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Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
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Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
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Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology
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Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology

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  • 1. The Routledge Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology Second edition Edited by Alan Barnard and Jonathan Spencer
  • 2. First published 1996 by Routledge This second edition published in 2010 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon. OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 100016 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group © 1996 and 2010 Routledge All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology / edited by Alan Barnard, Jonathan Spencer. – 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes index. 1. Ethnology–Encyclopedias. I. Barnard, Alan (Alan J.) II. Spencer, Jonathan, 1954GN307.E525 2009 306.03–dc22 2009019670 ISBN 0-203-86647-9 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 978-0-415-40978-0 (hbk) ISBN 978-0-203-86647-4 (ebk)
  • 3. To the memory of John H. Barnard, Jr (1923–2005) and Julia Swannell (1952–92)
  • 4. Editorial board Veena Das Michael Lambek Howard Morphy Peter Pels Yasushi Uchiyamada Eduardo Viveiros de Castro
  • 5. Contents Preface to the Second Edition Acknowledgements viii x Introduction xii How to use this book xv List of entries xvi List of contributors xx Analytical table of contents xxiv Contributions by author xxvii Entries 1 Biographical appendix 724 Glossary 754 Name index 791 Peoples and places index 804 Subject index 814
  • 6. Preface to the second edition The first edition of this book was conceived in 1992 and published 4 years later. The editors were left a little tired by this experience and for some time resisted all efforts to commit to a new edition. In the end, flattered by our publisher’s refusal to let the matter rest, we agreed to prepare this second edition. The book you hold is at once bigger than the original, but also more various, to reflect anthropology’s voracious pursuit of new topics and new sites where those topics can be investigated. This new edition has 275 main entries, over 300 short biographical entries and nearly 600 short entries in the glossary. Many of these are new additions to the original text, covering exciting new areas of anthropological research, from affect to ethics, sex to sovereignty. The new entries we have commissioned reflect major changes in anthropology in the past decade: subdisciplines like medical anthropology (AIDS, pharmaceuticals) have become more central to mainstream work in the discipline; there has been a fluorescence of recent work around issues of gender and sexuality (feminist anthropology, gay and lesbian anthropology), and anthropology is now firmly ethnographically engaged with the central institutions of modernity (finance, science). Anthropology is now an unequivocally global discipline, so we celebrate more traditions of anthropological work ( Japanese anthropology, Latin American anthropology) as well as the processes of globalization (cosmopolitanism, transnationalism) itself, where anthropology was often first on the intellectual field and has defined the terms of debate across the human sciences. Anthropological knowledge does not march relentlessly forward, leaving a trail of yesterday’s forgotten certainties strewn in its wake. Instead it expands in all directions, and few ideas are so bad or so old-fashioned to deserve to be completely abandoned. So it is that for this edition we have been careful not to remove too much of the first edition, concentrating instead on expanding the coverage in all directions. Old entries have been lightly updated and new entries commissioned. In a couple of cases we have replaced entries with completely new ones on the same topic. We have added new names to the biographical appendix, and a few new terms to the glossary. The new entries – counterinsurgency, diaspora, neoliberalism, NGOs, among many others – evoke the rapidly changing world that anthropology seeks to understand, and thus the sense that anthropology is very much a study of the contemporary as well as a reflection on the past. Since the publication of the first edition, the intellectual baton has passed from one generation, all born before 1940 (including Pierre Bourdieu, Marshall Sahlins and David Schneider), to another (including Maurice Bloch, Veena Das and Michael Herzfeld), and their names are among the many new biographical entries. In choosing what to add and what to revise, we were almost entirely guided by the combined expertise of our excellent editorial board. Each member of the board was sent a copy of the original edition with the instruction to highlight absences, apparent weaknesses, or entries that had passed their use-by date. They were also asked to help think of possible authors, especially younger scholars whose work would become the core knowledge of the discipline in years to come. We collated their recommendations –
  • 7. Preface to the second edition ix which were often as detailed as they were wise – and added a few concerns of our own. This produced a long list of potential new entries, which we prioritized and handed over for commissioning. Meanwhile we turned to the original edition, and identified those entries most obviously in need of updating. At the lightest, this involved no more than the addition of key publications to the list of further reading, but in many other cases we have added to the substantive discussion in the entry itself, usually to reflect more recent developments in the field in question. We have also taken the opportunity to correct a few minor errors in the original edition.
