Creating a social media strategy for a tourism business | Block 1: Basics of online marketing

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Creating a social media strategy for a tourism business
Block 1: Basics of online marketing
International Master in Hospitality and Tourism Management
ESCP Europe - Cornell University School of Hotel Administration

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Creating a social media strategy for a tourism business | Block 1: Basics of online marketing

  1. 1. Creating a social media strategy for a tourism business Block 1: Basics of online marketing International Master in Hospitality and Tourism Management January 7th, 2013 Francisco Hernández fran.meThis document has been produced by 11 Goals & Associates. It is not complete unless supported bythe underlying detailed analyses and oral presentation.
  2. 2. About me SHAMELESS SELF-PROMOTIONEducation: Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, UNED,London Business School, University of Chicago – Fundaciò“laCaixa” & Fundación Rafael del Pino scholarships.Firms worked for full-time: Abengoa, McKinsey&Co, ABNAMRO, Real Madrid C.F.Entrepreneurship: CrisaliaSocial Media & Internet consulting: 11goals.comLectures & Speaker in 3 continents: The Wall Street Journal, Universidad Politécnicade Madrid, London Business School, Cornell University, Politecnico di Milano, CEIBS(Shanghai), Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, The Business Factory, Asociación J.W.Fulbright Spain, ESCP Europe, UIMP, and several private companies.Full profile: linkedin.com/in/franciscohm
  3. 3. Seminar’s agendaBlock 1: Basics of online marketing (day 1)Block 2: Social tourism (days 2 & 3)Block 3: E-Commerce in tourism (day 3)Block 4: Case presentations (day 4) How do I make money in Internet? (Block 3) How can I market my business in Internet? (Blocks 1 and 2)
  4. 4. Quote of the block “One should not simply trust quotations in Internet” Julius Caesar
  5. 5. Agenda  Online advertising  Affiliate programs  Referral marketing  Email marketing  SEO  Content marketing  Online public relations  Social marketing (block 2)  Fake marketing
  6. 6. Online advertising industry map See definitions in “The Online Advertising Technology Marketplace”Source: Progress Partners
  7. 7. Pricing modelsType Description Comments •Advertiser pays a fee every • Have to measure impressions. time the ad is shown • CPM: Cost per thousand impressions. PPI • Ej.: Brand awareness/building. (Pay per impression) •Advertiser pays a fee every • Have to measure clicks (both sides). time the ad is shown AND • The network work to target customers who click. PPC clicked • CPC: Cost per click (Flat or Bid). • CTR: Click-Through-Rate. (Pay per click) • CPC=CPM/1000*CTR. • Ej.: Simple transactional business. •Advertiser pays a fee every • Have to measure conversions (both sides). time the ad is shown AND • The network works to target customers who convert. PPA clicked AND a target action is • Integration between Ad network and landing website. • CPA: Cost per Action. (Pay per action) carried out by the user • CPA=CPC*Conversion Rate. (typically a purchase) • Ej.: Transactional business where client targeting is valuable •Advertiser shares part of the • Have to open books to advertiser. revenue generated by the ads • Short-term or Long-term revenue. Revenue • Sometimes it is considered a type of PPA. • Ej.: Transactional business where client value over time Sharing is important, and advertiser plays a role in identifying it.
