Basis of Design and Expected Performances for the Messina Strait Bridge
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Basis of Design and Expected Performances for the Messina Strait Bridge

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The purpose of this paper is to present from the scientific point of view the main ideas and the consequent logic which form the basis of the design and of the definition of the performances levels......

The purpose of this paper is to present from the scientific point of view the main ideas and the consequent logic which form the basis of the design and of the definition of the performances levels for the Messina Strait Bridge. With the general philosophy of design, one canalizes all the design activities toward specific goals. With the explicit definition of the performances one must reach a delicate balance between the demand for the construction of an appropriate, possibly outstandingly, structure, and the feasibility, both from the engineering and from the economic point of view. Together with the strategy necessary to originate the design of this exceptional bridge, the essential role of the structural analysis supporting the decisional process is enlightened.

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  • 1. BASIS OF DESIGN AND EXPECTED PERFORMANCES FOR THE MESSINA STRAIT BRIDGE BONTEMPI, Franco University of Rome “La Sapienza” ITALY Summary The purpose of this paper is to present from the scientific point of view the main ideas and the consequent logic which form the basis of the design and of the definition of the performances levels for the Messina Strait Bridge. With the general philosophy of design, one canalizes all the design activities toward specific goals. With the explicit definition of the performances one must reach a delicate balance between the demand for the construction of an appropriate, possibly outstandingly, structure, and the feasibility, both from the engineering and from the economic point of view. Together with the strategy necessary to originate the design of this exceptional bridge, the essential role of the structural analysis supporting the decisional process is enlightened. Keywords Basis of Design, Performance-based Design, Dependability, Suspension Bridges, Structural Analysis, Messina Strait Bridge 1. Introduction In the mid of April 2005, the Official Italian Gazette and the Official European Gazette published the tender notice for the General Contractor for the realization of the Messina Strait Bridge and the connected works. Following the evaluations of the Awarding Committee, the 12 October 2005 the group headed by Impregilo was appointed temporary winner of the tender for General Contractor, while the contract was signed in March 2006. Actually, the new Italian Government, elected at the end of April 2006, holds in stand by the overall project. The Messina Strait Bridge has a relatively long history. Probably the first design with the spirit of the modern engineering was developed by Mr. A. Carlo Navone for his Degree Thesis at the Polytechnic of Turin in 1870. At the end of the Sixties / beginning of the Seventies, the first technical proposals were compared after the conclusion of the international competition for a permanent link, compounded by highway and railway, between Sicily and Mainland. The designs of this competition, organized by ANAS (Italian National Administration for Highway) and Ferrovie dello Stato (Italian National Administration for Railway), nowadays appear dated, based on at the knowledge and on the technologies of those years, presenting ingenuities and inaccuracies. Specifically, there is a lack of scientific data and computational tools, which instead are today available. By the Law N. 1158 of December 17, 1971, Italy took the decision to create a public company for the design, construction, operation and management of the permanent link between Sicily and the Mainland, finalized with the constitution of the Stretto di Messina S.p.A. in 1981 []. It is interesting to observe that in Japan, the Ministry of Construction started the investigation for bridges over the Akashi Straits as well as over the Naruto Straits in 1959, and the Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority was the founded on 1970. After this first phase, a second one started around 1986, when Stretto di Messina S.p.A. presented the feasibility study concerning different potential types of crossing: air, water, underwater ones. In 1988, ANAS and Ferrovie dello Stato, taking into account the observations of the Consiglio Superiore dei Lavori Pubblici (High Council of Public Works), choose to develop the air solution by a suspension
  • 2. bridge. At the end of 1992, Stretto di Messina S.p.A. presented the so-called Progetto Preliminare (Preliminary Project) (PP92), on which ANAS and Ferrovie dello Stato gave their technical opinion on the project during 1994 and 1995. Furthermore, in 1999, in order to obtain further information for the final assessment, the Interministerial Committee for Economic Planning (CIPE) appointed two independent advisors: Steinman Int. - Parson Group for assessment of the technical aspects, and a joint venture, led by PricewaterhouseCoopers, for assessment of the territorial, environmental, economic and financial aspects. A third crucial phase started at the end of 2001, when a Technical Scientific Committee of the Italian Ministry for Transport and Infrastructures was appointed, with the duty to deeply review the Progetto Preliminare (PP92), following a strong political motivation to develop the design itself. After one year of work, at the end of 2002, this Committee summarized the suggestions for the project in the document Indirizzi progettuali e deliberazioni per il progetto preliminare (Design criteria and deliberations for the preliminary project) that led to the preparation of the Progetto Preliminare (PP03), approved by CIPE in August 2003, which defines the unavoidable geometrical properties and the mandatory performance requirements that had to be satisfied by any design proposals. Contemporaneously and after these administrative developments, the activities of the Scientific Committee, now inside the Stretto di Messina S.p.A., and of this company itself also with the aid of Italian and international advisors, were specifically devoted to fix the basis of design and the expected serviceability and safety performance levels. These points have been checked with reference to the Progetto Preliminare (PP03) leading to a reference bridge configuration (colloquially denoted as Progetto di Gara (PG04)) as the base for any improved design proposals that may be presented by the future Tenders. All these activities led at the end of 2004 to the document Fondamenti progettuali e prestazioni attese per l’opera di attraversamento (Basis of design and expected performance levels for the bridge) that defines the basis of design and establishes the expected performance levels for the bridge which shall be achieved and satisfied in all subsequent design development, in the construction phases and by the completed and tested bridge structure. In the following, one will remark, surely limited and biased by a personal witnessing, few main aspects, both from the scientific and the engineering points of view, which were considered, discussed and developed during the years 2001-2005 and laid the basis of design and expected performances for the Messina Strait Bridge. One thinks that these considerations may be of some interest for other such large bridge designs [CALZONA, 2005]. 2. Performance-based Design, Complexity, Systemic Approach The general framework for the design of an extraordinary structure like the Messina Strait Bridge can be set with reference to the scheme of Fig.1. Here are collected the phases necessary to find in a constructive approach the solution for the design problem: a) definition of the structural domain, as bridge geometrical and material characteristics; b) definition of the design environment where the structure is immersed with specific attention to the specifications of the i. natural actions (wind & temperature and soil & earthquake); ii. antropic actions (related to highway & train traffic); c) assessment of the performances obtainable by the current structural design configuration, resulting from accurate and extensive structural analysis developed on models, both analytically or experimentally based; d) alignment of expert judgments and emergence of decision about the soundness of the design, first in qualitative terms then in quantitative terms; e) negotiation and reframing of the expected performances, in comparison with what has been obtained by the analysis and by the knowledge acquired working on the problem. This scheme is recognized as a Performance-based Design approach. It is worth to note two features:
