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The intellectual repository_periodical_1851
The intellectual repository_periodical_1851
The intellectual repository_periodical_1851
The intellectual repository_periodical_1851
The intellectual repository_periodical_1851
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The intellectual repository_periodical_1851

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Emanuel Swedenborg

Emanuel Swedenborg

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  1. THEINTELLECTUAL REPOSITORY, AND NEW JERUSALEM MAGAZINE. VOL. XII.-NEW SERI 1851. LONDON:PUBLISHED BY THE GENERAL CONFERENCE OF THE NEW CHURCH, SIGNIPIED BY THE NEW JERUSALEM IN THE B~BLATION : AB» 80U) BYJ. S. HODSON, Q2, PORTUGAL STREET, LINCOLNS INN; w. NEWBERY, 6, KING STREET, HOLBORN; AND F. PITMAN, 20, PATERNOSTER ROW:MANCHESrER: L. KENWORTHY, 7, CATEATON STREET.
  2. .:" /
  3. THBINTELLECTUAL REPOSITORY AND NEW JERUSALEM MAGAZINE. No. 138. JANUARY, 18~1. VOL. XII. THE TRUE WORSHIP OF THE LORD, OR THEOFFERINGS OF GOLD, FRANKINCENSE, AND MYRRH_. EVEBY year in its speedy revolution brings with it some event interesting and solemn to every circle. Nearly every family has some melancholy tale to tell, how the past year has removed some relativeor friend from his earthly to his spiritual state. Many a heart has felt sorrow and angaish at the unexpected removal of the husband or the wife, of the father or the mother, of the darling child, or of thefriend who by disinterested affection had won our confidence and loVe_ From what soarces of consolation can these vaca.ncies of the heart befilled? Evidently from no other than that there is a spiritual and aheavenly state in which sighing and mouming will be banished for ever. Not only has the hand of death caused grief and consternation ill thebosoms of many during the year that is gone, but sickness, and whatthe world calls misfortune, have pressed heavily upon multitudes, and -- .have reduced them from states of comparative affluence to states ofindigence and want. Here, again, what are the sources of consolation?Evidently the attainment of another state, in which these reverses,losses, disappointments and, misfortunes cannot occur. The state of things in the world seems 80 constituted, as to make us)how strong soever our worldly attachments may be, - how much 80everwe may cling to its wealth, or be devoted to its pleasures, - the state ofthings and the events of life appear to be such as to induce us, by eVerypossible means, to loosen our hold on the world, and to direct our N_ S. NO. IS3.-vOL. XII. A
  4. THE TRUE WORSHIP OF THE _LORD, OB THEthoughts and the moving energies of our life to another state, - toanother world, whither, we are powerfully reminded by the events ofthe past year, our career is fast approaching; and ere another Januarymay have come, our sojourn here may have ended and our allotment castin that eternal world in which we must live, either in states of happi-ness or misery, for ever. Nothing then is more precious to U8 than time, and the opportunitiesit every moment presents of workin~ out our salvation, by the subjectionof every purpose, thought, imagination, and act of our ezternal, to somedivine and spiritual principle from the WOBD OF Goo in. our internal man. Thus le to seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness" is our great and blessed duty, as well as the great safeguard against evil of every kind. The performance of this duty, through faith in the Lord, and the love and practice of His holy precepts, brings with it the blessed assurance that whensoever the Son of Man cometh to summon us hence He will find us ready, Ir with our loins girded and our lamps burning." Our months ana days here are most precious because in time, during our probation i.a tbe world, we form the plane and the basis of our spiritual and eternal states of happiness. We are now in the ultimate plane of creation, and as regeneration can 0011 be commenced in utti.. mat8s,-" now is the, aooepted tim,e, now is the day of salvatioD,"-the more we cultivate our privileges here. the more extended, deep, and $Olid will become the plane or base upon, which our mansion of bliss hereafter can be erected. This plane, or base, call be cultivated to an indefinite extent; every moment may add something to its extension and culture. Our natural state may be compared to a vast wilderness, like the unc,ulti vated plains of Australia or America, which in their natural state grow nothing useful for man ;:1< but .which am- susceptible of cultivatiQn to an indefinite extent, and of prodacing fruits in every variety for the good of mankind. Thus. whilst we are here, the cultiva- tio-D of our natural state can be enlarged, and the portions already brought under spiritual culture may be still imprnved, as to quality and capacity, for the production of the more exalted fruits of righteo1lsness and of happiness. But when we leave this world, the ultimate of creation, we cannot extend and perfect the base upon which our mansion in heaven is constructed. • See Major Mitchells account of Australia, in which he says, "that after tr~Yelling many miles in every direction, although there was much vegetation and many wild aDimals, yet they could find nothing tmly useful for man." It would hence appear, that everything tnlly useful fOl! man is the result of culture, or of our coOperation with the Lord8 Providenee.
  5. OFJI:BIN6S 01 GOLD, FlIANKIRCENSE, AND lIYBBH. 8 . Now, all this spiritual culture of our natural state is denoted by thetrue worship of the Lord. Hence it was that the Latins used a termto denote WOrship which Bignified culture, namelyeultus. Thus Cicero8618-" Religio Deomm cultu pio continetur." But the true worship ofthe Lord is involved in the offerings which the wise men brought untoHim at His Nativity,-an event which we have recently commemorated.These offerings· were Gold, Fran.kincenstf and Myrrh; and the men whobrought them were guided to Bethlehem by a star, which went beforethem. All these particulars respecting the Lords Nativity are recorded, notmerely as historical events, but for our spiritual instruction in righte-ousness, u that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnishedunto all good works." The Magi, or the ,vise men who came from theeast, were in possession of knowledges froin ancient revelations andtraditions, that the Lord would come into the world to accomplish theredemption of mankind, by subjugating the hells, by glorifying HisHumanity, and by establishing a new dispensation of His mercy andgoodness, or a New Church upon earth. There had always been fromtM very fitst prophecy that was delivered, "that the seed of the womanshould brois6 the serpents bead," an anticipation in the minds of thepious of this great event; a.nd when the "desire of all nations f wasabout to come, this hopeful anticipation waB exceedingly active. Thestar which gnided the wise men was the emblem of the knowledge theypossessed respecthlg the Lord 8 Advent; and in reference to us of theNew Testament Dispensation, and especiany of the New JerusalemChurch, this star of spiritual knowledge should shine more brightly toour minds than it did to the wise men of old. This knowledge should bring us to the Lord at the commemoration of His Nativity, and induceos to bring spiritually, in genuine worship, our offerings of Gold, Frank-incense and Myrrh. The Lords nativity into the world "·88, in itself, infinitely to bedistinguished from the nati,·ity of every other man. And unlessthis great, this infinite distinction is in some measure seen, it is im-possible to fonn a true idea of the Lords Humanity, and of Hisbeing One with the Father, even as the soul is one with the body. Thegreat reason why the Christian world, in general, thinks of the Lords Human Nature as similar to the human nature of· another man, andwhy they separate His Divine Nature from His Human, is owing to thefact of their not having true ideas concerning the nature of His con-ception and nativity. If they would but think, as the Word plainlyteaches, that His Father was the Divine Being Himself, of whom He
  6. 4 THE TRUE WORSHIP OF THE LORD, OB THEwas conceited, and that, of consequence, His soul was infinitely distinctfrom the soul of all other men, who are conceived of merely humanfathers, they would begin at the right point to contemplate the. truenature of the Lords Humanity, and would see, as the apostle declares,that "in Him. dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily," andthat, cODsequently, His Human Nature must needs be divine, and notmerely human, since no merely human nature, however exalted, couldpossibly conuun all the fulness of the Godhead. But as every thing good and true, every thing inDocent, holy, andhappy must be born in us, if we are to become the subjects of regenera-tion, and thus prepared to enter into heaven; hence the Lords nativity,or His being born into the world, represents the birth of everythingspiritual and heavenly from Him into our individual world, that is, intoour natural ~an. "Christ in us," says the apostle, "is the hope ofglory;" wherefore, the Lord, as to His divine love and wiadom. must beborn in us, as the only hope of attaining to our glorious destiny inheaven. When, therefore, we commemorate the Lords Nativity, weshould remember that the most profitable way of contemplating thissubject is, that the Lord as ,to all the principles ,of. His kingdom (seeLuke xvii. 21), must be born within us, and that this birth is effected bythe acknowledgment of the Lord in His Divine H;umanitYr The Lord was thus born into the world to become our Redeemer andour Saviour, in order that :aip ·red~e~ing and saving love and truthmight be born individually in u~ This blessed! ~piritua1 nativity, orthis re·birth of man, ~ accomplished by virtue Qf t.~e genuine principlesof a living, holy worship.. This worship is denot~.d by the o~ering8 ofthe wise men, and we beco~e .. truly wise in proportion as we offer upthis holy worship io the LQrd- . " , . Gold, as the emblem of th~ fir~t, pripciples of a living worship,signifies the ,v~rship of the Lord from pure lore ap.d goodness. This is the first essential of all worship and of all genuin~ religion, and gold, so frequently mentioned in Scripture, is t~e proper correspondent emblem of this love and goodnes~. , ;Hence it was that this precious metal was so universally, employed in the str~cture of the tabernacle and the sanctuary. The ark ~as (overlaid with gold, the altar of incense in like manuer, and nearly all the ut~nsil~ of the sanctwu-y were either made of gold, or overlaid with it, in, order, ,t~ teach us, by the mos·t striking symbols, that all worship s~ould be, performed from the prin~ ciple of pure love and goodness. Hence it is tl)at the Lord says to us, "1 counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the. fire, that thou mayest be rich~" tRev. iii. 18.) in .order to teach us, that He, in His Divine
  7. OFFERINGS OF GOLD, FRANKINCENSE, AND MYRRH. I)Humanity, is the only Source whence all genuine love and pure good·!leSS can be received. : But what is genuine love, and what is the relation of pure goodness to genuine love? There are various kinds of love and goodness, and it is of infinite moment to know what is genuine and what is spurious. As it, is of importance to know whether gold is genuine, alloyed or spurious, possessing nothing but the colour, or the external appearance; 80 it is of infinitely greater importance to know whether the love and goodness which actuate our life are of a genuine, or of a spurious character, since our happiness or misery in eternity win depend upon our lifes love, or on onr governing affection. There is natural good, moral good, and spiritual good. Natural good h8.S relation solely to our natural life, its wants and supplies, and its source is the love of self and of the vorId. This is necessary for our natural state and our self-preservation, but it is not signified by the gold mentioned in the Word. No genuine worship springs from this love, and from the consequent goodness predicated of it, for all goodness is predicated of what a man loves, and consequently so long as a man is actuated by principles originating solely in what is selfish and worldly, he can offer to the Lord no gold of genuine love and goodness. Moral good is of a higher order than merely natural and sensual good; because it springs from principles founded in mans rational nature and in his relations to society, and especially to the community in which he lives. These principles relate to what is equitable, just, honourable, and becoming in decorum and manners. By this good a man rises above the animal, and above the selfishness of his own nature, and approaches Beater to the dignity of a real and true man. But from this moral good, so far as it originates in selfish and worldly considerations, which have relation to our merely natural life, no spiritual and genuine wor.. ship can be offered to the Lord. It is not the pure gold that He can accept; it may appear as to its surface like gold, but the substance with- in is spurious and base, because, being derived from motives originating in the extemal man only, its quality is merely selfish and worldly. This good may make a man a. good citizen of the world, and an orderly and even a virtuous member of society; but it cannot make him a citizen of heaven, nor prepare him to dwell with angels. An atheist may from these princibles be an irreproachably moral man, but as his morality can only originate in what is merely natural, it is evidsnt that he cannot therebyrise into a spiritual and heavenly state. All the works and acts pro·eeeding from a m~ actuated only by this kind of morality are cc not full~d perfect before God," because they have no~ within them a spiritual
  8. 6 THE rBUE WORSHIP OF mE LORD, ETC.aDd divine principle. Such a maD may, as to his external, whioh isobvious to the world, "have a. name to live," but viewed from beaven,he is spiritually dead. Thus no pure goUj of genuine worship can b&offered to the Lord from this source only. But when a mans moral principles are taken from the Word of God,his morality will have a spiritual and divine principle within it, and bewill become not only a good citizen of the world, hut a citizen of heavenat the same time; his U citizenship, (troA&-fV/MI,) will," as the apostle says," be in heaven." Hence he can bring his offering of gold in the worshipof the Lord; bis heart will be influenced by that love and goodness fromwhich all true worship springs. fhe highest order of good that we caDreceive from the Lord is called c,lutial; this good is received from Himwhen everything in our internal and our extBmal ~an is brought underthe influence of love to Hi~ above all things; when He is the begin-ning and the end of all our motives, affections and doiogs; when welove to live in dependenee on Him alone, are resigned to His will, ·andacknowledge Him as the God of our sorrows as well· at of ootjeye,direoting all things, whether in states of prosperity or of adversity, ~our eternal good. The purest gold that we caD offer tD the Lord inworship is from these principles, and it is called c8z"tial good. ~nceit was the first in order which the wise IDen, when the) had opened theirtreasures, offered to the Lord. FrankinciJ7IM, as being grateful in its odour, was largely employed iDthe representative worship of the Jews, and generally throughout theanment world, amoDg the Asiatics, Greeks, and RDmaBs. The use ofincense, therefore, in worship, was a rite derived from very aucieDtlimes. The true lignifioation of this rite, as of every other, can onlybe known from the correspondence, which, when explained, is easilyunderstood. Fr~, as being delightfully fragrant, correspondsto the gratefulness and blessedness of the spiritual life, as formed by thedivine truths of Gods Holy Word. All wOMhip offered. to the Lordfrom the spiritual affection of truth is gratsful to Him·; heaee we sooften read that the odour of incense was grateful to the Lord. . Heaoealso it was that there was an altar of incense. The pmyers of the saints are expreSSly called inc8flu, (Rev. v. 8.) which is a proof that the offering of incense corresponds to the worship of the Lord from a spiritual affec- tion of divine truth, that is. an affection irrespective of anything eel&h and worldly, whether it be honour or gain. This second offering, there- fore, of the wise men, denotes the worship of the Lord from a spiritual ground, or from the pure affection of truth; whereas, the offering of gold denotes the worship of the Lord from the pure affeotiOD of good-
  9. DIvmE PROVIDENCE. 7Ben, springing from a pure and exalted love of the Lord. We, them.fore, bring an offering offrankincm38 unto the Lord, vhen we CODsecmteto Him all the intellectual and moving principles of the mind, - w~enour thonghts, our imaginations, our plans and projects, in short, wheneverydling which CODStitutes our intellectual and mental life is broughtunder the divine inftuence of love to our neighbour. In this case thetnCMl88 of our worship is grateful and acceptable to the Lord. Gold, and Fnmkinceftl6, therefore, denote the interior and the inmost~prineiples of all holy worship, without which the Lord cannot be ap- proached in love and faith, howsoever He may be approached with the lips and with outward professions of love and worship. He who does not,spimually bring with him this gold and frankincense when he wor-ships the Lord, cannot worship. Him in spirit and in truth, because be has Dot, through faith and love, the internal vital principles from whichall true. and acceptable worship springs. But as an Vitemal principle,. our worship is not complete unless our,aternal man, as to his appetites and desires, is also consecrated to the Lord. Myrrh, therefore, in the order of princIples, signifies the estab- lishment of what cis good and troe from the Lord in our sensual and-most external principles of life. Hence it was that Myrrh, as an odori-··famus plant, was extensively employed in the service of the sanctuary in making the holy anointing oil. (Exodus xxx.) Myrrh also was used as an ingredient in the embalming of bodies; it was thus employed to embalm the Lords body, (John xix. 89, 40.) to denote, by the laws ofooITe8pondenee, the preservation of divine and spiritual life in our lowestsensual principles,-in our appetites and sensations, so that whether weeat, or whether we drink, we may do all, as the apostle says I .{ to the glory of God." Let us, th~ at the eommencementof a New Year, resolve to bring -unto the Lord, when engaged in prayer in our closets, in our family,eireles, and in the public worship of the Lord, and universally in all out cluties and acrts of life, the offerings thus spiritually understood amI applied, of gold., frankincense, and myrrh. FmELIS. DIVINE PROVIDENCE. * DIVINE Providence, ~y which we are sustained, and all our wants sup-- plied, and which continually watches over and protects us, even when we dream not of it, must possess the strongest and most exalted ~laims • We Re glad to fiod that . . , aad ~ D &oeieties are heiog oormeeted
  10. 8 DIVINE PROVIDBKCE.upon our attention. More especially at this cold season, it beeomes_to remember the blessings which have been showered upon UB; toacknowledge their Souree, and the laws by whi~h tbey are distributeciand their continuance insured; so. that we may adore our heavenly Father for past mercies~ be strengthened by re1ianee upon Divine strength for tile time to come, aDd more and. more eonfinned inth& hope which maketh the heart glad. I will noi attempt to trace the path of Goo throughout the killgdoms of the earth; nor His gmcious way in His Church; 1101 the stupendous. ecoDomy of the universe, when contemplating which. world~ and eveD systems, seem as nothing. These may form themes for angels 80~ for the anthem begun "when the morning stars sang together, aDd all the SODS of God shouted for ioy," and which swells higher and grander for evermore. It is enough for me to show that infinite Providence extends to the minute 88 well as to the great; and I would prove this by pointing ta the sparrows rather than the stars.. I would raise a hymn which may be sung by the fireside; or remembered in the ho~• of trial,. and the quiet watches of the night. ~ acknowledgment of Divine Providence is. inseparable from reli- gion; although its purity accords with that of the faith of which it forms. a part. The savage believes that his god supplies the game~ and directs. his arrows aright; and beats his idol, when unsuccessful in the chase. Tribes rather more civilized, imagine that the gods are at enmit1 &plong themselves, alld have selected the nati(i)ns of the- earth to fighttheir battles; and that each tutelar deity leads his chosen people on tn victory, and gloats over the slaughter of his. rivals followers. More philosophic natioDs conceive a Being who,. too. great to be continuallyinterested with terrestrial objectst pronounced his fiat at first,. and lefthis creation to obey;. of,like an earthly potentate, entrusts the futiiI·ment of his design to a subordinate hierarchy. And a few, in all ages;.have exemplified that "blessed are the pure in heart, for they shallsee God." It is true, this view must be limited and obscure ~ still, sathe eye, although a small organ, is formed to survey the universe, so .the human mind, made in the image of God, and quickened by HisSpirit, can have some perception or its Divine OriWnal. But DOwhere~excepting in the Gospel, is Divine Provitlence so sublimely revealed asin the standard writings of the New Church. Swedenborg, in his workon the subject, 8818-" The Lord created the universe to the end thatwith New Church Societies, in which young men engage to deliver an Essay onsome subject relating to theology, and spiritual philosophy. Some of these Ella18~et which tilt. is ene, will ooca.aloD&111 appear in our PerledicaL-ED.
  11. DIVIlIE PBOVIDENCE.a&in6nite and eternal creation might exist therein from Himself, byHis forming out of men a heaven, which is in His sight as ODe man,the·image and likeness of Himself. The infinite and eternal which theLord bath respect to in formiog His heaven out of men, is that it ·maybe enlarged to infinity and eternity; and thus, that He may CODstantlydwell in the end of His creation." Our author not only thus recognisesthe universality of Divine Providence, but immediately appeals te ourreason, and triumphantly asks-cc How can a universal Providence-exist,unless it includes the most minute particular ?" For as surel,- anatom is included in the universe, it is included and provided for-in theDinn6 economy; and each individual is as much the object of Di.melove as though he ware alone in the universe. For infinite love cannever be exhausted by the multiplicity of its objects. U When," saith the Psalmist, "I consider thy heavens, the work ofthy fingers, the moon and the stars which thou hast ordained, What is >man that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man that thou risitesthim ?" Thus, with t1le high emotions awakened in his soul, appearblended questioning and fear; and although he was immediately enabledto exclaim, "Thou hast made him a little lower than the aage1&, andhast crowned him with glory and honour!" dearer to us are our Saviourswords-HAre not five sparrows sold for two farthings? and not one ofthem is forgotten before God; but even the very hairs of your head. areall numbered. " If a sparrow was, for an instant, forgotten before God,its lungs would cease to play, its little heart to beat, and the bloodwould stagnate in its veins. Shall He not care for US t who ,are of farmore value in His sight than they? Yes I . We are assured the veryhairs of our heads are all numbered; .DOt one grew by chance; and eachexhibits-signs of Divine wisdom-and shall I not say, Divine love? Oh! it is refreshing, when the heart is heavy with care, to go intothe 1i.alds, and behold thousands of happy creatures all depending uponthe same bountiful Lord: the cattle exhibiting every sign of placid COD-tentment; the young animals bounding in exuberanoe of joy; the ·{ea-thered. tribe showing what it is to be "as happy as a bird;" aDd the insectworld seemingly the happiest of them all. A touohiDg emblem of thecreatures helplessness and entire dependenoe is presented by a nest ofcallow birds, and of Gods lQva aDd providence by the parents tender-neu and care; for He inspired those feelings, and taught them to feedtheir young. The twittering pair have devised no &ehemes for theirpreservation and support, and the males matin.song is not chilled bycare; still they shall not want, for the universal Father will open His.hand to feed His incr~ing family. The ve~ 8~ and ~ns will
  12. 10 . mVINB PBOVIDENCE.canse herbs to .grow and quickly bear their seed in ,every sheltered spot:these, coming rapidly to maturity in spring, are well adapted to famishfood for birds in that season; but for winter is reserved the haw,bramble. and other berries, which are ripened by the frost, and. misedabove tl1e SDOW that covers the ground. The pious man delights iDobserving these wayside evidences of Divine Providenre towards themeaner creatures; he respects every link which binds them to theirOreator, and learns to love what God loveth. Diine Providence not only extends to the least particular, bat is alaeuniform and unchangeable. When we penetrate beyond the diversi6eci8Uperfices of nature~ we nnd everything teDding to unity, and embracediD general laws; and the higher our. speculations soar. the nea,er weapproach their single source. Science teacbeth that the laws of lightand gravitation comprehend the immensely distant nebulm; and sincelight from those bodies takes countless ages to reach our eyes, we 11I81now see (makiDg present the far past) those laws acting at a time remOedfrom 118 bJ t&Dmter8l aurpuaing oar conceptions, and of which figurescould give us a most wilt ·idea. Reason assures us that the 11lfioilJeCUluot ehaDge; and Revelation declares that " in God there is DO varia-tion, nor shadow eC turning; He is the same yesterday, to-day, and forever." Neither is He a respecter of persons: "He causetll the SUB toshine on the evil as well as on the good." Who cannot see that if Jesusloved John more than Peter, His love towards Peter was less thaninti.nite? John was the beloved disciple, not because the Lord lovedhim more, but because he received more of His love. The obedien. IUebl~ed, not from Divine partiality, but by virtue and happiness; sinana su1feriDg, according to the laWB of eternal justice, following eaoh otheras caUIe and effoot; every transgression bringing its own punishment,and flffJlY good deed its own reward. However virtuous we may ·be,fire will not cease to burn, cold to freeze, or water to drown us; nOl,·ifwe commit one etror, will our virtue avert its oonsequences. The law of God being unchangeable, and designed to m&lle .BiBcreatures heppy, we may rely iD .firmest faith upon them; therefore.. itis our duty and .interest, had we no higher motive, to learn and oBeythem; otherwise, we in vain pl9fess trost in Providence. orspectita bl.sings. The province of human exection is indeed limited. ne",,-thete. weahould work therein as though all depended upon -ou.elves ;acknowledging still that the ability and blessing are from God. Ourbodies were made, and perform their unceasing functions without ourknowledge, nor do we know Gods providence in regard U> our souls; weeome UDOODlCioualy into the world, depending .entirely upon His love,
  13. DIVINE PBOVIDBNCE. 11and at the hour of death His goodness and faithfulness ean fOrm ouronly trust: between those extremes bow narrow the span occopied by our de~ices and. works! and, compared with infinite and eternal Provi· dence, how vain and insignificant do t)ley appear! But our imperfection binders us from apprehending their relative "alue in the universal plau. When we think of eternity, threescore years and ten seem an inconsi- derable point. - as, in contemplating the visible universe, a firmament of suns appears as "star-dust." To God alone the great and little are equally known; and our present life, with the works and devices which oecupy it, are not iusignificant in His sight. Expressions such as cc interposition of Providence," or occurrenoel being termed prwidmtial only when they appear exceptioDs to the ordi- uary COU18e, foster the idea that nature exists and moves independently of God, although subject to His control. When a vessel sails with a handred passengers. and arrives safely at port, it is seldom said to havo,mader 8 provident.jal Toyage; but if it be wrecked, ancl Dinety-niDe~ritbe: eSba~ef of one by almost a miraole is tMmed provideDtial" ,11though the ninety-nine were not drowned also providentially. For theirlots could not result from Divine partiality or neglect, or their compara- tive innooonce or guilt. "Think ye," saith our Lord, "that those eighteen upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and slew them, were sinners above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem? I tell you nay! tt Some profess to wait upon Providence, often as an apology for indo- lence; but let such arouse themselves, and work in the right direction, and with the proper meaDS, and they will find Providence waiting for them. Others assert that they make a rule not to act until Providenoe presents an opening, which resembles a resolution not to go out until Providence opens the door. We must 1Jruly wait upon events, whioh are all under Providence,-bot by means of human instrumentality; and it is our duty, as servants of God, to influence them. "Every thing is for the best," and, "all are placed in circumstances best adapted to promote their eternal welfare," are frequently repeated aB pious and comfortable axioms. When properly understood, they are trUe; but, being liable to convey erroneous impressions, they had better be disused. The ways of God to man MD be vindicated only by speak- ing the truth. Do vicious circumstances not exist? or only afFect those who deliberately seek them? What did the Apostle mean when he said,_u Evil communications corrupt good manners tt ? Are the sins ofthe parents never visited upon the children in depraved circumstancesas well as dispositions? or have infants any control over these? I willnot aak you to study the voluminous reports of prison committees, show..