  • 8. Acknowledgements First edition Many people have helped the editors to bring this volume to completion. The project itself was first suggested by Mark Barragry of Routledge and, at different times, we have been ably supported by Michelle Darraugh, Robert Potts and Samantha Parkinson of the Routledge Reference Section. Friends and colleagues too numerous to mention have withstood our many casual requests for advice and support, not to mention contributions – some of which have been provided under heroic pressures of time and space. Our editorial board has also been a source of sound advice and ideas. The Department of Social Anthropology in Edinburgh has provided space, calm and, in the final stages of the work, a smoking laser-printer. At different times we have been helped there by Francis Watkins, Colin Millard, Sandra Brown and especially Joni Wilson – all past or present PhD students in the department. Colin Millard and Robert Gibb, together with the editors, translated contributions from the French. We have been especially fortunate to work with Alan McIntosh who has brought a rare combination of skill, patience and good advice to the copy-editing and indexing of this book The editors have other, more personal debts to acknowledge. For Spencer, Janet Carsten has been a source of amused tolerance as the project drifted out of control, while Jessica Spencer gleefully set it all back a few months. Spencer learnt a great deal of what he knows about lexicography from John Simpson, Yvonne War- burton and Edmund Weiner of the Oxford English Dictionary. He learnt most, though, about the pleasure of words and food and many other things, from Julia Swannell. Barnard would like to thank Joy Barnard for putting up with his mild obsession for the biographical details of long-dead anthropologists, and for providing strength and the voice of common sense throughout the long hours the project has required. Corrie and Buster added the calm atmosphere that only cats can create, while Jake the labrador was as long-suffering as he was bemused by it all. Barnard has benefited much from discussions with his students too, especially those in ‘Anthropological Theory’. Their repeated request for a work of this kind has, we both hope, now been met with a source that both embodies their inspirations and serves their intellectual desires. Second edition The idea of a second edition for the Encyclopedia was first put to us by Gerard Greenaway, and then enthusiastically supported by Lesley Riddle, anthropology editor at Routledge. Lesley saw the project through, from signing the contract to submission of the final manuscript, ably supported by Lalle Pursglove. We are hugely grateful to our editorial board for the careful reading they gave the original edition and the thoughtful suggestions they gave us for revisions. During the commissioning phase, Julene Knox handled the dealings with individual contributors with great skill and
  • 9. Acknowledgements xi cheerfulness. In the final phase of the project, Julie Hartley in Edinburgh imposed a degree of administrative order on the proceedings, again with considerable skill, and Jennifer Curtis did a superb job of updating selected entries from the first edition. We are of course as grateful as ever to the other members of our households for their support and forebearance. Alan Barnard and Jonathan Spencer Edinburgh, April 2009
  • 10. Introduction The very idea of an encyclopedia seems eminently anthropological – in at least two different ways. In its earliest use in classical Rome the term ‘encyclopedia’ referred to the ‘circle of learning’, that broad knowledge of the world which was a necessary part of any proper education. In its employment in post-Renaissance Europe it has come to refer more narrowly to attempts to map out systematically all that is known about the world. Anthropology likes to think of itself as the great encyclopedic discipline, provoking, criticizing, stimulating, and occasionally chastening its students by exposure to the extraordinary variety of ways in which people in different places and times have gone about the business of being human. But anthropology, through most of its 150-year history as an academic discipline, has also been alternately seduced and repulsed by the lure of great taxonomic projects to pin down and catalogue human differences. If anthropology is indeed the most encyclopedic of disciplines, it is not especially well served with reference works of its own. This book aims to meet some of the need for an accessible and provocative guide to the many things that anthropologists have had to say. It focuses on the biggest and most influential area of anthropology, generally known as cultural anthropology in North America and social anthropology (or ethnology) in Europe. By combining ‘social’ and ‘cultural’, the American and the European, in our title we have tried to indicate our desire to produce a volume that reflects the diversity of anthropology as a genuinely global discipline. That desire is also shown in the topics we have covered, from nutrition to postmodernism, incest to essentialism, and above all in the specialists we have invited to contribute. Inside this book you will find a Brazilian anthropologist charting the anthropological history of the idea of society, an Indian reflecting on inequality, two Russians discussing ethnicity and an Australian writing on colonialism, as well as a systematic set of entries on what anthropologists have had to say about the lives and cultures of people living in different regions of the world. The great encyclopedic projects of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are, with