  • 3. 1. the strongly affection by heuristics and experience of the problem formulation and of the recognition of the solution; particularly, the engineering deontology is the only capable to correctly address the interest of all the stakeholders; 2. the central role of the numerical modeling, as the unique knowledge engine able to connect all the details of the theory and of the experimentation in a truly comprehensive representation of the problem and of its solution. WIND & TEMPERATURE b) a) b) EARTHQUAKE e) c) STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR & STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR & PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ANTROPIC ACTIONS ANTROPIC ACTIONS ANTROPIC ACTIONS (RAILWAY & HIGHWAY) (RAILWAY & HIGHWAY) (RAILWAY & HIGHWAY) b) d) DECISION NEGOTIATION & REFRAMING Fig.1 Performance-based Design of the Messina Strait Bridge Viewing the structural design of this long span suspension bridge as a solving problem process, it may be useful to consider what makes difficult to find the solution, or, better, what makes complex the problem. From the general point of view, this structural complexity increases itself when one moves far from the origin of an ideal space which has the following dimensions (Fig.2.a): 1) raise of nonlinear behavior from linear ones; 2) increase of uncertainty in the data and ambiguity in the knowledge on the problem; 3) passage from loose to tight connections, interactions and coupling among different parts of the problem itself. The research and the study of scholars are usually focused on the first two dimensions: these are in fact the parts of the complexity that can be better confined, formalized and taught. Real engineers, on the contrary, face very often the third aspect of complexity. This last dimension is the one that renders difficult, if not impossible, to develop a lineal hierarchical decomposition of the problem statement as in Fig.2.b, being the only possible representation a not deployable one as in Fig.2.c. It must be perceived how the complexity of structures such as the Messina Strait Bridge results just from the matching and the interactions peculiar of this system at local scale: in fact, it is possible the arise of secondary effects to jeopardize the design. The development of these mechanisms must be identified by the modeling and opportunely dominated in the design strategy. An effective approach considers the structure as a real physical object inserted in its environment where a variety of factors should be taken into consideration. In this way, it is possible to contemplate aspects associated both with the intricacy and the non-well posedness of the problem at hand. Some of
  • 4. these aspects and it is worth to realize that these are the most important ones, belong to the economics or to the politics, i.e. to the social spheres. The fact that different points of view interact reciprocally, implicates that an eventual more or less substantial variation of any of these may change the characteristics of the system as a whole. Just these connections form one of the signs of complexity and an approach that doesn’t take into account this reality may be short-sighted. With these considerations, a structure is better defined as a physical entity having a unitary character that can be conceived of as an organization of positioned constituent elements in space in which the character of the whole dominates the interrelationship of the parts. This definition highlights that a modern approach in Structural Engineering has to evolve from the idea of “Structure”, as a simple device for channeling loads, to the idea of “Structural System”, as “a set of interrelated components which interact one with another in an organized fashion toward a common purpose” [NASA, 1995]: this Systemic Approach includes a set of activities which lead and control the overall design, implementation and integration of the complex set of interacting components. (c) (b) (a) Fig.2 (a) Dimensions of complexity for a structural problem; hierarchically (b) lineal and (c) not deployable problem formulation 3. Problem decomposition 3.1 Structural decomposition It is important to recognize that the way in which one describes the object of investigation manipulates how one organizes the knowledge and the decision about the object itself [SIMON, 1998]. The whole structure of the bridge is organized hierarchically as shown in Fig.3; one has considered structural parts categorized in three levels: I. MACROSCOPIC, related to geometric dimensions comparable with the whole construction or with general role in the structural behavior; the parts so considered are called structural systems: one has essentially three systems, a. principal, connected with the main resistant mechanism, b. secondary, connected with the structural part loaded directly by highway and railway traffic, c. auxiliary, related to specific operations that the bridge can normally or exceptionally face during its design life: serviceability, maintainability and emergency. II. MESOSCOPIC, related to geometric dimensions still relevant if compared to the whole construction but connected with specialized role in the structural system; the parts so considered are called structures or substructures; III. MICROSCOPIC, related to smaller geometric dimensions and specialized structural role: these are components or elements. The meaning of this subdivision is manifold: a) the organization of the structure is first of all naturally connected with the load paths that must be developed by the structure itself; in this way, this subdivision can clear the vision of
  • 5. the design team about the duties of each part of the structure; this identification is essential in the Conceptual Design, and it is implicitly a precondition for the accomplishment of the Performance-based Design, where the importance of form is strongly emphasized, leading, for example, to concepts like integral bridges; Fig.3 Structural decomposition of the bridge: left, macro-level, right meso-level b) parts belonging to different levels of this organization require different reliability properties; with regard to structural failure conditions, this decomposition allows single critical mechanisms to be ranked in order of risk and consequences of the failure mechanism: for example, in Fig.3 there are, indicated by yellow, orange and red frames, different level (decreasing) of permissible damage; these qualitatively assumed requirements can be quantitatively translated defining different levels of stress in the different bridge parts (see Tab.2 and Tab.3 in the following); all these considerations lead to the so-called crisis canalization; c) there are strong relationships between life cycle and maintenance of the different parts: with reference to their structural function, the safety required levels and their reparability, structures and sub-structures are distinguished in primary components (critical, nonrepairable or which require the bridge to be placed out of service for a consistent period in order for them to be repaired), and secondary components (repairable with minor restrictions on the operation of the bridge). As specific case, one can consider the whole hanger system,
  • 6. which can be classified as a main structural component in relation to the global structural safety of the bridge, whereas a single hanger group can be considered a secondary component due to its reparability and/or replacement ability. Fig.4 Structural decomposition of the bridge The structural decomposition of Fig.3 is also the manifestation of the strategy introduced with Fig.2 for the operative aspects: in fact, the whole structural analysis can be subdivided in coordinated phases as shown in Fig.4. There, one has the connections among different performance levels and different design variables, while the link is established by efficient modeling, at different structural scale but globally related, being possible that the results from model at one level are the input for another model at another scale [PRZEMIENIECKI, 1969]. To fix the concept, think for example to the fatigue checks that requires fine description of the hot spots at a very micro-level scale coupled with the description of wind global structural response. 3.2 Reliability establishment The bridge design and building philosophy can be founded on the following basic principles: a) to ensure structural safety and functional quality throughout its design service life (SAFETY and SERVICEABILITY);
  • 7. b) to reduce, or at least not amplify, effects due to external disturbances (such as natural environmental or man-generated conditions) or internal disturbances (such as alteration of materials and components and variability due to the manufacturing and assembly processes), also thanks to the intrinsic ductility properties at the material, component and system levels (STRUCTURAL ROBUSTNESS); c) to pursue a suitable structural configuration that will ensure (STRUCTURAL CONCEPTION): • to pursue access for inspection, so that possible lacks and defects may be monitored, detected and promptly identified; • to guarantee maintainability and replaceability of the structural elements, via ordinary and extraordinary maintenance works. In particular, point b) empathizes the role of the intrinsic quality of the bridge concerning the necessity to handle the uncertainties and the exceptionalities that can affect a so complex construction. So, the design basis will foster a strong proactive approach to the structural design that will go beyond the numerical verifications of usual limit states disequations or the local optimization of structural sections or element arrangements. Specifically, with a passive attitude, non conformable solutions of the structural problem (proposed/chosen by the Client) can be avoided; an active attitude leads to the same working way, but there is an attempt to improve the proposed solution, always inside the given definition of the structural problem; a proactive attitude can lead, if necessary and needed, to a change of the definition given