  14. J;~ THE" TWO WOBLDS,-TJ!E VISIBLE Aim THE INVISIBLE.ing how the babe is trained a felon ; nor the· eVidence of philantropistswho have ent~red the dens of vice, that they might rescue the youngfrom destruction; nor to explore yourselves the pestilent recesses of ourtowns: rather shun such contamination, but reflect upon what unavoid~ably comes under your observation;" and, above all, allow no false theoryto"binder you from endeavouring to ameliorate their condition. If it issaid that such evil is irreconcilal,le with the providence of a gracious God,I answer, that man is responsible for what he has power to remedy; and,~ ~DO man liveth to himself alone," he must bear, to some extent,that of his brothers condition; and dare not answer the Almighty, when H~ asks, f4 Where is thy brother"- in what condition doth he lie? ~., I know not; am I my brothers keeper ?" If the worlds regeneration be a task too great for o:oe, let all help.Let us strive to attain the highest degree of perfection, and work hope-fully and perseveringly, for God will work with us. While vice is not only opposed to God, but to all the laws by which He governs the uni- yerse, they all conspire to advance virtue and truth. Is not knowledge power? and virtue beautiful, pleasant, and healthful? While vice is selfish, is Dot virtuouslove diffusive and attractive ? While the practice of ,~iee makes a man detestable to others, does not. a life of irtue endear him to those around him, and make even his memory precious? :ale~~ed with these advantages, if we are earnest in our onward progress, ~e .~ball require DO miracle to make us prosper. And if we continue faithful to the end, we shall join the celestial choir in singing-" No"t ~to us, 0 Lord, but unto Thy name give the glory, for Thy mercy and Thy truths sake." G. O. ", Edinburgh. THE TWO WORLDS,-THE VISIBLE AND THE INVISIBLE.1: IN surveying the forms and aspects of extel1lal nat~, con~m~~iative minds have ever felt, that within those forms there lies some-thing more than is beheld by the corporeal eye; something more thanis: even appreciable by it. There is a sense of some~hing suggested, notseen;. a kind of soft Whisper to the spirit, that there are secrets ly~ghidden beneath the surface, far more beautiful and d~l~cious than ~information that may be collected from above. There is a consciousness,moreover, of some mysterious affinity and sympathy between the humansoul and the objects which surround US-8 consciousness of some rareand· electric medium of association, which makes friends and companions
  15. THE TWO WOBLDB,-TBE VISIBLE AND THE INVISIBLE. 13of tpem, though, for anything the U1lU8 can discern. what that fait-bond may be is wholly undiscoverable. 2. When reduced to shape, perhaps the proofs that such impressionsand persuasions are not mere whims of fancy. but are really and justlyfelt, and consequently that they bespeak truths, "ill be found to betbre~ namely,-the proof yielded by the structure of language; thepr09f which lies in the wide-spread and untaught conviction of these har~monies; and, in reference to the second point, the proof yielded by thewonderful enjoyment which man derives from the contemplation of thephysical world. ,Se First, then, it is by virtue of a spontaneous belief in these proper-ties ,and relationships of nature, that we invariably go thither for lan-guage to express the phenomena and movements of our inner being.There is an instinct perpetually active in us, to the effect that we mayalways confide in the help of nature, when we would speak of ourthoughts and our emotions. If individuals among us be unconscious ofit, it is simply because it has become 80 much a matter of course that wetake no notice of it. Circumstances of daily occurrence, however greatand splendid, soon cease to be regarded with attention. Hence arise,however, all the terms in which we speak of the operations of in..tellect, as reflection, consideration, &0. (which are correspondences ofacts performed in the physical world), together with all those charmingand vivid metaphors in which we allude to the warmth of our affec-tion, the blossoms of hope, the springs of happiness, the c sweet- tness of our beloveds smiles. 4. The wide-spread conv-iction of these harmonies is testified bythe poets and philosophers, who are the spokesmen and amanuensesof mankind in general. Homer, Shakspere, Milton, Wordswortb, Shelley, Coleridge, and a host of others, perpetually allude to it in verse. Plato, Lord Bacon, Chalmers, Foster, with a hundred more, might be quoted as speaking of it in their prose. Take, as a single instance, Sir Thomas Browne :-" This visible world," says he, Cl is but a picture of the invisible. Things are not truly seen, but in equivocal shapes, as in a portrait; and countelfeiting some more real substance, which is contained within their fabric." o. It is, however, not only among the u:riters in oonnection with philosophy and poetry (which, by the way, in their central essence, are the same), that we find this conviction announced. As shown by a celebrated lecturer, all the men who have been greatest in the applica- tion of art and science, have been distinguished by their clear under- standing that their art or science was but the outward rendering of invisible truths. Art and science are not things laid on the suifac8 of society. They are outbirths from its interior quality; just as the verdure of the fields is not a carpet laid down and spread over them, but an out- vegetation of hidden seeds. The soliloquies of thoughtful minds cannot but end in such conclusions. 6. It IJ?ay ~e well to a~vert also to the numerou~ Scriptural state- ments which Involve the Idea. They are of many kinds, but we need quote but one; namely, the class of expressions wherein the Lord ~s
  16. 14 THE TWO WOBLDS,-THE VISIBLE AND THE INVISIBLE.himself the trus light, the tnu vine, and the giver of the trw riches.All these passages necessarily imply that material light, the gardenersvines, and the monarch8 riches, are not the geRui"" ones, but the repre-untativ6 or emblematic. 7. The proof that there is a just impression among men as to thevisible ,vorld being only one side, or one aspect of the actual universe,is furnished, as above said, by the wonderful enjoyment which maRderives from contemplating natw·e. It is impossible for things to bereally loved and enjoyed, unless there be an adequate perception ofthem. Mind awns can furnish this llerception. The lovely forms ofnature are complete nonentities where the rational or intellectualfaeul ty is debased and stultified; and where not bestowed at all, as inthe lower animals. However exquisite the organs of the senses, eyeshave they, but they see not; ears have they, but they hear not.- Asfinely and tersely expressed by Epicharmnst .,ov~ opO. aal vOv~ aKovt"1 • .,.t &Aa IC~ Ital ~>"d. cc Pis mind aloDe that sees and hears: all things beside are deaf and blind. ~ 8. On the other side, it is equally impossible for mind to love andenjoy, unless there be something in the thing loved, that shall act by aspecies of reciprocity. Accordingly, as it is solely through the posses-sion of mind that man, for his part, is capable of deriving enjoymentfrom Dature; so it can only be from the circumstance of materialobjects containing an analogue of mind. that they, for their part, areeapable of gil7ing hitn enjoyment. This analogue of mind in the lowerthings of the material world, is not to be supposed to share anything incommon with the l"unlan intell,ct. That doctrine ,ye leave to Empe-docles. It consists in those secret qualities or essences which alone canrender material objects approachable by the lofty and ethereal substancewe call our understanding, seeing that the laws and properties of matterand of spirit are perfectly separate and distinct, and that as it is onlymatter that can act upon matter, 80 it can only be spirit that can influ-ence spirit. 9. But what are these occult essences? Whence has arisen in theminds of reflective men this settled conviction, that the things we seearound us are no more than the dress or attire of a kind of 80ulswhich they inclose ? Clearly there is 80mething more than can be seen.What may that something be? 10. To arrive at a satisfactory solution of this query, it will be well tooommence by asking, What is the true theory of creation? For thiswill prove to be the axis upon which everything else will turn. DidGod, when he made the world, mould it out of "nothing tt-append lawsto it for its governance, set it in motion, and then retire from the majestioyork? Or, is our earth, together with the countless other earths that~p~e space! an actual.emanation. from Hi~sel~, ~·o~ ~.is. ~~Di-nne oorpoftuty, tnd,· therefore, ,as ~l~sely Teetmg on HIm now liS Irithe beginning? 11. That all things were created out of "nothing," is usually re-garded as the view that we ought to hold, if ,ve would be orthodox.But, unfortunately for its friends, it is opposed, not only to science and
  17. mE TWO WOBLDS,-THE VISIBLE AND THE INVISIBLE. 15common sense, but to Scripture itself, where it is plainly taught, in theGreek of St. Paul, that " out of" God aTe all things. (iE Avr01J, Roman,i, 20.) Besides, if all things were created out of nothing, that is, outof pure space, to nothing they could return; a declension shown byscience to be irnpossible. It is no use to reply, that .. all things arepossible with God." Only those things are possible with the Divine,whieh are conformable to his own order,-heavens first la,v. Eventhe Bramitl8 have a better idea than this. They say the Creatoris like a mighty spider, who, out of himself, spun the web of theuniverse. 1~. The idea of the world having been created out of c nothing,"has been satisfactorily shown to have originated in the fifth centuryof the Christian era, when it was thought necessary, by certain of the fathers, to neutralize by a tremendous and authoritative dogma, once for all, the popular but pernieious doctrine bequeathed by Aristotle, that the world bad JlO beginning. For it was but natural for the Aria-totelians to ask,- U If God, as you say, mad, the world, of tokat did He makeit,l" The fathers were not prepared to say. They set fo~b, aceordingly,that it was made from that which has neither parts nor properties, nor 8DYpossible eapaeityfor being converted or moulded into shape, and from whichnothing ever did or can proceed. All such blind substitutes for con-sistem.t and useful views must in time give way. Meanwhile, it is equally droll and pitiable to observe, how pertinaciously those who are pledged to. the P&8t~ the whole past, and nothing but the past, seek ever and anon to galvaDize effete follies into a moek and bloodless ,-itelity. lB. More rational than such a notion, we conceive to be- the doetriDe that God, in the infinite past, UUBulated from HilD8elf out-breatbings of His own divine substance, whieh gradually becoming more and IIlOre dense in their recession from Him, eventoally formed the yorlds aDd their apparel.* It is impossible for anything to bs, and yet DOt exist as minA, before it can exist as matt".. Light, far insumce. "Let there be light," was a Divine volition having reference to a pre- eDsting form. in the Divine mind. Such volition must otherwise have been devoid of meaning, and unproductive of any resuk. The same ",ith the creative fiats of maIl, trees, flowers, animals, birds, the sea, mountains, the stars, and everything else which enters into the composi- tion of the visible universe, including every line of beauty, ana every touch of harmony. God thought them, and then sent them forth as essences, spiritual at the first, but finally expre98ed in a material cloth- ing, the material being separated from the spiritual expression in (J aiscrete degree. The constructive acts of Gods image upon earth, lWnelYr man as an inventor and framer, are of precisely the same Dature, only that they are finite. Before any product of the artists peJlCilp the authors pen, or the sculptors chisel, is thrown into 06jseR1J existence, it is created, matured, and produced, as a:·fRIftttJl ·thing. ~ This is beautifully imaged. in what chemistry shows to be the coDstitution of an,even the most solid, matter, aeriform or gaseous :fluids being doubtless the primaryelementa of all visible substance. Mall himself is only the temporary OOD80lidatu,u oC a small quantity of atmosphere.
  18. 16 THE TWO WOBLDS,-THE VISmLE AND THE INVISIBLE.What even are the words which fall from the lips of one who speaks tous, but the physical depictions or fulfilments of the invisible ideas in hismind? This, in brief, is the universal law both of genesis and of exode. 14. (It is not to be supposed that the Divine emanations, after beingthus sent flowing forth, were left to themselves, and thus to an indepen-dent existence. Such a theory would be a fitting partner for the Epi-curean one of a fortuitous concourse of atoms. Whatever has proceeded from the Divine mind as a creation, retains for ever, by influx, the Divine life which animated and filled it at the first. It is quite a mis-~ke, therefore, to suppose that God having made the world, retired,from it. If He did not continually infuse Himself into it, as a flowingstream, it would that instant cease to exist. J t requires as muoh life,says Emerson, for conservation, as for creation.) 15. By virtue, then, of this outflowing from the Deity of causative essences, or the essential forms of things in their spiritual actualities,the atmosphere immediately surrounding him,-the earliest sphere,that is, of his Divine efHuence,- is a universe of the souls of things.This is the SPIRITUAL WORLD, which may be described, accordingly, as made up of the projections of the Divine mind, in their youngest andmost heavenly state. By reason of his presence as its· centre, it is full,and yet for ever replenishing with new supplies of those projections. By reason of his Divine attribute of Omnipresence, it is infinite inextent; :and by reason of his immortality, it can never end. None, even of its slenderest objects, can ever die or become emaciate; whileto their beholders, that is to say, the population of the spiritual world(which consists of the souls or spirits of mankind denuded of their temporary flesh, and of whose number we ourselves shall some day be).they appear with all the beauty and distinctness that material things doto men on earth; and with infinitely more, because in the spiritualworld things ore viewed as they really are, whereas here we see onlytheir effigies or likenesses. The possessions of those who have pre-ceded us as travellers to the spiritual world are the first-born and im-mortal spring-blooms of Gods mind. Our possessions are but evanescentpictures of them; and so long as we remain here, we shall see noughtelse. In the spiritual world again, as it is the grand and unbounded .repertory of causative essences, there is of necessity an infinitely greaterVariety of shape and beauty than is beheld on earth; for our little planetis the outer covering of a very minute portion of the world of souls oressences; and hence we have but a few detached sketches of the pano-rama which inhabits there: and what few we have (albeit they are solo"ely), we see" as through a glass darkly." 16. The spiritual world comprises not only the essences of all thingsether than man, but all that makes up the reality of man himself, evenwhile he is a lodger in the flesh. So long as his time-life endures, he is,however, unconscious that he is an inhabitant of the spiritual world, be-cause his material or corporeal livery associates and identifies him withthe material one. And for the same reason, he enjoys none of its pri-vileges. Still, as to his soul, or inner being, man is as truly an inha-bitant of the spiritual world, from the first moment of his existence, as
  19. THE TWO WOBLD8,-THE VISmLE AND THE INVISmLE. 17he is after the conclusion of his time-life. His time-life being spent Inthe material world, for probationary purposes, to qualify him for itsduties, he is clothed with flesh and blood. In other respects there is nodifference, save and excepting the delay, just now mentioned, in his en-joyment of the resplendent privileges possessed by the spirit when setfree, and which are precluded, so long as it is shut in and blindfoldedby the muddy vesture of decay. 17. It is often imagined and taught, that the mind of man is a mereassemblage of abstract properties or qualities, located in specific portionsof the brain. But to say so is to make all thoughts, feelings, and emo-tions, mere phenomena of matter, and consequently perishable. Forif they were mere abstract properties, so soon as the material organs by which they are possessed, decompose into their primitive elements,thought, feeling, and affection, must of necessity also end. This ideahas arisen from a misconception of what the human mind really is. The " mind " of man is his soul or spirit, the "immortal soul " of colloquialconversation, and in point of fact, the real man. Composed of the ag-gregate of his will and understanding, it is a collection of spirit~ essences or substances, specially arranged and organised by God. It is a collection such as exists nowhere else in creation, for man is his Creators "image and likeness," and, therefore, there cannot be anycongeries or collection more superb. * These essences are substances asreal in their nature, as are the eyes, ears, or hands, of the material bodyto material inspection: and, in fact, far more so, because the latter arenot immortal, as the former are, but limited to a few years duration.Let anyone who doubts that they are real substances, try to conceivewhat Love or Pity can be, or what the Will can be, if not a veritableactuality. To say that they are not bona:fide substances (that is, ofcourse, spiritual substances), reduces them to nothing. As we just llOWsaid, if they be mere abstract powers or properties, they must ceaS6when the brain and the heart cease to be. But for love and wisdom,charity and faith, the will and the understanding, to perish, is for thereto be no immortality for their possessor: seeing that it is these element&-of the human nature, and these alone, which can survive the grave, andwhich can constitute personality in the other life, where we are expresslytold, there is neither flesh nor blood. 18. What is the shape, it will be asked, of the mind, soul, or spiritof man, allowing it to be what we have stated? Precisely that of thematerial body which envelopes it. The spirit, or soul, or mind, is whatSt. Paul terms the spiritual body. And a body it really is, being the wholeof that wonderful formative substratum on which is displayed the materialfabric. This fact is continually recognized in colloquial discourse, andverified by the phraseology of Scripture, where we perpetually meet withsuch phrases as "gird up the loins of your mind." If mans spirit be * It is indeed not a mere a8.cniment of spiritual essences, but the recapitulation ofall that are distributed throughout nature. This is why the far-seeing anciellts, andShakspere after them,* called man microcosmo8, the world summed up. * Coriolanus, li. 1. :i. S. N(), 183.-vOL. XII. B
  20. 18 mE TWO WOBLDS,-TBE VlSIBLB AND THE INVISIBLE.not such a duplicate of his exterior and visible part, in what kind orbody is he to enjoy heaven? Certainly in no body partaking of mate-riality. Our material body is but a shell, which when we step into thespiritual world, being no longer wanted, but only an incumbrance, andso much dead lumber, we shall slip from off us, as with Shakspere, " - - the snake casts his enamelled skin, ,tor as with Lucretius, " - - vetere8 ponunt tunicas ..estate cicadas." (The graashoppera of the sammer lay down their wom-out dree8e8.-4, 56). 19. If men would but ascend to this high and rational view of theiractual constitution, there would be no more fear of ghosts and appari-tions. All human beings are at this very moment ghosts, but they donot appear so to their neighbours and companions in the flesh, becausethey are mutually and reciprocally looked at with material eyes, and seenonly as to their material coverings or liveries. It is because we liveso entirely in and for the body, says a talented lady of the west, , that,ve are startled at a revelation of the soul. Shelley beautifully recog-nizes the true nature of the soul:- " Sudden arose Iantbes soul! It stood All beautiful in naked purity, The perfect semblance of its bodily frame, Instinct with inexpressible beauty and grace. Each stain of earthliness Had passed away, it re-assumed Its native dignity, and stood Immortal amid min." 20. That souls are forms or substances, and not mere puffs of air, orabstract properties, is no less beautifully, though perhaps unconsciously,testified by Ovid. All great poets write multitudes of things oracularly;speaking from depths which they have scarcely sounded, and which, whenthe moment of inspiration has passed away, they are not aware of. Thusit is then that Ovid opens the history of the metamorphoses by saying,. " In nova fert animus, muta~ dicere formU corpora." (My mind inclines me to tell of forms changed into new bodies).Not, observe, of bodies changed into new forms, but of forms, that is,souls, transferred into new co?erings, foreign to their true and originalnature. The habitations are new, but the souls are the same. 21. What we have been saying will probably make apparent what isthe Spiritual World. Let us explain, in the next place, wbat we meanby the Material World. The material world is the spiritual one ulti-mated into what men call sensible or material substances; everythingthat we see around us being the fulfilnlent iuto a physical circumferenceof a spiritual essence. It is this essence of the object, whatever thelatter may be, which addresses us when we look upon things; the appealbeing made through the joint media of its material livery on the onehand, and our material, or instrumental, senses, on the other. For as
  21. tHE TWO WOBLDS,-THE VISIBLE AND rUE iNVISIBLE. 19mind cannot see matter, neither ~n pure matter, whioh is but a corpse,address mind. The latter can only recognize that which like itself, isever-living. There must be a reciprocal ada.ptation in order that com-munion may take place. The physical ooverings of the spiritual essenceswhich thus under-lie·the shapes and forms of nature, are laid over themtherefore, not as necessary to their existence, but in order that they maybe played forth to the eyes of mortals; who otherwise (being enclosed inmateriality), would be unable to apprehend them. They would be in-visible; as no doubt are millions of other spiritual things, which thoughclose beside of us, it is nevertheless undesirable or unnecessary for manto have knowledge of during his time-life. In themselves, that is, intheir spiritual aspect, the things of nature are simultaneously viewed bythe inhabitants of the spiritual world, to whose spiritual senses they areas plain, as, correspondentially" they are to our material ones. 22. That the things we see around us in the natural world are theout-births or expressions of spiritual essences which alone can framethem, is beautifullJ proved by their succession and re-succession, seasonafter season, year after year, age after age. Where are our spring-flowersto come {rom, if there be not somehere a paradise of invisible blossoms,which when their time arrives shall beam into sight like the charming!Wd magical dissolving views? Our spring-flowers are the enclothe.mentInt~ a visible character of the primitive flowers projected from thatmatchless faculty of design which is so wonderful an ingredient of theDivine mind. Hence they are as immortal as itself, though to finiteobservation they often seem to be gone and lost for ever. The roseseems to wither, its petals scatter, and its loveliness is only a recollec-tion; hut the real rose can never perish. The real rose subsists whereit always was,-in the spiritual world; and there it will subsist for ever;and when We cast off our own leaves, we shall find it there in all its death-less beauty, along with all the other loved and vanished. God takes careof all that is truly beautiful and precious, and reserves it for us, providedwe will go and take possession. We have but to cross the dark riverconfident in his trustworthiness, and we shall not be disappointed. Heloves to be trusted. Then too we shall behold the spiritual sea, andislands, and rivers, and sun, and stars, and trees, just as St. John beheld them, when God opened his spiritual eyes so that he might tell us of them in the .A.pocalypse; and as we all continually express our hope of doing, when we sing that beautiful anticipative hymn beginning- " There le a land of pure delight,"and. proceeding- " There everlastin( 8prin~ abides, .A nd MIJer-IJJiIJ6Iring jlOflJer, : * .. * * Sweet fields beyond the swelling flood Stand dressed in living green," &c.As grandly expressed in Festus, "Death is another life. We bow our heads At going out, we think, and enter straight Another golden ohamber of the King~s, Larger than this, and lovelier.~ .
  22. 20 mE TWO WOBLDS,-THE VISIBLE AND THE INVISIBLE. 23. We are assured that the mate~l things whioh we behold upon the earth, or in association with it, and which make up the material world,-we are assured that these are representatives and expressions of spiritual essences, when once we satisfy our minds that nothing can en~ dure that is not the product of truth. Whatever falsehood may beget, ,vithers in its cradle, or drags on but a brief and deforJIled duration.. But the forms of life which constitute the material world, are renewedfrom age to age, without any failure or falling oft in beauty; or if we take the inanimate ones, as the ancient mountains, or the great musieal sea, or the atmosphere, or the sunshine, we find them enduring so long, that the mind aches if it attempt to travel to the~r birthday. Hence all.these things must be the products of truth; that is, of the invisible and immortal projections of the Divine mind, which form the earliest circle of his creation. It is the property of all truths to renew and regenerate themselyes continually. As·" no fragment of truth ever dies," so there is no fragment of it but what is perpetually ultimating itself into a more lovely and vigorous aspect. "From time to time the body decays off it, but the soul, the essential truth, rises again, leaving its grave- clothes behind it, to be, perchance, worshipped as living things by those who love to dwell among the tOD1bs." , 24. Hence all the things which we call new, as spring flowers, and beautiful poems, and comely thoughts, are not new, but old; just as the morning and t?~ moonlight a.re new ~s often as they appear, .and are yet as old as the lilIes. The maiden prImroses and the green leaves that eome to greet ue, ~Dd prophesy of summer, are but, the re-appeamnces. of the self same primroses and buds that fashioned the spring lovelineSs of Eden. Hence again, there are few, perhaps no high moral and _in- telleetual truths enjoyed by modem insight, but ,what were less or more familiar to the primrevals. The ages rise spirally, each embracing th~e cirouit of all that has gone before, but with its own elements lifted to a. higher level, whence alone they seem more excellent. . 25. By reaSOD, then, of this construction or genesis of all things, from a world of associate spiritual essences, arises that delicious harmony be- tween the sonl of man and external nature, of which we spoke in our introduction. Every mans mind comprises multitudinous essen~e~, which are simultaneously embodied, but singly and separately, in the forms of the outer world. He becomes conscious of his kindred when brought into their presence, and hence his 4eep affection for nature. when not crusted over by a too long protracted absence from her. Nature has a boundless affinity with the soul of every human being. Some love many of her forms, some only a few; and they love those best whose essences have the correspondent ones in ,their own souls most highly de- veloped. Hence some give their love to .flowers, others to birds; one loves the waterfall, another the seaside. Hence,. again, nature has an exhaustless meaning, which we understand and enjoy proportionately as we lay bare our souls to her, and enable that reciprocal reflection to com- mence, which in the other life will be developed in the full. The more we are enam(Jured of the spiritual in nature, and the deeper we search into bel penetraUa, the more is our own spirit cherished and vitalized;
  23. UN THE FORMATION OF A GENUINE CHARACTER. 21aod. by this all our better affections.) are fed and nourished in their tum.Like always gravitates to like, and the luore generously we ·assist theprocess, the more bright and speedy is the resulting wedlock. For thene life of man is not eating, drinking, and sleeping, but the quick-ening of his inner eonsciousnesa and sympathies; and while these arestimulatecL on the one hand, by intercourse with such of his brother andsister spirits as are comely in sou~ though making no pretensions to abeautiful exterior; on the other, they are fostered and encouraged withmightJ influence for good, by the silent sympathy and friendship of ex-ternal objeets. The man who, by laying open the riches of his spirit toibeir counterparts in the oater world (and thus conversing with the soulof nature), enables himself to derive bright pleasures from the changingaspects of the sky, or from the woods, or the shadows in the water,-this man can never be thoroughly unhappy. For he brings the spiritual8Dd material worlds into one, stripping the former of its vestures, andidentifying it with the regalities of his own inner being. LEO. ON THE FORMATION OF A GENUINE CHARAOTER,OKE of the prominent advantages conferred upon the readers of Swe-denborg is, an acquaintance with a simple, rational f!lystem of MentalPhilosophy. This system places its possessor upon preeminent groundfor judging of the characters of men, and the secret workings of thehuman mind. While the soul of man has hitherto been viewed bythe declining church and its philosophy, .as an unorganized, unsubstan-tial somewhat, denominated "tho vital spark," a wide door stood openfor the admission of every species of vagary and delusion upon the$ubjeet.I u Nunc licet," is at length inscribed over this, as over every other mys-terious topic; and in the New Church we are supplied with the princi-ples and criteria from which to analyze, judge, and determine for our-selves, every question essential to our real good. The extmordinary skI1l with which the dissecting knife of our greatmental anatomist has laid bare the interior structure, and explained thefuncti~ns of the spiritual head and heart, supplying us with the meansof viewing, with microscopic eye, the most secret workings of all ourmotives and intellectual activities, has left UR no ground of excuse forDot realizing the highest standard of excellence, as regards the forma-tion of character. Alas! for the depths of hereditary taint and actual$in ! Who among us has ever in himself attained to the possession of~ his possible advantages ?
  24. 22 ON THE FORMATION OF A GENUINE CHARACTER. It will ever be the case, by the law of opposites, that the possessionof elevated truth, or a deep insight into the mental operations of man,will have its counteractive in a corresponding depth of craftiness andsubtlety. A man gifted with lofty capabilities of thought may, underthe influence of a depraved will, employ" the profoundest arts of dissi-mulation in any career upon which he may enter, from motives of per-sonal aggrandizement and ambition. It becomes us, then, not onlyvigilantly to scrutinise the impulses and bias of our own affections andthoughts, but at tbe same time, to use equal caution, lest we comewithin the baneful influence of those who merely bear the semblanees ofcharity and truth. That there is just reason for this warning, there arcfew without experience enough to prove. Private life, as well as thecareer of public men, afford living proof of the fact. H we were called upon to point out one source of spiritual mischief,ruin, and desolation, more wide-spread than another, we should raisethe finger to that man who has clothed himself in the white robes of re-ligion, shaped his course along the path of notoriety, developed zeal toall appearance genuine, evoked applause by the simulation of meeknossand piety, enlisted the affections of the simple, entangled their judg-ments in his sophistic meshes, woven with laboured diligence, andyet, after all, has but said within himself, "Go to, let us make us ~ ,name." Sooner or later such a one, like Babel, will be confounded, andhis works will lie around him exposed in utter desolation. Such a cba-racter carries retribution within itself, and may be said to be combus.."tible, requiring but a single spark from its own self-love, some day toexplode. We have here drawn no exaggerated picture of possible cases, for weneed but look around to verify it. The temptation to form 8~ch a cha-racter is by no means a slight one. While so many thousands of ourcountrymen exist among the gloomy shadows of false doctnne, need webe surprised at enterprising spirits availing themselves of the light oCNew Church truth, with which to go forth and dazzle the eyes of won-dering multitudes, certain of acceptance with some, and relying on theirtact to ingratiate themselves with many. A wide El Dorado opens totheir ambition, and their genius prompts them to explore its regions.Happy for sach if they meet with checks in their career, leading themto reflect that the love of rule in any form is Babylon, after all. Happyfor their proselytes if they too shall discover, that all is not gold thatglitters. The above remarks will apply themselves to a thousand posi-tions of 80ciallife and rank, and are intended as some illustration of ourSaviours words, "Judge not according to the appearance." We have
  25. ON THE FORMATION OF A GENUINE CHARACTEB. 28now to advert to another form of character in the New Church which isapt to grow out of a superficial application of the new commandment -~ That ye love one another." It is among the earliest efforts of 8. receiver o£ the doctrines, to mouldthe feelings, thoughts, and conduct, to the standard of truth. Now thepeculium of New Church truth is the doctrine of charity or love. Thisis indeed the essential basis of the true Church in the soul of man.Bot there is a wide gulf fixed between genuine and spurious love. Theyoung receiver is. at first, prompted 80 to modify his external man, 89 toGlhibit this doctrine in 8. mere outward form. He cultivates the arts ofplessillg, the amenities of social intercourse become his study, bis Jan·guage and the tone of his address reveal a disposition to conciliate thegood-will of everyone; he is bland and affable to a degree, willing toset his hand to any enterprise of doing good, and he shortly stands inthe foremost rank of the zealous and the active. If he stop here, as,alas, too many do, he imposes upon himself with the mere mask ofcharity, which hides behind it the yet unchanged countenance of thehideous unregenerated mind. This character cannot often be sustainedlong without certain open indications of the real character concealed,wbieh, when it manifests itself, blights the fair buds of hope and pro-mise in the minds of all observers, and creates repugnance deep andlasting as the deception was complete. Such a one too readily becomesa passive instrument in the hands of men of the character beforedescribed. . It is, however, one of the most striking features of our religiousphilosophy, that it lays the axe to the root of the tree. It is clearlydemonstrated to us that all man need concern himself about in the forma-tion of his new, regenerate oharacter ie,-the shunning of evils as sinsagainst the Lord; to study well the nature of sin, and shun its every form.f Take DO thought for the morrow, for the ·morrow shall take thoughtfor the things of itself; sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof." Onthis account the divine law consists not of positive but of negative com-mands. I t says not-Thou 81uUt do this or that specific good, but rather-Thou ,kalt Rot do that sin,-for it is evident to reason, that if evil bedesisted from, good must be done. "Take no thought for the morrow,"then, points out this important duty,-that as to-dtJ,y marks out manspresent relation to the things of time, his spiritual day points to hispresent spiritual ,tat, in relation to eternity. To-morrow. then, evi-dently refers to the future states into which the soul must enter in its regenerating career. With these man has nothing whatever to do. Bni· fiment -for the present state is the evil we have now to contend with.
  26. 24 ON THE FOltJltATtON OF A GENUINE CHABACTEB. Directing all our energies to this, to prevent evil, unburdened wi1h anxieties about future states, it will be found that a new and genuWe character will spontaneously grow up from holy principles within, having their foundation in simplioity of mind. True simplicity of mind is· 8 state unconcerned about mere human opinion, whe~her good or bad. 1* is il}tent only upon the spiritual duty we have pointed out. It is the humblest, yet the highest and happiest condition to which we can attain; and the Lord ever opens to 8uch, fields and vineyards of use, 80 fast and so far as they are internally qualified to work therein. Let it then deter us from too forwardly proffering our .self-prompted assistance; perchance we should find at length, despite all outward appeamnces, that we have done to others and to ourselves more real inward harm than specious outward good, by an over-officious zeal. Simplicity of character is .marked by diffidence in undertaking offices whieh the zealot is but too anxious to monopolize. It pursues the even tenor of its way unattended by the noisy bustle and clamour of its disorderly rival, who cannot travel far without resorting to certain artifices by which he may attract the eat~ and elicit the applause of such as are likewise in mere extemallife. It may always, then, be taken as an index of the genuine character~ that u it seeketh no applause," save that of an internal dictate, U well done, good and faithful servant, thou hast been faithful over jttl things.! F~ things do not satisfy the seeker of applause, ma»y things and num.,.: bers move the springs of all his zeal. If the eye be turned outwardly to catch the smiles of men, how tme it is that angels faees quickly tom away. But if there be a constant satisfaction felt in the labours of love~for their own sake, then is the Word embedded in such hearts- u ·in keeping Thy commandments there iB great leeward." Every act of tmeobedience is accompanied ·by an influx from the heavens, which is felt asjoy and peace which the world cannot give." The unpresuming cha:.. (fmeter carries with it great weight and influence for good. The pre-tender soon draws so largely upon the confidence and sympathy of hisadmirers, that they discover how liberal are the allowances that must-bemade for self-glorification and magniloquence. The simple- and unas-StlIning are seldom found employed in enterprises which bear the marksof U notoriety;" while the presumer, impelled by the desire for notiee.-launches forth into untried depths, which terminate at length in utterspiritual loss and ruin. If, from the Word itself, we are able to gather &DJ evidenee as to tile.constituents of genuine character, it must be seen at once, stampeci.iothe heavenly lineaments of one who" spake as never man spake." Heis our true model, and He teaches, both by life and precept, that self..
  27. EXTRACTS FROM SWEDENBOBGS 8PIBlTUAL DIABY. 26renunciation, as <1>posed to self-exhibition, entering the closet, lettiIignot the left hand know what the right hand doeth, and in every otherrespect opposing the self-loTe promptmgs to gain the good opinioDs ofutbe world," is that "narrow way" aloug which only we may pass insafety to the realms, of everlasting bliss. EnT4. ._ TRAOTS FROM 8WEDENBORG8 SPIRITUAL DIARY.* (Not. litAet1,o t~.) Th8 Diffirences oJ State in general between Men and Spint3. :- 2~19. There are many differences between the states of spirits and of men, concerning which I have frequently spoken. Here. I will only qbserve,-lst. That men have the objects of the senses, which move, ~e, and modify their internal senses; but this is not the case aJDO,11B8t spirits. 2nd. That men live in B.S$Ociations, and, indeed~ of such a oharacter, that they are associated together from various ea~fS; ~ in this kind ~f association men may be of a dissimilar character ; ~ is otherwise with spirits, who can only be associated with those who are of a similar character. 3rd. Men have a corporeal memory, from which they derive and understand what they say; but this is not so with $pirits. 4th. Men can contemplate things to come from the past; but spiritsqannot do this, because they have not the memory of past things, exceptwh~n it is awakened for specific purposes. 5th. Men do not much pene-trate into the thoughts of others, but spirits do this much more acutely;~ut they Bee ,with distinction; thus also it is with other things whichi;low from them, 6th. The thoughts of men are bound to corporeal prin-ciples~ like substances to their organic forms; but it is not so with spirits,~May 20th, 1748.. That the Thougltts and Deeds oJ a Man who is in th~ [tru8J Faith,~. are not his own. .. 1910. By.much experience. coptinued for several f~ars, I know, as agr,~~ eertai~y, that the thoughts of a. man who is in the [true] faith,~e t;lot his own. If these tho~ghts are evil, they belong to evil spirits, ... Aa various applications have been made to the Editor, to continue to insert por-tkma ftom the untran:slated volumes of 8wedenborgs Spiritual Diary, .e ha.ve agreedto print occasioll&1ly certain extraot&, whlch, it is thought, will not onl1 inCl8Meoar knowledge, but .add distinctness and olearn. . to our ideal and peroeptiou 01~ .thinga.-Eo.
