The Manunggul Cave (near TheTabon Cave) is tucked in a cliffwith a beautiful view of theSouth China Sea.This was mainly used as a burialsite and it was here where theburial jar with a ship-of-the-deadmotif on its cover was found.
The jar had a bulbous body thattapers down.The shoulder was decoratedwith scrolls painted using rediron oxide.Between the scrolls the spaceswere textured with dots.The jar had a rounded coveralso decorated with painted rediron oxide scrolls and dots.It is an evidence of the highartistic level which the artattained in an ancient times.
On the top of the cover was aboat the bow of which wasdecorated with a human face.In the boat towards the rearwas a boatman holding apaddle and in front wasanother individual with armscrossed across the breast.It was thought that the crownornament of the cover showedthe soul of the dead beingferried into the next world.It is one of the artifacts thatsuggest religious practiceamong the earliest Filipinos.
Both figures appear to be wearing a band tied over thecrown of the head and under the jaw.The manner in which the hands of the front figure arefolded across the chest is a widespread practice in thePhilippines and Southeast Asia when arranging the corpse.
This artifact is now considereda national cultural treasureand its portrait is on the 1000Philippine peso bill.This was the mostbeautiful Philippinepottery from some900 years before thebirth of Christ.
n 1991, archeologistsdiscoveredanthropomorphic secondaryburial jars in Ayub Cave,Piñol. Maitum, SaranganiProvinceuggests human figures withcomplete or partial facialcharacteristicsarthenware potteries withincisions and cut-out foot-ringsMaitum AnthropomorphicPotteries
hese secondary burial jars dateback to the Metal Ageated to 830 +/-60 B.P. (by acalibrated date of A.D. 70 to 370)and 1920 +/- 50 B.P. (by acalibrated date of 5 B.C. to 225A.D.)Scientists determined the age ofthe jars by doing radiocarbon datetests on the soot samples takenfrom a small earthenware vessel
hese humanlike forms were associated withmetal implements like bracelets.ome jars are decorated with glass beadsand shell scoop, spoon, and pendants.mong the anthropomorphic vessels areplain non-anthropomorphic burial jars.
Each of the twenty nine jars recovered from the site is unique.The head-shaped covers portray different kinds of facialexpressions: sadness, joy, contentment
•found in 1989 that waswritten in a much older andmore complex writingsystem than the baybayin•the black, rolled-up piece ofmetal was found by a mandredging for sand near themouth of the Lumbang Riverwhere it emptied into Lagunade BayA Philippine Documentfrom 900 A.D.
•Antoon Postma, a Dutch nationalwho has lived most of his lifeamong the Mangyans was able totranslate the writing.•He is the director of theMangyan Assistance & ResearchCenter in Panaytayan, Mansalay,Oriental able to Mindoro•the text was in a languagesimilar to four languages(Sanskrit, Old Tagalog, OldJavanese, and Old Malay)mixed together•text was written in Kavi, amysterious script
The LCI in Englishong Live! Year of Siyaka 822, month ofWaisaka, according to astronomy. Thefourth day of the waning moon, Monday.On this occasion, Lady Angkatan, and herbrother whose name is Buka, the childrenof the Honourable Namwaran, wereawarded a document of complete pardonfrom the Commander in Chief of Tundun,represented by the Lord Minister of Pailah,Jayadeway this order, through the scribe, theHonourable Namwaran has been forgivenof all and is released from his debts andarrears of 1 katî and 8 suwarna before theHonourable Lord Minister of Puliran, KaSumuran by the authority of the LordMinister of Pailahecause of his faithful service as a subject ofthe Chief, the Honourable and widelyrenowned Lord Minister of Binwanganrecognized all the living relatives ofNamwaran who were claimed by the Chief ofDewata, represented by the Chief ofMedanges, therefore the living descendants of theHonourable Namwaran are forgiven, indeed,of any and all debts of the HonourableNamwaran to the Chief of Dewata.his, in any case, shall declare to whomeverhenceforth that on some future day shouldthere be a man who claims that no releasefrom the debt of the Honourable...http://www.mts.net/~pmorrow/lcieng.htm#translation
he LCI was an official documentissued to clear a person by the nameof Namwaran, his family, and all theirdescendants of a debt he hadincurred.In the old Philippines, an unpaid debtusually resulted in slavery not onlyfor the person concerned but alsofor his family and his descendants.he amount of debt was 1 kati and 8suwarnas of gold (865 g. or about$12,000 at todays prices), anunusually large amount.he pardon was issued by the chiefof Tundun, who was of higher rankthan the other chiefs whowitnessed the document andwhose names and respective areasof jurisdiction are listed.
The placenames mentioned prove the Philippineconnection of the LCI :Pailah (Paila), Tundun (Tundo), Puliran (Pulilan), Binwangan(Binwangan), Dewata (Diwata), and Medang (Medang).