  8. 8. Agenda  Online advertising  Google AdWords/AdSense  Mobile advertising  Affiliate programs  Referral marketing  Email marketing  SEO  Content marketing  Online public relations  Social marketing (block 2)  Fake marketing
  9. 9. How does Google Search present results? Sponsored results: •Pay Organic results: •Free •Not exist if not in the first 5 spots If you are well positioned in the organic search (SEO) you do not need to pay (SEM)
  10. 10. Contextual Ads
  11. 11. AdSense (offer your website to Ad Network)Offer your website to Ad Network
  12. 12. Google Insights / Google TrendsHow popular are your keywords of interest? Relative scale Similar system: Google Trends www.google.com/trends Source: http://www.google.com/insights/search/
  13. 13. Google AdWordsEstimating Keyword Search Volume Source: https://adwords.google.com/select/KeywordToolExternal
  14. 14. Is EUR 0,50 cheap or expensive?Google AdWords Depends on:Estimating cost and outcome of campaign •Conversion Rate •Product/Service gross margin •Commercial alternatives
  15. 15. Keyword auction systemFor each keyword or keyword combination=> Second-price auction systemwith combined criteria: 1. Bidding price 2. Relevancy for the user Hal Varian Chief Economist Google Inc. Watch this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qwuUe5kq_O8
  16. 16. EXAMPLEGoogle AdWordsInserting ads
  17. 17. EXAMPLEGoogle AdWordsOutcome, managing ads
  18. 18. Agenda  Online advertising  Google AdWords/AdSense  Mobile advertising  Affiliate programs  Referral marketing  Email marketing  SEO  Content marketing  Online public relations  Social marketing (block 2)  Fake marketing
  19. 19. Mobile advertising industry mapSource: Progress Partners
  20. 20. Online AdvertisingDefinition“Ads+online” (we have focused on website display ads)Key pointso Select the right keywords or segmentation.o Always measure results.o Send clicks to a landing page as relevant to the content of the ad as possible. You would convert more AND you could lower the price of the auction.o Make many campaigns changing wording, images, segmentation, etc. Manage dynamically all those campaign so that you keep only the most profitable.o Spend little money at the beginning, and only escalate your spending when you are sure the conversion funnel works and is profitable.o Learn from testing, extract general conclusions you can use in the future.
  21. 21. Agenda  Online advertising  Affiliate programs  Referral marketing  Email marketing  SEO  Content marketing  Online public relations  Social marketing (block 2)  Fake marketing
  22. 22. Amazon Associates • Since 1996 • Long-Tail concept too • Multiple integration tools, even APIs. affiliate-program.amazon.com
  23. 23. Bible Gateway Affinity between a website dedicated to the Bible and a Christian publisher. www.biblegateway.com
  24. 24. Affiliate programsDefinition“a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor orcustomer brought about by the affiliates own marketing efforts”Key pointso One step above the concept of mere advertising. More integration and alignment, longer term.o Little-intrusive marketing. Users may thank the website for searching interesting items to buy around the topic of interest.o Pricing: Most frequently is revenue sharing, typically paying per sale; but it can be PPC or PPI.o Success determined in great par buy i) public affinity/niche or ii) contextual adso Multi-Tier programs (affiliate gets rewards for his clients and the clients coming from the affiliates he brought in, and the clients of the affiliates his affiliates helped to bring in…o Very popular in betting, adult websites, and file-sharing.Source: Wikipedia; others
  25. 25. Agenda  Online advertising  Affiliate programs  Referral marketing  Email marketing  SEO  Content marketing  Online public relations  Social marketing (block 2)  Fake marketing
  26. 26. DropBox • Two-sided incentive: more storage for the user who reefers, and for the user who accepts. • Increased signups by 60% • 2.8 mill. referral invites in about a year. www.dropbox.com
  27. 27. Tuenti • Exclusive access by invitation. • Reward for the sender: improves her social network. • Reward for receiver: only way to signup. • Limited number of invitations: you select better who you send an invitation. • Smart strategy: Tuenti grew concentrically so that interaction was always high (low-interaction social networks die). www.tuenti.com