  28. 26 EXTRAOTS FROM SWEDENBORGS SPIRITUAL DJABY.who believe that they think from themselves; wherefore, they are im-puted to them, as is the case with men, who think and believe in likemanner. If the thoughts are good, they belong to the Lord alone.These things I know as most certainly true, from long and dailyexpe-rience and reflection upon the fact. 1911. When I at length became so accustomed to this fact, that I couldthink nothing from myself, it was, as it were, delightful to me; for Icould thus reflect upou the things infused into my mind, and that I wasexempt or free from evil thoughts. I was even permitted to know whatsort of spirits, and whence they were, who infuse evil thoughts, with whomI have often spoken about those evil infusions. Yea, I .have even beenpermitted to know the quality of the least spark or particle of thought,also from whom and whence it came; and to reflect upon these facts waspleasant to me. "1912. But the spirits who infused the evil thoughts imagined thatthus I could think nothing at all ; on which subject I have often conversed .with them; wherefore they themselves were not willing to be in Buch afaith, dt of such a character, because they then think that they loseeverything of their own, and are consequently nothing, which idea theydread, and some hold it in aversion; but the fact is altogether other-wise; on which subject, through the Lords mercy, I intend to speak else-where.-May 9, 1748. The Lords Prayer. 1790. When the Lords prayer, which comprehends in itself all.celestial and spiritual things, is read, there can then be infused intoevery minute particular so many things, that heaven itself is not capableof containing them; and this, according to each ones capacity and use.The more interiorly it proceeds, the more copiously or the more abun-dantly the things in the heavens are understood; but in the lower parts[of the heavenly world] they are not [so fully] comprehended, but arearcana to the inhabitants there. Some things can only be understood byan intellectual faith, and some are ineffable. The more celestial ideas.all which come from the Lord, descend, or enter into a man of inferiorspiritual development, the more the prayer appears closed, so that, at length,it 886ms as something hard, in which there are but few things, and evennothing besides the sense of the letter, or the ideas of the words.Hence from the Lords prayer, it was permitted to know what thequality of souls, as to their dootrine of faith, had been in their bodilylife, when they were permitted to have their own sense of that prayer,whilst they were repeating it.-1748, Aprill.-Thus the idea of inter-
  29. REVIEWS. 27nal or spiritual things, as it increases upwards or inwards from corporealthings, oomprises things. in each degree, which are indefinite, and thisthe more as it advances towards higher or more interior things. REVIEWS.BAPTISM; ITS TRUE NA£URE, OBJECT, NEOESSITY, AND USES, AS OliE . OF THE SACRAMENTS APPOINTED BY OUR SAVIOUR, AT THE ESTAB- LISHMENT OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. By THE REV. WOOD- VILLE WOODMAN, of Kersley. London: HODSON, 22, Portugal- street, Lincolns Inn. pp. 96.FOl some considerable time the attention of professing Christians hasbeen directed to the subject of Baptism, by animated discussions whichhaTe taken place upon that subject amongst clergymen of "the Estab-lished Ohurch." Bishops have taken part in the contest, and, aftermuch acrimonious contention, high legal authorities have been called into pronounce upon the controversy. This they have done so far as tosecure to one of the disputants "a living," to which his ecclesiasticalsuperior had refused to introduce him. But neither the olergyman 8triumph nor the bishops defeat, afforded by this decision, has settled thepoints at issue; on the contrary, it has given a new impetus to theinquiry. Still the genuine doctrine of the Word on baptism remainsprecisely where it was; neither party appear to have reached it; indeedall seem to have overlooked it. For the question has been made to turn, not upon the nature and uses of this sacrament as it is mentioned" in Gods Word, but upon those points which unfold the doctrine of the Church of England on the subject. So that the religious public find a Church, established by law, towards the close of the second century of its existence, unsettled as to the doctrine which ought to be held respecting one of the two important sacraments of the Christian dis- pensation; and what is still more surprising is, that the genuine troth upon the subject seems not to have attracted the attention of the con- tending parties: . one maintaining that the uses of infant baptism are to promote the regeneration of its subject, that is, to remove the guilt of original mn,-that being the idea attached to the term regeneration as uaed in connection with thissuoject; and another asserting that the infants cannot receive any benefit from baptism except there shnll have been a preceding act of grace. The former seems to be the view held
  30. REVIEWS.by the Bishop of Exeter; the latter is that which is taken by the vicaTof Br~pford Speke. The ecclesiastical contentions on these respective opinions, and thedecision of the lay judges, that the views on baptism held by the Rev.Mr. Gorham were not such as to prevent him from being introduced tothe living of Brampford Speke, have produced an excitement, andell-used, as before intimated, a more than ordinary inquiry into thisinteresting subject. Doubtless, this controversy will advance the cause of truth. Autho-rity having had its fastenings upon the human mind, somewhat relaxedby it, men will begin to think with greater freedom upon the subject.When the doctors disagree the people will question their judgment, andconclude that a time has come ill which they should reflect for them-selves. This will dispose them to cODsult with greater candour theopinions of others, and, also, to adopt such as may appear most sensibl~and consistent with Scriptural views of this divine institution. It is tobe observed that this controversy has recognized the idea of baptismbeing of some spiritual use to the infant subject of it. It is gratifyingto know this circumstance, notwithstanding the mistakes which prevailconcerning the nature of it, and the absence of all correct ideas as tothe mode in which its benefits are operated. Mr. Woodmans work ap-pears to have been suggested by the above circumstances, and we con~ceive it to be a well-timed and judicious performance, well calculated -toarouse attention and to fix it upon the truth. It is written popularlyand with care, but does not profess to be a complete exposition of thewhole subject. The following remarks on the uses of baptism to infantswe think to be just and pleasing: - . "The introduotion of infants into the Church by baptism, oonsidered in an ex..temal point of view, may be regarded &8 an earnest that they will be surrounded by external influenoos favourable to Christianity. In abort, this is one of its obvious useaThe in.ternal use of infant baptism, we may fairly infer to be analogous. It is a fact,abundantly testified ill the Sacred Volume, that the Church, into which all, whetherinfants or adults, are thus introduced, constituting 88 it does the mystical body ofChrist, is not confined merely to those who are its members here. Introduction intothe Christian Cbur~h, according to the Apostle, involves introduction to an,gell:-, Ye are come unto Mount ZiOD, and unto the oity of the living God, the heavenlyJerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly andChurch of the first-born, W BICH ARE WRITTEN IN BRA. VEN, * * * and to the spirits of just men made perfect. (Heb. xi. 22, 23.) * *... It is clear, then, that theinhabitants of the Lords kingdom above, feel the more lively interest in all thingspertaining to his kingdom here, are assooiated with it in all its efforts in behalfof the salvation of the human raoe, whether involved in the great work of enelldingthe boundaries of the Lord8 kingdom among others, or &8 C ministering spirits, lent
  31. REVIEWS. to minletm for thole who shall be heirs of sal.ation,· (Heb. Ii. 14.) in the process of their individual regeneration. * * * Angels being thus, acoording to the teaohings of.Scripture, associated with the membel8 ot the Church ill all tbeir religious exercises, whether individually or collectively, it follows that they are UJpre immediaUy present, and the intercommunication between them an4 man mm:e full, in the ordi~anoeewhich the Lord has instituted as the ultimate, and at the same time the fullest, acteOlworahip. Indeed this is the very object for wbich the sacramental ordinances wereJastltuted. That efen infants are not beneath the C&1"6 of an~els, Is e~ident from thefact, that they are not beneath the care of the Lord himself, who, when on earth,said, .Suffer the little children to oome unto IRe, and forbid them not. (Lukexviii. 16.) More than this; from the subsequent declatation of the Divine ~eaker­i for of such is the kingdom of heaven, it appe8.rs that there is a peouliar congeniali~1between- the state of infancy and that of angels. * * * From this affinity betweenthe innoeeace of infancy and the innocence of hea.ven; the highest ministrations oft~lingdomare oonneoted with watohblg Mer, and protecting the tender germs ofijle. i~Jlt character :- Take heed that ye dapise not ODe of these Uctle ones; fol I.1 unto you, that in heaven their apgels do alway8 behol~ the face 01. my Patherwhichis in heaven; (Matt. xviii. 10.) where it is taught, in the moet ex.plicit~,that infants are actually committed to the care of angels, who hold the more exaltedtank among the blessed. Whilst, then, baptism, externally considered, is the reoog-~tion of the infant baptiaed, as belonging to the Lords visible Church, and an earnestthat it $hall be 8urrounded wUh inilutmOOl favourable to the growth of Christianity in after yea~; internally, it is the medium whereby influences from the Church of thefirst-born in heaven, are brought around the spirit of the child, an4 thus of keeping the mind interiorily disposed towards the favourable reception of the religious in.ttll1q. tion and training it receives from its natural parents, or its spiritual pastors andlnasters. " "From this view of the subject, it follows, that uses of the most important kindat.end infant baptism. The only channel whereby religious influences can reach tilei~ant mind, previous to the development of its intellectnal perceptions, ia fromwithin, and consequently from those guardian angels to whom the care of infanta ifJcommit.ted by t.heir Heavenly Father. If, then, it be true that infant baptism is themediunl of bringing infants more immediately under the religious influences of spirits,.od ange18, whobave gone from the Chriatian wOlld, and or separating them froniijae religious io1luen08l which operate into the Gentile world, and 110. from those whohave departed thence, the 1188 iaJ as intelligible as it is important."-pp. 38 to 41. The force of these remarks is somewhat increased by dissertations onthe spiritual sense of the Word, and the nature and efficiency of theMosaic l-itual for keeping up a connection between heaven and the~orld; by which they are introduced. An the ablutions and U purifi-catory observances" of the Jewish dispensation are stated to bave beeneollatedinto Baptism, as the Christian symbol of purification. . There are several questions of interst connected with this generalsubject, the discussion of which does not appear to have come withinthe plan of Mr. Woodmans book. Such, for instance, as-Why bap- tism, which sigBifies introduction· into the Church, should be ad minis-
  32. 30 REVIEWS.tered only once in a lifetime, as contradistinguished from the holysupper, which signifies introduction into heaven, and is administeredfrom one to twelve or more times every year? Also, Whether thosewho are baptized in infancy are required to be re-baptized when theyarrive at riper years? Likewise, Whether there is any, or what differ-,ence there is in the efficiency of infant baptism in the Old Church whenit is administered agreeably to the form of words prescribed by theLord, and which is employed in the New dispensation? We do notthink the omission to notice these qnestions, and others that may besuggested, is any deficiency in Mr. Woodmans work; we mention themonly as belonging to the general subject, and think that in a more en·larged and minute treatment of the matter they might be advantageouslydiscussed. Mr. Woodmans work is a weleome production, treating ()fan important ordinance in a grave and becoming style; we not only 1cordially recommend its attentive perusal, but believe there are manypoints in it which will repay some careful study. * *PuRE CHRISTIANITY RESTORED!! A. Treatise on an Original and Oomplete System of Theology, founded on the Attribute8 of the Lord Jehovah: whereby all ea:isting difference8 in the various doctrin68 of pTofessing Ohristians are harmonized (including the moral au81U:Y of man in strict accordancswitk the elsction of God); and by which aU important difficult passages in the Holy Scriptures, relative to Salvation, are explained in a satisfactory manner, preparatory to the ApPROACHING MILLENNIUM, when there will be known only" ONE LORD, ONE FAITH, ONE BAPTISM." By PmLIP WOOD. pp. 3S~. London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co.WE haye given the title of this book entire, because it serveSy as adescriptive notice of the work, to show the reader the object and scopeof the author. His object is " to harmonize all existing differences inthe various doctrines of professing Christians," in order to prepare theway for the Approaching Millennium, by which the writer evidently meansthe New Church, signified by the New Jerusalem in the Revelation.The only way, however, "to harmonize these differences," is to inducethe respective parties who hold them to abandon them altogether, sinceit is impossible to harmonize discordant and opposing fallacies andfalsities; and if the authors views, which are in harmony with thedoctrines of the New Church, prevail, harmony as to all essential pointswill certainly exist among Christians. It is pleasing to see that the knowledge of genuine Truths is making
  33. REVIEWS. 81its way amongst men through a variety of channels. The existence ofthese channels has not been even suspected by those who for years havelaboured to promote the same holy cause. Although we have neverbefore heard the name of the author of this book, we sincerely congratu-late him as a fellow labourer in the same vineyard. His desire to spread aknowledge of the Tnlth by its own evidence, without mentioning thesource whence he has derived his intelligence, shows, at least, his pru-dence in avoiding the prejudices of those, which are easily excited whenthe Truth, as to its original promulgation, is attached to any particularname. The primary truth of the Church the author states as follows : - " In Jestl8 Christ the Father and the Son, or the Divinity and Humanity are one,18 the 8011l and body of man are one, and consequently there is only ODe true God,in heaven and the church, and that God is the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; thusthere is only one object of divine worship and adoration. We believe in OAf Go4,in whom is the Divine Trinity, who is a Being of infinite love, UJi.ldom, aM pOUJet;and that this great God is the Lord and Saviour Je8UI OhM, who is Jehovah in aglorified human form."-p. 137. fhis plainly shews the truth of our remark, that the writer of thiswork is labouring in the same vineyard as ourselves. And in orderthat the above great Troth may be seen, free from the obscurities whichtoo strong an adherence to the literal sense induces over the mind, theintelligent author shews the necessity of distinguishing the Lordsstates of humiliation from the states of His glorification, as follows:- " As to his Humanity, it was indeed true that he was sent of the Father, or, &I hehimself otherwise expresses it, "came forth from, tlli6 Father:" as to his Humanityalso, he prayed to and conversed with the Father, and declared that he came to dothe will of the Father. But this Humanity, it ought to be remembered, when it hadpassed through its previous necessary states ot submission and humiliation, was1inallyglorified, or made Divine, by a full and complete union with the essential Divinity,or Father dwelling in it, agreeably to these words of Jesus Christ, where he says,, N tnD i8 tM Son, 01 man, glorf!ied, aM, God, iI glori./i«l • Ai.; aM if God, b~ glorifiediA 4im, God, ,lwJ,Z aUo glorify him i. himl~if, an,d ,hall 8traiglfJ,?JJa!l glorify him. St.John xiii. 31,32. And what is the laD~e of glorification in which that humanityis afterwards described? Let us consult the Sacred Records, and we shall find t1)econsolatory declarations, where it is written on the occasion, I and my FatAer areMU: beline me that 1 am in, (he FatAer, and the Father iA me. A II power iI giVt/A 1tntotU in, Ilea/Den, and in, eat"tk: 1 am. Alplw, and Omega, tlt8 first and tM Uut. Let us thenlearn to distinguish well between the humanity of Jesus Christ in its state of humili- ation or apparent separation from the Father, and in its state of exaltation, or full union with the Father, and all our difficulties will then be completely done away, and we shall rejoice in the bright light of the eternal truth, beaming forth in its full radiance from the glorified body of the great Redeemer."-p. 136. N early all points of Christian theology are discussed in this work,
  34. 82 REVIEWS.and" the reader will generally find that the Truth is placed in a olearlight, supported by various arguments and illustrations. Should the author ever find it desirable to superintend another editionthrough the press, we would seriously recommend him to divide thework into chapters, and to arrange its suluects into a different order,similar to that in which Swedenborg has arranged tIfe "True ChristianReligion."SPIRITUAL REFLECTIONS FOR EVERY DAY IN THE YEAR, WITH MORN- ING AND EVENING PRAYEBS. In Four Volumes. Vol. 11. April, May, June. By the Rev. THOMAS GOYDER. pp. 449. THE first volume of these "Spiritual Reflections" was noticed withmarks of approbation in our periodical, soon after its appearanoe, andsincerely recommended to our readers, as a means of awakening an en-lightened spirit of piety. It is important to see the relation betweenpiety and charity, or truly vital religion. Charity is the life and soul ofpiety, and piety is the safeguard and shield of charity. If separated,both perish. " That," says Swedenborg, "which guards and protectscelestial and spiritual principles in man is piety." Hence it follows,that if the spirit of piety in our words, actions, and conduct is sufferedto languish and expire, everything of charity and faith in man will bein imminent peril. To cultivate the true spirit of piety, therefore, isone of the great duties of the Christian life. If U for every idle or vainword n (Matt. xii. 36.) we shall have to give an account at the time ofour individual judgment immediately after death, surely we ought all tosee the eminent uses of piety, which will make us circumspect as to theduties, privileges, and blessed effects of the spiritual life, and guardthat life against any invasion from within, and every encroachmentand violation from without, in our conversation and conduct. fheselittle volumes, so full of truly spiritual reflections, are eminently cal.-culated to awaken and sustain a truly enlightened and genuine piety.Every subject of meditation is taken from the Word, and a briefspiritual exposition, applied to the life, forms these volumes intomanuals of heavenly usefulness. The SiOlplicity of these " llefleotions,"so easily understood, and so ,veIl applied to the life, is their greatestcharm. No family, either in the New or Old Church, should bewithout them. We should like to present to our readers certain ex-tracts, in verification of our remarks, but we advise them to procurethe work for themselves.
  35. 88 SuggesUd by a pallags in till MIRROB OF TBUTH, "ol. 18t, 1491 17 i TnTJ&, with a bright and stedfast ray, Shall pierce the gloom of mental night; And, herald of a purer day, Shed oer the soul its earliest light. With power, as from angelic tongues, To ALL these tidings shall be given, Reechoed in triumphant songs,- MANS PROPEB BOKE IS HEAVBN!lilCh6dey. MABY.:.re _!i.. -!OOlfJ:l ~ " , -:..J.·l- " MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION.... BaY. J. BAYL.Y~S VISIT TO NEW oceasiOD to take place in a saloon of a +CSURCH FRIENDS IN W J RTEIIBERG, AND publio pleasure garden. The next morn-1.. tIPECIAt.LY %0 PROPES80R T A.FEL, OP ing, at nine 0 ~olook, I aocompanied the two Gj7uJtllfGBlf. Drs. Talel, with my son and Mr. J ametl".:" ;J,. _ Rawsthome, a young gentleman who hadTo TB. EnIlO&t accompanied me from Lancashire, to thel~DBAB SIa, - As you. have intimated place of meeting, where we found manytJlat JOU consider it would be interesting friends already assembled, and were rap-to our friends, to communicate such facts idly joined by the rest, to the number• ha". intereated tile, &8 & ~ ew Church- probabl1 of 1SO. Professor Tale! offici-..., in 101 recent jotmley, I am haPPJ ated u preacher, and conduoted serviceto place tnem at your disposal, and trust after the simple manner usual in the Lu-tIaat the oltjeot of making the memben of theran Churoh. First, a fow Tel8el of athe N fit Church in Germany better known hymn, lung .lowly, then a prayer, con-to their brethren in England, will be, to cluding with the Lords Prayer: after thatIOIDe extent. &OC()mpli8bed. a lesson, and the eermon immediately ti!lleA Eaglaod on Monday, Sept. 23rd, following. The whole was compl~ted byand, after travemng Belgium. Rhenish a short prayer, and the concluding twoPtuBia, Na-au, Darmltadt, and Baden, versea of the hymn by which the servicead obMrving a "MI; number of interest- was commenoed. The disoourse was anIDg olijects of almost every kind, arrived earnest unfolding of the Divine Unity and at 8tuttgard on Satnrday evening, Sept. Trinityf and ita application to the doctrine18th. and was then very warmly received of the Atonement. I waa then introduced by the two brothers Tafel, Dr. Leoohart to the meetin~, and gave a short address .Patel, of Stuttgard, and Professor Tafel, in German, desoribing the kind feelings et Tiibinsen. Both brothers are New towards them of their brethren in Eng- Churchmen, but Professor Talel is the one land, and the interest that was taken by 10 well known, and 80 muoh esteemed in them in all the progress which is made by Wa ooantry, bJ his labours in publishing the Churoh in Germany. I was afterwards the Latin works of E. 8., and his exertions introduced partioularly, and found a bro- in addreesing his own countrymen in Ger- thers welcome from them all. Some ad- man, en the 8Ubject of the docirines. We ditional members wero enroJIcd by Dr. Ipe1lt a delightful eTening together, and I Leonhart fafel, who is seoretary to the learned that next day the C-onference of New Church in Wirtemberg, and then the our brethren would take plaoe. It is held meeting broke up. About one-half, how- quarterl1. and it was appointed on this ever, stayed to dine together, and in about N. s. NO. 133.-vOL. XII. u
  36. 84 MISCELLANEOUS.balf an hour dinner was served up, and posed to the creeds and texts of the Oldenjoyed, acoompanied by that genial oon- Churoh, but maintains that these areversation and" flow of 8Oul,,. which makes wrong, and ought to be abolished by law,such a meal a feast, both for body and as dangerous and destructive to the state ;mind. that, moreover, the doctrines of the New During the time for the dessert, Church are Scriptural, rational, and theProfessor Tafel narrated a oiroumstanoe true ground of real well being, both foraffecting himself in his family relations, nations here and f~ heaven hereafter, andwhich had somewhat of the oharacter of ought to be adopted. He received a politereligious persecution; but whioh, it is reply from the secretary of the council,hoped, will be overruled by Divine Provi- and the assuranoe that the subjeot woulddence, to the benefit of the cause of truth, certainly be duly laid before them. Theand the individual well-being of all the matter had just begun to be mentioned inparties especially ooncerned. The Prufes- the newspapers, before I left Germany,sors son, Theodore, a fine boy of between and the editor of the one I saw, in whichfonrteen and fifteen years of age, had it Vas noticed, remarked that Dr. Ta.fe1passed through the requisite classes in the must win his cause, as far as his son wasmost honourable manner, and was pre- concerned; but his own great hope is. tos~nted a.q a candidate for a resident scho- obtain a fuller hearing for the dootrineslarship in the seminary, an institution from the govemment and the country atattached to the university, and the advan- large. Our friend infonned the companyta~es of whtch are, that for four years of this proceeding, 80 far as it hadthe students receive board, and Br first- taken place, but to present it in a morerate education free. The youth was pro- complete and intelligible form, I bavenounced ill all respeots eligible, exoept brought it up to the state in which it wuthat his father was a Swedenbor~an, and when I took leave. I have not yet heardhad published a pamphlet, at the com- of its further progress.menoement of the present year, to show, The company broke up abou~ twoas its titlo announced,-" That the old 0 olock, but I had the pleasure of theChurch creeds are the sources of the mi- company of the two Tafels during thesery of nations. ,,* The Studenten-rath, remainder of the day, and learned 80meor oouncil, which presides over the semi- additional particulars conoerning thenary, in the letter whioh they directed to Churoh in Germany and Switzerland,be written to the Professor, distinctly whioh may prohably be best communi-stated the objections to the fathers views cated in this place. There is a societyas being the only reasons for the rejection at Wismar, consisting of about a dozenof the son. Professor Tafel appealed from melnbers, another at Vienna, consistingthem to the Minister of Publio Instruc- of from thirty to forty, and in relationtion, and acoompanied his appeal with a to this latter, Professor Tafel had re-copy of his pamphlet. The miuister re- ceived a letter when I arrived, that tll&plied, sympathizing with our friend, but leader had been thrown into prison, on astating that as the difference arose from charge of Socialism. Before I left, in-doctrinal considerations, he was incompe- formation came that he was released. Thetent to interfere. The Professor then ap- oharge tnmed out to have originated inpealed to the privy council, the highest the ignorance of a police spy, who over-tribunal in the oountry, sent them a copy heard our friend, the leader in question,of his book, and many additional argu- discussing with a leading man of the Ger-ments, from a work which i~ now in the man Cat.holic Church, the differences. ofcoarse of publication. He admit~~ in the their religious sentiments, and mistookfullest manner, that his doctrines are op.. them for Socialists. There is a society in Switzerland of about fifty members. The * The tiUc of tllis book is certainly very strong, precise locality I forget, but I presume itbut very true. " Unsere Bekenntniss 8chrifteueine Hanptquelle unserer Nebel," &c. This title is in the neighbourhood of St. Gall. Thein Engli sh is as follows :-" Our creeds one leader is an excellent man named. N eff,main source of our evil;" or, "Proof from the fonnerly a schoolmaster, now a farmer.Scliptures, a~d the nature of things, tl18t thedoctrin~s of the Protestant creeds are entirely un- Professor Tafel met them durin~ a visit toscriptural and contradictory, and by an inner ne. the Rhigi, made the summer of this year,cessity lead to infidelity and to sin; and, at the and was much delighted with their pietysame time, to the overthrow of nations, the and zeal. In Wirtemberg there is nore-estahlishment or the tIle Christian doctrine,whose leadin~ features will be here exp,lained, the separate organized society which meets~Olt imperative necessity of our time. every Sunday, for there is not thought to
  37. 1I1S0ELLANEOUS. be a suflicient number in any· one plaoe to hospitable roof, I have had an ample op- oompose such a meeting. There are about portunity of gratifying the pardonable cu- five ministers of the Established Church, riosity of our friends in relation to these the Lutheran, who receive the doctrines particulars. and preach in accordance with them. Many circumstances in relation to the One of them, named W erner, is very zea- oustoms and manners of the Germans, lous, preaches almost every day in some the condition of the German States, churoh or other, and maintains, with the and of Wirtemberg, which fell under aid of other benevolent persons, an orphan my notice, though extremely interest- asylum of nearly 100 children, at the place ing in themselves, and oonsidered espe- of his abode, Rentlingen. He is muoh cially 80 by me, I waive. to keep together approved. of by one party in the Estab- that with which, I have no doubt, our lished Church, and much oondemned by friends will most desire to be acquainted. another,-the ultra orthodox. He does Tiibingen, then, is somewhat under twenty not encourage the separation of the New miles south of Stuttgard, the capital of Church from the Old. But some of the Wirtemberg. It contains about 10,000 other ministers who receive the doctrines, inhabitants, and has the only university feel the teaching of the Lutheran cate- of the kingdom, with eight or nine hun- chisms to children, which they are by law dred students. You approach it by a compelled to do, a grievous burden. Pro- good road lined with trees, and winding fessor Talel· approves of the separation of for about a mile before you reach the city. the New Church from the Old, as it is in This road leads into the best street, which England and America, and wherever it contains, on the right, the main building can be maintained in an orderly and re- of the university, the Aula, which is new,spectable manner. Some time ago, much bandsome, and commodious. Farther onmjury was sustained by the Church in is the botanic-garden, and on both sides Wirtemberg, by some of the brethren, led of this street are the houses of the pro-by an advocate (a lawyer) named Hofaker fessors, which are large and handsome. (since dead), giving themselves to the Towering above the city, on a vine-moun-practice of seeking information respecting tain called the Schlossberg (palace-moun-the Spiritual World through the instm- tain), is the castle-palaee, the ancientmentality of clairvoyants. The dictates residence of the royal family of Wirtem-of false and impure spirits were received berg, but now used chiefly as the librarywith respect, and evil consequences fol- of the university. You make your waylowed, which brought scandal upon the throu~h the town, and up an ascending,Church, and prevented the reception of narrow, dirty, but short street, and thethe doctrines which previously appeared outer gateway of the castle is before you.to be rapidly taking place. I mention this There it stands in the old style. with twocircumstance, without dwelling on names old armed images threatening all cmners.and painful particulars which I could give, You pass on, however, up a still ascendingthat our brethren in this country may be path, and over a bridge that crosses a drystrengthened in the determinntion to es- ditch. This leads to the proper gatewayobew every mode of obtaining informa- of the castle, surmounted by two similartion on spiritual thin~, save that of the armed figures, but in a miserably dilapi-writings of t.he Lord8 prepared servant, dated state, with scarcely a leg to standE. S., and the purification of their under- upon; very suitable effigies of the presentBtandings by an obedience to the Divine state of the ideas in which they had theircommandments in love and in life. "Let origin. Through this gateway you pass,thine eye be single, and thy whole body and find yourself in a quadrangular court-shall be full of light. " yard, having the castle on all sides; it is Professor Tafel retumed to TUbingen on probably eighty yards wide by sixty lon~.Monday, and kindly pressed me to visit On the west side is the library, on the easthim with my son and my young friend, are various apartments, and at the extre-which I engaged to do on the Thursday mity, in the corner, is the arched stonefollowing; and as a closer acquaintance doorway that leads to the stairs by whichwith this excellent man and his place of you mount three stories high and find theabode, may be agreeable to those of your aparlments of Professor Tafel. These be-readers who have viewed his proceedings ing in the upper story of the castle, com- tor years with interest, I will proceed at mand a nlost extensive and beautiful pros- once to describe my visit to Tiibingen. pect. On the one side is the valley of t.he And having passed many days under his Necklr, through which that river flows,
  38. S6 KJ$ClCu.uBOUI.and which ooutalns b1IhIY-cmltlftted land, of Manohelta, took plaoe IQ. the T. . . .-intel8persed witb rows of beautiful Qoeee; &Doe Hall, Bolton, OIl the e.eniDg8 of Oa-field-walks traverse the valley; there are tober 24th and 31st, and N o.ember 7th. The lubjects brouiht under discusaiollvillages here and there, each with its littleohUoh; in the d!stan(e, on the east, arewere the followin~:-First, "What 11the f;wabian Alps, and on the lOuth, Ho- God ?-18 be an Immaterial Being, pG-henzollcm, the crigind Jlome of the p~ leI8ing neither P888lo01, llor any attribute of Materiality P" - Secoud, "The 604-sent royal family of :.>rnflsia. On the weat head :-Are the Father and Son two diI-ia the va!ley of the Anuner, an insignificantstream, but hounded by :1 magnifioent tinct and aeparate Peno~, .. muoh 80 aa any Father and Son on Earth , .,-TltUd,countl-y, inclnd~ng the >ohl hill of ARpetg,crowned by a f~resq H!3eU as a state-pri- " , The true Nature of the 8iKnS promiledson for po1itic~.: offcDllers. Cuch is the to follow Faith (Muk xvi. 17, 18):- Are the Terma there ued, suoh aa Devilt,abodo of Ol1:" 1Hen<.1 ~. . (; to its exterior. Tongu8l, Serpente, &0., to be undentoodWithb 1, he ~:~;; CV~1Y requisite conveni-ence, n,) ~~11in.bll IDd intelligent lady for in the Literal Sense P"his COnjllgial panner. and a family of Considerable exoiteme1lt baviDg bee-even children, from Miss Tafel, a young caused by the above disoQlSiona, the haD,lady of about sixteen years of age, to a which is ealoulated to leat 1000, wasyoung child still in the arm8. The Pro- quite crowded on the firtt night, manyfessor himltlf is rather below the middlenot being able to obtain admittance. It was estimated that 1700 were preaen"stature, upwards of fifty years of alte, and80mewhat spare in his habit of body. In every aisle and available epaOQ beiDg filled.manners gentle, amiable, affectionate, de- The audienoes on the two following even·voted to the Church, and persevering in Ings, though not 80 large, WeJOe neverthe-his pursuit of her interests. He has a les8 sufficiently nUmeroQ8, oomfortably to fill the hall. Several of the moet re-well-stocked private library, besides havingaceess by his daily duties to the splendid spectable and illteUigellt partie- of tilelibrary of the university, which oontains town and neighbourhood .teeded. A 200,000 volumes and 100,000 manu- charge of one peDDy to the body of tilescripts. He has & Imall meeting which hall, and twopence to the gallery, watakes place in his library every Satur- made to meet the ~ of the room,day evening, for reading the works of printing, posting, &0. The balance Jeo-.Swedenborg. I attended this twice; maining, after these wQre paid, amountingand perfonned service once on the Sab- to £6. 88., was handed ov.. to the Dolto1lbath during my stay, with the Professo.t Dispensary..and his lady present. My whole stay was The opinioos formed oC the results ofone of interest, instmction, elevation and public discussions are generally various, it delight; and when. after my second visit not conflicting; and, ordinarily, both par- (for 1 was under his hospitable roof on two ties claim the victory. The opinions ofeeparate occasions of several days each), the reliAious public respecting the recent discussions, 80 far as they have oome to I took leave of the Professor, his estimablelady, and family, it was with sentiments ofthe kno~letlge of our Bolton friends, tothe highest esteem and affection ;-with say the least, preponderate deoidedly ingratitude to the Lord, who raises up such favour of Mr. Voodman. As to the opi-assistants to His Church, and with feelingsnions of the Latterday Saints, they mayof admiration and good-will towards the be gathered from the fact that, thoughwhole German nation, of whom the two Mr. W oodman offered to take up the 8Ub-Tafels and their worthy families are ad- jects again, either with Mr. Gibson or anymirable specimens. It will, no doubt, be other Monnonite leader, and oontiDuethegratifying to the Church in this country dilCussion of each, by adjOtullJDellt, till itto know that Professor Tafel fully il1tends was the wish of one of the disputants thatto be with us next year at the Conference the disoussion should terminate, Mr. Gib-in Edinburgh. J. B. son declined, and it is presumed the other Mormonite leaders deoline also, Mr.W000-PvBLJC DISCUSSIONS AND LB<m1BES ~T man not having since heard anything from BoLTON. them. We hope our readers will have the opporttmity of judging of the ments of. t~e A publio diBcu88ion, between the Rev. case themselves, as we understaRd It ~W. Woodman, of Kersley, and Mr. W. probable the report of the diICuI8ioD willGibBon, an FJder of the Latterday Saintl, be ptlblished.