grand theories of all kinds, rather out of fashion in contemporary anthropology. Classification, it is widely argued in the humanities and social sciences, is but one form of ‘normalization’, and even Murray’s great Oxford English Dictionary has been deconstructed to reveal a meaner project of imperial hegemony lurking beneath its elaborate Victorian structure. What the world does not need, it seems, is an encyclopedia which promises the last word and the complete truth on all that anthropologists know. (And what teachers of anthropology do not need, it might be added, is the prospect of endless course papers made up of apparently authoritative quotations from such a work.) Instead of attempting the impossible task of fitting all that our colleagues do into some final Procrustean schema, we have worked with more modest aims – to help our readers find their way around a discipline which is far too interesting and important to be left in the hands of academic specialists. Since the Second World War, anthropology has grown enormously, and its concerns are far wider than popular preconceptions about the study of ‘primitive peoples’. There is, now, an
  • 11. Introduction xiii anthropology of capitalism and global consumerism, an anthropology of gender, an anthropology of war and an anthropology of peace; there is a lot of anthropology in museums but more and more anthropology of museums; anthropologists are still interested in the political life of people who live on the margins of the modern state, but they are also increasingly interested in nationalism and ethnicity and the rituals and symbols employed by modern politicians at the centre of modern states; anthropologists are often now employed to advise on development projects, but they have also started to look at the very idea of ‘development’ as a product of a particular culture and history, one more way to imagine what it is to be human. Even the idea of the ‘primitive’, it has lately been discovered, tells us rather more about the people who use the term to describe other people than it does about the people so described. Readers should think of this book, then, as a guide and an introduction, a map which will help them find their way around the anthropological landscape rather than an authority set up to police what counts as anthropologically correct knowledge about the world. The readers we have imagined as we worked on the volume include, of course, students and colleagues in university departments of anthropology around the world; but they also include students and teachers in other disciplines – history, archaeology, sociology, psychology, cultural studies among many others – who may feel the need to come to terms with particular areas of anthropological work. Above all we hope we also reach all sorts of people who are plain curious about who anthropologists are, what they do, and what we can learn from them. We hope that all these different kinds of reader will find material here which stimulates and provokes as well as informs. Coverage and contributors In drawing up our headword list we tried to balance a number of considerations. Obviously we wanted to cover as broad a spectrum of contemporary social and cultural anthropology as we could, but we were also aware that anthropology is oddly self-conscious about its own past. Arguments in the present are frequently couched in the form of revisionist versions of familiar charter myths, and controversies between contemporaries ritually re-enact the great arguments of the ancestors. Students, in particular, often find this confusing, knowing little about the collective memory of the discipline and wondering why they should worry so much about the ancestors. When they read the ancestors, there is often further confusion – key terms like ‘culture’ or ‘structure’ have shifted meaning over time, while much of the argument at any one time has been about what exactly we should mean by these terms. We have, therefore, tried as far as possible to represent the past as well as the present, both in our choice of headwords for entries, and in our instructions to contributors. But we have also tried to reflect the fact that anthropology is, as it has always been, a pluralistic and occasionally fractious discipline. We have not tried to impose an editorial orthodoxy on our contributors, and we have encouraged all our authors to be explicit about their own opinions and arguments. The balance in our coverage comes from combining different points of view, rather than hiding behind some pretence of editorial distance. (Dismayed students may, at this point, realize that this means they should never read a single entry; the safe minimum is always to read two on related subjects, but by different authors.) This makes the choice of contributors as important as the original choice of headwords. Again we have tried to achieve balance by combining difference: European, North American, Asian and Australasian; women and men; seasoned scholars and (we believe) rising stars. Our minimal criteria were simple: each contributor should be able to write with clarity and authority on the topic in question; and taken together, the contributors should reflect the different contexts in which anthropology can be found today. There was one other important editorial decision that had to be made. Anthropology involves two kinds of academic work: detailed study of the lives of people in different social and cultural contexts, based on long-term fieldwork and resulting in that curious genre known as ethnography; and theoretical and comparative work which draws upon ethnographic knowledge but seeks to move beyond its particularity.