Significance:ossibility of the Philippines as part of Shri-Vijaya or even Madjapahitt is possible that the Hindus were in Manilabefore the Muslimscenturies before the Tagalog scriptsemergence, the Manila area used a script sorich and sophisticated that great empireswere ruled through its use.The Laguna Copperplate Inscription:A Philippine Document from 900 AD1995-96 by Hector Santos•that the edge of history hasbeen pushed back 621 years•giving the Philippines adocumented existence amongthe ancient kingdoms ofSoutheast Asia like Shri-Vijaya(Sumatra), Angkor(Kampuchea), Champa(Vietnam), Madjapahit (Java),and others that existed beforethe 10th Century.• Ancient Chinese records withplacenames like Pu-li-lu, whichwas thought to have beenPolilio (but didnt make sense),will have to be reevaluated.
The first recovered balangay was excavated in Butuan City inAgusan del Norte in 1978
The National Museum built a dedicated building to house one of thewell-preserved boats at the actual location where it was discovered
"Balangay" (local name of wooden boats)artifact dug in the Masao River Delta, theplace where present Butuan CityCarbon-dated to be built in 320A.D.
he boat is about 12 m. long and is the oldest watercraft found in the Philippineshe wooden pegs that interconnects the wooden planks are still visibly doing the job
plank boat adjoined by carved-out planks edgedthrough pins or dowels
The replica of the balangay , a wooden-hulled boat used in thearchipelago about 1,700 years ago was built in 44 days by nativeBadjao boat-builders from the southernmost Philippineprovince of Tawi Tawi using traditional skills handed downthrough the generations
In building the balangay,Valdez tapped membersof the Sama ethnic group,a semi-nomadic seafaringtribe from Sibutu andSitangkay in Tawi-Tawi tomake the boat, whoseplanks were fashionedfrom wood known in Samaas “lupanga” and its bowfrom “ubi-ubi.”The sap from thewood is being usedas sealant.
The mini platforms areneither nailed nor attachedby glue; they were carvedfrom the wood itself whichcreated a mountain pile ofwood shavings
The native boat builders relied on wooden pegs to secure the parts together.The pegs allow the boat to be resilient and moveable which is ideal on sea as thewaves "squeeze the wood as if one is squeezing water out of a towel".
"The boat is a time capsule that carries the history ofour people."
Weaving originated in pre-colonial times and isone of our most precious living traditions.
The Cordillera groups of the North are well-known for their artof weaving.The blankets and articles of clothing that they produce bymeans of the backstrap loom not only fulfill a practical functionbut also play a part in religion and ritual.
This tradition spills overinto the adjacent Ilocosprovinces which takepride in their sturdy abelweave.
The T’boli of Cotabato weave abacacloth called t’nalak in a difficulttie-dye process.This cloth has a large repertoire ofmotifs, such as the g’mayaw bird,whose rhythms create the feeling offlapping wings; the frog whichsignifies fertility; and the dancingman which calls for rain.These motifs attest to the T’boli’sdeep-seated sense of the harmonyof man and nature.
In the Visayas,Samar andLeyte areknown for theircolorful matswith bird andflower designs.The large matsmeant forfamily useimply strongfamilial values.Weaving techniques are also used in theexquisite mats with vivid colors andintricate geometric designs woven bythe women of Sulu, particularly fromthe islands of Laminusa and Siasi.
Okir refers to theMaranao design in theircarving, weaving andmetal worksIt comes from the word"okkil," which means "tocarve’’
It can be seen in thecolorful malong wovenby the Maranao
The principal okir designs are thesarimanok, the naga and the pakorabong.The naga has the form of an elaboratemythical serpent with a vigorous S-curve and numerous curvilinear motifsto suggest its scales. The pako rabongis a stylized growing fern with a broadbase gracefully tapering upwards.The sarimanok and naga are found inthe panolong, the extended floorbeam of the torogan or the largeSultan’s house, and it its interiorbeams and posts.
The sarimanok carved inwood, simply varnished orpainted in many colors (it isalso executed in brass), isthe stylized design of a birdholding a fish in its beak orstanding on a base in theshape of fish.While its meaning derivesfrom epics and myths, it alsoalludes to Lake Lanao withits fertile waters
For men, tattoos mark age, bravery, and tribal seniority.In some tribal communities, it was claimed that tattoos had magicalqualities; thus, designs of scorpions, centipedes, snakes, and batswere often repeated.
In a few instances,tattoos were considereda cure for physicaldefects…by covering up anunsightly deformity,birthmark, or growthwith tattoos, thetribesmen believed thatthe scars would vanish
Very often the amount ofdesigns worn by a man wasdirectly related to theproportion of human heads hehad taken in the headhunt.Igorot tattooing wasconsidered a serious religiousexperience. The flowing bloodattracted spirits (anito) whichcould protect or destroy acommunity if the propersacrifices were not made
The women of south Kalingapainted their faces a bright redand wore necklaces danglingdown over their breasts to theirnavels.Sometimes these necklaceswere worn diagonally across thebody, over the left shoulder andunder the right armpit, like asash.Their arms were tattooed moreornately than the arms of theKankanay, lbaloi, Ifugao, andIgorot women.
