EoceneThe rifting of the NorthAtlantic cut off NorthAmerica from Europe, andSouth America lost linkswith Antarctica.India and Scotland werehome to mountain-buildingepisodes.The sea-level rose and seasinvaded much ofAfrica, Australia, andSiberia.
Oligoceneincrease in volcanicactivity, and plate tectonicmovement, as India collidedwith Asia.start of a generalizedcooling, with glaciers formingin Antarctica for the first timeduring the Cenozoicthe increase in ice sheets ledto a fall in sea levelslight warming period in thelate Oligocene, the overallcooling trend was to continue
Northern Land bridgeOligocene:• Northern Philippines• adjoined to Formosa• Connecting Luzon and Formosa• Allowed the introduction ofspecies– Pinus insularis or Benguetpines– Rhinoceros, stegodon– Dwarf elephant, deers, etc
The Miocene was a time of warmerglobal climates than those in thepreceding Oligocene, or thefollowing Pliocene.The isolation of Antarctica fromAustralia and South America meantthe establishment of the circum-polar ocean circulation, whichsignificantly reduced the mixing orwarmer tropical water and cold polarwater, and further led to the buildupof the Antarctic ice cap.
disjunction of connectionwith Formosadue to combined effectsof volcanism and othertectonic movements ofthe basement complex
• Miocene Revolution• Intense mountainbuilding activities– area of Baguio waslifted from the shallowseas– Sagada was thrustedupward– Mount Apo is pushedup from the plainsMiocene
By the Pliocene the world was approachingthat of today, and continents had taken uptheir present-day positionsThus the hominid lineage appeared in the riftvalleys of north-east Africa during EarlyPlioceneThe Pliocene was a time of greatmigration, owing to the appearance of newland bridges
Map showingthe maximumaerial extent ofglacial iceduring thePleistoceneEpoch (Ice Age)in the northpolar area (fromPolar
The PleistoceneEpoch covers alittle over oneand a halfmillion years.This epochwitnessed acontinuedcooling, culminating in a seriesof ice ages.The greatmammalianmega fauna areflourishing, andthe hominidprimates havebecomeincreasinglyskilled at theuse of fire andtool-making.
Earth underwent a series ofalternating warm and coldclimatesMarked the beginning ofevolutionary process in bothflora and faunaFreezing of northern andsouthern hemisphere;extensive spread of sea iceMongolia and Himalayas-topped by ice sheetsGlaciers in high regions ofthe African continent
During the Pleistocene thehominid tendency toincrease brain size andhence intelligencecontinued.Homo erectus, Homoneanderthalis, and finallymodern man (Homosapiens) succeeded eachother in time (althoughmodern man andneanderthals livedalongside each other inEurope for a short period
Africa & Asia – no ice sheets but hasextensive continuous rainsfluvial conditions gave rise to growth of rainforests and marshes
Pleistocene Era• Connecting to Borneo &Eastern Indonesia• Philippines is connected toAsia by 2 land bridges
Chocolate Hills are formedPleistocene: 1 million-25,000 years ago
• Samar and Leyte are connected to Luzon• Negros and Panay form one island with Masbate
Linkages: allows distribution of plant &animal life north and south of the Philippines
4 Ice Ages• 590,000 to 550,000• 550,000 to 476,000• 230,000 to 187,000• 115,000 to 72,000 or 25,000 years ago
The Sunda and Sahul Shelves are exposed to asseas retreated allowing resumption of the migrationof flora & fauna
The lowered sea levels formed land bridges that enabledthe migration of animals and humans across continents
Malay Peninsula, SundaShelfSumatra, Java, Borneoto Palawanland bridgesdark skinnedpeople, ancestors ofAustraloids(traveled from New Guinea &other Melanesian islands)Australia, SahulShelf, New Guinea, AruIslands of Indonesia
the three living Negrito groups today (solid reddots) and a much larger area with many stillliving or only recently extinct possible Negritorelatives.
riverine connections(interior of MainlandAsia and Australia)similarities of fish andfauna in EasternSumatra, Borneo andthe Philippinesclose faunal and floralrelationship betweenEastern Mindanao andNorth Borneo
Towards the endof Pleistocenevolcaniceruptions, erosions, faulting, and folding of thegeological base of theislands of the Philippineschanges in landformation
End of last ice age• sea rose to present level• Land bridge frommainland Asiasubmerged (Palawan-Borneo)• Palawan was separatedfrom Mindoro
Circa 15,000-10,000years agoPhilippines assumes itsapproximate shape & form