  • 12. xiv Introduction This book, we felt, needed to give due weight to both sides of the discipline, but this presented us with two difficulties. Drawing up a list of entries on particular ‘peoples’, ‘tribes’, or ‘ethnic groups’ seemed inappropriate for all sorts of reasons, even though casual references to ‘Nuertype’ political organization, or ‘Kachin-style equilibrium’ abound in the literature. And writing a set of abstract theoretical entries with no reference to the particular knowledge of particular people on which the discipline is based would be both dull and misleading. We therefore decided to deal with the first problem by commissioning a set of entries surveying the regional traditions of ethnographic writing – writing on Southern Africa, Lowland South America, Southern Europe, and so on. And we decided to supplement this by encouraging individual authors to use detailed, and sometimes extended, ethnographic examples wherever appropriate in all the entries. Other editorial decisions can be discerned in the list of entries. The history of the discipline is covered in entries on topics like diffusionism and evolutionism, as well as separate entries on the main national traditions of anthropology – British, French, American, as well as Indian and East European, divisions which are now beginning to crumble but which have been important in shaping modern anthropology. There is also an entry covering writing about the history of anthropology. We have tried to systematically cover anthropology’s relations with our neighbours in the humanities and social sciences – linguistics, archaeology, biological anthropology (with cultural anthropology, the ‘four fields’ of American anthropology), sociology, history, classical studies. After four years of planning, commissioning, editing and writing, we recognize how dangerous it would be to claim that this book is complete. We hope, though, that what is here is enough.
  • 13. How to use this book There are three kinds of entry in this encyclopedia. The main text is taken up with 275 substantial entries, organized alphabetically, on important areas of anthropological work. Each of these entries includes a guide to further reading and cross-references to other related entries. At the end of the main text there is a separate section containing short biographical entries on leading figures who have been important in the development of anthropology. Finally, there is a glossary providing definitions and explanations of technical terms used in the encyclopedia itself and elsewhere in anthropology. The choice of headwords is inevitably rather arbitrary – should we look for information on theories of ritual, or rituals of power, under ritual itself, under religion, under the names of the more important theorists, or even under politics or kingship? We have tried to make the index as full and explicit as possible, and this is where most readers should start their search for what they want to know. When they have found the entry that seems most relevant they should also pay attention to the cross-references to other entries: at the end of each main entry there is a list of other entries which touch on similar subject matter; within the text of each entry cross-references are indicated by either bold type or a dagger symbol: bold type indicates another main entry † indicates a name or a term in the biographical appendix or the glossary In the list of further reading at the end of each entry we encouraged our contributors to err on the side of economy. Our readers, we felt, did not need a list of everything that had been written on a particular topic; they needed a selective list of those books and articles most helpful as an introduction to the topic.