89-year-old Whang Od, thelast Kalinga tattoo artistTattooing instruments were madefrom a piece of wood or water buffalo(carabao) horn about 10 cm long and2 mm thick.At about a sixth of its length it wasbent at a right angle and, in theshorter arm, three to five needleswere affixed.The needles were laid on the skinand driven in with blows of a woodenhammer at the rate of 90 to 120 tapsper minute.Soot from resinous wood such asspruce was used for pigment andrubbed into the wounds, causing theflesh to rise in great welts, whichsometimes became infected.
The pintados(painted ones),inhabitants of theVisayan islandswould use sharpmetal instrumentspreviously heatedover fire.Only the wrists andfeet were left bare.After the procedure,soot or black powderwas pressed ontothe scar which,when dried, couldnever be erased.The pintado womentattooed only theirhands.
Geometric patterns were one of the most common types of tattoosfound among the Philippines’ Mindanao tribes in 1880AD
“Folk houses are not the product of any theory design, butinstinct, intuition, common sense and communal memory.Their form has been defined by climate, site, purpose,available materials, building technology, historical experienceand world view.”
Always to oneside a washingsink on abamboo counterwith abanggerahan, abamboo rack onwhich to air-drythe dishes.Off to another side is thebatalan, a platform on which towash and bathe, enclosed forprivacy but without a roof so itcan dry out thoroughly, quickly.A ladder, hagdan, is usedto enter the mainstructure. It could bedrawn up at night or whenthe owners went out.
Langgal-traditional houseof worship.The langgal in SouthUbian is an icon ofindigenous Filipino culture
• the Muslim chief resides in the torogan, a huge stately, toweringhouse, with a single large room.• "torogan" simply means a place for sleeping• used for official meetings, social gatherings, and religious rituals.
The most arresting feature of thetorogan is the set of protrudingbeam ends called panolong.Flaring out from the facade,intricately carved and stunninglycolored, the panolong resemblesthe prow of a boat and makes thesplendid torogan appear to floatlike a royal barge.
Only ten cultures worldwide throughout history areknown to have practiced mummification
• group of mummies were found in caves in an area aroundKabayan, a town in the Benguet province of the Philippines• the mummies were made by members of the Ibaloi tribe
• wellpreserved human mummies wereinitially found in Timbak cave, Bangaocave, Tenongchol cave, Naapay and Opdas
• mummificationprocess startsshortly before aperson dies• the dying personis made to swallowa very salty drinkwhich helps tocleanse the internalorganshow to mummify…
• after death, the body is to be washed and seated in a chair that is setover a glowing fire to dry the fluids by exposing it to external heat• tobacco smoke is then blown into the persons mouth to dry the insideof the body and internal organs• any drainingbody fluids areconsideredsacred andcaught in a jar• once dry, theepidermis ispeeled away
• herbs are rubbed on thebody before interment• the drying/smokingprocess would havelasted many weeks andperhaps a number ofmonths before themummy is finished
• then it is to be takento a cave for burial ina coffin in a fixedposition
• The National Museum ofthe Philippines returnedthe mummified andintricately tattooed bodyof Apo Annu, a triballeader in the Benguetprovince who died 500years ago• His body had been stolenby a Christian pastor froma burial cave near thetown of Natubling in thebetween 1918 and 1920.• It wound up as part of asideshow in a ManilacircusApo Annu ….
• the mummy changed hands a number oftimes until 1984, when an antiques collectordonated it to the National Museum
• Apo Annu was "heavily tattooedthe mark of hunters and warriors...[and is covered with] dried flesh, brownish in color• he is In a sitting position with arms held up to his face, Apo Annulooks like a man praying to the heavens.“• he was dressed in the clothes of a tribal chief before he was placedjust in a wooden coffin inside his burial cave
• some residents of thearea believe that theregion has beencursed by droughts,earthquakes, andfamine since themummy of Apo Annuwas looted• to insure that ApoAnnu stays put, thelocal government hasbuilt a fence aroundhis resting place in thecave and has offeredto pay for othersecurity measures
• 28 human mummies havebeen accounted for and arein a state of considerabledeterioration• preservation anddevelopment of themummy sites is beingundertaken by theconservators of theNational Museum of thePhilippines• 100 other mummies arelocated in the 200+ cavesof BenguetPresently…
Pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 374, these mummieshave been declared as Philippine National CulturalTreasures.These mummies are reknowned because they are the onlyones in the world that have their internal organs intact.