by the client about the structural problem, showing new aspects and different viewpoints to obtain an excellent solution, even outside the given definition of the structural problem. Points b) and c) regard pervasively the overall logic of the design and of the structural configuration, assuring from the qualitative point of view the soundness of the bridge. Also regarding the methodologies and the design solutions proposed by the Tenders / General Contractor, these will be assessed, at each level, on the basis of their suitability, effectiveness, simplicity, robustness and reliability. The spreading out of the reliability basis of the bridge requires: a) the definition of the design life: Ld = 200 years; b) the identification of the return periods for the actions shown in Tab.1 and the connections with the Limit States: specifically, Level 1 regards the Serviceability Limit State (globally denoted by SLS) with further distinction in two grades (SLS1 and SLS2) of increasing loss of functionality; Level 2 is the Ultimate Limit State (ULS), which refers to the attainment of the ultimate strength of a structural component; Level 3 is the Structural Integrity Limit State (SILS), which refers to the survival of the primary structure even if significant damage may have occurred. Loading Level Limit States 1 Serviceability 2 Ultimate Structural Integrity 3 Acronym Return Period SLS1 SLS2 ULS 50 years 200 years 2000 years Accordingly to the contingency scenarios considered SILS Table 1 Loading level and return period The Structural Integrity Limit State (SILS - Level 3) concerns the ability of the structure to survive an extreme loading event of a dynamic nature albeit with considerable residual damage. Complete loss of serviceability, even in a protracted time, is permitted. If the SILS is not exceeded, the structure, although severely damaged, will not loose its overall structural integrity, and in principle may be structurally repairable. With reference to the structural decomposition of Fig.1, the survival of the following elements of the main structural system must be guaranteed: restrain and support system,
  • 8. main cables, saddles. Generally speaking, the SILS shall be considered under the following load combinations: • permanent and extreme seismic loading, in presence of frequent traffic loading; • permanent and extreme wind load, in presence of frequent traffic loading; • permanent loads and accidental impact loads (ship impact, aircraft impact) and tornado loading, in presence of frequent highway and railway traffic loading. Component capacities shall be determined as for the ULS. 3.3 Performance related to the structural safety The organization of the safety of such a complex structure cannot be defined only in quantitative terms. It is typical of real composite situations to express judgments by fuzzy terms instead of crisp ones. In this sense, the safety requirements are arranged by the following steps. I. Definition of the increasing grades of damage levels of Tab.2. Damage grades Acronym 1 NO DAMAGE ND 2 DEGRADATION DAMAGE DD 3 MINIMAL DAMAGE 4 REPAIRABLE DAMAGE 5 SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE MD RD SD Description All structural elements and restraint systems retain their nominal performance capacity remaining in the elastic field and do not present any significant degradation due to fatigue. Degradation of mechanical properties of materials after an appropriate period of service due to environmental actions (corrosion) or cyclical actions (fatigue). These effects shall be allowed for the over sizing of structural sections and shall be eliminated or minimized through scheduled maintenance activities. Occurrence of localized slight inelastic behavior which does not alter the overall performance capacities of the bridge. This damage can be repaired by means of ordinary maintenance operations, guaranteeing the road and rail traffic. Occurrence of localized inelastic behavior which alters the overall performance capacities of the bridge. This damage can be repaired by extraordinary maintenance operations, involving partial and temporary closures of the bridge. Occurrence of inelastic behavior which significantly alters the overall performance capacities of the bridge. It corresponds to a serious damage of the structure which may require the reconstruction of entire structural components. The damage can be repaired by significant extraordinary maintenance operations, which may involve prolonged closures of the bridge. Table 2 Definition of damage grades II. Association of the structural parts defined by the decomposition of Fig.3 to different damage grades at the reaching of the different limit states as shown in Tab.3. In this way, for example, for the towers, there will be the following sequence of states on the increase of the actions intensity: i. before the reaching of the SLS, there is no damage (ND); ii. passing SLS, until ULS, towers suffer minor damage (MD) and, later on, repairable damage (RD); iii. over the SILS, towers reach significant damage (SD). Specific attention is devoted to the components that can be substituted by maintenance process, without serviceability interruptions. III. Indications of the compatible stress levels, as in Tab. 4 for the crucial main suspension systems and for the hangers. IV. Remarks of the role of the structural robustness. In fact, the structural configuration of the bridge must prevent the progressive propagation of failure mechanisms, by means of a suitable definition, both at the local and at the global levels, of structural details and the provision of
  • 9. appropriate lines of defense. A suitable structural compartimentation must therefore be sought, if necessary by means of an appropriate arrangement of connections. In particular, the local collapse of a section of the deck structure as a consequence of the failure of the corresponding hangers and cross beams shall not propagate along the whole deck. MacroLevel Structural Systems MesoLevel Structures Restraint / support system Main SLS ULS SILS Sub-structures Main suspension system Secondary suspension system Main standard deck Special deck regions Foundations of towers Anchor blocks Towers Main cables Saddles Hangers system Single hanger Cross girders Rail box girders Road box girders End restraint regions and expansion joints Internal restraint regions and Restraint devices ND ND ND ND ND ND DD ND ND ND MD MD MD MD MD MD RD MD MD MD RD RD RD RD RD RD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD DD MD SD SD DD MD SD SD Table 3 Association between damage grades and limit states conditions for different structural parts of the bridge Compatible stress levels Main cables Hangers Serviceability Limit States (SLS) Ultimate stress / 2.10 Ultimate stress / 1.67 Ultimate Limit States (ULS) Ultimate stress / 1.67 Ultimate stress / 1.40 Table 4 Definition of compatible stress levels for the main structural systems 3.4 Performance related to the structural serviceability The serviceability of the bridge is graded as in Tab.5 while the main different requirements are shown in Tab.6. The last column of this table shows also the connection of the various performance requirements to different kind of suitable and efficient modeling: as previously remarked, the structural analysis is a multilevel process and different representations should be used. Specific attention is devoted to the deck movements in relation with the design of expansion joints and restraint devices. One must establish the configuration of these landing zones of the deck considering the trade off among the: • variations of the geometry of the structure and related dynamic effects; • restraint forces; • economy of construction and operation of the devices. Generally speaking, the longitudinal and transversal movement of the deck at its ends and in proximity of the towers will have to be controlled by damping devices. Serviceability levels Acronym Description Limit States 1 Complete functionality CF Roadway and railway runnability guaranteed SLS1 2 Railway functionality FF Only railway runnability guaranteed SLS2 3 Lack of functionality AF Neither roadway nor railway runnability guaranteed ULS / SILS Table 5 Definition of serviceability performance levels