  • 14. List of entries Aboriginal Australia adoption and fostering aesthetics affect Africa: East Africa: Nilotic Africa: Southern Africa: West age AIDS alliance American anthropology Americas: Central Americas: Latin America Americas: Native North America Americas: Native South America (Highland) Americas: Native South America (Lowland) ancestors anthropological societies archaeology Arctic art Asia: East Asia: Central Asia: South Asia: Southeast avunculate belief Big Man biological anthropology Boas, Franz body British anthropology Buddhism Canadian anthropology cannibalism capitalism cargo cult Caribbean caste cattle complex children and childhood Chinese anthropology Christianity citizenship civil society class classical studies classification cognatic society cognition colonialism community compadrazgo comparative method complementary filiation complex society componential analysis conception, theories of consumption cosmology cosmopolitanism counterinsurgency Crow-Omaha systems cultural materialism cultural studies culture culture and personality dance death descent
  • 15. List of entries xvii development diaspora diffusionism discourse divination dreams dual organization Dutch anthropology ecological anthropology economic anthropology education emic and etic emotion engagement Enlightenment anthropology environment essentialism ethics, anthropological ethics, Anthropology of ethnicity ethnography ethnopsychiatry ethnoscience Europe: Central and Eastern Europe: Northern Europe: Southern evolution and evolutionism exchange factions family fashion feminist anthropology feudalism fieldwork film finance fishing folklore food formalism and substantivism French anthropology friendship functionalism gay and lesbian anthropology gender genealogical method genetics, anthropology of genocide German and Austrian anthropology ghost dance gossip great and little traditions Gypsies Hinduism history and anthropology history of anthropology honour and shame house household human rights hunting and gathering identity ideology incest Indian anthropology indigenous knowledge indigenous peoples individualism inequality Islam Japan Japanese anthropology joking and avoidance kingship kinship kula land tenure landscape language and linguistics Latin American anthropology law Lévi-Strauss, Claude literacy literature magic Malinowski, Bronislaw mana markets marriage Marxism and anthropology mass media material culture medical anthropology
  • 16. xviii List of entries memory menstruation methodology Middle East and North Africa migration millennial movements, millenarianism missionaries mode of production modernism, modernity and modernization money Morgan, Lewis Henry multiculturalism multi-sited ethnography museums music myth and mythology names and naming nationalism nature and culture neoliberalism network analysis nomadism non-governmental organizations (NGOs) number nutrition Occidentalism oral literature oratory Orientalism Pacific: Melanesia Pacific: Polynesia pastoralists patrons and clients peasants person pharmaceuticals photography pilgrimage place play plural society poetics political anthropology political economy pollution and purity possession postmodernism potlatch power preference and prescription primitive communism primitive mentality property psychoanalysis psychological anthropology race Radcliffe-Brown, A.R. rationality reflexivity refugees regional analysis and regional comparison relatedness relationship terminology relativism religion reproductive technologies resistance rite of passage ritual Russian and Soviet anthropology sacred and profane sacrifice Sapir-Whorf hypothesis scandals, anthropological Scandinavian anthropology science science and technology studies (STS) settlement patterns sex and sexuality shamanism sharecropping slavery social structure and social organization socialization society sociobiology sociology state structuralism South African anthropology sovereignty symbolic anthropology syncretism taboo technology text
  • 17. List of entries xix time and space totemism tourism transhumance translation transnationalism visual anthropology urban anthropology war, warfare well-being and happiness witchcraft and sorcery work world system violence youth