  28. 28. Referral marketingDefinition“structured and systematic process designed by the website withthe mission of promoting products or services to new customersthrough referrals, usually word of mouth”Key pointso Works better for superior products, specially if they are innovative and the user needs to make an effort to use the product (change his current brand, learning curve, etc.).o Referred customers usually are more loyal and profitable.o Think it twice before offering money as a reward; the user can be concerned about feeling he is a salesman for the website.o The “best” rewards can be virtual items or simply the pleasure of being seen as a pioneer in the eyes of friends.o Think of trying to embed an limited-in-time offer tied to the acceptance of the referral email: extra features, discount price, etc.o Limiting the number of invitations can make a lot of sense. It may add value to the act of referring.Source: Wikipedia; others
  29. 29. Agenda  Online advertising  Affiliate programs  Referral marketing  Email marketing  SEO  Content marketing  Online public relations  Social marketing (block 2)  Fake marketing
  30. 30. idealista.com • Value-added services that turn a proactive, punctual contact into a passive, continuous relationship. o Alerts (predefined searches, changes on favorite items, etc.) o Newsletter. o Contacts between users. www.idealista.com
  31. 31. Email marketingDefinition“marketing a commercial message –directly or indirectly- to agroup of people using electronic mail”Key pointso Three types: Direct emails, Newsletters, and Transactional emails.o There are many software tools that allow to measure the impact of these type of communications: bounce rate, % received, % opened, % clicked, % converted, etc.o Few things annoy users more than spam. It is not what you think it is spam, but what they think!o Prevent being classified as spam buy security systems: easy unsubscribe, remind the user she subscribed, provide a postal address, reliable landing pages, not big images, ask reader to label you as “safe sender”, personalize, pace sending, etc.o Test concepts with a small user base, measuring unsubscriptions and other parameters in order to tradeoff between reach and conversion.o For huge communications (buying database): are you prepared for so much traffic and sales?Source: Wikipedia; others
  32. 32. Agenda  Online advertising  Affiliate programs  Referral marketing  Email marketing  SEO  Content marketing  Online public relations  Social marketing (block 2)  Fake marketing
  33. 33. Why Search Engine Optimization (SEO)? EXAMPLESource: comScore
  34. 34. How does Google select and rank information? Organic search Each keyword or combination of keywords: => Relevancy score algorithm (PageRank) using the following information: • Incoming hyperlinks (quantity and quality) • ~200 variables: outgoing hyperlinks, content coherence, update frequency, adherence to programming standards, load time, etc. etc. More info: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PageRank
  35. 35. Softonic • Founded in 1997. • Clear SEO strategy. • Revenue model: has changed but now it seems to be mostly advertisement. • #1 software download website in the World • 112 mill. Unique users per month (Dec 2011) → #1 Spanish website. • Revenues: EUR 32 mill. (2010) • EBIT: EUR 15 mill. (2010) www.softonic.com
  36. 36. Top tips for a good SEO strategy EXAMPLE 1. Find the Best Keywords 2. Discover What Your Competitors are Doing 3. Write Very Linkable & Sharable Content 4. Optimize Your Title and Meta Tags 5. Optimizing Your Headings and Subheadings 6. Use Title and ALT Attributes 7. Optimizing File Nomenclatures 8. Tell the Search Engines What to Index 9. Feed Search Engines Static and XML Site Maps 10.Use Checklists and Validators Best way to “be” an expert: Type “SEO” on Google and spend hours reading…Source: Top10SEOtips.com
  37. 37. Search Engine OptimizationDefinition“process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page insearch engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or"algorithmic") search results”Key pointso Be patient, be patient, be patient, be patient… (e.g.: Softonic)o “The only place where success comes before work is in the dictionary”. SEO is the marathon of online marketing.o Very cheap marketing.o All tips and strategies you have to follow are widely available online, and are common sense. No hidden secrets.o Watch out black-hat SEO strategies: link farming, cloaking , etc.: BMW was banned by Google for some time!o Does it really payoff to externalize SEO to an agency? Incentives are not the same (moral hazard). They may think short term while you should think long-term. External talent can be good if you make it sure to control/understand everything it is done, or establish penalties by contract.Source: Wikipedia; others