  • 10. Users Maritime traffic Railway serviceability Railway and Roadway traffic safety Railway traffic safety Railway and Roadway traffic safety and serviceability Railway traffic safety and serviceability Comfort Performance Performance defined by established values Clearance of the established navigation channel (600 m wide) Railway longitudinal slope: conventional mean slopes computed with different length bases between the head and the end of the train Transversal slope of deck and road Rate of change of cant of the tracks (maximum torsional deformations admitted) Joint displacements Vertical acceleration of the deck Non-compensated acceleration Roll speed Recoil Derailment check Overturning check Comfort Indexes Models Global Models Global Models Global Models Interface Models Interface Models Global & Interface Models Meso-Level Models (Multi-scale) Table 6: Main performances established for serviceability and safety of the traffic, with appropriate structural models considered for the assessment 4. Definition of the design environment Considering the scale of the bridge, in general terms, different intensity levels shall be recognized for the variable actions. This aspect is revealed in Fig.5, where one has to compare the size of the small box which represents the scale appreciated by the usual standards (as the so-called eurocodes), with geometric dimension less than 300 m, and the large box related to the whole bridge with dimension ten times greater. In particular, for the antropic actions, two sets of loadings are identified for two structural scales: • loadings for the design and the performance checks of the main structural system (macro-level); • loadings for the design and performance checks at lower levels (meso- and micro-levels). This last loading system is then related to structural parts, with geometric dimensions less than 300 m, that can be enclosed in the previous small box; the box can be viewed like a mobile evaluation windows, moving along the structure, where to apply the traditional check process. The overall list of the loads is shown in Tab.7. The essential characteristics of the natural actions are shown in Tab.8: mean wind speed for wind action, peak ground acceleration for seismic action; of course, detailed description is needed, being these actions only partially described by these parameters. By the way, both time (like turbulence and frequency content) and spatial characteristics (like correlation and asynchronisms) are greatly necessary. As said before, the traffic loading system for the macro-level is defined ad hoc, tailored by the global iteration cycle of Fig.1: the specification for both highway ad railway loads is given in Tab.9, with dense traffic values used essentially for ULS and rarefied ones for SLS. It is intriguing to remark that the exact quantification of the eight numbers appearing in Tab.9 took more than one year of work. Fig.5 Different size level for the definition of the variable actions intensity
  • 11. 1 2 3 4 Permanent actions (P) Structural self weight Non structural self weight Antropic actions (Q) Actions for local sizing of the structural systems (strength and deformation at micro- and meso-level) Actions for global sizing of the structural system and for serviceability checks (strength and deformation at macro-level) Natural and environmental actions (V) Wind action Seismic action Thermal action Accidental actions (A) PP PN QL Dense variable load Rarefied variable load QA QR VV VS VT Table 7 Definition of the design actions Mean wind speed (at 70 m above sea level) Peak ground acceleration SLS1 44 m/s 1.2 m/s2 SLS2 47 m/s 2.6 m/s2 ULS 54 m/s 5.7 m/s2 SILS 60 m/s 6.3 m/s2 Table 8 Natural actions intensity the different limit states Dense variable load (QA) HIGHWAY Intensity of the distributed load line for the most heavily loaded lane Intensity of the distributed load line for the one of the other lane RAILWAY Number of 750 m long train loaded by 88 kN/m for each of the two railways Rarefied variable load (QR) 15 kN/m 5 kN/m 3.75 kN/m 1.25 kN/m 2 1 Table 9 Load definition for highway and railway traffic: dense loads for ULS, rarefied loads for SLS 5. Dependability The quality of such a large bridge is multifaceted. The holistic and comprehensive measure of the quality of this complex structure is called dependability. This concept can be synthetically defined as the grade of confidence on the safety and on the performance of a structural system. It is an integrative concept that, for a construction, encompasses the following attributes: • availability: readiness for correct serviceability; • reliability: continuity of correct serviceability; • safety: absence of catastrophic consequences on the users and the environment; • security: absence of catastrophic consequences for illegitimate antropic actions; • integrity: absence of improper system state alterations; • maintainability: ability to undergo repairs and modifications. The means to attain dependability can be summarized as: • fault prevention: how to prevent the occurrence or introduction of faults; • fault tolerance: how to deliver correct service in the presence of faults; • fault removal: how to reduce the number or severity of faults; • fault forecasting: how to estimate the present number, the future incidence, and the likely consequences of faults. Absence of catastrophic consequences and fault tolerance are guaranteed by the structural robustness. This is the capacity of the construction to undergo only limited reductions in its performance level in the event of departures from the original design configuration as a result of a) local damage due to accidental loads, b) secondary structural elements, c) being out of service for maintenance purpose, d) degradation of their mechanical properties. In general terms, the following recommendations apply: • appropriate contingency scenarios shall be identified, i.e. scenarios of possible damage together with suitable load scenarios, able to characterize the structural robustness in the various conditions of service;
  • 12. • analyses shall be conducted in order to explore and to bound structural safety and performance levels of the structure in these conditions. Specifically, it was requested that: • for Ultimate Limit State (ULS), in addition to the accidental loads specifically defined, it was necessary to consider the contingency scenarios that envisage the failure of the support of one extremity of a cross beam, at the most unfavorable location along the structure; the analysis had to be done in the dynamic field, assuming the instantaneous rupture of the support; • for Structural Integrity Limit State (SILS), in addition to the accidental loads specifically defined, it was necessary to consider the contingency scenario of the failure of one crossbeam and the section of main longitudinal deck girders connected to it; the analysis had tol be done in the dynamic range, considering the sudden detachment of a section of the main deck 60 m long, at the most unfavorable location along the structure. 6. Conclusion Behind the Messina Strait Bridge project there is a huge amount of work developed by an enormous number of persons in several years. The crucial formulation of the basis of design and of the expected performances of this suspension bridge has been briefly considered, from a very personal point of view. The main ideas appear: 1) the Performance-based Design approach for the overall definition of the bridge qualities; 2) the necessity to deal with the complexity of the structural system and to recognize the strong interactions among different parts of the design and among different structural parts, with scale size effects; 3) the systemic approach to correctly deal with all the aspects of the design; 4) the structural decomposition as the main tool to assure the governance of the whole design process, specifically in order to impose coherence among different levels of modeling (multilevel analysis) and to canalize the structural behavior, first of all in relation to structural crisis developments; 5) the description of safety and performance requirements in a format that can be described in mathematical terms as fuzzy; 6) the development of the loading systems, both from natural and from antropic origins, which take into account the size of the structure, which are iteratively tuned evaluating the structural response obtained by the structural analysis; 7) pervasiveness of structural robustness in a general dependability oriented design. Acknowledgments The financial supports of University of Rome “La Sapienza” and Stretto di Messina S.p.A. are acknowledged. The author wish to express his gratitude to Professors R. Calzona, F. Casciati, R. Casciaro, P.G. Malerba of the Scientific Committee for fundamental considerations. Nevertheless, the opinions and the results presented here are responsibility of the author and cannot be assumed to reflect the ones of University of Rome “La Sapienza” or of Stretto di Messina S.p.A. References CALZONA R., 2005, Epistemological Aspects of Safety concerning the challenge of Future Construction: the Messina Strait Bridge, Proceeding of the 10th International Conference on Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering Computing, CC2005 Rome (Italy). NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, (1995), Systems Engineering Handbook., Available online at: . PRZEMIENIECKI J., 1969, Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis, Dover. SIMON H.A, 1998, The Sciences of the Artificial, The MIT Press, Cambridge.
  • 13. International Conference on BRIDGE , HONG KONG ember 2006 ov 1-3N ENGINEERING – Challenges in the 21st Century REGISTRATION AND PROGRAMME ANNOUNCEMENT ORGANISED BY Civil Division, The Hong Kong Institution of Engineers SUPPORTED BY Highways Department, The Government of the Hong Kong SAR, China MAJOR SPONSORS China Harbour Engineering Company Limited Gammon Construction Limited Chun Wo Holdings Limited Dragages Hong Kong Limited and Bouygues Travaux Publics Maeda-Hitachi-Yokogawa-Hsin Chong Joint Venture VSL Hong Kong Limited INTRODUCTION The International Conference on Bridge Engineering – Challenges in the 21st Century is aimed at providing a forum for dissemination of technical advances as well as exchanges of experiences and ideas among engineers, architects, academics, researchers, developers, regulatory agents and project managers at an international level. A number of keynote lectures presented by world renowned experts and parallel sessions will be organised to address both the recent developments and experiences on a wide range of technical, social, environmental, financial and management topics in the bridge engineering and construction.