  • 18. List of contributors Marc Abélès CNRS, Paris, France Maurice Bloch Formerly: London School of Economics, UK Joseph Agassi Formerly: Tel-Aviv University and York University, Israel and Canada Francesca Bray University of Edinburgh, UK Vered Amit Concordia University, Canada William Arens State University of New York, Stony Brook, USA Donald W. Attwood McGill University, Montreal, Canada Lawrence Babb Amherst College, MA, USA Marcus Banks University of Oxford, UK Karin Barber University of Birmingham Karen Barker Haverford College Alan Barnard University of Edinburgh, UK Gerd Baumann Amsterdam School for Social Science Research, Netherlands Paul Baxter Formerly: Manchester, UK Andrew Beatty Brunel University, UK Barbara Bender University College London, UK Bernardo Bernardi Rome, Italy André Béteille Formerly: University of Delhi, India Reginald Byron University of Wales, UK Matei Candea University of Cambridge, UK James G.Carrier Oxford Brookes and Indiana, UK and USA Michael Carrithers University of Durham, UK Janet Carsten University of Edinburgh, UK Paul Cartledge Clare College University of Cambridge, UK Edward S. Casey SUNY Stony Brook, USA H.J.M. Claessen Formerly: University of Leiden, Netherlands Elisabeth Copet-Rougier CNRS, Paris, France Thomas Crump Formerly: Amsterdam, Netherlands Frederick H. Damon University of Virginia, USA Michael Dietler University of Chicago, USA Roy Dilley University of St Andrews, UK Walter Dostal Institut für Völkerkunde University of Vienna, Austria
  • 19. List of contributors Deborah Durham Sweet Briar College, USA Judith Lynne Hanna University of Maryland, USA J.S. Eades Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan Ulf Hannerz Stockholm University, Sweden Stephan Ecks University of Edinburgh, UK Julia Harrison University of British Columbia, Canada Elizabeth Edwards London College of Communication, UK xxi Thomas Blom Hansen University of Amsterdam Dale F. Eickelman Dartmouth College, Hanover, USA Roy Ellen University of Kent, UK Thomas Hylland Eriksen University of Oslo, Norway Richard Fardon School of Oriental and African Studies, London, UK Simon Harrison University of Ulster, UK Penelope Harvey University of Manchester, UK Michael Herzfeld Harvard University, USA Karen Ho University of Minnesota, USA Didier Fassin EHESS, Paris, France Signe Howell University of Oslo, Norway James Ferguson Stanford University, USA Mary Taylor Huber Carnegie Fund for Advancement of Teaching Princeton University, USA Ruth Finnegan The Open University, UK Robin Fox Rutgers University, New Brunswick, USA Sarah Franklin London School of Economics, UK C.J. Fuller London School of Economics, UK John G. Galaty McGill University, Canada David N. Gellner University of Oxford, UK Thomas Gibson University of Rochester, USA André Gingrich Institut für Völkerkunde, University of Vienna, Austria Anthony Good University of Edinburgh, UK Ralph Grillo University of Sussex, UK Stephen Gudeman University of Minnesota, USA C.M. Hann Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Germany I.C.Jarvie York University, Ontario, Canada M.C. Jedrej† Formerly: University of Edinburgh, UK Tobias Kelly University of Edinburgh, UK Andrew Kipnis Australian National University, Australia R.S. Khare University of Virginia, USA Victor T. King University of Leeds, UK Ann E. Kingsolver University of South Carolina, USA Chris Knight University of East London, UK Henrika Kuklick University of Pennsylvania, USA James Laidlaw University of Cambridge, UK Michael Lambek University of Toronto, Canada Helen Lambert University of Bristol, UK
  • 20. xxii List of contributors Sian Lazar University of Cambridge, UK Robert Layton University of Durham, UK John Leavitt University of Montreal, Canada Pierre Lemonnier CNRS, Marseilles, France I.M. Lewis Formerly: London School of Economics, UK David Lewis London School of Economics, UK Lamont Lindstrom University of Tulsa, USA Roland Littlewood University College London, UK Jeremy MacClancy Oxford Brookes University, UK Kenneth Maddock† Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia Rebecca Marsland University of Edinburgh, UK Marit Melhuus University of Oslo, Norway Johan Pottier School of Oriental and African Studies, London, UK David Price Saint Martin’s University, Washington, USA Aparna Rao† Institut für Völkerkunde, University of Cologne, Germany Nigel Rapport University of St Andrews, UK Johan Rasanayagam University of Aberdeen, UK Claudia Barcellos Rezende University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil David Riches University of St Andrews, UK Dan Rose University of Pennsylvania, USA Bernard Saladin d’Anglure Université Laval, Cité Universitaire, Québec, Canada Philip Carl Salzman McGill University, Montreal, Canada Roger Sanjek Queens College, City University of New York, USA Jon P. Mitchell University of Sussex, UK Sergey Sokolovskii Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Moscow, Russia Heather Montgomery Open University, UK Jonathan Spencer University of Edinburgh, UK Henrietta Moore University of Cambridge, UK Charles Stafford London School of Economics, UK Howard Morphy Australian National University, Australia James Staples Brunel University, UK Isak Niehaus Brunel University, UK Charles Stewart University College London, UK Stephen Nugent Goldsmiths College, London, UK Michael Stewart University College London, UK Gisli Palsson University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland Martin Stokes University of Oxford, UK Peter Pels University of Leiden, The Netherlands S.S. Strickland Cabinet Office, London, UK Robert Phillips University of California Irvine, USA Nicholas Tapp Australian National University, Australia Frances Pine Goldsmiths College, London, UK Emma Tarlo Goldsmiths College, UK