  39. )(lSOBLLANEOt1S. 37 Mr. Wood.J;un ono.eel up theM dia- offered various IUgeetiODl; hut it did OWIdoos, by the delivery of two lectures not please the Conference of 1850 even against Materialism, in the same place. to look at them, but rejected them, toge- The suqjects of the lectures were, U Crea- ther with the suggestion8 of all the other tion, showing the essential distinction societies, without examination. between the Creator and the Created;" The Conference having by this pro- and, "The Immateriality and Immor- ceeding refused its advice on the point I tality of the Human Soul." The audi- am about to mention (among others), and ences, though not near so numerous aa at having declined to take advantage of our the disct188ion8, included many strangers ad vice which we tendered upon it, and to our doctrines, in the town and neip;b- having directed the re-print of the words bonrhood, among them some highly re- we objected to, without seeing the rea- .apectable parties connected with the dif- sons we assigned, I feel myself placed in ferent religious bodies. Questions being a dilemma, from which I see no way of. allowed, an animated conversation, or escape but by appealing to the Church rather discussion, followed each lecture, generally. I am an Ordaining minister the repUes appearing to give great satis- elect, and I feel great difficulty as to the faction to the majority present. The only propriety of putting to the "candidate objection (if it may be called an objec- for Ordination" the fir&t of the questions tion) expressed b) the strangers was, that directed to be put to him, and the omis- the replies were too short, as they wanted sion of which would possibly render the to hear the matters more fully elucidated. validity of an ordination liable to be At the close of the second lecture, Mr. questioned. Woodman again stated his willingness to Ihis first question asks of the candi- meet, not merely the Latterday Saints, date, "Dost thou sincerely believe that it but also any advocates of Ma.terialism, on is of the Divine Providen~ of the Lord, any of the subjects of either the discus- that thou art called to officiate P" &c. siona or the leotures. It is remarkable, lYe odect to thae words :-lst. Because that the leading infidels of the neighbour- lWthing wlvltevel can happen that is not of hood absented themselves from the lec- the Divine Providence, operating either tures. by the laws of appointment or permission, From all we learn, this effort has been consequently, to ask the question in this very useful in strengthening the New b,·oad sense of "the Divine Providence," Church in Bolton. Much of the preju- is pure surplusage, to say the best of it. dice against our dootrines, arising from 2ndly. If the question means to ask the the notion that they were a modification candidate whether he believes that the of infidelity, has been removed. ~hi8 im- Divine Providence has appointed him to pression may now be said to be effaced. the office of a minister, it should say so Another impression, to the effect that distinctly, and then such an answer would we rested our views on the testimony of be a fair subject for rational inquiry. U Swedenborg, rather than the Word, has theJact of such appointment is settled by been broken down. Some astonishment the candidates witntU in his own favour, was expressed that, instead of bringing the conclusiveness of the answer precludes forward the claims of Swedenborg, Mr. the necessity of any more questions. Woodman brought Scripture. and would Surely it is enough that God has ap- never have named Swedenbollt, had not pointed him: how dare any man forbid Mr. Gibeon done so. Ve are also happy him? If you do not believe the answer. to hear, that a permanent impression ap- why do you ask t.he question? if you do pears to have been produced on a few, believe it, all further questioning is loss who have begun to read the works for of time. But if it is meant that he can- themselves. not really be divinely appointed unless he can answer affirmatively the questions TUB ORDIN~TION SERVICE. that are to follow, the conclusion cornea out in a circle ;-the faith is sound and To tU Ediiol·. sincere because of the Divine Appoint- Sir,-The Conference of 1849 required ment, and the Divine Appointment is no from the several societies auggestiona for illusion because the faith is sound! But the improvement of the Particular and can a conclusion so come to be an)thing Extraordinary Services of the Liturgy. beyond mere verbiage ? The society to which I minister, after Seriously, can any man "sinoerely be- much earnest labour and deliberatioD, liele" himself Divinely appointed to the
  40. 38 1dISCELLANEOUS. ministry without being either an enthu- me that the inquisition would be quite siast or an apostleP If the former, he is close enou~h it the word "purely" were not tit for a minister; if the latter, we re- omitted. If a man be really actuated at quire better credentials than his" belitif," all by motives of usefulness, these motives howsoever "sincere" he may fancy it belonging to the I1tperior region of the to be. mind, must form the ruling principle, and I certainly must plead guilty to having that is all tha.t is required by the precept, answered affirmatively to this question at "Seek ye first the kingdom of God and my own ordination: I now see that I had. his righteousness." DO warrant for giving my own feelings the The N ewOhurch teaohes, that everyone authority of a Providential appoi1ttmettt. has an external man with its external mo:" Indeed, I really cannot venture to decide tives, as well as an internal ma.n with its whether anyone act of my life by which internal motives ; but the word " pnrely ", I chose, according to the dictates of my supposes that the person seeking ordina- reason, a new occupation, or a new course tion, is pure from all secondary external of usefulness for myself, was an appoint- motive whatsoever. This seems impo~ ment of Providence, or only permitted. Bible. I therefore cannot see that an an- How, then, can I with propriety ask my swer in the affirmative can be true, and it fellow-man a question which my own 80, how can the question requirin~ it be experience tells me he has M means of honestly pot? If, in becoming a mini8t.er, ansWering, except by Divi1~ Inspiration 1 the candidate expectl to be supported, and I appeal to my "brother ministers" would not beOO1M one if he loert not to be who by their votes have approved of this supported, it is obvious that the secondary question being again printed and put to motive of a living is ,wt absertt. And even the candida.te, to sw me how it is recon- supposing that the candidate expects no cilea.ble with reason and truth, - unless, pay, he cannot be, and ought not to be, indeed, they have been inadvertently car- indifferent to the reward of grateful ap· ried away by vague feelings, as I confess proba.tion, although he ought to sea only myself to have been formerly. "the honour that cometh from God." I have to add, that I have been unable If language has any meaning, the word· to get satisfaction from anyone to whom "purely" menns, that the candidate has I have applied individually: indeed, with no looking to anything external whatso- one exception, the question has been con- ever; but so long as man is swayed by demned or declared indefensible. I know mixed motives, which is the case with the that I may be told, that if a man thinks best of men while here, this question, or that he has the required talents, knows rather the answer to it, appears to me not t11at he sincerely loves the truth, and de- striotly true. ftrel to spread it, and an openin.q for his Other points in our uuexamined, unseenemployment occurs, he can truly affirm, suggestions, I pass by; but these I mustand therefore ought to affinn, that Provi- bring forward, because they affect mydence has called and appointed him to the position asministry. But were I to admit this to be AN ORDAINING MINISTER ELECT.valid, f01 the same reason I must admitthat every man, wh~ thinlcs he has the re- PROPOSED MEETING OF MEMBERS OF THEquired talents, lcnoWs that he is sincerely NEW CHURCH, DURING THE EXHIBITIONdesirous to do his duty, and a suitable OF 1851.opening occurs, may truly affirm, andtherefore ou.qht to afipn, that he is ap- At their meeting last evening, the Com-pointed by Divine Providence to any caJl- mittee had received six more letters, alling he embraces, whether it be the law, approving of the proposed meetin~, andthe anny, or any common trade! Whence containin~ some suggestions which willit would follow, that in the matter of the most likely be adopted.choice of a way of getting a living, Pro- One letter, from the south, Dlentionsvidence always appoints, and never merely the number of friends that may he ex-permits! pected to be present; another gives a A.nd now I must beg attention to the promise of £2. These are points onsecond question the Ordaining minister is which the Committee are anxious torequired to ask the candidn,te, it being as obtain early and specific information.follows :-" Art thou desirous of entering They wish to know how many may beupon that offioe pU1·ely from motives of expected, in order that if our chnrchcs-usefulness to mankind P" Now it ~trlk.e8 as is most probable-should be deeu~cd
  41. MISCELLANEOUS.too smaU, they may engage a lumeientl,. it W88 a1Io printed iD tlle fir" edition oflarge room for the meeting: they also M alOn,, e,lp 10 Dnotion (and stated towish to know what amount of funds will have been written by Mr. Clowes), andbe at their disposal. forms the 72nd prayer in the ,econd edi- Many of the friends from the country tion of that work.win be lodging with persons to whom As the pious contributor of the prayereven the existence of the New Cburch feels an interest in Devotional comp08i..may be unknown, but who would be tions, I would beg leave to recommendlikely to attend the proposed meeting him to examine Masons e,/,p to Dnoti01f"with their friends: the residents in Lon- with which he seems unacquainted. I amdon too will probably bring some of their informed that it will not be long before theacquaintances; 80 that it seems reason- present edition will be out of print.able to expect a far larger meeting than ANOTHER CoNTB.IBUroR.any previously held in the New Church.As the meeting will doubtless be madeboth interesting and useful to strangers, OXFORD -The leader of the Society init seeD18 very desirable to invite the this city writes :-In Oxford we are im-public by advertisements, perhaps also proving. We have a very good room, into publish a report of the meeting, and which I have given a series of lecturea, likewise, as su~ested, to disseminate a attended by strangers every time; somelal1te Dwnber of tracts. are coming forward as receivers. There To what these several measures caD be is a more f.vourable opening than we have carried out will, in a considerahle degree, bad at any time previous. We cannotdepend on the funds supplied for the obtain any more "Juvenile Magazines" purpose. The societies in London col- through booksellers, for which I am sorry. lectively, and the members individually, Twelve were taken in my school. will without doubt do theu- part; but the great objects contemplated are not of local but of universal interest, and the NEW PUBLICATIONS AND NEW EDITIONS. privileges and consequent duties are equally extensive. The Committee there- A Dialo~ Oft, the .A pOltolic Doctrine qf fore confidently rely on receiving liberal the A tonement, in, whicll, t1uJ t Doctri,n,e, oontribntions, both from societies and together tJJitA the Doctrinu of .Mediation" individuals; to facilitate which, and to Intercealion, and Imputation, iI clearly secure more general and active coopera- explained. tion, it may be well to organize district committees, to communicate with the one True views on the Doctrine of the in London. At all events, it is highly Atonement are of the greatest possible important, by all orderly and available importance. No doctrine, amongst a means, to take advantaJle of 80 favourable very large portion of the Christian com- an opportunity. Communications are re- munity, is 80 much dwelt upon &8 this; quested to be forwarded by the 16th of it has become the ShiblJoletl" of all the January. so-called Evangelical party in the Church. May the Divine blessing attend our The adlllirable tract under considera- efforls! tion, we verily believe, clears up, in strict H. B UTTER, Secretary. accordance with Scripture, every point 48, Clondesly Terrace, Islington, in this important doctrine. Those who Deoember 18th, 1850. wish to lee the doctrines of Atone- ment, Mediation, Intercession, and I m- putation, placed upon their true Scrip.. tura.l basis, and amply confirmed both by the testimony of the DiTine Word, andTo tk8 Editor. by every rational consideration, should, Sir,-A PRAYER was inserted in your by all means, possess this tract. NoNewnumber for Novenlher, composed hy Mr. Churchman should be without a numberClowes, and stated to be from " An. un- of copies, for when asked his opinionpu1Jli8hed MS.:" - your weU-intentioned respecting the od tonemmt, he can, by pre- .but not sufficiently well-informed contri- senting this little messenger of truth,butor will find this pra~er inserted a.t the readily give "a rea80n for tA6 Mpe that iIend of the small paper edition of C/(¥U)U" in him."Parable (and. possIbly in other editions);
  42. ,(0 JrlISCELLANEOUS--OBITUABY.Stories 1Of My Young Friend8, by 1. S. THB HAND-BOOK OF MItSKbJSK, for tM .A.rthur, .A.utJu:w oftk" Maiden," tlx. Guidance and 11t8truc/:lon, 01 all PmOfU The New Church, and the public at large, 1DM duire to pract:U:e M umeriIm for t1u are much indebted to Mr. Hodson, for Cure of Di8ea1U, and to allet7iat6 tAe the energy and success with which he has Suffering, of their Fellow-Creaturu, Jtc. endeavoured to supply & de3ideralum in By THOMAS BUCKLAND, late Secretary to New Chuteb literature. Not manyyears the Mumericlnjirmary. London: pp. 66. since, scarcely a juvenile work, altogether Mesmerism, as applied to the eure of suited for the children of the New Church, diseases, and as a means of alleviating the was in existence. But now we have only 8ufFerings of mankind, is now an esta- to refer our readers to Mr. Hod80n 8 list blished fact in science. I t has, therefore,of publicatioDs on this head, in order to strong claims upon the attention of all show how exttnsively this important field w~o suffer, and of all who desire to seeof heavenly usefulness has already been suffering and pain alleviated and removed.occupied. So great is the variety, that So many and so important are the facts,nearly all· mental. tastes, amongst our established by names of the most respect-juvenile friends, can be satisfied. Our able authority, that Mesmerism, as aAmerican brethren, and particularly the curative mean" can no longer be doubted.author of the above stories, have espe- It is in t.his light then, eepecially, and notcially si~aHzed themselves, by their suc- as a means of somnambulism or clairvoy-cessful exertions in this important depart- ance, that we would recommend thisment. The instructive subjects so ably little work to our readerS. It is drawn updiscussed in the stories before UB, are:- by an experienced hand, and gives, in a"Temptation Resisted ;"- "The Word small compass, every thing essential to heof God;"-" The Power of Kindness;"-=- known on Mesmerism 88 a science, and"The Freed Butter6Yj"-" The Broken the benefits to be derived from its appli-Doll;" - " fJod is everywhere ;" - " Ho- cation. The discursive matter of manynestyand PolicYj"-" Slow and 8ure."- volumes the author has skilfully con-Certain brief extracts which we intended densed, as well as the results of his ownto give, had our space pennitted, would experience, into the small compass of aplainly show how well suited these little little manual, which will serve as, ,a guide,publications are to accomplish their in- not only to those who wish to becometended purpole,-that of a·akening and acquainted with the principles of Mes-strengthening in children the moral and merism, but also to those who wish tothe spiritual life. practice it for the benefit of others. ebituarp. Died, on the 28th of October last, at venation, and the deceased soon became Northom, near Bideford, Mr. Wm. Oke, a receiver of the doctrines. He was notaged 33, leaving a wife and four small a talker, he lived in peace and good-willchildren. . Mr. Oke first became ac- with all. Mr. Oke was one of the littlequainted with the doctrines of the New flock first called together to hear a IIlini&-Church through a conversation with Mr. ter of the New Church in Bideford, at theThomas Westcott, of Exeter, at the time house of ltIr. G. Mannin!t, at the time ofthe Rev. Thomas Goyder lectured there the Rev. T. Chalklens mission into Devon-in 1840. He attended some of his lec- shire in 1846. (See Int. Rep. 1847, pagetures, ",ith which he was much pleased. 33.) He attended the lectures of Mr.He removed soon after to Northom, his Chalklen in Bideford, and was truly de.-native place, and at the book-stall of Mr. lighted. He was a constant visitor at theJ. Berry, in Bideford market (where many house of Mr. J. Berry, Bideford, when hishave first heard of the New Church, and family could part with him, OD Sundays;learned some of its principal doctrines, and and his even temper and good conductfrom whence tracts have been sent far and endeared him to all who came within hiswide), he was presented with some of the sphere. J. B.works of E. S. This led to further con- Bideford, Nov. ] Oth, 1850. CGt1e aM Sever, Printen, 18, St• .A.nns-8treel, J[ancMster.
  43. THEINTELLECTUAL REPOSITORY AND NEW JERUSALEM MAGAZINE. No. 134. FEBRUARY, 1851. VOL. XII. NECESSITY OF SELF-EXAMINATION.(AA AddmI from tk Ge1Urol Oonf6fY11,C6 to fk Mem1Jer, of fAe NeIIJ OAurcA tArtNghmJ" tM UAitefl Kingdom of Great BritaiA Md [relaAad.J* BELOVED BRETHREN,IT has long been the practice of the New Church Conference to issuewith its Minutes an affectionate address to the Members of the Churohin connexion with it; and it is now proposed to invite your attention tothe present state of the Church, and the necessity for self-examination. It will not be doubted that the New Church possesses advantagessuperior to those which are enjoyed by any other. In regard to doctrinewe have nothing more to desire. By an exposition which renders ac-cessible to us the infinite wisdom of the Word of God, we obtain doe-t~nes surpassing in fulnesB, purity, and harmony, all that has beenpreviously known or imagined. Concerning the nature and attributesof the Supreme Being, the Creator and Sustainer of the uniYerse, weare now enabled to learn as much as finite understandings can compre-hend of the Infinite; and in our time is fulfilled· the divine promise,"I will shew you plainly of the Father." The doctrines of faith, aswell as those of life and conduct, are not only free from all ambiguity ordoubt, but are seen to be rational, adapted to the nature Dd require-ments of man, and perfectly consistent with the attributes of God.Thus, to the members of the New Church there is no mystery in religion. They,know "how to believe and how to live." They have for the sup· .. This excellent address should have appeared, according to our usual custom, uthe first article in our last Number, but by an oversight it was omitted. N. S. ~o. 134.-vOL. XII. D
  44. 42 NEOESBIn OF iELF-ELUlINATION.reme object of their undivided love and worship a manifested God, andthey have for their government Divine laws, the operations of whichthey are privileged to perceive, and the very ground of the existence of.which they are in some measure permitted to discem. With such superior advantages, then, do the members of the N~ Church exhibit a corresponding superiority in their hearts and lives? Our Lord declares that" unto whomsoever much is given, of him shallbe much required:" therefore the question just propounded demandsour serious attention; and if it cannot be satisfactorily answered, thereason should be sougbt, and diligently sougbt, among and in ourselves. Now, it cannot be questioned, that as a Church we are far helo,," that spiritual standard which is exhibited in the Word of God, and so clearlyunfolded in the New Church writings•. We are often painfully remindedthat what we call the New Jerusalem Church is far from being a correct external manifestation of the New Jerusalem seen by John descending from God out of heaven. Many of the persons who profess to admire and receive the heavenly doctrines are, it is to be feared, but little imbued with their spirit, and manifest but little of their influence. It Deed not be surprising, indeed, that there should be various degrees of reception, and that there should be many claiming the privileges of citizenship who have scarcely entered the city, or at best are strangers therein. But there is not an individual among them, perhaps, who would choose to be included in this description. Henee, in order that such equivocal character, wherever it exists, may be individually dis- covered and put. off, it is necessary to urge the duty of self-examination . It has been remarked, however, that even those who bave advanced.far in a knowledge of the troth, too ofren betray a want of conformity with its dictates,-that there is not a marked distinction in life between them and other persons,-and that, making all due allowance for the stubbornness of the natural mind, there is not exhibited that superior elevation of character which might be expected. Should this appear a.harsh judgment, let it be remembered, that those who have read, and are continually hearing, of the spiritual splendour and purity of the holy city, have some reason to expect its inhabitants to be distinguished by every Christian grace above the ordinary classes of mankind. They have reason to expect, npt mere morality, but a spirituality of mind, a devotedness to the Lord, a seeking "fir8t the kingdom of God and his,righteousness. " And even if there should seem ground for concluding . that the unfavourable judgment now adverted to is founded on expecta- tions which are unreasonable, still, no one ought to be satisfied with such conclusion, ,yithout faithful and honest self-examination.
  45. NECESSITY OF SELF·EXAKINATION. 48 Se1r..examination, then, is affectionately recommended, not merely as an unquestionable duty to be obse"ed at all times, but as especially called for by the state of the Churoh at the present time. It is plainly seen that the New Church has an all·important office to fulfil, and allthat is passing around us appears to indicate that the time is at hand.There is a growing desire for something more satisfactory to the rationalmind than what is to be found in prevailing creeds; and the change andtmcertainty which mark the condition of various sections of the ChristianOhurch, may be expected to direct attention to one whioh is fixed on sucha basis as will render it permanent. Hence arises among us an earnestinquiry as to the external aspect of our Church; and this is accompaniedby a serious apprehension that it does Dot manifest the purity whichbelongs to its true character. Yet, its external influence can only· becommensurate with its inte11lal purity. We may loudly proclaim thesuperiority of the New Chtiroh doctrines; but the evidence of theirsuperiority will be sought in the lives of their reoeivers. We often ad·Tert to the slow progress of the Church, and strive to devise means forthe more effectual promulgation of its doctrines; but do we sufficientlyregard the homely proverb, that example is more powerful than precept?It is our duty to .present the truth to the understandings of men, and inmany cases it proves irresistible; but the power of the Church must bechiefly felt in presenting truth to the world in its living f0rms,-that is,in the life and conduct of the members of the Chorch. It is then 8eenthat the doctrines which are recommended are not a delusion, nor a merepersuasion, but a transformiBg power. It is therefore obvious, that, even in relation to the world around us,our primary duty is a regard to our own state. I t is not sufficient to be61ternally active in supporting societies, or adoptingother measures forpromoting a spread of the truth. It is to be feared, indeed, that thismay sometimes take the place of the more important duty. It is pos-sible to take great interest in extending the Church without, and yet toneglect the means of building up the Church within; and it is neces8&fYto distinguish carefully between the zeal for proselyting and the genuinelove of goodness and truth. It is far from being intended to speaklightly of any exertions for enlarging the boundaries of the Church. Itis an unquestionable duty to make such exertions, which, proceedingfrom a right motive and guided by a proper spirit, will be the meansof strengthening the Church within. And therefore, in urging aspecial regard to the latter duty, we can only call to remembrance the Lords words concerning "the weightier matters of the law: tI "These ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone."
  46. 44 NECEStJ!Y 01 SRLF-EXA1IINATTOlf. Whether, then, we consult our own welfare or the good of mankind, we shall faithfully examine ourselves, and not only in reference to general eondoot, nor even the performanee of our church duties, but especially in reference to our motives and affections. It will he readily admitted that a mans actions are no certain indication of the state«~ hisheart. Even from infancy he is learning to conceal what is selfish ·and hateful therein, and thus to deceive others; 00 there is reason, to eonclude~ that·in so doing, he frequently deceives himself. Nor would it be ra- tional to suppose that every one professing to admire and recei.e tbe doctrines of the New Church, becomes at once proof against self-del1J8ion. When; indeed, we eonsider theforeeof habit, the iuftoenee of eireum~ stanees, the restraining power of external laws, and the 8eCret love of" JepmatiOlJ,-alleombining to form the outward conduot,-w& may per- cei~e n6t only that a fair exterior is no certain evidenee or a pure inte- rior, but tbat concerning the true character of the internal, we/may be 8Mil,. mistaken. Hence the nece88ity f.or strietly attending to om Lotds,declaration 88 to the eye being single, and the body in~oonse­ qoonce full of light. Hence the nooessity for a close scrutiny, to see c that· the more interior ground of ·action is not difterent from that which we desire to have recognized by the world. In this manner to fulfil·the injunetion, ~Know thyself," may appear no easy task; but to assist U8 in· the efficient performanee of it, we are favoured with the following lueid ~instruction from the enligbtened Swedenborg~- - h~Every one may see what is the nature anfl quality of his life~ if he will but search out the nature and quality of the end which he regards,- llf.>tthe nature and quality of the ends. for these ~are innumerable, being as many in number as are his intentions, and the judgments~and COD- el~on8 of his thoughts. These, however, are intermediate aDds, whieh are wriously derived from the prineipal end, or have respect thereto. ·Bot let him search out the end which be Tegards in preference to all the.rest, and in respect of which the rest are as nothing. And if he regards self and the world aB entis, let him know that he is infernal; ·but if be,reiatds the good of his neighbour. the general good, the Lords kingdom, an4 especially the Lord himself, as ends, let him know that M is ce- lestial."-A. C.1909. Nothing surely can be better toan this for 081 guidftDce in-;the: work·.()f self.examination; and everyone· D&W addressed· maybe supposed ,to.have such an acquaintance with the doctrines delivered by the. same author, and more especially with the WOl·d of God, from which ihose doctrines are drawn, as to be ,able rationally to discern· the p$r- ~cular evils which it should be his object to detect~ resist,. and have -sub-
  47. lIECESSITY 01 BBLF-EXAJlINATION.dled.* It may be-.useful, however. to,direct attention.-to those generalclasses of evU tendencies which are pointed out· ill tbe addresses ·to theSeven Chumhe$-,ofAsia, contamed in the ~nd and 8rd chapters of theRevelation•. As 4408e seven -churches denote the various classes ofpersons frouJ. wbich,the Lorcis New Church should be formed; so bythe evils pl!edieated of them must ie understood specifically thoseagainst which :Ule·-members of ,the- Church should be on their guard,and w~ch, if ,net ::put away, will render -them unfit for their disiiJ1~gWsbed positiQu. The cbaracUtri.tics of the- several churches· cannot be here noticed~tllooRh reoo~d ·for attentive study; but it may be permitWQ. asone example, to:poiai to the Ohurch of Ephesus, the angel of which isfirst acidressed, and· ebarged. with having left his first love. This ehu~ we ar~ instructed,. deJlOtes tbose who .primarily respect truths of doo-triBe, aDd DQt the goodr of life to whioh they lead.. If, then, there· is any ground Cor the apprehensions which have been adverted to, the Ephesian state i$"characteristic of a large ponion of the New Church at the present day, and should th$efore be particularly kept in view during self.euYninati.. The ~Ephesiana, we learn, are quick to detect evil in others; they oan. scrutinize· and nicely d.istinguish between the things ",hich are good aJ1d, true, .and tho$e which are evil and false; they can even study and labour to u,acb the thing$ which belong to religion and its doctrines; but the life of. religWn does not possess their first and chief regard. In troth, ,the state here desenibed is, acoor.ding to its de- gree on~ of fai~ ~one.j it--ie one against which the exhortations.and ~ngs of the WOld of la-od are continually directed; and it is one which will· clearl, account ,for all the defects and short-eamings which we bave.- to lament. Are we bet~r aoquainted with truth as an outward ob- ject than as an, inward power,--are we more disposed to teach than to practise,~more activ~ in extending. the Churoh without, than diligent in cultivating it within? Then is th~ description of the Church of EpbeSU8 the descljption of our state; ~d the warning delivered to that Church is delivered to U8.j Therefere, ,. he that bath an. ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto. the Churoh~.~ In conclusion, my dear brethren, whoever desires to be brought under the influence of the tJ.Utb, and become a medium of good to others, let Bim· ever) bear in mind that a successful application of it to the correc~ tion of self, can only result from a faithful examination of self. And this -If the sincere examiner desires further assistance, be will find it abundatltiy pro- ftded in the Rev. W. Mason. "Heads of Self Eumination," given in his "Help to DlwotioD."