  • 14. CONFERENCE THEME The following topics of interest will be addressed at the Conference: v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v Aesthetics Bridge Management Systems Case Studies and Planning Projects Codification of Bridge Design Condition Assessment and Health Monitoring Design, Analysis and Modeling Dynamics and Aerodynamics Environmental Impact Assessment High Performance Materials and Components Inspection, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting Maintenance and Evaluation Procurement, Construction and Project Management Reliability and Risk Management Safety and Serviceability Security against Terrorist Attack Seismic and Wind Design Smart Structures Vehicle Bridge Interaction Whole Life Costing Others Themes KEYNOTE SPEAKERS Mr FENG Mao Run Chief Engineer Ministry of Communications The People's Republic of China Prof Yozo FUJINO Professor Department of Civil Engineering The University of Tokyo Japan Prof Niels J GIMSING Bridge Consultant Gimsing & Madsen Ltd Denmark Ir Naeem HUSSAIN WHO SHOULD ATTEND The Conference will be of interest to policy makers, government officials, planners, engineers, contractors, developers, manufacturers, academics, financial specialists and environmental professionals involved in business and development that will advance our abilities in bridge engineering development. GUESTS OF HONOUR Permanent Secretary for the Environment, Transport and Works (Works) The Government of the Hong Kong SAR, China Director Ove Arup & Partners UK Ir Dipl.-Ing Holger S SVENSSON Executive Director Leonhardt, Andra und Partner Gmbtt Germany President The Hong Kong Institution of Engineers Dr TANG Man Chung Chairman T. Y. Lin International USA Dr-Ing M. Michel VIRLOGEUX Honorary President The International Federation for Structural Concrete (fib) France
  • 15. PRELIMINARY PROGRAMME The Conference is tentatively planned as a full three-day programme from 1 to 3 November 2006. It will comprise keynote sessions, oral paper presentations and discussions. The official language of the Conference is English. It will be adopted in all the publications and presentations. Time 08:30 - 09:00 09:00 - 09:45 09:45 - 10:15 10:15 - 10:45 10:45 - 12:15 12:15 - 13:30 13:30 - 15:15 15:15 - 15:45 15:45 - 17:15 19:30 - 21:30 1 November 2006 (Wed) Registration Opening Ceremony Keynote Session Coffee Break Keynote Session Lunch Parallel Sessions Coffee Break Parallel Sessions Conference Dinner Time 08:30 - 09:00 09:00 - 10:30 10:30 - 11:00 11:00 - 12:30 12:30 - 13:45 13:45 - 15:30 15:30 - 16:00 16:00 - 17:00 2 November 2006 (Thu) Registration Time 08:30 - 09:00 Optional Local 09:00 - 10:30 Technical Visits (08:45 - 13:00) 10:30 - 11:00 Coffee Break Parallel Sessions 11:00 - 12:30 Lunch 12:30 - 13:45 Parallel Sessions Optional Local 13:45 - 15:15 Coffee Break Technical Visits 15:15 - 15:30 Parallel Sessions (13:45 - 18:00) Parallel Sessions 3 November 2006 (Fri) Registration Parallel Sessions Coffee Break Parallel Sessions Lunch Keynote Session Conclusion & Closing Remarks OPTIONAL LOCAL TECHNICAL VISITS The Conference will offer delegates the opportunity of visiting the following technical sites relating to bridge engineering development in Hong Kong. Delegates can participate in these visits at a seperate fee. A fee of HK$100 per person per visit will apply. Visit A – Stonecutters Bridge The new Stonecutters Bridge is an important part of the strategic east-west route linking Sha Tin and the airport on Lantau Island in Hong Kong. It will straddle the Rambler Channel at the entrance to the busy Kwai Chung container port. The bridge has a main span of 1,018m. When completed, it will become one of the longest spanning cable stayed bridges in the world. It will also be the first major bridge situated in the urban area of Hong Kong with Victoria Harbour as the backdrop. The design of the bridge contains a number of aesthetic features to make it blend with the spectacular Hong Kong skyline. It will become a new landmark in Hong Kong. Visit B – Hong Kong – Shenzhen Western Corridor Construction of the Hong Kong Section of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Western Corridor (HK-SWC) commenced on 1 August 2003. The HK$2.2 billion contract comprises the construction of a 3.5 km long dual three-lane elevated viaduct with 3.2 km over water and 0.3 km on land, linking Deep Bay Link at Ngau Hom Shek with the Shenzhen Section of HK-SWC at the boundary of the HKSAR and Shenzhen at Deep Bay. Within the 3.5 km, a cable-stayed bridge with a single inclined-tower is being constructed to provide the necessary navigation clearance for marine traffic and to form a landmark over Deep Bay. The work was substantially completed in end 2005. Upon commissioning, it will be the fourth vehicular boundary crossing to alleviate the three nearly saturated existing crossings and satisfy the future demand. Remarks: - Pre-registration is necessary for all optional technical visits. - Final arrangements are subject to changes in schedule by the host of individual visits, weather / traffic conditions and whether the minimum quota can be met. - Registration will be accepted on a first-come-first-served basis.
  • 16. REGISTRARION INFORMATION Registration Fee All registrations should be made via the online programme at the Conference wesbite: Please note that the deadline for early bird registration is 31 August 2006. Early Bird Registration (On or before 31 August 2006) Conference Dinner (1 November 2006) √ √ HK$3,800 Normal Registration (After 31 August 2006) Full-day Conference, Refreshments & Lunch Entitlements A Copy of Proceedings 1 – 3 November 2006 Category Registration Fee (per person) HK$4,200 Optional Technical Visit HK$100 per person for one visit Note: The Hong Kong dollar is pegged to the US dollar at a rate of US$1=HK$7.8. Confirmation of Registration & Official Receipt - Registrant will receive an acknowledgement by email immediately if the online registration process is successfully completed. - An official receipt will be provided to all registered delegates upon receipt of the payment. - All payments should reach the Conference Secretariat within 2 weeks after the Registration Form has been submitted online. The Organiser reserves the right to release and cancel the booking if the appropriate payment is not received on time. Payment Methods - Payment can be made by crossed cheque, bank draft, telegraphic transfer or credit card (VISA / MasterCard). - A Credit Card Authorisation Form is available at the Conference website. - Crossed Cheque or Bank Draft made payable to “The Hong Kong Institution of Engineers” should be sent to the Conference Secretariat. Letter of Invitation The Conference Secretariat will send a letter of invitation upon request. The invitation is intended to facilitate participants’ travel and visa arrangement and does not imply the provision of any financial or other support. Please read the important notes overleaf. Programme may be subject to change. Please visit the website for more updates: CONFERENCE SECRETARIAT Conference & Function Section The Hong Kong Institution of Engineers 9/F Island Beverley, 1 Great George Street Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Tel (852) 2895 4446 Fax (852) 2203 4133 Email Photos Courtesy Highways Department, The Government of the Hong Kong SAR Hong Kong Tourism Board
  • 17. VENUE INFORMATION The Conference will be held at Kowloon Shangri-La Hotel Address 64 Mody Road, Tsimshatsui East Kowloon, Hong Kong Tel (852) 2721 2111 Fax (852) 2723 8686 Website Conference Venue Kowloon Shangri-La Hotel Other nearby hotels: • Hotel Nikko Hong Kong • InterContinental Grand Stanford Hong Kong • Park Hotel • Ramada Hotel Kowloon • Regal Kowloon Hotel • Stanford Hillview Hotel • The Royal Garden HOTEL ACCOMMODATION & OPTIONAL SIGHTSEEING TOURS You may seek assistance through the travel agent: Associated Tours Ltd Address Shop 113, 1/F Regal Kowloon Hotel 71 Mody Road, Tsimshatsui East Kowloon, Hong Kong Tel (852) 2722 1216 Fax (852) 2369 5687 Email More information will also be made available at the Conference website.
