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Prehistoric Timeline

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  • 1. PhilippinePrehistory
  • 2. GEOLOGICALFOUNDATIONS
  • 3. Carboniferous Period350 million years agoOldest fossil: horn coral inMindoroindicates shallow seas inthe area
  • 4. Mesozoic Era100 million years agoParts of the Philippinesappear to be a protrusionof an Asian continentPrimitive plant life indicateexposed area
  • 5. Cretaceous Era80 million years ago1st break between Asiaand AustraliaEra of large mammalsand flowering plants
  • 6. Subdivisions ofthe Cenozoic Eraspans only about65 million years
  • 7. Eocene(53-54 millionyears BP)Oligocene(37-38 millionyears BP)
  • 8. EoceneThe rifting of the NorthAtlantic cut off NorthAmerica from Europe, andSouth America lost linkswith Antarctica.India and Scotland werehome to mountain-buildingepisodes.The sea-level rose and seasinvaded much ofAfrica, Australia, andSiberia.
  • 9. Oligoceneincrease in volcanicactivity, and plate tectonicmovement, as India collidedwith Asia.start of a generalizedcooling, with glaciers formingin Antarctica for the first timeduring the Cenozoicthe increase in ice sheets ledto a fall in sea levelslight warming period in thelate Oligocene, the overallcooling trend was to continue
  • 10. Northern Land bridgeOligocene:• Northern Philippines• adjoined to Formosa• Connecting Luzon and Formosa• Allowed the introduction ofspecies– Pinus insularis or Benguetpines– Rhinoceros, stegodon– Dwarf elephant, deers, etc
  • 11. Miocene epoch(26 million years BP)
  • 12. The Miocene was a time of warmerglobal climates than those in thepreceding Oligocene, or thefollowing Pliocene.The isolation of Antarctica fromAustralia and South America meantthe establishment of the circum-polar ocean circulation, whichsignificantly reduced the mixing orwarmer tropical water and cold polarwater, and further led to the buildupof the Antarctic ice cap.
  • 13. disjunction of connectionwith Formosadue to combined effectsof volcanism and othertectonic movements ofthe basement complex
  • 14. • Miocene Revolution• Intense mountainbuilding activities– area of Baguio waslifted from the shallowseas– Sagada was thrustedupward– Mount Apo is pushedup from the plainsMiocene
  • 15. The Neogene world(Middle Miocene)
  • 16. Pliocene epoch(7-13 million years BP)
  • 17. By the Pliocene the world was approachingthat of today, and continents had taken uptheir present-day positionsThus the hominid lineage appeared in the riftvalleys of north-east Africa during EarlyPlioceneThe Pliocene was a time of greatmigration, owing to the appearance of newland bridges
  • 18. 5 million years BPemergenceof man
  • 19. Land bridges joining the Indonesian archipelago
  • 20. Pliocene2 to 3 million years ago• tectonic activitiessubsided• Migration from Asiawere interruptedwhen land bridgesbegin to vanish• Sulawesi-SundaShelf-Zamboanga-Borneo submerged
  • 21. Luzon-Formosa connectionwas replaced by 2 kilometerdeep Bashi channel
  • 22. A large island at thecenter of the Philippinessplit up to form Panayand Negros
  • 23. • Only existing land bridge thatexisted was the Palawan-Borneo• Allowing migration of tamaraw,squirrel and mouse deer
  • 24. PleistoceneEpoch
  • 25. Map showingthe maximumaerial extent ofglacial iceduring thePleistoceneEpoch (Ice Age)in the northpolar area (fromPolar
  • 26. The PleistoceneEpoch covers alittle over oneand a halfmillion years.This epochwitnessed acontinuedcooling, culminating in a seriesof ice ages.The greatmammalianmega fauna areflourishing, andthe hominidprimates havebecomeincreasinglyskilled at theuse of fire andtool-making.
  • 27. Earth underwent a series ofalternating warm and coldclimatesMarked the beginning ofevolutionary process in bothflora and faunaFreezing of northern andsouthern hemisphere;extensive spread of sea iceMongolia and Himalayas-topped by ice sheetsGlaciers in high regions ofthe African continent
  • 28. During the Pleistocene thehominid tendency toincrease brain size andhence intelligencecontinued.Homo erectus, Homoneanderthalis, and finallymodern man (Homosapiens) succeeded eachother in time (althoughmodern man andneanderthals livedalongside each other inEurope for a short period
  • 29. Africa & Asia – no ice sheets but hasextensive continuous rainsfluvial conditions gave rise to growth of rainforests and marshes
  • 30. Pleistocene Era• Connecting to Borneo &Eastern Indonesia• Philippines is connected toAsia by 2 land bridges
  • 31. Chocolate Hills are formedPleistocene: 1 million-25,000 years ago
  • 32. Marinduque is part of Luzon
  • 33. • Samar and Leyte are connected to Luzon• Negros and Panay form one island with Masbate
  • 34. Linkages: allows distribution of plant &animal life north and south of the Philippines
  • 35. 4 Ice Ages• 590,000 to 550,000• 550,000 to 476,000• 230,000 to 187,000• 115,000 to 72,000 or 25,000 years ago
  • 36. The Sunda and Sahul Shelves are exposed to asseas retreated allowing resumption of the migrationof flora & fauna
  • 37. The lowered sea levels formed land bridges that enabledthe migration of animals and humans across continents
  • 38. Malay Peninsula, SundaShelfSumatra, Java, Borneoto Palawanland bridgesdark skinnedpeople, ancestors ofAustraloids(traveled from New Guinea &other Melanesian islands)Australia, SahulShelf, New Guinea, AruIslands of Indonesia
  • 39. the three living Negrito groups today (solid reddots) and a much larger area with many stillliving or only recently extinct possible Negritorelatives.
  • 40. riverine connections(interior of MainlandAsia and Australia)similarities of fish andfauna in EasternSumatra, Borneo andthe Philippinesclose faunal and floralrelationship betweenEastern Mindanao andNorth Borneo
  • 41. Towards the endof Pleistocenevolcaniceruptions, erosions, faulting, and folding of thegeological base of theislands of the Philippineschanges in landformation
  • 42. End of last ice age• sea rose to present level• Land bridge frommainland Asiasubmerged (Palawan-Borneo)• Palawan was separatedfrom Mindoro
  • 43. Circa 15,000-10,000years agoPhilippines assumes itsapproximate shape & form

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