  38. 38. Agenda  Online advertising  Affiliate programs  Referral marketing  Email marketing  SEO  Content marketing  Online public relations  Social marketing (block 2)  Fake marketing
  39. 39. idealista.com • Real Estate reports based on ~1 million listings www.idealista.com
  40. 40. Content MarketingDefinition“all marketing formats that involve the creation or sharing ofcontent for the purpose of engaging current and potentialconsumer bases”Key pointso Works better if exclusive content coming from internal database mining.o Good combination with PR in traditional media or social media.o Try not to divert much from your brand’s values. Maybe the content you publish attracts a lot of attention but it may not be the sort of attention you need.o Rankings: that simple thing that has a phenomenal appeal to the users.Source: Wikipedia; others
  41. 41. Agenda  Online advertising  Affiliate programs  Referral marketing  Email marketing  SEO  Content marketing  Online public relations  Social marketing (block 2)  Fake marketing
  42. 42. eBayMove systematically interesting stories to traditional media • “The frequently repeated story that eBay was founded to help Omidyars fiancée trade Pez candy dispensers was fabricated by a public relations manager in 1997 to interest the media. This was revealed in Adam Cohens 2002 bookand confirmed by eBay” (Wikipedia) • eBay has spent years promoting stories such as: - “Buys a USD 50 mill. private jet on eBay”. - “Brand new Ferrari on sale at a current price of USD 1”. - “Sells his brain on eBay” - Etc. etc. www.ebay.com
  43. 43. Facebook against GoogleSend negative stories of your competitors to mass media Read the whole story: Bloomberg
  44. 44. airbnbCelebrity invests/promotes a website • As of today, Hollywood star Ashton Kutcher has ~13.8 mill. fans on Facebook, and ~13.4 mill. followers on Twitter. • Invested on and promoted Ooma (2007), airbnb (2011) and Gidsy (2012). www.airbnb.com
  45. 45. Online Public RelationsDefinition“practice of managing the flow of information between anorganization and its publics” (applied to online business)Key pointso Most startups begin promoting a beautiful story about why the founder(s) decided to launch the service. Nobody says: “I spent 3 months crunching numbers and I saw this business opportunity”.o Some websites are great sources of marketable stories (e.g. Classifieds, Social Networks, etc.).o Usually cheap, specially if you pay a celebrity with equity (try not to regret later about the amount of equity you have given away) or are able to manage PR by yourself.o Not only celebrities, successful entrepreneurs with blog audience can be very interesting too: smart capital + endorsement + promotion.o At a small scale: create a network of fellow entrepreneurs who frequently talk about each other’s projects. Pay favors with favors.o Other tactics: shit the big player, litigate, get sued, small-blogger relations, etc.o PR is an art, hire a great professional if you can.o Negative PR can damage yourself.Source: Wikipedia; others
  46. 46. Agenda  Online advertising  Affiliate programs  Referral marketing  Email marketing  SEO  Content marketing  Online public relations  Social marketing (block 2)  Fake marketing
  47. 47. “Buy Real Marketing” www.buyrealmarketing.com
  48. 48. Fake MarketingDefinition“Using external services or methods to achieve final marketinggoals in a way that does not serve the indented benefit for thecompany”Key pointso Unethical. Unreal.o Short-term strategy that usually hurts the company in the long-term: search engines would detect it, social networks know your followers are fake, etc. etc.o Watch out! Some marketing magicians can be using them to deliver good results.o I know a case a someone who was about to buy a website for EUR 4 mill. and it seemed the traffic was fake traffic.o How to detect fake marketing: due diligence, in-depth analysis of analytics, smart Q&A with website marketers, etc.o Aggressive advertising can be a sort of low-intensity fake marketing.o Come on! You already know how to do it without cheating! 
  49. 49. Agenda  Online advertising  Affiliate programs  Referral marketing  Email marketing  SEO  Content marketing  Online public relations  Social marketing (block 2)  Fake marketing
  50. 50. Thanks Francisco Hernándezfrancisco_hernandez@11goals.com www.11goals.com

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