  • 18. HONG KONG INFORMATION Local Area Information • Area Hong Kong can be divided into four distinct parts: Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, New Territories and the outlying islands. • Language Cantonese is spoken by most people in Hong Kong, though Mandarin (Putonghua) is becoming increasingly widespread. English is the language of international business. • Population The estimated population of Hong Kong is 7 million. Almost 98% is Chinese. • Time Difference GMT/UTC + 8 hrs Entry Visa For most nationalities, visitors not intending to work require only a valid passport for short visits and no tourist visa is required. You may also check with the Immigration Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government as to the need for visas prior to entry into Hong Kong. Address Immigration Department, 2/F Immigration Tower, 7 Gloucester Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel (852) 2824 6111 Fax (852) 2877 7711 Website Currency The Hong Kong dollar (HK$) is the official currency. It is pegged to the US dollar at HK$7.8 to US$1.00 and is freely convertible. Travelers checks are easily cashed and major credit cards are widely accepted. ATM (ETC) facilities are widespread. Tipping 10% service charge is added to hotels and restaurants bills. It is also customary to leave a small tip. Climate The average temperature for the months from October to December is 18°C to 28°C. The humidity will be around 72%. During November there are pleasant breezes, plenty of sunshine and comfortable temperatures. Dress Light suits and dresses are appropriate for business attire. A light clothing is recommended for the day, sweaters and light jackets for evening. Health Your temperature may be taken when you pass through immigration upon arrival. Vaccination certificates are usually not required. However, as in other cities, health regulations are liable to change at short notice and it is always advisable to check current health regulations with carriers when making reservations. Visitor in transit through HK should also check health regulations for subsequent destinations to ensure that all necessary valid certificates have been obtained. Electricity 220 volts, 50 cycles. Three-rectangular pin plugs are the norm. Mobile Phone Network GSM, PCS, CDMA, TDMA Transportation Metered taxis, frequent bus, MTR (underground train) service provides fast, clean, air-conditioned transport in Kowloon and on the Island. Combine all this with famous ferries, trams, trains and local transportation in Hong Kong is both safe, easy and inexpensive. Transportation To / From The Airport Hong Kong International Airport is served by a highly efficient and comprehensive transportation network. The Airport Express is a dedicated airport railway line providing fast and reliable service operating daily from 0550 to 0115 hours at 12minute intervals. The journey to or from downtown Hong Kong takes approximately 24 minutes. Franchised buses also provide speedy transport to different parts of Hong Kong. Other modes of transportation include taxis, tour coaches and hotel limousines. For details, please visit Disclaimer: All information provided in this section is considered to be accurate and correct at the date of print. We cannot be held responsible should the information change between the date of print and the date of your arrival in Hong Kong. If you are interested in knowing more about Hong Kong, please visit
  • 19. INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE Mr Chander ALIMCHANDANI Ir Prof LAU Ching Kwong Chairman & Managing Director STUP Consultants P. Ltd, India Executive Director Maunsell China Engineering Services Ltd, Hong Kong SAR, China Prof Dr Mourad M BAKHOUM Professor Structural Engineering Department Cairo University, Egypt Ir P K K LEE Ir Andrew BEARD Head of Department Department of Civil Engineering The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China Commercial Director Mott MacDonald Ltd, UK Ir Prof Andrew Y T LEUNG Prof Sung-Pil CHANG Professor Seoul National University, Korea Chair Professor Department of Building and Construction City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China Ir Prof Moe M S CHEUNG Prof Dr J Y Richard LIEW Professor and Head Department of Civil Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR, China Ir Prof CHEUNG Yau Kai Special Advisor to the Vice Chancellor The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering National University of Singapore, Singapore Prof John MILES Head of Institute of Machines & Structures Cardiff School of Engineering Cardiff University, UK Prof OU Jin Ping Dr Christian CREMONA Professor & Vice President Harbin Institute of Technology, China Head of the Structures Durability Unit Laboratoire Central Des Ponts Et Chaussees, France Prof Dr sc. techn. Mike SCHLAICH Mr Peter DEASON Professor The Technical University of Berlin, Germany Global Director, Bridges & Civil Structures Hyder Consulting (UK) Ltd, UK Dr Juan A SOBRINO Mr Klaus FALBE-HANSEN Director PEDELTA, Spain Director Ove Arup & Partners, UK Prof Hakan SUNDQUIST Mr Ian FIRTH Prohead Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden Partner Flint & Neill Partnership, UK Prof Yozo FUJINO Professor Department of Civil Engineering The University of Tokyo, Japan Ir Dipl.-Ing Holger S SVENSSON Executive Director Leonhardt, Andra und Partner Gmbtt, Germany Dr Gamil TADROS Prof Niels J GIMSING Structural Consultant SPECO Engineering Ltd, Canada Bridge Consultant Gimsing & Madsen Ltd, Denmark Dr TANG Man Chung Dr Manabu ITO Chairman T. Y. Lin International, USA Emeritus Professor The University of Tokyo, Japan Dr Jan A WIUM Prof Jun KANDA Senior Lecturer Department of Civil Engineering University of Stellenbosch, South Africa Professor Department of Environment Studies The University of Tokyo, Japan Ir Prof KO Jan Ming Vice President The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China Prof Dr Hyun-Moo KOH Professor & Director Seoul National University & Korea Bridge Design & Engineering Research Center, Korea Ir Dr Martin H C KWONG Senior Advisor Scott Wilson Ltd, Hong Kong SAR, China Prof XIANG Hai Fan President & Consulting Dean College of Civil Engineering Tongji University, China Prof YANG Yeong Bin Dean College of Engineering National Taiwan University, China Eur Ing Jeff YOUNG Project Director Mott MacDonald Ltd, UK SUPPORTING ORGANISATIONS The Government of the Hong Kong SAR, China Civil Engineering and Development Department Environmental Protection Department Marine Department Planning Department Transport Department American Society of Civil Engineers (Hong Kong Section) City University of Hong Kong, Department of Building and Construction Engineers Australia, Hong Kong Chapter Hong Kong Institute of Environmental Impact Assessment Hong Kong Institution of Highways and Transportation Hong Kong Tourism Board Institution of Civil Engineers, Hong Kong Association The Association of Consulting Engineers of Hong Kong The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport in Hong Kong The Hong Kong Construction Association The Hong Kong Institute of Architects The Hong Kong Institute of Planners The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Civil & Structural Engineering The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering The Institution of Highways & Transportation Hong Kong Branch The Joint Structural Division of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers and Institution of Structural Engineers The University of Hong Kong, Department of Civil Engineering American Society of Civil Engineers, USA China Civil Engineering Society, China Indian Institution of Bridge Engineers, India Institution of Civil Engineers, UK Institution of Engineers, Singapore Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Japan Korean Society of Civil Engineers, Korea The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, Canada The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia The Institution of Highways & Transportation, UK The Institution of Professional Engineers, New Zealand The Institution of Structural Engineers, UK The Macau Institution of Engineers, Macau SAR, China
  • 20. ORGANISING COMMITTEE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IMPORTANT NOTES Chairman The Organiser would like to thank the following organisations for their support and valuable contributions to the Conference: 1. Registrations are subject to acceptance on a first-comefirst-served basis. Ir Francis W C KUNG Members Ir George C W CHENG Ir Dr CHENG Hon Tung Ir CHEUNG Tsz King Mr LAI Kwong Hung Ir Victor K Y LO Ir Norman W P MAK Ir Clement W T SIU Ir Timothy K C SUEN Ir WONG Chiu Yau Ir Philco N K WONG Ir YU Sai Yen Platinum Sponsors China Harbour Engineering Company Limited Chun Wo Holdings Limited Dragages Hong Kong Limited and Bouygues Travaux Publics Gammon Construction Limited Maeda-Hitachi-Yokogawa-Hsin Chong Joint Venture VSL Hong Kong Limited TECHNICAL SUB-COMMITTEE Chairman Ir Michael C H HUI Members Ir Dr Francis T K AU Ir Eric K L CHAN Ir Prof CHANG Chih Chen Ir George C W CHENG Ir Prof CHUNG Kwok Fai Mr LAI Kwong Hung Ir WONG Chiu Yau Gold Sponsors China Road and Bridge Corporation Chiu Hing Construction and Transportation Company Limited Fuk Shing Engineering Company Limited Ove Arup and Partners Hong Kong Limited Welcome Construction Company Limited Sliver Sponsor FINANCE & SPONSORSHIP SUB-COMMITTEE Chairman Ir Philco N K WONG Members Ir Clement W T SIU Ir WONG Chiu Yau Ir YU Sai Yen Hop Tai Construction Company Limited 2. Each registrant should complete a separate online registration process. 3. The Conference Secretariat will confirm the registration upon receipt of the registration fee. Please do not send cash. 4. The programme is subject to change without prior notice. 5. All cancellations must be made in writing to the Conference Secretariat. If a written cancellation of registration is received by the Conference Secretariat on or before 30 September 2006, a refund will be made but a cancellation charge of 25% of the registration fee paid will be deducted. We regret that no refund will be made for cancellations after this date. In the latter case, the nonattending delegates will receive a copy of the Conference Proceedings. 6. It is at the discretion of delegates to take out additional cover to better protect their liabilities. For the HKIE members, the Institution has effected an insurance cover * to protect the legal liability of members against property loss / damage or bodily injury / death of third party. (*Coverage is subject to terms and conditions specified in original policy.) For non-HKIE members, it is entirely the participants’ responsibility to take out insurance to cover their participation in the Conference. The Organiser assumes no financial, legal or any responsibility for any type of claim whatsoever arising from their participation.