  48. 46 REASON A.HD WAtTS. is a sacred duty. Possessing the pure doctrines of the New Jerusalem, it is incumbent upon us to fumish a corresponding external. By thus li~ing the truth we sball most effectually teach the truth; and Jerusalem will.become a praise in the earth. On behalf of the General Conference of the New Church, lam, Your faithful and aftectionate brother in the truth, August, 1~60. TuoJIAS C. SIUW. REASON AND FAITH. To determine the relation between Reason and Faith, or between the Intellectual Faculty..of the human mind and the Troths of ReTelation, has always been a subject of much inYestigation, and of no little COD- troversy in the church. This important subject lies at the base of the true philosophy of religion; without its satisfactory solution it is impos- sible to see the proper relation which a Divine RevelatioB bears to the human mind, and rice "".,ti. And unless"some degree of light be shed upon this subject, the true use of Reason in relation both to what is spiritual and eyen to what is natuml, cannot be seen. The churches of Christendom, from a very early period, have endeavoured to banish Reason frollL the domain of Faith and Revelation, as though thete were between them a fixed and an implaoable enmity. Henee nothing ha ~ more common. both in the Roman Catholic and in the Protestant Ohurches, thaD to decry reason 88 something in itself hostile to religion. In the former church religious worship has accordingly been reduced to mere mummery, of which, being in a dead language, scarcely anything isunderstood by the people. Religion itself is resolved into 8 merely blindfold sentiment of feeling without any intellectual life and light. and the whole mind is prostrated in blindfold submission to 8 spiritual. despotism, more galling and dreadful than the chains of slavery itself. The Word of light and life has been withdrawn from the millions, and their rational mind, destined by creation to rise as with eagle 8 wings, above what is earthly and perishing to what is heavenly and etema1, is 6h~ed down to the dust of what is merely natural aBd sensual. And such has been the state of Christianity in the worli for many ages. Christianity alone oo.n raise mankind into the region of the spiritual, where the true destinies of humanity are realized anel enjoyed. ;But this blessed elevation c~ only be effeQted through the intellectual discemment and the rational reception of revealed Truth.
  49. BBASO:l U» FAITH. 47Cl Give wings to Yeah that he may flee and get away;n (Jer. xlviii. 9.)the rational discernment and receptiou of truth are the wings by whichalone we can be raised above the dregs of our merely natural state towhat is spiritual and heavenly. How cruel, then, must be thatreligioU8despotism which deprives the mind of the wings of spiritual truth!" 0 that I had wings like a dove, that I might flyaway and be at rest!"(Psalm Iv. 6.) How important it is to see the proper relation betweenreason and faith-between our int611ectual faculty and a Divine Reve-lation! Bot the Protestant churches, except Unitarianism, have in likemanner banished Reason from Theology. Luther, in his latter time,execrated Reason as the u devils barloi;" and heaped upon it all~el of reproac.h. in order to banish it entirely from the domain oftbeology. That" Reason soould be held captive under obedience toFait.b." was the maxim he adopted, as a firm principle of Protestantism. .Hence nearly all the creeds and dogmas of the Reformed churches, socalled, are inaccessible to the rational perception of the human mind;or when reason, even in its humblest moods, ventures to look at them,it am disoover nothing but what is anti-rational and revolting to alli$s iQeas of common sense and of the true nature of things. He~.yBtery, irresolvable into any rational ideas, aDd consequent darkness,are the banners of the prevailing theology. These banners are hoistedaod unfurled whensoever the rational mind presumes to ~nquire mooMy of the grounds of the so-called orthodox faith. But can this state of Mllngs, 80 contrary to the rational constitution of man, long mai~ i~8wal ? Impossible. An enlightened faitll, that is, a faith, thegrounds and truths of which can be rationally discerned, is the greatdesideratum of the ag8. The mind ean no longer exist wihout it. 8ueh a faith is the proper home of the mind, and to deprive the mindet its proper home, is to turn it abroad ". a fugitive and a vagabond"in the earth. It is, therefore, of the utmost consequence to see ~true relation between Reason and Faith. That Divine Truth, when revealed, can be undlr8tood, is abundantlye,ident from the Scriptures. " The people that doth not untlwatand.saith the prophet, shall fall;" (Hosea iv. 14.) to "Rtlsratana here is 1&aave an intellectual discemmeot of Divine Truth. " Be ye not as themule that bath no tJAtUratanding." (Psalm xxxii. 9.) To have UJUln-lttutCing is evidently to have dlat which raises & man above the brute.What, then, must we think of that theology which excludes a ,.ational~tJfUlmg QC Divine Truth from religion? Such a theology isnidentl1 not capable of raising man aboYG the c, mule which bath DO
  50. BBA80N AND FAITH.understanding." Again: the Lord says in the Prophet-CC Let himthat glorieth glory in this, that he undwBtandeth and kn0W6th Me. thatI am the Lord, which exercise loving kindness, judgment, and righte-eusness in the earth; for in these things I delight, saith the Lord~"(Jer. n. ~4.) But, how can we tJJTUl6rBtantl and 1m0lD the Lord withouta "rational :discernment of Divine Truth? The Lord is said"to give Hispeople pastors who shall feed .them with knowledge and tI,lttllwstafUling ;(Jer. ill. 16.) but how can this be done without a rational" discetntnentof Divine Truth? To be without the und8rltanding of tnaA is one t)fthe signs of a penerted and fallen state of the human mind and of theohurch. (Rom. i. 31.) And in the Gospels the Lord often rebukes Hiedisciples for being dull of understarlding. (Matt. xv. 16; Mark vii. 18~)And He says emphatically, "Whoso readeth, lit Aimu~."(Matt. xxiv. 16.) The apostle says that we are to pray and to sing withIIlIIJlerBtanding, (1 Cor. xiv. 16.) that is, with a rational discernment ofthat for which we pray, and about which we sing. Again the apostlesays-" Brethren, be Dot children in undMBtantling, but in understand-ing be ye men;" (1 Cor. xiv. ~O.) and he prays that the Colossiansmay have u a spiritual untltwltantling of the will and wisciom of God. tt(CoL i. g.) The great truths of religion are oalled m"tIria; but· amystery is not a thing that cannot be "understood-by no means.. EW1l1Divine Truth is called et a mystery of the kingdom of heaven," lhioll,66ftw6 it· is """salsd, cannot be conceived, found out, and understood byReason; but when it ia """ltJletJ, it can be understood by tIwse whoseminds love the light of truth. Hence the Lord says to His diBciples,that "to them is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom ofheaven." (Matt. xiii. 11.) The mind, therefore, can uooers1Bnd themysteries or the revealed truths of the kingdom of God. And this,indeed, is its great privilege and blessing. What, then, must we thinkof that theology which has banished all rational "aotivity ,from itssystem? But in order to see the proper relation between Reason and Faith. itis necessary to see first what the mind is. There is a natuml aiMand a "JMitual mind,· the former, in its lower region, is sensual, andmay be called the animal mind, but in its higher region it is rationalfrom the world, and is called the natural rational mitcd; wh~, thelatter, in its higher regjon, is spiritual and oelestial, and in its lower region it is spiritually rational from those heaTenly prmciples. Thusman has two rational minds, the one has its birth from the world, theother from heaven; the one is intended for the reception of science ad knowledge from the world, and the other of Tmth and Goodness from
  51. BBASON AND FAnJI. heaven. Heooe a DiviDe Revelation is acWressed chiefly to our iDternalor spiritual man, and hence also it is, that, as the apostle says, "the things which are of the spirit of God are spiritually diseemed. u(1 Cor. ii. J4.) But the great object of Revealed Truth is to regeaerat8the natural mind, and to bring it into 8objeOUoJl to the spiritual mind,that it also may receiTe heavenly Truth ,and~ Goodness, and thus beblessed with salTatioD and etemallife. Thwl· the wisdom derived :&omthe world is brought into subjection to the wis.wm derived from heaVeD,and all things in man are consecrated to the Lord. The apostle Jamespoints out very foroibly the difference between the Tiisdom derived fremthe world only, and the wisdom derived from heaven; the former; hesays, "is earthly, eeD818J, deviliab;" whereas the latter ., is pure,peaceable. gentle, easy to be intreated, full 01. mercy. and good fruits,withouti partiality and without hypocrisy-." (Chap. iii. 16, I 7.) Thisplainly sb&ws the eontruiety and enmity between the natural and thespiritual minds prior to r.egeoeration, and the neeessity of a reconcilia-tion between them, which is effected solely by Jeceiving the Truths ofRevelation, and by liring aeoordiog to them. I When we know that ~ has a spil"itv4l .mind as ,well as a 1UItunIlmind, we may see the 81lsolute necessity of· a Revelation of spiritualand divine Truths to .aftect the spiritual miDd, and to fill it with thewisdom which oometh from above. For no knowledge from the world08Il reach the spiritual mind 80 as to enlightell and affect it. As watercannot rise above the level of its source, 80 meMly natural knowl.derived from the world only, cannot rise above itJe source and affect thespiritual mind. Thus if it be granted that a spiritual mind exists, thenecessity of a divine Revelation of spirit11a1 Truths, in order to affectthat mind, must, except we deny the goodness of God, likewise begnmted. We have now seen that there are two ways to the rational mind t)fman ;-one from the world, or from without, and the other from heaven,or from tDitAin. The essential element of the rational mind is truth,u the essential element of vision is light. Now, the Word, as a DivineRevelation, is presented to our senses that we may receive from tDithOtathe knowledge of Truth, in order that by the proper application of thatknowledge we may receive from tDithin the lifa ,of Truth; for it is notthe knowledge of Truth, but the love or life of .Truth, which properlyconstitutes a living Faith. So long as the knowledge of Truth remainsin the natural mind only, employed merely to promote the worldlyinterests of the natural man, it can never constitute Faith; but whenthe same knowledge is employed to promote the heavenly interests of
  52. 60 BIUSON AND FAITH.the spiritual mao, it is then raised into its proper spiritual region, andthe natural mind is purified by the descending influence, and renderedreceptive of the graces and blessings of what is spiritual 8.Ild heavenly,and the wisdom of the natural mind, instead of being u earthly. sensual,a.ad. devilish," partakes of the wisdom of the spiritual mind, whioh is"pure, peaceable, gentle," &0. A Divine Revelation is, therefore, addressed to man as a rat.ional being, and the animal, not having a rational nature, is, oonseqeeatly,not a 8ubject, as is well known, to which a Revelation can be addressed;and therein consists the great distinction between man and an animalReason is in the same relation to revealed Troth as the eye is to ligh~The eye has no light inherent in itself, Dor has reason any truth in8.e-~nt in itself. As the eye, however aotive in itself, cannot exercise itavision but by the influx of light, 80 Reason, however vigorous in. itself.cannot see and discern without the light of knowledge. N~w, it is eom~mon in the acquisition of all scientifio knowledge, to begin with some.thing granted. and which has not to be established by a process ofreasoning. Thus mathematics, the most strict and exaot of sci8lloe&,begins by its axioms and postulates, whioh are granted. The 0088 is thesame in moral 8cience,-thus, "to do to another as we would that: beshould do to us," is an axiom at once granted as the basis of moralscienoe~ which requires no process of reasoning to establish its truth.The case also is the same in theology, or in acquiring the Truths ofRevelation. Certain axioms as granted are always supposed, as in evez:.yother branch of knowledge. Those axioms are,-tbat theM is a God.that He has created man, that He loves him and provides for his good,and that His Word is a Divine Revelation from Him, in order to teachman how he may acquire good, and become eternally happy. And thewoms on the part of man are,-that he has a rational minds by whichhe can know his God, and love Him as the Supreme Good, and as theBOuroe of all excellence and happiness. Now, when Reason commences its acquisition of religious knowledgefrom these principles, as granted, it does not enter into the domain oftheology in a doubting and nega.tive, but in an affirmative and deceptivespirit, aDd begins its blessed career of intelligence and wisdom. ForDi-rine Truth, in order to be saving, must be seen or apprehended "the rational mind, but not as derived from, th e rational mind; it mustbe seen in the order of descent from God to the rational mind, and notin the order of ascent from the rational, thus from self, the world, andnatural fallacies, to God; this is inverted order; for the ratiorial. mindcan never, from. itself, enter into what is diine and spiritual, but wha
  53. REASON AND FAITH. 51is 4irine and spiritual may enter into what is rational. and be therertJtioJuMly apprehended ;-this is true order. " From these observatioDs, it appears that the foundations of faith arelaid in the state of the will; consequently, that if a man would knowwhether what be believes is true (we speak of a saving faith). he mustascertain whether what he wills is good; for good in the affectioDS pre-cedes truth in the understanding. Thus there is a state of the affectionsprevious to belief, upon which the belief depends. If the will be dis-posed to good, it disposes the understanding to truth, for good agreeswith truth, and not with error. If the will be disposed to evil, it dis-poses the understanding to error, for error agrees with evil, Qot withgeod. Thus when the will predisposes the man to receive troth, he isin a state whieh Bwedenborg calls the affirmativI principle, becausewhen he hears truth he is disposed to receive it. When the will predis-poses the man to disbelieve, he is in a state which Swedenborg calls thenegative principle, because when he hears truth he is disposed to rejectit"* Let UI now S88 how, according to Swedenborg, these two prineipl.are formed, for we thus analyze the first principles of faith or belief,and, in so doing, those a18~ of reason : - Cl Evqry one in his early years," says 8wedenborg, cc when he is first principled ingoodnesees and truths, is held by the Lord in an affirmative prinoiple concemin~ thetmth of what Is sald and taught by parents and by masters; this aftlrmatlve prlnoiple,with such 81 are capable of becoming spiritual men, is confirmed by seleutiftOl andknowledges, for whatsoever they learn, which has any connection ~th such prlnQiple,insinuates Itlelf therein, and strengthen8 it, and this more and more even to affec-tion, and these are they who become spiritual men, according to the essence of truthjn whioh they believe, and who conqJer in temptations: but the case is otherwisewith those who are in no capacity of becoming spiritual; these, notwithstanding theirbeing held in an affirmative principle during childhood, still admit doubting principlee.. they adftDOe in Je&II, and thereby infringe the aftirmatlYe principle of good andof truth; aod whea they come to adult age, they adpUt negative prin~ip1el, even tothe 4ffection of what is false: and these, in.case they were let into temptations, wouldabsolutely tall therein, and therefore they are preserved from temptations. The realcause, however, Why they adpUt doubting principles, and afterwaJ:ds negative prin-ciples, originates solely in the life of evil; for they who are In the lite of evil cannotdeotherwiee. The HIe of f!IItry one, as was said above, is affection or 10Ye, and moh• the afreotioD or love la, each ia the thought. The affection of evil and the thoughtof trot.. never join themselves together; where they appear to joiQ themselvee to-gether. they still do not join, the thougbt of truth being without the affection thereof,wherefore with such persons truth is not truth, but only a kind of sound, or profes-lion of the lips, from whioh the heart is far removed. The worst of men al80 are • See Mr. C1IIIold8 Reply to the Writer at 0800tt, p. 45.
  54. BBA80N AND FAITH.capable of knowing such truth, and sometimes in a degree IJUPGrior to other melt.With some, too, the persuasive principle of truth is such, that no one can conceivebut that it is genuine, when, nevertheless, it is not genuine, if the life of good be notin it; for in suoh case it is an affection of self-love, or of the love of the world, whichgives birth to such persuasive principle, whilst the patrons of such truth defendilwith & vehemence of apparent zeal, even to the condemning those who do not reeeiftit, and belieYe &8 they themselee do. put the quality of thia truth with every oDeis aooording to the ruling principle in every one, being more powerful aooerding tothe more powerful inftaence of Belf-love, or the love of the world; it is indeed bom iqadhesion with evil, but it does not join itself together with evil, wherefore also it laextirpated in another life. The case is otherwise with those who are in the nfe ofgood, eaeential truth having with such its ground, and its heart, and ita life from theLord. " -.A.O., n. 2689; ,eI alIo u. 2588. Cl With regard to man, to respect the doctrine of faith from thiDga rational, is.fJr1different from respecting rational things from the dootrme of faith. To respect thedoctrine of faith from things rational, is not to believe the Word, ~r doctrine thenoededuced, before there is a persuasion wrought from a rational ground that it is tme;whereas to respeCt things rational from the doctrine of faith, is flrst to believe theWord, or doctrine thence deduced, and afterwards to confirm the same by thingentional; the f01Dler case is inverted order, the OODIequenoe of which is that nothiDgis believed, but the latter cue is genuine order, whioh produces a full belief. ".....A.O., n.2568. " Man proceeds in the things of faith when he is regenerating, almost as he pro-oeeds in the truths not of faith, whilst he is growing up to maturity; in the progressof his growth, eensual things are the first plane, afterwards scientiftcs, and uponthese planes judgment next groWl, with one person more, with another lesa; dmiD,man 8 regeneration, the general principles of faith, or the rudiments of the doctrineof the church, are the first plane, next in order are the particulars of doctrine and offaith, afterwards suOO888ively things more interior; these planes are what are illue-trated by the light of heaven, hence comes the intellectual principle, and the per-eeptivity of faith and ofthegopd o1charity."-A. a., n.6751. Now, Reason is the lamp in man which is lighted, in respect to whatis religious and .spiritual, by the light of Revelation. This is eviden~,that without a receptacle there can be DO reception. But the ·rationalmind is the receptacle of the truth of Revelation. This reception, how-ever, can only take place in proportion as truth is rationally seen andacknowledged. But Reason is either a:Uirmative or negative, and it-isei~her active or pa88ive. When affirmative," it begins, as we have seep,in right order;· it takes the great principles of religion for granted, a.ndenters into the innumerable particular truths which constitute thosegeneml ideas with a humble and receptive spirit, and in this way be-comes spiritually rational or "wise toward God. n But when Reason isemployed negatively, not only in reference to spiritual but also tonatural things, it assumes no first principles as granted, but reasons.doubts, and domes, at the very threshold of the subject, and O8JlIlot
  55. BEA80N AND FAITH. ~.8oonsequently advance a step towards the palace of intelligence, or thetemple of wisdom. Reason is, in its very nature, the most active principle in man, forwhat is more active than thought? When active from an ajfirmatiHprinciple, it "rides the white horse, and goes forth conquering and tooonquer ;" bat when it is active from a nsgati176 principle, it rides eitherthe " black horse or the pale horse, and darkness; death, and hell, followin his train." (See Rev. vi.) Luther, therefore, was not far out of theway, when he called Reason (meaning, no doubt, reason actuated bya~gative principle) "the Devils harlot," from which has sprung all kindsof scepticism and infidelity. But when &.son is passivI, and suffers itself to be acted upon with-out exercising any intelligent reaction itself, it becomes the stagnantsource of many calamities and miseries which afflict humanity. Aspiritual despotism aims at nothing so much as the making of ReasoD,in its devotees and victims, a merely paBBiv, suqjse. This is the strong-hold of all despotism, both spiritual and temporal. To close the eyes ofthe rational mind has ever been the object of this malignant power.Hence it either puts its veto on the education of the .people, or restrictsit to the most confined limits. It withdraws the Word of Gocffrom themind of Christendom, and it ev~n conducts its, w()l8hip in an unknown tongue. And when the rational mind is thus rendered entirely passiw, &Very kind of superstitious enormity, and of bigotted peresecution, is the result. . Let every man, then, employ all the powers of his rational mind in the cause of religion; let him know that he is W1ted with Reason I not merely to acquire the treasures of earthly knowledge, but especially of spiritual and heavenly intelligence; that he can only labour in the vineyard of Truth in proportion as he endeavours to understand the 1 truths of Revelation, and to eArry them out in his. life and practice. ntere can be no danger of the activity of the rational mind 80 long as it· proceeds on an affirmative principle. But let us guard against the pride of Reason, when actuated by a nsgativB principle in regard to Revelation. Let us remember that to take our own ISQ,soniftgs as the base of our religion instead of the Divine Truths of the Word of God, isto follow the suggestions of the serpent, and to eat, not of the tree of life, but of the tree of death, and for ever to banish ourselves from the patadise of wisdom and happiness. ...~FEX.
  56. 64 PHASES OF TRUTH. THE qnestion, cc What is Truth?" has been agitated in all past ages of the world since man forsook Truths living fountain, and must o&Dtinue to be a subject of especial discussion 80 long as the human heart remains impure. It is a question wide as created nature, which is but the outward covering of Truth,-wide as the universe, extensive as the page of Revelation, yea, as unfathomable as the mind of Deity Himself" for he is ., Truth Itself." Cl What is Troth? n must then be an inquiry, not meNly tor the anxious soul when first emerging from its unregenerate gloom, but also for the loftiest orders of angelic intelligence. To find the Troth is "to find out God," but who shall do this "unto perfection n ? As well might we expect to concentrate and, endure the rays of the sun, or even of all the suns in the universe, within the feeble organ of the eye, as-to be able to comprehend all Truth~ Who then can satisfy our inquiry, but the Lord Himself or the Divine Log08! Truth is One, for God is Ooe. While man continues as u a house divided against itself," evil and, corrupt, how can Troth be one with him? much less can Truth then be as one with the human race. Troths ramify and interlace themselves among each other as a beauteous net- work; thus, if man were in a capacity for seeing Truth, he would but require the view of a single truth, as a thread or clue, to lead him cc unto all truth;" this thread pursued would lead to God, the radiating source and centre of the whole. Man is not as one within himself, the "links of order and conjunotion are by fallen natnre broken. Hence truth with man is a disjointed entity. Ere the fall, Truth dwelt on earth as a beautiful temple, whose doors continued open to all "the pure in heart. tt Man fell, the doors of the sanctuary closed, and he :oould only approach its outer walls and porches, whose symmetry even then shewed a harmony and correspondence with the inner glories of the plaoe. Man followed onwards in his retrograde career, and, as his state declined, the fair proportions of that heavenly structure faded and de- cayed, even unto utter ruin, till at length not one stone was left standing upon another. Still Mercy follows man in misery, even to his lowestI depths, and the very ruins of Truths fair temple, its isolated stones and fragments, are scattered through the earth, each forming as it were a feeble shrine or nucleus, round which the anxious soul could rally with its inquiry, "What is fruth?" " Where is my Guide to Paradise and
  57. PHASES OF lBUTB.Peace ?" Truth now appears disguised by error, superstition, andidolatry-truth is mixed with falsity in all the multiplied metamor-phoses of mythological invention,-wheat mingled with the chaff,-seedseattered among thoms,-the rose of Sbaron choked with briers andthisdes. The bieroglyphs of Egypt, the symbols of Indian and Mexicanidolatry, point with unerring certitude back through distant ages, to thetime of Truths dominion, and an age of bright illumination. All and.each of them, 88 systems, contain grains of the gold and siler of goodand truth which abounded in the Golden Age, and which are to us truepsycho-geological evidences of a happy world before the fiood,-yea, priorfA) the literal Mosaic Adam. Nevertheless, widely as these phantasies have led man from the pathsof light, they have served their uses, and fulfilled a mission far more important than is commonly supposed; and ever has the Father of our race striven to lead man to retrace bis steps, and once more to ereot Truths glorious temple in our midst. The page of Revelation records the history of His susce8sful labours, for it is declared (Is. xxviii. 16), u Behold I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation" of a temple, against which. "the gates of bell shall not prevail." Nor is the universal heart of man left with- out its own internal witness to the existence of this temple. Whence else arises that deep conviotion which affects all minds, tbat troth in- deed exists in an unbroken chain to lead us up to God? Alas! that chain was broken, and its silver links were scattered among men. The lland, before unstained by disobedience, now struck with the paralysis of ain, DO longer bolds that chain within its gmsp. Sin broke the chain that bound man8 soul to God, and forged a ruthless chain which links his soul to hell. As certainly, however, as there yet remains, even in the fallen BOul of man, some faint traces of that sculpture which first CUTed man out in the image and likeness of his Maker, 80 surely does Revelation supply the means for restoring· the pristine loveliness and beauty of this fairest of all the works of God. Truth is the mighty -agent for this work, and in the Holy City, New Jerusalem, now coming down from God out of heaven, a holy Temple is provided, radiant with the light of Truth, "having no need of the sun, neither of the mooD.___ tD shine in it, for the glory of God doth lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof." The chief corner stone may be seen in the doctrine of the sole Divi- nity of Jesus Christ" the only wise God our Saviour," (Jude v. 25.) upon which will be erected the temple of One " greater than Solomon." As, however, no eartWy temple is of instantaneous growth, so neither will
  58. 56 PHASES OF TRUTH. the Holy City be established in a day. The dawn or advent of Truth must be, like the silent approach of moming,-aod those who by pure affectioD~ are elevated upon the mountains wjll witness the rising splen- dours of ,the sun, long before its rays will penetrate the minds of those who are in the valleys, shrouded in the fogs and mists,of prejudice ana error. But withal, the dawn is slow, even to those who ,are prepared for its reception. When we inquire what is Truth? where is Truth? we point to ~e herald star in the east, whence too the wise men <mile and. paid the:ir homage to His Ad.vent in the manger. He who is impatient for th~ da"n of truth, ev~~ upon a world lying in darkness, is as though he would, hasten the rising of the morning SUD. If truth be not yet risen, it is .because "the hour is not yet come,"-the states of men are unprepared. And tbu~ it is with every human mind, the dawn of tn1th is- slow and almost imperceptible-except, perhaps, after some unex- pected s¥st of temptation, when the clouds burst and unveil a sudden 8Unshin~. If a man in his presumption should stamp his impatient foot at midnight against the side of a mighty mountain, with intent. to increase the motion of the earth and accelerate the rising of the SUD, such a one would afford a striking illustration of a misoalled "z8al jor truth" of those who act and speak as though they think themselves empowered to help Omnipotence, or hasten the rising of the Sun of Righteousness. ,All that man can do is to prepare himself to take advantage of the risen light, and work while it is called to-day. How many spiritual sluggards are there in the world! Who can say that he is up to greet the :first rays in the east, and wastes no opportunity of working out his salvation from iniquity? Every soul should have its temple, an~ should worship at its holy altar-and pure affections, like the vestal virgins, should never let its light expire. In proportion as each individual perfect~ his own temple, the more glorious will be that heavenly Jerusalem, the common sanctuary of all the human race. Per- fect each unit, and the sum of the whole must be perfection. Repent-ance must clear away the rubbish, that the temple may be foonded·on the solid Rock of AgE;s, and this accomplished, stone after stone of truth, and beam after beam of conjoining holy good, will then assume their proper station. "First the blade, then the ear, afterwards 1rbe full cam in the ear." Progression is a law of the order of heaven. Divine love ! and wisdom never can be ~urried. Human prudence may be bustliDg and perplexed, but the steps of truth are measured. The grain of wheat must see its months of wind and calm, and frost and SDOW, and gloom and sunshine, then it yields its thirty-fold, its sixty, or a hundred. " Magna est veritas et prrevalebit," but first must fight its battles-
  59. PHASES 0" TRUTH. 57so long as error shall exist, truth must dwell in conflict and among itsenemies. When Troth was born into the world, Herod sought theyoung childs life. The life of Moses in like manner was in danger >from the cruelty of . ~Pharaob. The dragon likewise stood before thewoman to destroy:th& man-ohild as soon as it was born. (Rev. xii. 4.)Even the mythologio narrative of the infant BercuIes awakeninR in hiscradle and strangling the serpents that were ready to devour him, pointst() the pe18ecution of truth, which would inevitably perish but for itsown inherent power deriVed from innocence. How like, this fable, tothe prophets language~UThe seed of the woman shall bruise the ser-pents head." When the inner struggle bas commenced between thehosts of troth and falsehood, blessed is man if he be faithful in u thefight of faith." Withoat this conflict man could not be man,-trutbcould not be his. It is the needful ordeal of every candidate forheaven,-for there lurk within man "foes of his own household," theevil and the false, which;·· if they be not roused, combatted, and con-quered, willluU him intothe deep sleep of spiritual death. Man mustfast ,for "forty days" and be u tempted of the devil, n but he must over-come the tempter, and obtain angelic ministmtions, ere truth becomeshis own. The conflicts of troth in the human mind, are· but the effortsof God to unite man to Himself,-for God dwelleth in Truth. Manopposing Truth opposes God: Man embracing Truth, prepares thereby an upper room in his houSe, where the Lord can come in and sup and· break the.bread of life with him. Truth and Love are inseparable companions. They have dwelt toge- ther as a perfect one from everlasting, in the mind of God. Their union in the Church is a eovenant, founded upon the essential nature of the Divine, having eternity for the duration of its oonjugial joys, and the blissful avocation of "making others happy" for the sphere of its per- petual employment~ Troth never could exist alone. Ever chaste and pure and holy, truth cannot violate the bonds of love,-and vain are we if we think to eourt its fellowship while living in consociation with its enemies. Evils of the hGUSehold of truth are the foes, wherefore it is declared, that the pure in heart alone shall see the visions of God. This must of necessity be so, for truth is not, as too extensively supposed, a cbangefulshadow, or a mele opinion, but is indeed a reality whose sub- stance is more durable than adamantine rocks, yea, fixed as the ever- lasting hills. Goodness is th& substratum or substance of all truth- truth is the manifesting-form &f good. Deprive truth of this substance or its soul,-will it not perish? or is it anything? Say not then, we hold the troth, if its soul, the living love, has taken its departure. < N. S. NO. 184.-VOL. XII. It
  60. 58 WHAT IS EXTERIOR INNOCENCE? We know no substance in this world but by its form. By forms are substances distinguished. Truth guides the spiritual eye in its dis- crimination of all good. As every material substance has its identifying form, so every good projects from its own bosom an offspring-troth. which certifies its origin, and an angels eye will seek,-will have no ether evidence. As human countenances vary without end, yet each is self-identified, so every truth, offspring of God, bears its own physiognomica1, immutable certificate. Every truth ha.ving its indi- viduality, must have its sphere of exercise. Hence the various degrees in which it operates,---for there is sensual, natural, scientifio truth, adapted to the denizen of earth-the mere external man,-spiritual" truth which lifts man up into the atmosphere of neighbourly charity; 80 also there is celestial truth, which again elevates man into the transcen- dent beatitudes of the third and highest heavens. Each degree of troth conducts to its specific good, and cannot intrench upon the offiees of truth higher or inferior to itself-since "order is heavens first law." Truth is spiritual light, and as light cannot exist apart from heat in outward nature, 80 neither can truth be found separated from its cauBaI love. Whence it may be concluded as a psychological deduction, that the purer, the higher, the intenser the love which we cherish in the heart, the wider and the deeper the capacity we shall enjoy, for seeing the truth as it is reflected in the Word, and imparted from the Divine Human of Him who alone is Pure Truth Itself. Hulme. ~~acr~1K".· WHAT IS EXTERIOR INNOCENCE? .YOUR correspondent cc Evita" appears to have met with (I woulcl hope)a more than usual experience of "false brethlen," with whom he indi-cates (and justly enough, if he does Dot misjudge them), no smalldispleasure. He even thinks it necessary not only·to warn us againstbecoming such characters ourselves, but also to advise that we ~. usecaution, lest we come within the baneful influence of those who merelybear the semblonces of charity and troth." That the present age of theNew Church is one of great defect and feebleness, cannot be doubted;our Author warned us that it must be such at its commencement; but Iwould fain hope that the number is not great of the sort of charactersagainst whom the "caution" is so considerately given. Awful, indeed,such characters must be as those described by" Evita,tt-deep dissimu-llltors, leading into mischief self-deceived dupes! But," judg. flot,
