www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 109 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  110. 110. 110 Causes of system failure 100% Time %offailure Unknown phenomena Known phenomena Research level Design code level past present future A BB B C Humanerrors www.francobontempi. org 3/22/2011 110 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  111. 111. 111 111
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