  • 21. PROGRAMME DETAILS Time 08:30 – 09:00 09:00 – 09:45 09:45 – 10:15 1 November 2006 Wednesday Registration Opening Ceremony Keynote Session 1 Prof Niels GIMSING, Denmark Title of Presentation 10:15 – 10:45 10:45 – 11:15 Evolution in Span Length of Cable-Stayed Bridges Coffee Break Keynote Session 2 Prof FENG Mao Run, China 11:15 – 11:45 Technological Challenges for Bridge Construction in China in the Early 21st Century Keynote Session 3 Ir Dipl.Ing Holger S Svensson, Germany 11:45 – 12:15 Protection of Bridge Piers against Ship Collision Keynote Session 4 Pro Yozo FUJINO, Japan Title of Presentation Title of Presentation Title of Presentation 12:15 – 13:30 13:30 – 15:15 15:15 – 15:45 15:45 – 17:15 19:30 – 21:30 Lessons Learned from Health Monitoring of Instrumented Long-Span Bridges Lunch Parallel Sessions Room-Fanling Room-Tai Po Room-Shek O Session 1A Session 1B Session 1C Stonecutters Bridge I Design Construction Stonecutters Bridge - International Design PC Box-Girder Bridges with Large Spans Chongzun Expressway - The Mountain Competition and Reference Scheme in China Challenge Review FU Yu Fang Michael Z YU Klaus FALBE-HANSEN Scenario of Expected Seismic Damage Theories and Practices for 30 Years Stonecutters Bridge - Design for Extreme to Main Road Network in N.E. Italy Modern Cable-Stayed Bridge Paolo FRANCHETTI Events Constructions in China Steve KITE LEI Jun Qing Design of Mainland - Peljesac Bridge High Reynolds' Number Aerodynamics Jure RADIC The Geometry Control of Sutong Bridge of the Stonecutters Bridge Deck Wind Engineering of a Large Vertical Lift LAU Ching Kwong Allan LARSEN Bridge in Rouen (France) Design and Construction of a Launched Michel VIRLOGEUX Detailed Design of Stonecutters Bridge Footbridge Superstructure Bahman KERMANI The Bridge of San Giuliano in Venice: Tina VEJRUM The Design Process Design and Construction of Freezing and Detailed Design of Stonecutters Bridge Enzo SIVIERO Row of Piles Method in South Anchorage Towers Foundation Pit of Runyang Yangtze River Improvements to San Tin Interchange Don BERGMAN Bridge Contract No. HY/2004/09 Contractor's Erection Analysis and Geometry Control Design for Precast Segmental Viaducts FENG Zhao Xiang for Stonecutters Bridge Jon VARNDELL Design and Construction of the Lai Chi S H Robin SHAM Innovations in the Zhoushan Xihoumen Kok Viaduct James PENNY Challenges in Construction of Bridge Design Stonecutters Bridge and Progress Update SONG Hui The Challenge for the Construction of the Michael TAPLEY Lai Chi Kok Viaduct in Hong Kong Henry LIU Coffee Break Parallel Sessions Room-Fanling Room-Tai Po Room-Shek O Session 2A Session 2B Session 2C Stonecutters Bridge II Design Others Examination of Aerodynamic Coefficients Value Engineering Design of T3 Viaducts Structural and Aesthetical Challenges - A of Inclined Cables with Different Surface in Hong Kong Three-Arch-Footbridge in Vienna Configurations Bahman KERMANI Gerald FOLLER Kelvin C F KWOK Full 3D Finite Element Model for Criticality Practical Solutions for Improving Studies of Temperature Distribution and Analysis of Tsing Ma Bridge Aerodynamic Stability During Bridge Thermal Stress in Large Concrete Pour Y F DUAN Tower Construction of Large Pile Cap XIE Ji Ming Identification and Prediction of Carlos WONG Parameters Error in Construct Control Toward More Realistic Predictions of Structural Verification of Stonecutters of Long Span Pre-Stressed Concrete Long-Span Bridge Flutter Bridge by Spine-Beam Model Cable-stayed Bridge XIE Ji Ming CHONG Kwok-wai CHEN Chang Song Aerodynamic Flutter Stabilization for the Cofferdams for Stonecutters Bridge Improvement of Low-Cycle Fatigue East Sea Bridge Foundations - Design Aspects Strength of Steel Bridge Piers by Fatigue YANG Yong-xin Chris K W CHEUNG Crack Arrester Stability of Suspension Bridges during Taro TONEGAWA Highway Traffic Loads Monitoring in Early Construction Stages Stonecutters Bridge Design Vessel Load for Ship Collision Anna BAGNARA WONG Kai Yuen Impact Analysis of Sea-Crossing Bridge Measurement of Buffeting Mitigation for A Heavy Lift Scheme for the Erection of LEE Seong Lo a Cable-Stayed Bridge in Construction the Steel Deck of Stonecutters Bridge Traffic Safety of Vehicles on Long Bridges KIM Ho Kyung Christian VENETZ in Strong Wind Prone Areas CHEN Ai Rong Conference Dinner (Cocktail Reception will start at 18:45)
  • 22. PROGRAMME DETAILS Time 08:30 – 09:00 09:00 – 10:30 10:30 – 11:00 11:00 – 12:30 12:30 – 13:45 2 November 2006 Thursday Registration Parallel Sessions Room-Fanling Room-Tai Po Session 3A Session 3B Maintenance & Management Design Design Approaches and Guidelines of Health The Shanghai Yangtze Bridge Monitoring Systems for Major Bridges SHAO Chang Yu LI Hui Ductility of Partially Prestressed Concrete SVBS - An Assessment Tool for Bridges Under Structures with External Tendons Francis T K AU Seismic Loads Philippe RENAULT Assessment of the Seismic Performance of the Sutong Bridge Condition Assessment of Bridges Under Masaaki YABE Earthquake Loading X Y LI Innovative Composite Bridge Structure with Concrete Filled Steel Tube Girder Tsing Ma Control Area Bridge Inspection and KANG Jae Yoon Maintenance Issues James GIBSON A New Concept for a Large Vertical Lift Bridge Over the River Seine in Rouen (France) Monitoring and Evaluation of Shear Crack Initiation and Propagation in Webs of Concrete Michel MOUSSARD Box-Girder Sections Donghai Bridge Richard MALM SHAO Chang Yu Experimental Applications of a Structural Health Monitoring Methodology Sherif BESKHYROUN Coffee Break Parallel Sessions Room-Tai Po Room-Fanling Session 4B Session 4A Maintenance & Management Design Research and Practice of Health Monitoring Twin Off-Set Pylons Cable-Stayed Bridge in for Major Bridges in the Mainland of China Ningbo James PENNY OU Jin Ping The Design and Analysis of Twin Skewed Arch Measurement of Bridge Cable Forces and Dynamic Displacement Using Digital Camcorder Bridges for Castle Peak Road, Hong Kong JI Yun Feng Anthony M R PEARSON Evaluating the Cable Forces in Cable Supported An Analytical Study on the Mechanical Characteristic of Joint System in Prestressed Bridges Using the Ambient Vibration Method Composite Truss Bridge Andreas ANDERSSON Natsuko KUDO Experimental Investigation of Damping in Confining Steel Design of Bridge Columns Cracked Concrete Beams Usable in Bridges based on Ductility Demand for Earthquake Load (Beam-Slab) LEE Jae Hoon Alireza GHARIGHORAN Comparative Study on Ultimate Strength of Geometry Control of Ching Chau (Min Jiang) Super Long-Span Self-Anchored and Partially Bridge Under Construction Stage Earth-Anchored Cable-Stayed Bridges MAK Yu Man Masatsugu NAGAI Static and Dynamic Load Testing of the New Recent Developments and Some Technical Svinesund Arch Bridge Raid KAROUMI Issues about Precast Segmental Construction in China XU Dong Optional Local Technical Visits A (08:45 – 13:00) A1 Stonecutters Bridge A2 Hong Kong -Shenzhen Western Corridor Lunch Continue on next page