  61. WBAr IS EXTERIOR INNOCENCE? clat ,!I .6 not judged." It is not for erring mortals to determine too ~nfideDtlYt when a brother errs in judgment, and when he "errs in his heart." It belongs to the Omniscient only, " To judge by principles withiD, When frailty errs, and when we sin... And we certainly need" a caution"-to avoid referring the error to the heart, whenever, and because, the offence of the offender is one that comes in contact with our own propriuln,-a too common failing! Whether a man has in his soul that interior good of innocence which our author says is the "ground of every good," and which alone can ~e him a good Christian, the Lord only knows. The interior good (If innocence, represented in the Word by children, and also by lambs, is an. entire dependence upon the Lord, and a constant looking up te Rim with childlike confidence, for the communication of all needful good. The s:cterioTgood of innocence is represented by kids; but it is flOt, perhaps, very clear from the writings of Swedenborg what is meant by it. ,JIQW is it, then, to be defined! This qpestion was actively in discussion in my own mind, together with the rep) which I thought might be suitably given to it, whe~ I read. the paper of " Evita," and fo~nd therein a sentence which happened to,oome in, direct contact with my own conclusions. He says, &, True 6implicity of mind. is a state unconcerned about mere human opinion, whether good or bad." Now I IXlust co,nfess that this "opinion hI .did not r~d ,yith perfect unconcern, although its anthor may, possibly, regard with perfect unconcern whether any of your readers approve it or not. To my perception, it savoured of contempt of others, and what the distance is between contempt and ~o love, and whether it reaches to hatred, I leave to the measurement of your readers. The sentiment ¥~ ~ ejaculating in ,so.me such manner as the following : - , Such a s,tate pf stoical indifference is convenient· enough, but is it it. ,;t~ly Christian stat~ ? Would not indifference to the Divine approba- tipn be a sure sign that no love to the Lord exists? Can l()veto a; person C()-exi$t with indifference whether that love is returned? The Lord is not indifferent whether w~ lo~e Him, and haUowHis name, and desire His ,approbation, and." seek honor" ,~f Him!, Is it possible fA) ~Qpar_te~, desire to b~ loved from a desire to be approved? Is a wife con.tentto love, without,being ,loved? Or can she hope that she is , }owed" awl be indifferent whether she, (that is, ber principles and opinions), m-e app;roved.? Can a man love his neighbour-those who are-~jn goqd-and yet be jndifferent to t4eir good opinion, and conse- ,que,Q~Y to . their .loJe- that is" such love as conjoins by reason of
  62. 60 WHAT IS EXTERIOR INNOCE~CE? similarity of taste and sentiment? And if he loves his enemies, as 1le is commanded to do, will it not be more satisfactory to him to know that their opinion of him is good, rather than bad? How, then, can he be indifferent to their bad opinion? For how caD a man be useful to persons with whom he has no influence? and he eanoot have any with those who regard him with indifference or aVeT8ioD. If a man wish~ ~ be useful to others, he must needs wish to possess their good opinion, and avoid their bad opinion, at least to sooh an e~teDt as will give him lome influence with them; how, then, can it 00 good, and especially, how can it be "the highest and happiest condition to which we can attain," to be U unconcerned, about mere human OpiniOD, whether good or bad" ? This alleged high siate is said to l>e the inyariable accom- paniment of "8i~plicity of character. tt I presume simplicity is either the same as interioT innocence, or an inseparable companion of it; butit appears to me that interior innocence, accompanied wit1l iD~erenceto human opinion, is interior innocence without esterior, &Qd I judgethat although it is a sad state for a man to l?e in, that any ex.teriorprinciple should be without its suitable interior, it is not gtKHl that aninterior principle should be without its corresponding exterior. u What God bath joined together let not man pot &sunder." It concerns usbut little, individually~ whether a man have interior innocence or DOt.;that is a question between God and bis own soul j but very deeply- doesit concern us, whether he have ,tn,riM innooeDCe or Dot; for that i& aquestion between man and man; and to the, proof of this I sball DQWproceed. Our first inquiry is, How is exterior innocence to be deftDtd? It is.doubtless, a religious principle, for 1o offer a kid signiied .spiritualworship from the principle represented by a kid; it could DOt, therefore,signify infantine innocence, ,!hioh is merely the symbol of religiousinnocence, from which, of course, no wor&hip could result. We proceed,:therefore, to ohtain a definition by adverting to the interior and extepOlprinciples of that state in which innogence exists in ·its perfeetioD, thecelestial state. "The internal good of the celestial kingdom is thegood of lovs to the Lord, but the external good of the celestial kingdomis the good of mutual lovs. tt (A.O. 9873.) Sinee in this case theinterior principle relates to mans aspect towards the Lord, while· the-exterior principle relates to mans aspect towards man, I conclude thatit ,is so with interior and exterior innooence; and that while interiorinnocence is a child-like looking up to the Lord, exterior innocence isa child-like looking up to man. As the best principle or thing -whenperverted becomes the worst (whieb is the case when ~he external is
  63. WHAT IS EXTERIOR INNOCENfJE? 61separated from its proper internal, and thereby becomes corrupt), so withthe unregenerat~ the principle which should be exterior innocence be-comes a mean and selfish subserviency and servility. At the presentday there is little, indeed, in human character to "look up to," still, where there is interior innocence implanted by regeneration, it will tend to put on its proper corresponding exterior; it will tend to the looking up to man, in tM ab,tract, under the sanctifying influence which a holy interior principle always lends to its exterior. If we turn our view to the celestial kingdom of the heavens, how full of exterior innocencemust be its most tender mutual love J With what ineffable sweetness,deferenee, and courtesy must each approach to the other, because thsr" to approach another is to approach the good that is in him from the Lord, wbieh is the same as to approach the Lord as manifested in him~That is why he looks up to another with a feeling of loving reverence;and that is the reason why every man who is principled in the interior innocence which looks up to the Lord, will tend, in approaching his fellows, to look up to them, assuming, or being willing to assume, that there III4Y N in them-and in the ease of sincere fellow-members of the Church, especially, that there muat H in them,-something from the Lord,-something of good to be loved and imitated, something of troth to be respected and adopted. The state of true innocence being iden- tieal with the deepest humility (for it is the latter which gives entrance to the former), there is no one so mean in condition, but that exterior innocence approaehes him with a respectful feeling ;-the Lord may possibly manifest Himself in him, and wherever the Lord manifests Himself, even in the least degree, the man who loves the Lord above all things rejoices to meet Him with affectionate reverence, and sinoe it is uncertain where this manifestation may be made, he holds himself in readiness to meet the Lord, by approaching his brother-man in thatloving state of respectful gentleness which is calculated to bring out what is of the Lord in the mind of him whom he addresses. With himwho is in interior innocence this gentleness is a development fromwithin, but that is no reason why a man should not cc cultivate the artsGf pleasing, or why the amenities of social intercourse should not becomehis study, 80 that the language and the tone of his address may reveal• disposition to conciliate the good-will of every one. n We must compeleurselves to prtItCtiM charity before the principle of charity can be estab-lished in our hearts; we must compel ourselves to look up to the Lord~before interior innocence can be our own; and (1 judge) we must compelourselves to look up to others in the way described by "Evita" (as justeit.ed), and I add apparently described without being approved ;-but
  64. 62 WHAT IS EXTERIOR INNOCENCE? probably he is describing a dishonest simulation, rather than a sincere effort "always to observe that propriety of behaviour" which is pre- scribed in the third of Swedenborgs four "Rules of Life. n , In the foregoing remarks I mean to affirm, that we cannot look up to each other too deferentially, provided we give the first place to the Lord, by constantly looking up to Him, a nd I judge, tha.t so far as this rule is complied with in the Church, there will result a freedom of commu- nication, a beneficial" free trade" of opinion, sentiment, and precept 7 and a cordial intercourse from which all rudeness, harshness, and bigotry, with all the injuries and woes they inflict, will be utterly ex- cluded. I hesitate not to give an opinion, founded on more than forty years New Church experience, that the neglect of cultivating exterior" innocence, as above defined, is one great, if not the greatest cause, why some departments of our public affairs have been conducted in such aspirit and manner as to preclude useful persons of gentle disposition9 from engaging in them, because it would involve too great a sacrifice of peace to minds of so sensitive a character. I have now in my eye an individual every way an example of the loveliness of genuine exterior in- nocence, (because, no doubt, in his ease an outbirth of interior) who was asked by me some years since the question, U Why do you decline servingon such a Committee?" when he replied, "I really cannot; the con-tentions I witness there, injure my state more than I can bear." And whence originated those contentions? (And one contentious characterin a body can give to the ,vhole a contentious appearance.) I answer,from unconC8rn about mere human opinion! True honour is described by Dr. Johnson as a regard to character; and Addison says in his dramaof Cato, that U Honour aids and strengthens virtue where sbe meetsher, and imitates her actions where she is not." In true honour~thatis, in a just concern for our estimation in society, there is ~ nothingservile, cringing, time-serving, or tortuous. True honour is justly de-scribed further by Addison, as "the noble minds distinguishing per-fection ;" and why? Because the interior principle of innocence comesto its perfection and fulness in ultimates, in that exterior innocencewhich is identical with truly honourable and gentlemanly feelings" and behaviour. And let no reader be surprised that we here use terms, too often foundon the lips of rakes and polished hypocrites, or that we give to themsuoh high Christian significance. However these terms may have lostheir original meaning, it will be sufficiently clear that such was, and ought to b, still, their legitimate and recognized acceptation. Whatother signification can be given to the following Apostolic expressions?
  65. WHAT IS EXTERIOR INNOCENCE? 63 What other conduct could be meant to be inculcated in the exhortations, " Honour ALL men." "Be courteous." U In lowliness of mind let each esteem others better than themselves." "Be kindly aftectioned ooe to another; in honour preferring one another:" "submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God"? How can these be reconciled with unconcern for the opinion of others? In one word, exterior innocence is gentleness. "The fruit of the spirit is gentleness." "I beseech you by the gentleness of Christ. " And here is the origin of the term " gen- tleman," and the clear delineation of its meaning. No doubt the first propagators of the Christian sentiments just cited, regarded their special inculcation upon the chiefs and leaders of the uncivilized tribes and na- tions to whom they came, the best way to prepare them for the interior reception of the spiritual truths of the Gospel. Hence it came to be ,veIl uuderswod, that to be gentle, and not fierce and grasping, was the proper mark of a Christian-the indispensable distinction bet,veen H barbarous and civilized condition; and thus it came to be universally understood, that a Christian must be a gentle-man. Although this term is more generally understood to have originated in human pride, it is, and ought to be considered by us, as a Christian institution, aod conse- quently it ought to be considered as an essential mark of a New Church Christian, whatever his external condition, that he must be a gentle-man in his feelings and behaviour,-not content with leaving it to be assumed that he has that interior innocence which consists in looking up to the LOl-d, but taking care also to prove that he has that exterior innocence which consists in honouring all men, in looking up to them, and in each . e!teeming the other better than himself, so long as facts to the contrary shall not forbid such estimation. Granting, -even, that exterior innocence without interior, -is hypoe~i- . tieal, conventional, and of earthly origin, it still is the mark of high civilization, and in its effects upon all within the sphere of its cultiva- ti~n, highly beneficial. In the higher ranks of society, the noblest and the bravest are distinguished by the gentleness of their speech and be- haviour, as well as for inspiring confidence by their undoubted honour, and the certain conviction that they will behave themselves as geB~e­ men in every particular. Among them preeminently stands that dis- ti.s~ed man, the Earl of Carlisle, one of the gentlest and least ex- aet.ing, and at the, same time one ol the most talented minds and exalted characters,-a man j u8tly entitled to be regarded as the people8 friend,, in all sincerity. High homage it is to the exterior principle of celestial innocence, that .the greatest men of this great nation, consider it to be their most distinguishing and inalienable characteristic, to exhibit
  66. 64 WHAT IS EXTERIOR INNOCENCE? habitually the likeness of it,-in the case of the truly Christian por- tion, a living likeness, and with the rest, such a likeness 88 charms in a beautiful piece of statuary, which of itself is far too valuable to be con- temptuously cast away. . The cultivation of exterior innocence will never fail to open an inlet to gratitude,-the indispensable first 3tsp to genuine good; while those who indulge in the most frequent infractions of it, will be found gener- ally amongst those social monsters, the ungrateful! To have a re- spectful idea of others, must ever lead to a high estimation of any kind- ness we receive from them; whereas the contrary estimate leads those who entertain it, to receive kindness either as a tribute due from infe- riors to superiors, or as a mere act of duty which incurs DO obligation.. One of the charms of polished life, is the strong sense expressed (and felt by the sincere) of gratitude for the least acts of kindness. Occasionally some unfortunately constituted persons are met with., who reject the practice of gentleness, courtesy, and politeness, as hypo- crisy, giving in to what they are pleased to call blunt honesty of be- haviour,....;...a real nuisance to civilized society. But these are of the "I dont care" school, of the same school as the unjust judge, who is de- scribed as saying, "I fear not God nor regard man." A young person taking up this barbarous, unprincipled principle, precludes, until he re- pent of it, all hope of improvement, and that notwithstanding any amount he practices of religious conformity. When" I dont care"-rfl I am unconcerned about mere human opinion, whether good. or bad." stamps its repulsive image on the countenance, and expresses itself in the tones, gestures, and words of one of the gentler sex, it is peculiarly offensive, and cannot but produce a shudder in every well constituted, highly cultivated mind that happens to witness it. What a blessing it will be when members of the New Church may universally indulge the.assurance, that all their brethren are deeply sensible that the "~igbest style of man is a Christian," and the highest style of Christian is a gentle-man. How pleasantly will business then be conducted;, thenthe two ears wiU be allowed to do, as they were intended to do, doubleduty, as compared with the one tongue; then every one will Jmowbeforehand, that justice will be done to his argument, because, his,hearers will be doubly more desirous to hearken and lea.rn,tban totalk and teach; then each will look up to the other, because all.areinwardly looking up to the Lord. I trust" Evita" will not think that my high estimation of a prin-ciple and practice he seems to undervalue, has led me, ,in the unavoid-able expression of my own estimate, into saying anything unpleasant to
  67. WHAT DOES GEOLOGY SAY? 65him. I dare say the expression used by him to which I have takenliberty to object, had a limitation and qualification in his own mindwhich he happened not to express. But 88 the sentiment would standas a guide to some whose mental peculiarity might cause them to bemisled by it, I felt it my duty to oppose the sentiment, yet with alljust respect to its author. W. M. WHAT DOES GEOLOGY SAY? Scientia nulla res est prmstantior. GEOLOGY is a science, entitled, from its importance, its utility, its comprehensiveness, and its fascinating attractions, to rank among those studies which are deemed essentially necessary to the education of the philosopher, the gentleman, and the man of science. And yet, though its importance is admitted and its utility acknow- ledged, how often do we meet in the theological world with men. of intellect, of sound knowledge, and sometimes of profound learning, wlio avoid the discussion and study of geological subjects as something un- holy and profane. . And how is this to be accounted fOf, unless by the fact that there exists among the believers in the doctrines of the Old Churches a ,car- tain undefined dread lest the astounding revelations of geology sho~a be found to be at variance with their interpretations of the Sacred Word? That their fears are well-founded we purpose to show; but 80 brieflyas merely to call the attention of members of the New Church .~to a r .subject 80 well worthy of their notice. .. , Probably in a much greater degree than any other science, has the"study ofgeology given rise to scepticism and doubt as to the truth ~fthe Word, among the adherents of the Old Churches, and it has dOubt-less been reserved for the doctrines of the New Church fully to clear .geologists from the imputation of being Biblical infidels, by unfoi&gl -., . i 1: , 1the heavenly arcana contained in the literal sense of the Book of Genesis... .and thus rendering futile the oft repeated attempts to reconcile the e~i; jdent truths of philosophy with the supposed incongruities of the Wom. One of the first lessons taught by geology is, that no geological phe-nomena are capable of affording us any proof of when our world wascreated; this is most true. The geologist need not attempt, be it byinvestigations ever so accurate or profound, to put an age of years uponour globe; but even though he be naturally at fault here, let us listenwith attention to what" he tells us, nay, demonstrates to us, regarding
  68. 66 WHAT DOES GEOLOGY SAY? the eomparatitJ8 ags of our planet, its former states, and the changes it has undergone both in inhabitants and organization. Everyone knows the popular belief on the subject of the creation of our world, viz.:- " that God created all things of nothing, by the word of His power, in the space of six days. "at: It is undeniable that this is the literal belief of the bulk of the prof~ sing Christian world at the present day, and as such it is the belief with which we have to do, as we are attempting to shew from the facts of geology that it is absurd, unscientific, and contrary to troth. And now let us see to "hat this belief will tend, when compared with the teachings of science. If ,ve consider the six days as six periods .of 24 hours each, and add to it the period man is supposed to have been inhabitant of the earth, viz.: 5,850 years, we shall find the age of -our a. globe, and consequently of the solar system, to be in round numbers about 6,000 years. From this let us turn to a statement or two proved by the geologist" and see how far the two agree. A large portion of the crust of the earth has been ascertained to have been deposited in the form of sediment from water. Now, in ordinary cases, it requires a century to produce an aoeumulation of sediment a few inches thick, and geologists imagine they have ascertained that the fossiliferous or sedimentary stzata of Europe are no less than eight or ten miles thick. If, then, it takes 100yoors to produce a few inches, how many thousand years must have been occupied in the production of eight or ten miles-and how will 6,000 years look, compared with the product of such a calculation? But take another instance; Lyell has calculated t that the Falls of Niagara have been in existence for no shorter a period than thifaty-jitJ6 thousand years, and it is beyond calculation, how much older than that the strata are through vhich the Niagara flows. How then, again, does 6,000 agree with 35,000, and which is the most probable, whieb the most satisfactory? From these two data, then, it follows, that, if we believe geology we must disbelieve the aooount given in the Word as being literally true, or, believing the Mosaic account to be correct, . we must discredit the direct evidences of reason and judgement. One or otber of these positions do we assume, by taking the relation in ·Genesis literally, and receiving geology as a true scienoe. But again, taking the account 1itemlly, we find that the space of two days, viz.: of, the fifth and sixth, were occupied in the creation of aniJ;nated beings, for on .. Vide Shorter Cateohism Qf Church of Scotland. t Lyens Principles of Geology. chap. 14, p. 204, laat edition.
  69. WHAT DOES GEOLOGY SAY? 67 the fifth day were living things first made, and on the sixth day the work of creation was brought to a close by the production of man; thus giving only two days for the creation of the whole multitude of animals, birds, and other forms oflife, with which our earth is peopled, and onlyallow- ing one day to elapse between the creation of man and of those inferior animals which preceded him. But here again geology steps in; let us anew listen to her voice, and lend an impartial ear to her reasoning. She tells us that, entombed in the bowels of the earth, remains of animals of huge unheard of forms are found, and that the creatures to whioh these belonged have, at some far distant period, flourished upon our earth-were not created soon after to be destroyed, but for ages upon ages held possession as inhabitants of our globe; and finally she shews us, not only that DO remains of man are found 88sociated with these gigantio relics, but also, that by his physical organization it were impossible that he should have been coex- istent with them. * What then does this prove? Simply this: that these extinct animals existed upon our globe for an immense period of time prior to mans appearance as an inhabitant, and, consequently, that the common idea of only twenty-four hours having elapsed between mants creation and that of the inferior animals which preceded him, is opposed to· the established facts of science and the deduotions of reason. Yas ! from their rocky tombs do the fragmentary skeletons of the Iguanodon and Pterodartyl, the Mylodon and lcthyosaurus, ay, and of all the other strangeand wondrous forms of antebominal life, give forth their silent but weighty testimony in favour and corroboration of the New. Churoh -doctrines. But let it not be thought that geology is suffered by the champions of the Old Churches to pass unquestioned and unexplained. No; explana- tions on explanations have been made, endea.vouring to reconoile geology and·the literality of the Mosaic record; but is it not a striking symptom of weakl1eS8 and instability t that 80 many different interpretations are put forward, and 80 many different opinions expressed on the subject, by those who have risen up to undertake the arduous task of reconcilia- tion? For instance, some affirm that God created the world as we find.it, and that fossil organic remains are merely lu&US naturEB; but how can sueh, if tbey be Christians, suppose the Lord to be a God of truth, and at the same time capable of forming the earth in a peculiar way merely to· deceive mankind? Others, as De Luc and Selliman, advo- cate the opinion, that the days spoken of in Genesis are not days· in our acceptation of the term, but are periods of unknown duration. Dr. -:Miner.
  70. 68 MATERIALS FOR MORAL CULTUBE~ Buckland, again, supposes the world to have been created and to havegone on· in proper order for ages, but at last ohaos was produced and allmade void and empty again; but God recommenced the creation, andproceeded with the six days work as we find recorded in Genesis. How lamentable to know that such theories are mere suppositions,unworthy the credence of any thinking man, and that if tbay prove any.,thing at all, they merely shew more clearly to the receivers of the NewChurch doctrines, the spiritual mist and opposition to the truth over-shadowing the leaders of the Old Churches, and, of 6Oume, descendingwith increased darkness upon the humblest of their adherents. , Let New Churchmen, then, pay some attention to a science whichaffords sach strong arguments in favour of their doctrines; for we believe, that while geology makes (we speak from experience) more Biblicalinfidels than any other two sciences put together, we also believ~ thatwere geologists made acquainted with the doctrines of the New.Church,no science would have enrolled in her band of students a greater nUf:Dbelof believers. in the truth of the New Jerusalem. N.OSNAKE. SoutQport, Jany.4th, 1851. MATERIALS FOR MORAL CULTURE.To THE EDITOR. DEAB SIB,-I have endeavoured impartially to consider whetherthe wish expressed that the" Materials for Moral Culture" should beresumed, is entertained by a sufficient majority of your readers to justifymy passing by the expressed disinclination to their insertion from otherquarters, and I have come to the conolusion that it is my duty toresume them, and I intend, therefore, to do so immediately. I beg toexpress my- thanks to the friends who have publiely and privatelyendeavoured to -set my mind at liberty on the 81lbject by the frankexpression of their sentiments. I· beg ro add a few words in explanation of the considerations whichoriginated these articles. Solomon says, "Wisdom is the principalthing. tt What, then, is Wisdom? It is not natural science, norlearning in history, or languages, or ancient usages, or facts of anykind; nor is it skill in theological knowledge, nor powers of argumentand eloquence in its illustration. Wisdom is altogether the praetictJlquality or attribute of the understanding. In other words Wisdom is;and means, Moral Wisdom, the first-born of the heavenly marriage of,Goodness and Truth.
  71. JUTEBIALS FOB MORAL CULTURE. 69 This, then, as Solomon says truly, is u the principal thing." How is it to be obtained? It is obtained by culture, that is, by taking advan,. tage of the suggestions of others, to cultivate the understanding, with a view to the after-eultivation of all the powers of the soul. .This is beau.. tifully expressed in the 8uFplication in Psalm xc. 12, H 80 teach "us to number our days, that-we may apply our hearts unto wisdom" (or rather." that we may cause our hearts to be~me wise"). This is moral culti-vation, and advancement therein ought to keep pace, and our well-·beingrequilas that it should keep pace, with the increasing number of ourdays, for wisdom may justly be expected to constitute the peoulW dis-tinotion of age and experience. Not seeing, then, in our Magazine anydistinct and regular supply of artioles suitable for "moral eu1ture," Iventured· to occupy the vacant. place. I did so with a full sense of the.importanoe of the position I assumed, on the one hand, and my own :smallcapability for doing justice to it, on the other. I held myself in readinessto make way. for a more worthy occupant. and with great satisfaction to·myself would I give place to the first person who should present himselfto relieve me of the task I have undertaken. Swedenhorg speaks of theinhabitants of heaven as being "moralities in form." (0. L. 44.) Howdid they become such, except by moral culture, that is, by the continualconsideration of what is right in feeling and practice, and the appropria-tion of it in actual life ? This consideration alone I deem a sufficientjustification for the insertion of articles suitable for moral culture, fur·nished from the best available sources. I am aware that SOI;De mindswould greatly prefer New Church intelligence, or news, W such drydidactic papers; but if a right spirit animate us, each will be Willing thathis neighbours legitimate taste and preference should be gratified, aswell as his own. A Magazine should, as far as possible, r~semb1e ageneral store or warehouse, from which every one should be able ~~ supplyhis own wants; but it would be very unreasonable for a customer .to de-mand that the storekeeper should keep a stock of those articles only which happen to suit his own particular taste or convenience. We ought to feel as grateful to the source which yields gratification to our neigh- bour, as to that which does so to ourselves. To raise a cry ag~st a contributor} as if he were an enemy rather than a friend, because his con~butions please others, while they are not esteemed and are passed over by ourselves, is neither reasonable nor generous. I ask, then, for t~leration, where I find not acceptance; and I fancy no New Churohman can refuse toleration, to say the leas~. to articles having for their object to advance the members of the Church in moral wisdom, and thus to promote the possession in the Church of H the principal tbing" ~ be
  72. 70 REVIEW. desired. F or what can be deserving of higher estimation than cc wisdom," which, according to our understanding of it, is as far more valuable than any kind of knowledge, as Charity and Faith united in one, is a more valuable meJltal possession than "Faith alone." W.M. REVIEW. TaB DEIIY 01 J E8US CUBIST ASSERTED, WITH A. DEFENCE OF TB! DIVINITY OF me HUHANITY; bring two lActura (I~g t1u Inquiriu, 18t, WAethw M08,8 and th, Prophets taught tke DoetriftI of Diline Unity or tk~ Trinity; ~ntl, Wh6thw J,IU8 ChNt and HiI Ap03tU8 taught the Doct,;,M of tM Divinl Unity or cM Trinity, lIc. By the Rev. E. D. RENDELL. London: Hodson, and Newbery. Manchester~ L. Kenworthy. pp. 118. THE primary and leading doctrines of the New Church,-The Divinity of the Lords Humanity, and the Divine Trinity as concentrated in Him, will especially engage the attention of all truth-seeking minds. The doctrine of the Divinity of the Lords Humanity is the precious,corner-stone of the church,-the immoveable rock upon which it must be built. It is also the door of entrance into heaven, and the "pearlof great price" for the possession of which "we must sell all that wehave" in order that we may procure it. Although much has beenwritten upon this subject in the New Church, yet every effort whichtends to bring this essential doctrine before the public, especially if theattempt is conducted with light and with power, is exceedingly welcometo all who desire to see Truth prosperous in the earth. Although thetwo lectures before us have been a considerable time before the public,we have only lately had an opportunity of perusing them, and thismust be our apology to the public and the author for not having noticedthem before. These questions, the answer to which forms the subject of the leoturebefore us, were originated by a Unitarian mi~st~t. at Newcastle-upon-Tyne; his object being to prove that no such a:~ing as a Trinity ofPersons is taught in the Scriptures either of the New or of the OldTestament, but only the Divine Unity. "This inquiry (says the able author ot these lectures) has recently been answeredin two places ot wOllhip in this town; the one an Unitarian, the minister 01 whichoriginated it; and the other a Trinitarian, the minister of which appeared to be de-moua of fortifying the orthodox against the blow which the Unitarian reply wuintended to inflict.
  73. REVIEW. 71 Cl As profel8ing members of a New Church, which we believe to be, at this day,progreseiTely establishing amonK mankind, and which we regard as the fulfilment ofthe prediction in the Apocalypse conceming The holy city, New Jerusalem, com-ing down from God out of heaven -as professing membera ot a Church which labased upon the doctrine, That God is one, in whom is a divine trinity, and that heis the Lord God and Saviour J e8US Christ: we are plain to state that we considerthe principles on which those answers have been given, to be unscriptural, and thenceunsound. This, of itself, we think to be .. aufticient apology for our attempting toreview them; but it was the circumstance of certain doctrines 01 the New ChurchhaTing been introduced into the leotures of the reverend gentleman advocating theTrinitarian sentiments, and animadvorted on by him a. being untrue, which urged.. to adopt the 81Iggestion of taking IOme publio notice of thOle oontrovenlal di&-eot1ftJe8..,. This was the occasion of these two exoellent lectures, which weredelivered to crowded audiences, owing to the excitement which at thattime 80 generally prevailed. So effective was the argument, as con-ducted by the lecturer, that a request was speedily made, both bystrangers and friends, that the lectures might be published. At a publicmeeting held immediately after the delivery of tbe lectures, it wasunanimously resolved,- 1. cc That; the thanks of this meeting be given to the Rev. E. D. Renden, tor the course of lectures on tile Unitarian and Trinitarian controversy which he has justcompleted; and for the able manner in which he has let forth the doctrines of the New Chureh in contra-distinction to those of the old." 2. "That Mr. Rendell be requested to publilh the above lectures, and that im- lI1ediate steps be taken to obtain .. sufficient number of subscribers to encourage him to do ao."-(Su Prifac&} Mr. Rendell has discussed the subject at considerable lengtb, andhas brought out many new and striking points which illustrate and con-firm these essential doctrines of the New Church. The arguments ofthe Unitarian are shewn to be unscriptural and groundless, and thestatements of the Trinitarian, or rather the Tripersonalist,* are provedto ~be fallacious, founded on appearances and not on the genuine Truthsof Scripture. " Judge not," says the Lord, "according to appearance,bat judge a righteous or a true judgment." (John vii. 24.) GenuineTruth, for the most part, lies beneath the surface, and as this is thecase, not only with the works of God in nat1:1re, but also with the Wordof God, it plainly follows that theological doctrines, when based onlyupon the surface, or upon apparent and not upon genuine truths, as is • We would recommend to our New Church writers, the propriety of employing the terms, TriperBOfl,Q,liBm, and Triper,onalUt, when alluding to those who acknow- ledge three Persom, according to the Athanasian creed, and Dot the terms, Tri"i- tariaatim and TriniJ.ariQ/A~· .inasmuch as these terms are applicable to those who, aecordins to the New Chnrch, acknowledge a TriDity of E"efitial,.
  74. 72 POETRY.the case with Tripersonalism and all the dogmas vhich spring from thatsource, cannot be genuine and truthful. Thus, when a theologicalsystem is founded, we must "dig deep, and lay our foundation on arock," (Luke vi. 48.) and not build upon the sand, or upon the mere8urface, if we wish our system to stand firm when "the floods and thestreams" of scepticism and controversy shall beat against it. Tri-personalism and its progeny of errors cannot possibly stand "in thepresence of the Son of Man," or in the light of genuine Truth. Theseimportant facts are plainly shewn by the lecturer, as we could prove byadducing various extracts, did our space permit; but our readers woulddo well to peruse themselves the lectures, by which their minds will bestrengthened in their belief, advocacy, and defence of the Truth,against the errors and fallacies v;hich, alas! 80 generally prevail. TO MY WIFE, ON ST. VALENTINES DAY. A delicate plant by an angel was brought, And placed in a chosen soil, And angels came to watch oer its growth, Unknown to mortal toil. It sprang-it blossomed-a noble tree, Diffusing ambrosial charms; And fruits of gold and of silver hue Adorned its youthful arms. A Paradise fair, of halcyon bowers, Its bosom extended around, And groves ever-vernal, for holy song, The aerial summits crowned. O! blessed was man the rosy morn That aroused from his cherub rest; Peace overflowed his bounteous cup, And all his soul possessed. His earthly life was a cloudless day, That brighter and brighter shone, Till he gently sank into Natures lap, And awoke in a higher zone.