  • 21. List of contributors xxiii Neil Thin University of Edinburgh, UK Eduardo Viveiros de Castro National Museum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Nicholas Thomas Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge, UK Nancy Wachowich University of Aberdeen, UK Philip Thomas Totnes, Devon, UK Valery Tishkov Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Moscow, Russia Christina Toren University of St Andrews, UK James Urry Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand P.L. van den Berghe University of Washington, USA Megan Warin University of Durham, UK Francis Watkins Edinburgh, UK James Weiner Australian National University, Australia Pnina Werbner Keele University, UK Mark P. Whitaker University of South Carolina-Aiken, USA Peter van der Veer Max Planck Institute, Gottingen, Germany Roy Willis Formerly: University of Edinburgh, UK Dr Han Vermeulen University of Leiden, The Netherlands Kevin A. Yelvington University of South Florida, Tampa, USA Joan Vincent Barnard College, Columbia University, USA Françoise Zonabend CNRS, Paris, France
  • 22. Analytical table of contents Ethnographic surveys Aboriginal Australia Africa: East Africa: Nilotic Africa: Southern Africa: West Americas: Central Americas: Latin America Americas: Native North America Americas: Native South America (Highland) Americas: Native South America (Lowland) Arctic Asia: East Asia: South Asia: Southeast Caribbean Europe: Central and Eastern Europe: Northern Europe: Southern Japan Middle East and North Africa Pacific: Melanesia Pacific: Polynesia History of anthropology American anthropology anthropological societies Boas, Franz British anthropology Canadian Anthropology Chinese anthropology Dutch anthropology Enlightenment anthropology French anthropology German and Austrian anthropology history of anthropology Indian anthropology Japanese Anthropology Latin American Anthropology Lévi-Strauss, Claude Malinowski, Bronislaw Morgan, Lewis Henry Radcliffe-Brown, A.R. Russian and Soviet anthropology scandals, anthropological Scandinavian Anthropology South African Anthropology Subdisciplines and neighbouring disciplines (anthropology and … ) archaeology biological anthropology classical studies cultural studies ethnopsychiatry feminist anthropology film history and anthropology language and linguistics law medical anthropology political anthropology psychological anthropology science and technology studies sociobiology sociology urban anthropology visual Anthropology Anthropological concepts and methods alliance avunculate Big Man cargo
  • 23. Analytical table of contents xxv cult cattle complex cognatic society compadrazgo comparative method complementary filiation complex society componential analysis Crow-Omaha systems cultural materialism culture culture and personality diffusionism discourse divination dual organization ecological anthropology economic anthropology emic and etic essentialism ethics, anthropological ethics, anthropology of ethnicity ethnography ethnoscience evolution and evolutionism fieldwork formalism and substantivism functionalism genealogical method great and little traditions honour and shame joking and avoidance kinship literature mana Marxism and anthropology methodology multi-sited ethnography mode of production nature and culture network analysis Occidentalism Orientalism patrons and clients person postmodernism potlatch primitive communism primitive mentality rationality reflexivity regional analysis and regional comparison relationship terminology relativism rite of passage ritual sacred and profane Sapir-Whorf hypothesis settlement patterns shamanism social structure and social organization socialization society structuralism syncretism taboo transhumance world system Anthropological objects (the anthropology of … ) adoption and fostering aesthetics age AIDS ancestors art belief body Buddhism cannibalism capitalism caste children and childhood christianity citizenship civil society class classification cognition colonialism community conception, theories of consumption