  • 23. PROGRAMME DETAILS Continued from previous page Time 12:30 – 13:45 13:45 – 15:30 15:30 – 15:45 15:45 – 17:15 2 November 2006 Thursday Lunch Parallel Sessions Room-Fanling Room-Tai Po Session 5A Session 5B Maintenance & Management Design The Integrated Operation of Bridge Design Pounding Analysis of Elevated Bridges Database Using the Open Standards Subjected to Earthquake Excitation by Using LEE Sang-Ho Explicit Finite Ellement Method A X GUO Criticality and Vulnerability Analyses of Tsing Ma Bridge Design of Dampers for Mitigation of Stay Cable WONG Kai Yuen Vibrations Optimal Deployment of Sensors for Cable Stress Allan LARSEN Monitoring in a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge A Numerical Study on the Damage Evaluation of Abutment by Pounding of Bridge Girder NI Yi Qing Strategic Study on Structural Health Monitoring Hiroki TAMAI A Bridge Over Birds' Paradise of Concrete Viaduct Bridges in Hong Kong Stephen F L YIU Kenneth W Y CHAN Elaso-Plastic Behaviors of Four Long-Span Precast Segmental Concrete Bridge Continuous Suspension Bridges and Selection Construction in Hong Kong of Optimal Flexural Rigidity of Steel Towers CHUNG Hak Kong Atsonori SOMEYA Severe Cracking in Insitu Concrete Bridge Plan and Design of Jeokgeum Bridge Substructures Due to Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF): Diagnosis, Assessment and KIM Jae Hong Remediation Study of Vertical Seismic Response of SelfRoger BUCKBY Anchored Suspension Bridges Insight of Durable and Cost-Effective Cathodic LIU Chun Cheng Protection Systems Miki FUNAHASHI Coffee Break Parallel Sessions Room-Fanling Room-Tai Po Session 6A Session 6B Others Design The Development of Cable-Supported Bridges Connecting Force Between Concrete Deck Slab in Hong Kong- My Personal Experience and Steel Girder at Intermediate Cross Beams LAU Ching Kwong in Composite Two-I-Girder Bridges Yasutaka SASAKI Steel Arches for Small and Medium Span Punching of Concrete Bridge Decks and Bridges Footings with a Special Reference to Scale Enzo SIVIERO Effect and Uneven Moment Distribution Design and Appearance of Bridge Structures Hakan SUNDQUIST in Korea Parametric Analysis of Steel Arch Bridges HONG Namhee Kim Jure RADIC Innovations Driven by International Design The Challenge of Super-Long Spans: Lessons Competitions in China Mark Z H WANG from Messina Ian FIRTH Design Validation of Bus Containment Bridge Parapets A Construction Method of Rumpiang Arch LEE Ping Kwan Bridge in South Kalimantan of Indonesia Bambang MUSTAQIM Basis of Design and Expected Performances for the Messina Strait Bridge Aspects of Wind Buffeting Response and NonFranco BONTEMPI Linear Structural Analysis for Cable Stayed Bridges Dorian JANJIC Optional Local Technical Visits B (13:45 – 18:00) B1 Stonecutters Bridge B2 Hong Kong -Shenzhen Western Corridor
  • 24. PROGRAMME DETAILS Time 08:30 – 09:00 09:00 – 10:30 Room-Fanling Session 7A Stonecutters Bridge III (Dynamics & Aerodynamics) Experimental Investigation of Pendulum Mass Damper Performance for Reducing Vibration of Long Span Cable-Stayed Bridge Tower Doris M S YAU Buffeting Response Reduction of Long Span Cable-Stayed Bridge Tower During Construction Using Pendulum Mass Damper Simon C H LEUNG Erection Stage Buffeting Analyses of Stonecutters Bridge Guido MORGENTHAL Wind Tunnel Investigations for Stonecutters Bridge Construction S H Robin SHAM Flutter Analysis of Stonecutters Bridge Using a Single-Parameter Searching Approach Michael C H HUI Buffeting Analysis of Stonecutters Bridge Based on Experimentally Determined Aerodynamic Parameters Michael C H HUI 10:30 – 11:00 11:00 – 12:30 12:30 – 13:45 13:45 – 14:15 Room-Fanling Session 8A Maintenance & Management Design of Damper for Mitigating Vibration of Long Stay Cables SUN Li Min Structural Health Monitoring Oriented Finite Element Model of Tsing Ma Bridge Tower C L NG Conceptual Design of Bridge Health Monitoring System Based on Structural Seismic Vulnerability Analysis SUN Zhi Bridge Management - the Value of Implementing an Asset Management Philosophy Dick FEAST Combating Corrosion Through Novel De-Icing Agents Alexandros KATSANOS Seismic Retrofit Design of Bridges Using a Tuned Mass Damper Analogy Nam HOANG 3 November 2006 Friday Registration Parallel Sessions Room-Tai Po Session 7B Design Seismic Capacity and Performance Evaluation of Taiwan High-Speed Rail Viaducts Jeder HSEIH Design Method for Sleeve Joints Between Steel Beams and Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns Teruhiko YODA The Secret of Originality. A View on Signature Bridges Poul Ove JENSEN A Multiple Span Cable Stayed Bridge to Close Antwerp Ring Over Canal Albert and Harbour Docks Michel MOUSSARD Design and Construction of Bai Chay Bridge- The World Longest Single Plane PC Cable Stayed Bridge Kouji HAYASHI Experimental and Theoretical Research on Real Behaviour of Composite Bridge Structures Jan BUJNAK Coffee Break Parallel Sessions Room-Tai Po Session 8B Deep Bay Link/ Shenzhen Western Corridor Deep Bay Link - Design and Construction of a Fast-Tracked Project CHOW Chun Wah Contractor's Challenges at Deep Bay Link Northern Section Rayland LEE Deep Bay Link - Construction of a Cast In-Situ Viaduct Using Balanced Cantilever Method Daniel John IP Fast Track Implementation of Hong KongShenzhen Western Corridor Joseph T K LEE Design of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Western Corridor CHAN Siu Yuen Construction of the Hong Kong-Shenzhen Western Corridor Cable-Stayed Bridge Aidan ROONEY Room-Shek O Session 7C Others Stability of Continuous Welded Rail on Bridge Structures for Korean High-Speed Railway CHIN Won Jong A Bridge of Glass Philip TINDALL Bridge Deck and Parapet Design by Vehicle Impact Simulation YEUNG Ngai Influence of Geometrical Nonlinearities on Stability and Collapse Behaviour of Long Span Cable Supported Bridges P.Giorgio MALERBA Finite Element Analysis of High Tension Bolted Joints KIM Dong Hyun Slab-Column Composite Structures with HPC/FRHPC Precast Members for Subways and Small Bridges Andrzej AJDUKIEWICZ Room-Shek O Session 8C Others Wavelet-Based Identification of Modal Parameters of Akashi Kaikyo Bridge Hiroshi KATSUCHI Vulnerability of Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges Under Terrorist Event YAN Dong Challenging the Open Sea – the Compendium of Innovative Technologies in Donghai Bridge HUANG Rong Optimising Packing Density for Production of Flowing High-Performance Concrete Albert K H KWAN Resurfacing of Orthotropic Bridge Decks in the UK - Design and Practice Neil MCFADYEN The Junk on Haihe River Rocky TAY Lunch Keynote Sessions 5 Ir Naeem HUSSAIN, UK Title of Presentation 14:15 – 14:45 Delivery of Quality Design and Construction for Bridge Projects Keynote Sessions 6 Dr TANG Man Chung, USA 14:45 – 15:15 Why, Why Not, What If Keynote Sessions 7 Dr-Ing M. Michel VIRLOGEUX, France Title of Presentation Title of Presentation 15:15 – 15:30 Some Aspects of the Design of Stay-Cables Conclusion & Closing Remarks