  75. POETBY-KISOELUNEOUS. 73 But a gaudier plant, from a stealthy hand, In the midst of his Eden arose, And, passion beguiled, he its poison took, And drank a thousand woes. Oh! then did dark clouds oer his pathway lower, And his heaven-bright Paradise hide, ~d he wand"ered afar among thistles and thorns, The growths of his folly and pride. Now, hovering sad, the celestial dove Finds no rest on the boisterous earth ; But still is she seeking the Olive of Peace, To bear to the land of her birth. But a glorious Eden shall blossom again! Mresh shall the Amaranth spring! And the mystical leaves new virtue and health To the soul-stricken nations shall bring. This picture of old, by the Spirit of Truth To wan~ering Seers re"ealed, In visions angelic and utterance dark, Is now by that Spirit unsealed. The garden is Wi8dom, and holiest Love Is the tree full of beauty and life: Bot another is there-oh! who knows not its pride? With darkness and bitterness rife. Within· let us look for this Eden of BJiss- In the spirit alone can it bloom- Unseen, will bright heralds our labours attend- Twill flourish beyond the tomb! R.A. MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. LIrro FRO• .A. B.A.PTIST MINISTBB mentioned that the aame oorrespondent IN INDIA, .A.ND REPLY. had sent us a copy of a letter from a Baptist Minister in India, addre8Red toIT will be remembered that in the N ovem- one of the new receivers of the doctrines,her Dumber of the Repoaitory, under the whioh letter he expressed a wish to seebead of "Intelligence from India,,. there inserted in the RepoIi1ory, accompaniedwere published extracts from & letter giv- by a reply. We accordingly here insert aing some account of the progress of the reply (without printing the letter itself),Church in that country; and it was also to the allegatioll8 there made. N. S. NO. 134.-VOL. XII. F
  76. JlISCELLANEOU8. The spirit of the letter ill not very he terms the "soul-destroying errors ofgentle or Christian; and it is marked by this sect," the writer. first charge is,misstatements in point of fact, and incon. that we "deny the proper Divinity ofsistencies of allegation, such &I Re wont Christ, while we appear to aoknowledgeto disfigure oontrove18ial articles, when it... The charge that we deny the Divi·written in ignorance and with feelings of nityof Christ is refuted in a remarkablehostility. We shall notice one or two of manner by the writer himsel( in the wordsthe charges. that presently follow, where he affirms The writer speaks of Swedenborg in a " that we acknowledge Him to be Jehovah,manner which shows that he has but very and that the whole Deity tabemacled inlittle knowledge concerning his character Him,tt-and still farther, that we "evenor writings. "He was," he says, "an Deify His Humanity." Now in what pos-egregious heretic of the seventeenth cen- sible way can it be considered 88 "deny-tury, who, though clever in some things, ing Christ"s proper Divinity," to hold thatwas really mad for a long time." Swe- He is altogether God, even J ehovah Him-denborg, though bom at the close of the self, and that. in agreement witb the17th century, lived and wrote chiefly in declaration of the apostle Panl- u In Himthe 18th, having died in the year 1772. dwelleth all the fulness of the GodheadThe statement that he was "really mad bodily." (Co)oss. ii. 9.)for a long time," is 80 entirely untme, and What excuse can the writer make for80 often proved to be false, that we con- such inconsistency 88 this? and for thesider any further refutation utterly un- grave charge founded upon it, that wenecessary. * deny the Divinity of Jesus Christ, when But we will adduce two most honourable it is aoknowledged that we regard Him as witnesses as to Swedenborgs integrity and God and the only God? and for saying,his unifonn mental sanity. Count Hop- that there is in our creed an admixture - ken, prime minister of Sweden, says of of 8oci""ia""ism, when Socinianism denies him-h I have not only known him (Swe- the Divinity altogether P Is this just ? denborg) these two and forty yea".s, but The other allegation, viz: that we deny have also, for some time, daily frequented the doctrine of vicarious atonement, and his company:" and then, in the course what the writer terms" the blessed doc- of a high strain of eulogy whioh he trine of 8?J1J8titutioR," we do not hesitate pronounces upon him, has these words- to admit. Is it not astonishing that a "I do not recollect to have ever known doctrine at once 10 unscriptural and 80 any man of more uniformly virtuous cha- irrational &8 this, should bave 80 long racter ;" and adds, "He possessed a kept its hold on the human mind? It sound jud~ent upon all occaaions." only shows the grossness of view on spi- Again, Professor GotTes, a Roman Catho- ritual subjects that yet prevails in the lic clergyman, and professor in one of the Christian world. What kind of jUltice is German universities (one, not likely, we that, we may aak, which is content to 8hould suppose, to be influenced by any punish the innocent instead ofthe guilty, undue partiality)., in reviewing Sweden- even though the innocent victim volun- borg~s life and writings, thus spe~s of tarily offer himself? What jndge, what him,-" Swedenborg was not a man to be king, what father, would be considered as oam.ed away by an unbridled imagination, justified in 80 doing? If there is to be still less did he ever manifest, during his punishment at all, those who are guilty whole life, the slightat symptom of mental must be punished; if they are not, then aberration,. I t is therefore not to be sup- punishment must be remitted altogether. posed that he, in this gross manner, with No true justice, Divine or human, would wakeful eyes, deceived himself, and that be satisfied by, or would accept, the pun- at one moment he himself thought what ishment of an innooent perRon instead of in another he rep:arded a8 chimerical; and a guilty one. The idea, therefore, that on the other hand, ha was in life and dis- Christs 8ufferings upon the cross were position 80 hlamelc8R, that no man ever accepted by way of 8UlJstitution for the dared intimate any suspicion of eoncerted punishment of man "8 sins, is most gross deception." and false, and contrary to every principle Thus much, then, for the assertion so of right and justice which the Divine recklessly made, that Swedenborg was Being has itnplanted In the human mind. " really mad for B long time." Christs death upon the cross had altoge- In the next place, in describing what ther another meaning and another ohjeet. * Sce Documents concerning Swedenborg," 11 I t was the last of a long series of suffer-
  77. lUSCELLANEOUS. 75 ings and temptations, by means of which to do those commandments by continually the Lord, in the Humanity, overcame the ruisting all eviUaI siM, and performinlt powers of bell, and 80 redeemed mankind every duty and good work of love to God from their grasp,-and by which, at the and man whioh His Providence seta before same time, He glorified His Humanity us daily and hourly-such .. cou.ne forms and made it Divine. heaven in the soul; little by little the evil As to the doctrine of a vicarious cztoM.. of the heart is put away, and good is re· tJ&mt, it is a Jewish, not a Christian idea. ceived from the Lord in its place, and The term does not occur once in all the thus gradually man is regenerated and four Gospels, and but once in the whole fitted for heaven. Then, when the mate- of the New Testament; but in the Old riaJ body drop9 off at death, the spirit, Testament it OCCU18 frequently. Under withdrawn from it by the Lord, is elevated the Jewish dispensation, animals were into heaven-into the blessed society of o1fered up for bumt-ofterings and for sin- the" spirits of just men made perfect," offerings; and sinl were confessed over where, in the Lords presence, it rejoices the head of a goat, which was sent away for ever. P. into the wild.emesa, &0., and thus atone- ment was made,-because everything in THE CONTENTS 011 THB MINOR WORKS Oil that dispensation was representative not EHANUEL SWEDENBORG PUBLISHED A8 real, outward not inward, natural not ADVERTISING SHEETS. spiritual. * But in the CluUtian dispen- sation, which is spiritual and intemal, It will be remembered that the last everything depeDds on the state of man. Annual Meeting of the Manchester and own kectrt-and there is no such thing 88 Salford Tract Institution resolwd to pub- making an o/,onemenJ, for ~ by the acts lish the contents of the Minor Worlts of or the sufferings of another. Every man Emanuel Swedenborg separately. for the is hi~lf, at death, either good or evil, purpose of distributing thenl far and wide, and he will be judged and have his lot as a means of advertising these publica- accordingly. Neither is any atonement tions and directinA the attention of the for his past sins neceuary,,· aU that is public mind to the heavenly doctrines of needed, as is declared by the Divine the New Jerusalem. Word, is that he should rtpen.l and turn The means of carr~ing out this desirable from his evil way. Read the 18th chap- object are now within the reach of every ter of Ezekiel: "H the wicked. will turn recipient of the New Chulch verities, and from his sins that he bath committed, and the committee hope that not only the so- keep aU my statutes, and do that ~bich cieties of the Church, but its individualis lawful and right, he shall surely live, he members, will avail themselves of theseshall not die. All his transgressions that unohtmsive missionaries of truth.he bath committed, they ,haU MC b6 mm- In the present disturbed state of thetioned, unto him: in his righteousness that theolo~ical world, when man) minds havehe bath done, he shaD live." Here it is ex- begun to doubt the veracity of creeds inpressly declared, that all that is necessary which they had placed implicit confidenceis for man to tum and repent, and he will from their earliest years, and find them-be accepted of the Lord. So the Lord selves, like a ship upon the stormy ocean,said-" If thou wilt enter into life, keep without any sure guide to the haven ofthe commandments ;" and again, it is de- peace and usefulness, ougbt not we whoclared that" every man tihall be judged profess to have received the true doctrinesaccording to his 1JJorla," and according to of the Holy Word to use every means"the deeds done in the body. " within our power, to lead them to a know- The Titer asks-" If this be not your ledge of thEtse divine treasures. "Freelyground of hope, what then is it? We ye have received, freely give." To reallyanswer-CC Fear God, and keep His com- love our neighbour is to teach him by pre-mandments; for this is the whole duty of cept, and lead him by example to be use·tnan." And as the God of the Christian ful, and thereby happy.is the Lord Jesus Christ,-then, to believe An opportunity such as we shall have,~ J csus Christ as God., to worship Him during the Exhibition in London, fortn His glorified Humanity, to look to Him spreading abroad so extensively thefor light and strength and the influences knowledge of our doctrines, has perhapsof His Holy Spirit, to enable us to under- never before presented itself. Let us,stand and keep His commandments-and therefore, embrace it with an energy * See Tract on U The Atonement. U ade~te to its requirements. Let thou-
  78. 76 MISCELLANEOUS.sands of these synoptioal tables be circu. Wom. The principles of mere) aad eh...lated among the numberless visitors that rity which these lectures inculcated, «x:-will crowd to the metropolis. The cost pressed 89 they were in the simplest lan-will be so trivial that this may be done at guage, and illustrated by the most familiara comparatively light expense. Let some objects of external obse"ation, won upo.of th~m,at least, he translated into the the minds of the hearers in a remarkableFrench, Italian, and German languages. clegree; so that by the 23rd of December,W e would earnestly ~commend th~> the subject ottbe Reeurreetion was broughtimportant we to the consideration of forward, taking &8 a text the words of ourour London friends. Amongst our own Lord in reply to MBrth.-:--" I· am the re-private circle of correspondents and ac- 8U1TeCtion and the life; he that believethquaintance we shall allO find these in me, though he were dead, yet shall he~tables" of great utility. When writing live; and whosoever liveth and believethinto one who knows little of the doctrines me shall never die. Believest thou this?"of the New Church, how easily may we (John xi. 25, 26.) This lecture tended toenclose them in our letter without in- show that the tme resurrection was thecreasing the expense of postage, and who birth of J e8UsOhriat,or the Christian spiritcan calculate the amount of good that in the human soul, and as 1 elUBChrist wee, _is likely to result from this and similar according to His own words, "the llJ(l,y,channels through which they may be the truth, and the life," it would be justsent? in proportion as we practically believed in, The following is the scale of prices at and permitted Christ to be manifested. inwhich the Tables may be had on applica- the flesh, by submitting all our affectionstion to the secretary, Peter-street, Man- and thoughts to BiB guidance, that wechester : - became partakers of that gtorious resur- 5,000 copies for £, 1 0 0 rection of which He speaks, and which 2,500 do. do. 0 11 0 He declares Himself to be. ],200 do. do. 0 6 0 The good reception given to this first 1,000 do. do. 0 5 0 doctrinal discourse was trulyenoo111"agiDg. 500 do. do. 0 3 0 The most thoughtful present shook hands 200 do. do. 0 2 0 with the lecturer at the conclusion, andassorted; and it is hoped that an early said they had never seen the subjeet 80application will be made. clearly before; and (although accustomed The committee h~ve allo much plea- to attend a dissenting place of worship insure in stating that they have in the press a neighbouring village), belieTed the viewsan edition of the "Heavenly Doctrine of advanced to be thoronghly Scriptural.the New Jerusalem," uniform with the The subject of the Resorrection was an-other Minor Works issued by the society, nounced to be resumed on the followingwhich they hope shortly to publish. Sunday evening, and, 88 Mr. H. S. Clubb J. B. KBNNERLEY, Hon. Sec. was unexpectedly invited to Brightlingsea to address the Church there, Iris brother, STRATFORD Sr. MART, SUPFOLK. Mr. R. T. C]ubb, read a lecture of the Rev. J. Clowel on the same subject, which V88 This village consists of about 800 inhabi- well received. On the following Sunday, tants, principaJIy of the agricultural class. January 5th, 1851, Mr. H. S. Clubh again Till within the last three months there lectured on the subject of the Resurrec- was no dissenting congregation in the vil- tion, from these words :_u For we knowlage. In October, 1850, Mr. H. S. Clubb that if our earthly honse or this taber-commenced holding services every Sunday, nacle were dissolved, we haTe a buildingmorning and evening. For the first two of God, an house not made with hands,months the lectures were of a decidedly eternal in the heavens ;" (2 Cor. v. 1.) and.practical nature, inculcating morality on a proceeded to show that wherever the re-religious basis, as t.he plane for spiritual at- surrection was spoken of, as in the 15thtainments. These lectures were attended chapter of 1st CorinthiaDS, and other placesby from about fifty to eighty persons, and in the Word, it was invariably describedvery considerable interest was excited. as a spiritual and not as a camal resur-The simple state of natural goodness in rection. That to "rise from the dead,which many of the agricultural elasses in and from the grave" was- to rise from sinthese country districts are found, was dis- and sensuality, &8 "the sting of death iscovered to be admirably adapted for the sin." An the lectures have been well at-reception of the practical truths 01 the tended, and it is intended to continue the
  79. KISCELLANEOUS. 11eeniceI resuJ-Iy iD future. The room them :-" I dont know," said he, "howthat is uaed will eeat about fifty penGna, it is, but I always feel so quur when I am.aIKi OB 8OIIl8 ooouions the adjoining room talking to a Swedenborgian about reli-it oearIyfilled by standing heann. Tracts gion. I feel as if I did not know what tohave beea distributed, aDd a library is in say, or what to do; for I am met at every00Ul88 of formation. A taste for read- corner."iag the writinWJ of Swedenborg is bein, Last summer Mr. Edleaton, at the soli-created. and it ia Jloped that much good citation of the YoUDg Men. Association,will N8Dlt, 88 this DeW field of labour delivered a ooune at lectures at a place&eem8 to be well adapted for spiritual called the " Bazaar," in Briggate, Leeds,eWtare. which is conaidered as the very camp of the infidela, and which is resorted to LEC.rVIlB8 ~T Lu.os. by those noted for controversy. It was thought that many would come to hearTo tJu Editor. the doctrines in this room, who would not Dear Sir,-You lOIDetimea IOlicit no- enter either Church or Chapel, and per-tices or lectures, and particulars respect- hape it was so. The lectures were ex-~ them. We have thought that the tremely well received. On two occasions,follGwiDg might be naeful : - a leading deist of the town proposed .. )fr. Edleeton has recently been deliver- vote of thanks to Mr. K, after the even-ing a successful oourse, on the "Unseen ing". lecture, and declared on the firstWorld.· These lectures halle been better occasion, that "the lecturer had madeattended than any we h&ve had in Leeds, the beet of the worst books he knew (theand we have no doubt of their doing us Bible), of any person he had heard in hisgood. The addreae affixed to the syllabus life." DiscU88ion was allowed after eachof the lectures hall been extensively read; lecture, and 011 all occasions Mr. E. car-nearly 3,000 copie. have been distributed ried the sympathies ot his audience within .hops and housea iD different parts of him. J. F.~ tGwu, and aJ.though the invitation is10 explicit, DO one hae ventured to come DJSCR.£PANCJES IN THE TRANSLATIONS OPand teach us "wherein we err;" several . HEAVEN AND BELL." have been to inquire further respectingthe doctrines, but there has not been the To tl", Editor.least open oppositioll from any quarter. Dear Sir,- In reply to Mr. Hancock"sWhether this &rises from fear or contempt letter, in your December number, 1 begwe cannot tell, it may be from both. We to state, that I have not questioned thehave reasons for bt.iieving, that the 8we- competency of the Printing Society, nordenborgiana have become quite a terror to that of its committee; I simply state plainthe religions controversalists in Leeds, facts, and ask for definite information.e.peoially to the infidels, who were tho- Now, the following are facts :-1 have ..roughly overthrown through the efforts ot list of errors, which disfigure the editionour late lamented friend Mr. T. Wilson, of 1843 * (and my examination has notand others. There were discussion classes been of 80 exhaustive a character as atin different parts of the. town, at which all to preclude the probability of the ex-our young friends attended, who were not istenoe of others); of these, only six havelong in making the force of the doctrines been corrected in the stereotyped edition,to be felt. They met at these places per- and of these six, three were pointed outIODS of every religious deDomination, and by " Z," in the Intellectual &p08ifbry fortried their skill in oontroveny with them June. What, then, is to be understoodall. Perhaps truth is 8eldom sought for by the statement in the Printing Societysat luch meetings, but they are, neverthe- Report, that this work was under revi-less, sometimes useful to young meD, for sion? Is this statement an elTOr in the there they are educated in the laws of de- report? Or, did the committee engage a bate, &Dd trained to a more skilful use of gentleman every way competent to revise the weapons of Divine Truth. It is true, the work, but who had not the requisite there is a danger of falling into the mere time to devote to the task? love of victorv, but it is hoped that the Mr. H. asks, "Is it not necessarily mis- religion and· good sense of our YOUDg chievous to quote passages of a doubtful friends will preserve them from this. The character, without quoting also the pas- ,traits to which the advocatea ot the Old Church have been reduced, may be * I have lent a list of these to the Committee of gathered from this confession of ODe of :~~~r~~~ety, agreeably with tho sugget-
  80. 78 MISCELLANEOUS. sages in which the translators render the Mr. Culls style of delivery and mode original well and faithfully, each in his of treating his subjects will be 10Dg ~ own peculiar style ?, To do this would, membered, on account of the extent and I apprehend, require the quotation of excellence of the matter, and the )ec- nearly the whole book. Besides, how is turer" perfect familiarity with the topics a plain unlearned man to decide where treated on. As an evidence of the satis- "the translators render the original well faction afforded by these admirnble lee. and faithfully"? This is a point upon tures, the re-delivery of two of them W&I which such are obliged to seek informa- requested; and again Mr. Cull showed his tion from the educated and learned. willingness to meet the wish of his hearers Moreover, my inquiry relates to discre- by a ready compliance. Th818 were pancies only, since it obviously would " Creation," and " Man." be absurd to ask whether agreements The attendance on both evenings when amongst translations were warranted by the former lecture was given, was very the original. large-particularly the re-delivery, when Mr. H. asserts that "printers who the temple was entirely filled. There. is have only to print verbatim a work in much to rejoice at and much to be grate. print before, very rarely sucoeed." I as- ful for, when it is considered that the sert that respectable printers very rarely Infidel and the Atheist have been com- Call. It is in printing from manuscript pletely met by these lecturea on the that errors mostly occur. And in the in- subject of "spirit" and "matter"-the stances called by Mr. H. "misprints: distinction hetween them having been the printer appe&r8 to have faithfully fol- vividly pointed out, and the existence of lowed his copy; it is the reviser who is at both established. J. E. fault, for these identical errors occur in the previous edition, and have been left MUNIFICENCE OF a FRIBND Ar LONGTON,uncorrected. IN THE POTTERIES. I have the pleasure of fully agreeingwith Mr. H. in the U conviction that the We beg to announce the munitlcen~public will not, eventually, tolerate the donation of £ 100. from a " Longtonian,"jargon of literal translations;" but how which has been appropriated, acoordingdoes this "conviction " harmonize with to his request, to the MisaioD8l"Y and the fact, that he has again sent forth to Tract Societies in London and Man-the public, "the jargon of a literal trans- chester, as follows:-lation" of the title P To the London Missionary and £ 8. d. I also coincide with him in the im- Tract Society ...........••••... 50 0 0portance of a translation beiu~ " done To the Manchester Tract So-throughout by one author." Y et, how ciety ......•.....•..•........•... 25 0 0has it happened that in his version of To the Manchester Missionarythe" Heaven and Hen," whole passages Society .........•............... 25 0 0are given verbatim from that of Mr.Clowes, some peculiar phrases are adopted £100 0 0from Mr. Noble, while other portions are" done" by himself? This act of munificence the said societies I have not presumed. to hazard an opi- beg hereby, in devout thankfulness tonion on the faithfulness of either transla- the Lord~s Providence, gratefully to ac-tion, for, on this point, I must still re- knowledge. These institutions, in con-main an INQUIRBR. sequence ef their eminent usefulness in spreading a knowledge of the Truth, are LECTURES AT NBWCJ.ftLE-oN-TyNB. certainly worthy of extensive patronage and support. To the Editor. Dear Sir,-The society here, taking ad- PROPOSED MEETING OF MEMBERS OF THEvantage of the Rev. J. Culls stay, a few NEW CHURCH DURING THE EXHIBI-weeks ago, expressed their desire for the TION OP 1851.delivery of a course of lectures on Sun-day evenings, with which Mr. Cull at Although the committee continue toonce most cheerfully complied, and there- bear, directly and indirectly, that the pro-fore drew up a syllabus which could not posed meeting is very generally lookedCan to attract public attention, com- forward to with great interest, and thatprising subjects universally discussed at every body i8 coming to the Exll-wition, )"ctthis day. they regret that they do not receive the
  81. MISCELLANEOUS-OBITUARY. 79definite information they require in refer- nine gender, whereas the term tovrouence to the two specifio points, of the is in the malculift.e Now we are quitenumber of visitors to be expected, and certain that we Deed not remind our cor-the funds that will be available. respondent that one of the first principles As most other denominations of Chris.. in Grammar is, that the relative musttions are intending to hold numerous agree with its antecedent in gender andmeetings during the year, all large rooms number. But the only antecedent withwill be in request, and will most probably whioh TOVTO£S caa agree is ayyEAovsbe engaged some months before they are in the previous verse. When our oorree-wanted to be used. Unless, therefore, POodent considers this grammatical fact,the committee are enabled to adopt a his objection will vanish. ED11OB.similar course, much inconvenience anddieappointment may enRue, especiaUy if TUE BECBNI DISCUSSIONS .11 BOLTON.there should be as numerous a meetingu is anticipated by many. The committee therefore urgently re- To the Editor.quest the ,tcrd,aria of the various socie- Dear Sir,-In the notice of the recent discussions in which I took part at Bolton,ties to take means to ascertain the req u1- which appeared in the IntellecttuJ,l Rep~site particulars, as far &8 practicable,and to forward them by the 16th of Feh. tory for the present month, it is stated that I offered to take up the subjects They have to acknowledge the receipt theB discU88ed with either Mr. Gibeonof the promised £2. from their Devon- or any other advocate of MormonilDl, &0.,shire friend, and of 5s. from a friend in but that Mr. Gibson declined, and it waethe Potteries, 88 evidence of the interest presumed, from my not having heardbe feels in the movement; and they hope from aDy other party connected with thatthat other individuals will be induoed to body, that his coadjutors also declined.do lil:etoi.le. H. BUTTBR, Sec. Since then, however, I have received a 48, Cloudesley Terrace, oommunication (dated the 6th instant)Islington, Jan. 22nd, 1851. from Mr. Paul HarriIon, one of the Mor- monite leaders, OD the subject, whichTUB SUPPOSED EXISTENce OF ANGBLI renders it necessary for me to trouble you PRIOR TO THE CREATION OF MAK. with this line.-Y OU18, &c. W OODVILLB WOODIU.N. A correspondent at Lewes has sent us Kersley, January 8th, 1851.a communication in which he alludes to anarticle on the above subjeot in this Perio- PROPOSAL TO PUBLISH .A. COURSE OP Lac-dical for March last. The objection to TURKS BY TUB LATB Ma. T. WILSON.that article is stated by him 88 follows : -cc You say, the only antecedent to TOVTOU In the press, and will be published inis the angels in the previous verse. Is not March, a course of eight lectures by thea nearer antecedent found in the cities of late Mr. T. Wilson, with an account of theSodom and Gomorrah? I appeal to any life of this powerful advocate of truth.plain reader of the verse, and ask whether The volume will contain about 250 pages,this inferenoe be not more natural than bound in cloth. Price to subscribers, Ss.;the one you have adopted ?" non-subscribers, 4s. Parties subscribing We also respectfully appeal to our are requested to send their names to Leoncorrespondent, and ask him why he has Kenworthy, publisher, Cateaton-8treet.overlooked the important fact that the Manchester. Subscription list open tocities 1J"OAELS alluded to are in the jemi- the 28th of February. ebituarp. Died on the 4th inst., aged 62 years, thing besides athletio sports oould engageMr.Th~masWilson, ofWoodhoUSe8, Fails- his attention; he played and sportedworth, near Manchester. Our departed "with all his might," t~ the .almost en-friend manifested, in very early life, strong tire negleot of all schol~tlc d?tles. When,indications of that ardent and persevering however, he had attained hiS 16th year,spirit which distinguished him through- he began to experience a strong thirs~ forout his future career. His course was knowledge; and &8 the works of P&lne,begun and continued aeoording to the and others of a similar school, were thenmaxim-" What thou doest, do it with being extensively read in the neighbour-all thy might." As a boy, scarcely any- hood, and in his own family circle, these
  82. 80 OBITUARY.were the first materials put into his hands fidel writers of the day. After this, whea.to meet the cravings of his new-bom any infidel lecturer appeared within 10 ormental appetite. While perusing these 12 miles round the neighbourhood, he works with his accustomed ardour &Dd was "always ready to encounter him. Hav..diligence, he read, for the j,r,t time, some- ing the advantage of knowing almostthing concerning religion, as given in everything that hi. opponent could ad.. Paines "Age of Reason." Under ordi- . duce, and being slow of speech, quick ofnary circumstances, we should be apt to perception, with great presence of mind,say, and perhaps truly, that such a pori- and an almost immovable temperament, tion is unfortunate for youth, just at the he became a very succeafa.l debater; soperiod when the love of acquiring know- much 80, that latterly,in vanousinst&nces,ledge begios to be developed. It was lecturers declined to meet him. He aJsootherwise, however, with young Wilson; frequently distinguished himself in verbalfor although he had drunk in large po- controversy on points of theology; and,tions from the above works, and ap- although debate appeared to be his forte,peared at this time on the l1igh road to he likewise rendered much good serviceinfidelity, there was, nevertheless, room in to the Church as a Missionary preacherhis mind for something wiser and better. to various societiee, during a period ofThis was made evident by the following twenty-five years; and on these, as wellapparently casual incident. On taking his as other occasions, he was most eminentlyusual Sabbath walk one morning, he met useful to young members, in private con-an acquaintance, a musician, who was versations with them, by clearing awaythen on his way to the New Church place doubts, removing difficulties, and correct-of worship at Middleton, to assist in the ing erron. He was al80 the founderchoir; he invited Wilson to accompany and leader of the Failsworth Society.him to a "good musical stir;" this was Last, though not least in importance,agreed to, and as he heard the music, he is the fact, that our friend endea-of course beard the preacher also, the voured to make the doctrines and trothslate Mr. Re Boardman. The truth of the of the Word his nt.U of life, and thesermon, it appears, made & deeper im. 8uccess of his endeavours was strik-pression than the melody of the song, for ingly manifest in the tact, that neither inhe went again and again, without invita- life nor in death had he any fear of death.tion, or the inducement of a "musical In full vigour of health, be would some-stir." He then inquired for books; several times speak to the following effect, whenpamphlets, by Clowes and others, were the subject was being named,-" Deathsupplied to him from the library. He is Dot worth thinking about; life is thenext asked for one of the works or Swe- only thing worth thinking of; if we thinkdenborg, and was furnished with the rightly of life, we need have no concem" Treatise on Heaven aDd Hell." On about death." In his last short illnet18taking. this home to read, his father, a (indeed the only illness of moment he everman of strong reasoning powers, began to suffered), a friend called to see him, and,oppose, not authoritatively, but on what whllespeakingofacourseoflectureswhicbhe called reasonable grol1nds, the reading Mr. W. was then engaged in delivering atof this hook. Young Wilson, however, Hnlme, hinted that he thought be wascould not be satisfied with anything short overworking himself for the Church, andof reading and judging for himself. The would thus shorten his days. His replyfather also began to read, for the sole was in eftect,-" I think much good. maypurpose of keeping up a mental warfare be done at this crisis, by making knownagainst it with his SOD, and they stoutly the doctrines of the New Church by lee-contested every page, every subject or tures, discussions, or otherwise, as tlleredoctrine, and thus battled on to the end is now great agitation in the Christianof the book; the result was, both father World; and if, in tryiog to accomplishand lOO became thoroughly convinced of this good, I should shorten my life a fewits truth. The subject of this notice per- years, I do not see that it matters much."severed in his course of reading, and soon In less than two days afterwards, thefound in the writings of Swedenborg am.. final summons from his Lord and MasterpIe materials to expose the fallacy of all arrived, and then, with the most peacefulthe reasonings against Christianity, the composure, he said, " N 0tJJ I am jU8t readltruth of Revelation, and the being of God~ to go," and immediately breathed his last.which he had met with in the leading in.. D. H. Ca" ay Sner, Pri1lJ4r" 18, Bt. ,A",...,tred, ...Va16Ckuter.
  83. THEINTELLECTUAL REPOSITORY AND NEW JERUSALEM MAGAZINE. No. 135. MARCH, 1851. VOL. XII.THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD, AS ACKNOW· LEDGED BY THE PRIMITIVE CHRISTIANS PRIOR TO THE COUNCIL OF NICE IN 326.THE discovery of the spiritual sense of the Word, in the writings of the New Church, according to the science of correspondences between things natural and things spiritual and divine, is, it must be confessed, the greatest of discoveries, in these latter times, to the human mind. In natural things we often congratulate ourselves on the amazing disco- veries and inventions which, dming the last fifty years, have been made for the natural comfort and prosperity of man, as an inhabitant, for a short time, of this lower world. Everyone joyfully acknowledges the prodigious improvement in manufactures of every kind, by which the human family can be more decently and more cheaply clothed, and by which, connected with other arts and manufactures, all the comforts of human life are not only amazingly increased, but are speedily extended throughout the habitable globe, to all the family of man. The wonderful powers of steam in locomotion, and in its adaptation tonearly all the purposes of life, and the electric telegraph, by which space, as preventive of communication, is almost annihilated, justly excite our admiration and wonder. But all these discoveries have rela- tion only to man in this world, and are intended to benefit his body and all the external relations of his life, and to develope and enrich his natural mind. But the discovery of the spiritual sense of the Word pours a flood of light upon all the internal relations of man,-his rela- tion to God, to heaven, to hell, and universally, in his duties to his . S. NO. 135.-VOL. XII. G Coo
  84. 82 THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD,fellow man. The nature of the human soul, of heaven, of hell, of thelife after death, is now, simultaneously with the spiritual sense of the"r ord, fully discovered. These spiritual discoveries will be found to beof as great importance to the mind and the spiritual states of man, asthe discoveries already alluded to are to his body, and to his natural state in the wOl·ld. The field of human intelligence and wisdom is thereby immensely extended, and is enriched with innumerable new and exalted ideas on every subject of eternal importance to man. Everydoctrine of Christianity is now rendered to the rational perception of man "as clear as crystal," (Rev. xx.) because by virtue of the spiritual sense of Scripture, or the true understanding of the divine Word, all the clouds and obscurities of the letter, or of Truth, seen merely from a natural point of view, are removed. Now may, in the language of the apostle, " spiritual things be explained to spiritual men;"* (1 Cor. ii. 13.) because "the things which are of the spirit of God, are spiritually dis- cerned." (Ver. 14.) But how can the things in the Vord of God be .. spiritually discerned" ,vithout a knowledge of the spiritual sense? In fact, this knowledge has become the great thing needful for the age,- the grand desideratum, "ithout which it is impossible for the human mind to advance in spiritual intelligence and visdom. The great field of intel~al things lies unexplored and unknown without a knowledge of the spiritual sense of the Word. and if internal things are unknown, man knows nothing certain of his own soul, of its relation to a higher state of being, and of the means. by which its states of life, of love, of intelligence and wisdom, can be constantly improved and advanced. Nor can Christianity accomplish its divine mission to the world, unless its tJ. ue internal nature be laid open and understood. 1 Nothing, therefore, is of greater importance than a kno,vledge of the spiritual sense of the Word, and, as a consequence, of those internal and spiritual things which such knowledge opens to man. The New Church will only increase on earth, as the true nature of Gods Word is understood, and the true system of its interpretation is admitted and applied. Thus, the grand preliminary to a correct knowledge of all Truth, and especially of the doctrines of Christianity, is a true idea of Gods Vord, and of the proper system of its interpretation. This system is the "key of knowledge" which unlocks and displays the treasures of intelligence and wisdom revealed in the Scriptures. This key, ,vhich for so many ages has been lost, is now, through the Lord;s mercy, happily restored. This key, whilst it opens the knowledge of * That this is the right interpretation of the passage, sce Bishop Pearce and the best Commentators.-ED.
  85. AS ACKNOWLEDGED BY THE PRIMITIVE CHRISTIANS, ETC. 83 • Truth to the mind, shuts out at the same time, all merely human v8Ra- nes, fancies, and ingenuities, in interpreting the Scriptures. The Christians of the early centuries of Christianity, even down to the Reformation, acknowledged a spiritual sense in the Scriptures, but not being possessed of the key of its true interpretation, the sciencs of cor- respondences, shewing the relation between things natural and spiritual, they could acquire but faint glimpses of the spiritual signification of the Word. Now, as the primitive church, up to the time of Constantine, is con- sidered by many to have existed in greater purity, both as to doctrine and life, than in after ages, we have considered it might he useful to present, in a condensed form, the ,·iews which Mosheim, in his cele- brated work "On the History of the Christian Church before Constan- tine the Great,"* up to about the first quarter of the fourth century, has given on the almost universal acknowledgment of the spiritwil sense of Scripture, and also on the mode and manner in which the primitive fathers and preachers endeavoured to explain it from the divine Text. We are not aware that this portion of Mosheims History has ever been translated. Some time ago an attempt was made to present it to the English reader, but the translator only proceeded to the end of the second century, t whereas the portion we now translate isin the third century, where the learned author is describing the life an}!labours of Origen. Mosheim, as a Protestant of thi Lutheran church, was himself not friendly to the spiritual, or as he sometimes calls it, to the mystical interpretation of Scripture; but his statement and testimony will, on this account, Le the more impartial and satisfactory. Themeans of interpreting Scripture, according to the school of Mosheirn,are the philological, grammatical, and archaiological, which, as they arethe means of making us thoroughly acquainted with the literal sense,are by no means neglected Ly those who admit the spiritual sense, andwho endeavour to interpret it according to the science of correspondences;fo.r a perfect knowledge of the literal sense is indispensable to a rightinterpretation of Scripture. But to remain in the merely literal sense,when we ought, as the apostle says, (1 Cor. ii. 14; Col. i. 9.) to have a"spiritual discsrnment," and a "spiritual understanding" of Scripture,is not to come into the light of Truth, but to remain in the shade ofmerely natural ideas and sensual fallacies, which are of Du profit to the ... De Rebus Cbristianorum ante Constantinum Magnum Commentaria. t The two first centuries of this work were translated by the Rev. 1tlr. Videl, andpublished in 1813.
  86. mE SPIBITtTAL a.NSB OF THE WORD,soul; for the flesh, that is, the external or merely literal sense, profitethnothing; it is the spirit which giveth life, for the words which the LordIpake are ~spirit and life."Mosheims Itatement of the mannlT in which the School of Al631andria, and e8peciaUy Origen, considered th, alllgoneal 01 spiritual interpre- tation oj SeriptUT6.* Origens entire dootrines (says Mosheim) of allegorieal or spiritualinterpretation of Scripture, may be conveniently divided into two parts.One part explains his idea of the sense of the Sacred Word, and theother lays down certain laws, or rules, which are necessary for thosewho wish to understand how to distinguish the divers senses of SacredScripture, and how to ascertain in which passages the power of thewords is necessarily conjoined with a mystical sense. The former part» comprehended in: the following statements : - I.-The Sacred Scripture (according to Origen) is like a man. AsPlato considered that man consists of three parts,-of a rational,oulrof a untient [or animal} BOUl, and of a botly; in like manner the DivineWord has a three-fold sense,-a IJody, that is, an historical and gram..matico.l sense ;-a BOUl, that is, a moral sense; and a Bpiritl that is, amystical or spiritual senser Thus Origen expressly states- ~, We have often said, that in the divine &riptures there is found 8three-fold mode of intelligence, or a three-fold sense,-the historical orliteral, the moral, and the spirit~. Hence it is that we understandthat there is in Scripture a body, a soul, and a spiritr"-(See Origen&Bomil. v. on Leviticus, sec. v. p. ~09, tom. ii. Opp,) And again, be SRyS- "As man is said to consist of body, soul, and spirit, in like mannerthe Sacred Scripture, which, of Divine mer7, has been given to man:for his salvation, consists of three senses. "-{See De Princip. lib. iv.sec. ii. p. 168, tom. i. Opp.) JI.-As the lowest and vilest part of man is his flesh or body, so, inlike manner, the merely literal sense of Scripture, which is like the"body, is far inferior to its moral and spiritual or mystical sense, and of mucllless importance. And as the body, or the flesh, often allures- even the pious and the good to sin, in like manner the merely literalHnse of the Sacred Word may sometimes lead licentious and thought-less readers into errors and vices. As to this point, Origen says,- ., The histories recorded in Scripture do not much help those who vnderitand it 00ly as it is written, or who remain in the literal sense .. Transllltetl from MosheilJl.~s de RebUB Christianomm ante Const. Hag. p. i3l,
  87. AS AOKNOWLEDGED BY THE PBIKITIVE OBlUSTIANS, ETC. 85~nly. For, who is not induced to tamper with licentiousness, and toeonsider fomication as of no account, when he reads about J udahentering into the house of a harlot, and of the patriarchs having severalwives at the same time? Who might not be led to idolatry, if he con-siders that nothing more is invol",ed in the slaughter of sheep andbollocks, that is, in the sacrifices of the Levitical law, than what we readin the letter? Very many have thought that heresies exist more fromthe carnal understanding of Scripture than from the works of our ownearnal nature. We also learn invidiousness and drunkenness from themere letter of the Word; for Noah, although he is represented as arighteous maR, {Gen. vi. 9.) was nevertheless, after the flood, guilty ofdrunkenness. Wherefore, they who remain in the mere letter of Scrip-ture, may occasion many evils both to themselves and to others, whichif they practice, they can never approach the kingdom of God. Where-fore let us seek the spiritual sense of Scripture, by which we shall beenabled to acquire a more rational faith, and to have a more correctmode of life marked by temperance and every virtue."-(Stromat.lib. x..apud Hieronymum, lib. iii. Comm. in Galatas, cap. v. et tom. i. Opp.po 41.) "Some simple souls {says Origen again), who boast of themselves asbelonging to the church, think such things as are entirely unworthy ofGod; for they think such things of Him as we ought not to think evenof a most cruel and unjust man. But if we inquire how it is, that thesesimple souls think in this manner of God,. entertaining such false andimpious opinions of Him, we shall find that it is because they have only had a merely literal or a carnal understanding of Scripture, and have Dot understood the Divine Word according to its spiritual sense."-(De Principiis, lib. iv. sec. viii. ix. p. 165.) Many things to this effe~t, shewing the debased and unworthy ideaswhich many entertain concerning God, from not understanding the Scrip- tures according to their spiritual sense, may be collected from the writings of Origen. 111.-We must not, however, (continues Mosheim) conclude from this, that it wa.q the opinion of Origen that the merely literal sense of Scrip- ture was not useful to certain simple minds, and to children, in leading them OD to acquire Tirtue and salvation. For Origen expressly says,- cc That the literal sense and exposition of Scripture may, of itse~t be useful to certain simple minds, as is evident from many who have ingenuously and simply believed Scripture. For the clothing of spiritual things, that is, the body of Scripture, is in many points useful, and can render many, as far as they ·are susceptible of improvement, better ~n."-(De PriDcip. lib. iv. soo. xii. p. 169; sec. xiv. p. 176.)
  88. 86 THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD, IV.-But those who are wiser and more intelligent than the common people, should endeavour to search out the soul or spiritual sense of Sacred Scripture, having left the body, or its literal seDse ; vhicb spiritual sense is the true moral sense, and to apply all things which they read to the amendment of their lives. V.-But those who wish to come to perfection, or to the highest degree of piety, must ascend still higher, and endeaTour to explore, with all their might, the spirit of the divine Scriptures, or their spiritual and mystical sense. This is clearly evident from the following quotation from Origen:- "Wherefore, it is necessary to describe, in a three-fold sense, the intelligence which a man may have of the divine Scriptures; that is. 1st, the simple may he edified by what I would call the body of the Scripture, for by this term we denote the literal and tbe historical sense. But, 2nd, if any have begun to make farther progress, and can see more deeply into things, they are nourished and edified by what we would call the 80ul of Scripture. And, Srd, those who are still more perfect can be instructed and edified by the pure spiritual sense, or by, as it were, the spirit of the Vord."-lLib. iv. Princip. sec. ii. p. 168.) Origen, in his Homilies and Commentaries on the sacred books, faithfully adhered to his principles, as is evident from his works which still remain, and in which he either entirely passes by the historical and merely verbal sense, or only touches upon it, and passes off to the moral nnd spiritual sense. VI.-The moral sense of Scripture, according to Origen, consists partly in doctrines concerning the changes of state which the soul of man, whether he be good or bad, undergoes, and partly in precepts bywhich the life, both internal and external, of a Christian man should hegoverned. I am not, however, aware (says ¥osheim) that Origen has, inexpress terms, defined what he means by the moral sense; but innu-merable examples demonstrate that the definition here given is correct.Moses informs us (Exodus i. 6-17.) that after Josephs death, thenumber of the children of Israel was greatly increased. From thispassage Origen elicits the following moral sense : - "If Joseph dies within thee, that is, if by Christs doctrine of sell-denial thou mortifiest thy sinful members and propensities, then in theewill be multiplied the children of Israel; for the children of Israelsignify the good and spiritual sensations and affections. If, therefore.the appetites or desires of the flesh are mortified, the spiritual affectionsincrease daily; for in proportion as vicious propensities die out, thenumber of virtues increases."-(Homil. i. in Exod. sec. iv. p. 1SI.tom. ii. Opp.)
  89. AS ACKNOWLEDGED BY THE PRIlfITIVE CHRISTIANS, ETC. 87 Again; as another specimen of Origen 8 spiritual interpretation, wewill adduoe his exposition of Exodus i. 15, in which passage the kingof Egypt orders the midwives to slay the male children of the Hebrews,but to spare the females. Now, according to Origen, the followingmoral sense is involved in the command of Pharaoh:- " The prince, or the evil genius of this world, wishes to destroy therational mind, which desires to understand and to love heavenly things;but the things whieh belong to the flesh, and to our corporeal natu~e,he wishes to live and to increase. When, therefore, thou seest menliving in voluptuous pleasures and delights, thou shouldst know, that inall such the king of Egypt commands that the male children be destroyedand the female presen-ed."-(Homil. ii. in Exod., sec. i. p. 188.) We will now adduce a speeimen of Origens spiritual interpretationof the New Testament. It is said by Matt., chap. xv. 21, 22, that asour Saviour passed over into the confines of Tyre and Sidon, a Cana-nitish woman came to Him and besought Him that He "ould heal herdaughter. NowI according to origen, the moral or spiritual sense ofthis passage is as follows:- U Every one of us, when he sins, dwells in the confines of Tyre or SidoD; but when he comes from his sinful state to virtue, he comes out from the confines of Tyre and Sidon, and passes over to the territory, that is, to the church of God; and here Christ, coming as it were into.the boundaries of Tyre and Sidon, [or into the ultimates of his church] meets him, as He did the woman of Canaan."-(Tom. iv. Opp. p. 503.) VII.-Having spoken of the mode in which Origen elicits a moral seDse from Scripture, even from its historical parts, we shall now speak more especially of the mystical or spiritual sense which is in Scripture:- cc The spiritual explanation (If11£Vp.aTLICTJ ~L71i"7OLS) says Origen, is such as to discover the heavenly things which are involved in the" examples and shadows which those who are Jews according to the flesh observe," (see Heb. viii. 5.) and which heavenly and future things the law shadows forth; or it explains whatsoever heavenly things are found in the Sacred Writings; or it explores that hidden wisdom of which the Apostle speaks, when he says,- But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, e98D the hidden wisdom, (1 Cor. ii. 7.) and it gives us to know, so as to be aWe to observe, of what heavenly things those events which happened fA) the Jews are figures."-(See De Princip. lib. iv. sec. xiii. p. 170, ~ere Origen himself gives this definition of the mystical sense.) Now a p&rt of this definition (says Mosheim) is sufficiently clear. For Origen oonsiders that what is said in the law of Moses, and in the historical and prophetieal parts of the Old Testament, are types and
  90. 88 THE COBBESPONDENCES OF GOLD.predictiens relating to Christ and his church. Whoever, therefore~applies those things, which are recorded in the letter, of the Jewishpeople, to Jesus Christ and to his history, he elicits the mystical erallegorical sense, and, by application, carries out its desiga But a partof this definition must needs be obscure to those who are ignorant ofthe mind of Origen. This fact, however, will be obvious to those whoattentively study his works ;-they will see that the sense which Origenealls mystical, or spiritual, is of a twofold kind. Thus he says (1) inthe extract quoted above, tc that the Jews according to the flesh, servethe example (type wroa£l,yp.al&) and shadow of heavenly things," as isdeclared by the Apostle. (Heb. viii. D.) The ceremonial rituals, there-fore, of the law are shadows of spiritual and heavenly things. And hesays (2) that the law is, at the same time, the shadow of future things,that is, of things whioh should be done on this earth by Jesus Christ,and under His guidance and direction; whioh two things, althoughboth relating to the church, differ nevertheless from each other, as thingsheavenly from things earthly, or as things superior differ from thingsinferior. There is, therefore. according to Origen, and the Christiansof the three first centuries, a mystical or spiritual sense in Holy Scrip-ture, which expresses purely heavenly things; and there is anothersense which expresses sacred things, or such as take place [in thechurch] on!earth. Origen, moreover, says, (1) that there is in Script:ur6a certain wisdom hidtlm, as the Apostle says, in a mystery. (1 Cor. li. 7.)And (2) he says that those things which happened to the people ofIsrael we.re the figures of certain sacred things; which two kinds ofspiritual signification he clearly distinguishes; but what we havehitherto said is not sufficient to explain clearly and fully the mind ofOrigen as to the spiritual sense of Scripture. We shall therefore(says Mosheim) endeavour to place it in a clearer light. (.To ~ contiA".) THE CORRESPONDENCES OF GOLD.ONE of the most conclusive proofs that correspondence is not a meretheory, or imaginative device, but a great FACT, cotemporary with allmaterial existence, is that it appeals to us from every department ofnature. J t is not as if moral and spiritual truths were found to beimaged or represented in partioular classes of objects. There is notmerely a language of flowers, and a symbolism among animals. It isDot only the grander and the living forms of creation which address us
  91. THE OOBRESPONDENOE8 OF GOLD. 80 as emblems. All things, even to the very humblest shapes of inorganic matter, shew themselves to 1le words of the sublime pioture-langUage in whioh God has expressed his mind, and to occupy a place so important in the resplendent poem of the universe, that for a single one of them to be absent would mar its heavenly metre, and cause a gap in the melody and concord of its musio. Just as frem the Old Testament not one type or foreshadowment of the Lord could be spared, because each prefigures some distinot feature of his unsearohable Love and Wisdom; and just as from the sunbeam, whioh is his emblem, not one oonstituent colour could be omitted without destroying the perfection of its beauty, and impairing its efficiency as a life-bringer. This fine truth is well illustrated in the symbolic quality of the mstalB. Though lifeless, motionless, inorganio substanoes, yet are the properties of metals at once so marked aud diverse, that to the observant mind their representative characters appear as plain as those of the most highly organized animal, or the most suggestive flower. This is why in common conversation we continually use and hear such phrases 88 the golden rule, the golden mean, leaden wit, brazen impudence. People utter such expressions from the dictates of their instincl8. It is not from imitation or caprice that such metaphors are used, and it is seldom from scientific acquaintance with the metals themselves. These representative characters accord, as in all other departments of corres- pondence, with the phyaical properties of the several metals. The nobler those properties, the higher is the signifioance; the humbler or poorer they are, the lower is the associated symbolism. Lead, for example, though it has its uses, like the lower faculties of our nature,is nevertheless a metal of little value, because of its extreme softnessand liability to decay. It is at the same time of such great density asto have become another name for heaviness. Hence it represents what in pretension is proud and arrogant, yet in reality weak and ineffective. Cicero accordingly, speaking of a lame and impotent argument, calls it Oplumbsu.m pugionsm, ct 0 leaden dagger !" Terence uses" leaden" fortloltik. (Heaut. T. i.) Gold, on the other hand, is conspicuous forproperties whioh place it in the highest mnk. Exoeeded in weight onlyby platina, no metal is of a more beautiful or .lustrous colour; no metalis more ductile; nor is there one which so completely withstands expo·sure to the action of the atmosphere, the destroying heat of the furnace,or the power of strong corrosive acids, such as will dissolve mercuryand copper in a few moments. When in a state of fusion, gold 1088SIlOthing either in bulk or quality: it is equally insusceptible of beingrusted, except by ingenious chemical process. Every thing here men-
  92. gO THE CORRESPONDENCES OF GOLD.tioned presupposes and indicates a noble significance. Men in all ages.accordingly, pereeiving the natural conformity of gold with all that ismost excellent and precious among the things of intellect and affection,and their respective phases or states,-have used it as their word-picture for such things, speaking of golden hope, * golden joy,golden opinions, golden words,t golden dreams, golden expectations.Shakspere, in his deep sensibility to correspondence, adverts to thesymbolic nature of gold in many a beautiful line. Thus, describingthe wonderful music of Orphens, he says that his lute was "Stnlng with poets sinew&, Whose golden touch C8Il soften steel and stones; Make. tigers tame, and huge leviathans Forsake unsounded deeps to dance on sands." (Two Gentlemen of Verona, iii. 2.)In another place (Cymheline v. 3.) he speaks of countenances pale withsorrowI yet gilded by native nobleness that no calamity could over-power; a metaphor at once so just and striking as of itself to shew howcorrect was Aristotles conception of the nature of true genius, thesurest indication of which he represents to be quickness in discoveringthose fine relations between the moral and the natural worlds whichwholly escape the common eye. and which no education can teach thedull and inapt to discern. (On Poetry, sec. xxxvii., at the end.) Thatalso is a rich passage where he alludes to "The elegance, facility, and golden caden,ce of Poesy." (Love"s Labour Lost, iv. 2.).For the office of genuine " poesy" is the dealing with the highest troths of nature, and their most lovely and enduring aspects, and it is precisely these things which in gold are emblematically summed up. Physical circumstances of peculiarly pleasing and excellent quality are also described as golden, as when Pindar speaks of golden health;.<irylEl.av xpvuEav, Pyth. iii. 128.) and Shakspere of golden sleep.{&meo and Juliet. li. 3.) Anacreon has xpVUElS t A c}>po8lI"fJs. (Ode 36.).Horace calls amiable manners, aurei mores. (Odes, iv. 2, 22.) What in the sight of God is most excellent and precious, is purity and goodness of heart, together with the continual and active exercise of the * l,,.rrE fO 3> xpvuias "i#cvov lAtrl8os. " Tell me, 0 child of golden hope!" (Sophocles, <Ed. Tyr. 157.) t Anrea dicta, Aurea, perpetnl semper diRDi88ime vitae (Luoretius iii. 1~, ] s.)
  93. THE CORRESPONDENCES OF GOLD. Qlemotions and desires which arise therefrom. Hence, in the divine Word,which is written, just as the world was created, by the law of correspond-ences between things spiritual and material, such goodness is denoted bygold. Thus, plainly because of its symbolism of living and useful piety, itis said in Isaiah,-in the course of a description of the glory of the churchby the introduction to it of innumerable converts,-" The multitude ofcamel! shall cover thee; the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; allthey from Shaha shall come; they shall bring gold and inc61l88, andshall shew forth the praises of the Lord." (Ix. 6.) When, on the otherhand, the prophet laments the declension of the church, he exclaims,-Cl How is the fine gold become dim!" (Lament. iv. 1.) The incensementioned in the former cited verse, denotes, as shewn by paralleltexts, the exercise of a lively and grateful faith; such as always accom-panies the practical Christianity implied by the gold. Hence thesesubstances are again mentioned in connection in Matthew ii. 11, whereit is said that the wise men who came from the East to worship theinfant Jesus, U brought gold and frankincense." For this act of theirswas not simply one of personal homage. Not a single thing mentionedin Scripture has a temporary or local significance. Every deed and frrery incident is a lesson in representatives, to all time, of what it behoves mankind to perform, or of what will be the. consequence of a given course of conduct. So meaningful does Scripture become "hen viewed by the light of correspondence, that next to the letter of the Word, the greatest gift of God to man is unquestionably its figurative or internal sense. To the man who soeks God with his whole heart, it is promised that gold shall be given; "to him shall be given of the gold of Sheba." (Psalm lxxii. 7, 15.) Gold of Sheba, however, is not the only kind which Scripture mentions. There is also gold of Ophir, gold of Tarshish, gold of Havilah, gold of Uphaz. Nor are these arbitrary or meaningless distinctions. Goodness, though one in the collective, is nevertheless of varied form and manifestation, according to each mans perception, temperament, and point in spiritual progression. And the various localities that are named, like all other places mentioned in the Bible, evidently have symbolic meanings in harmony therewith. In Job xxii. 24, for instance, it is said that if we will ., return to the Almighty" we shall" lay up gold as dust, and the gold of Op1l,ir as the stones of the brooks." Here some specific state as to affection for goodness is manifestly intended, or it would have been needless to promise a specific reward. The general sense is beautifully and strikingly proved again in the history of Abraham, who it is said was "very rich, in cattle, .in silver,
  94. THE CORRESPONDENCES OF GOLD.and in gold." (Gen. xiiL 2.) All Christians, in all ages, beginning withSt. Paul, have recognized the fine typical character of Abraham. Tobe consistent with itself, this character must of course involve, notmerely an incident or two in the life of the great patriarch, but everyparticular that is narrated of him, and therefore the silver and gold.These, accordingly, while they were veritable physical possessions withAbraham as an indhidual, representatively denote the high and compre-hensive principles of goodness and of truth with which, as a typicalpersonage of the first order, it was necessary he should be endowed..~I Silver" is mentioned, because throughout the Word this metal is usedas symbolic of the clear understanding of Gods trutlu, which is quitea different thing from the performance of his principles of good1&8ll8.Men may revere and extemally worship God from their wealth in thesilver of knowledge; but it is only when they possess the gold of loveto do his will, for its own heavenly sake, that they practise the genuineChristian character. Abraham was in the exercise of both. Theformer therefore, that is, the kJl,owlsdgs of truth, though a splendid andenriching possession, is yet a lower kind of wealth than the love of puregoodness. Hence it is denoted by a. metal, excellent in itself, butsecondary to incomparahle gold. It is the grand and vital fact inreligion above alluded to, ,vhich is ulteriorly intended in those fine linesin "Festus"- " The golden side of Heaven. great shield Is talth ; The silver, reason: I see t1iI-1ou tAat ; The junotion is invisible to both."Other fine examples of the general signification of gold, as mentioned .in Scripture, are those met with in the Apocalypse, as when our Lordsays_I I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that thoumayest be rich; and white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed."(ill. 18.) Here is meant, that only through his aid can we procurepower to do what is right and acceptable; and that our highest wisdomis to seek that aid forthwith. It is the sublimely figurative way, socharacteristic of the Word of God, of reminding us that the mostfoolish, absurd, and inconsistent thing in being is the man who has notyet stepped into the path of regeneration. The visioDs of heaven andits phenomena ,hich John beheld, repeatedly included gold as aningredient. The city of the New Jerusalem, and "the streets thereof"appeared, for instance, like cc pure gold," as did also the reed with whichthe angel measured it. (xxxi. 101 18, 21.) The elders had on "crownsof gold," (iv. 4.) reminding us of the magnificent portraiture in thePsalms,-" The King shall rejoice in thy strength, 0 Lord, and in thy
  95. THE OOBBBSPOKDUOES 01 GOLD. 98Mlvation how greatly shall he rejoice! For thou d08t anticipate hisdesires with the blessings of thy goodness; thou settest a crown of pttfBgold upon his head." (xxi. 1-8.) And not only has the" King" agolden crown bestowed on him, but U The Kings daughter is all gloriouswithin; her clothing is of tlWOUght gold." (xlv. 18.) "King" and.c daughter," 88 elsewhere explained, are figures denoting certain nobleattitudes of the 80ul in reference to God; the gold with which they are88id to be adorned being the oonsociated love of goodness, and theshining and beautiful activity with which it is put in practice. Thespiritual gold of the "city" has its predictive and representativecounterpart in the gold with whieh the ark of the tabernacle, the altar,and the mercy-seat were inlaid. Gold was not used in the constructionof these 8imply because of its physical splendour, but because inprimmval times all religions observances were framed in express ac-cordance with the correspondences between things natural and divine,with the added reason, in the case of the Jewish ritual, of there beinga sublime and heaven-taught prefiguration in every detail. The profuse-decoration "ith gold of Solomons temple rested on the same circum·stances, this famous edifice having been the foreshadowment of the temple "not made with hands." The cherubim, the palm·trees, andtheir open flowers, with which the temple was adorned, toRether withthe insignia of the priests, were overlaid with the same metal. Thelatter was a magnificent emblem of what should be the first and mostanimating principle of the Christian minister, namely, purity and good..ness. I t was because of the typical character of Solomon himself, sofamiliar to the Christian inquirer, that "year by year brought eTeryman his present to him, vessels of BilvBr, and vessels of gold, andgarments, and armour, and spices, horses, and camels." (1 Kings x. 25.) Even the making of Idols of silver and gold was from the perceptionof the correspondences of these metals. Idolatry always copies theformularies of truth, differing from the vorship which true religion pays, simply in forgetting the thing originally signified, and" resting inits material picture, too often led thence however into worse observances. When men, in any age, or in any country, frame for themselves false doctrines and false rules of life, by the perversion of what is right, they spiritually mould silver and golden images, and worship them as their gods. These errors it is which are meant when the prophet says, that "in that day a man shall caRt his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they made each one for himself to Voramp, to the moles and to the bats." (Isaiah ii. 20.) And it is the same ,vhich are alluded to by the Psalmist (in the spiritual or figurative sense of his words) when he
  96. 94 THE OORRESPONDENCES OF GOLD. says,-" Their idols are silver and gold, the Work of mens hands. They have mouths, but they speak not; eyes have they, but they see not," &c., the sense of which description is that all merely human dog. mas and principles are utterly destitute of vitality and reasonableness, because only that which comes from God is truly liviug and profitable. In appearance they are virtuous and intellectual, but in actuality they are blind, deaf, and senseless. I t is these perversions of Gods truths, and the hypocritical assumption of a virtuous exterior for worldly and selfish endS, which are referred to, likewise, when curses are pronounced upon those who steal the Lords silver and gold, as in J oel ill. 5,-" Because ye have taken away my silver and my gold, and have carried into your temples my goodly pleasant things." So in the Apocalypse, the woman arrayed in scarlet and purple is described as "decked with gold," and as having "a golden cup in her hand" which yet was "full of abominations. . Here is plainly intended the infamous and diabolical deceit vhich is veiled under a shew of high and lovely excellence by those whom the woman representatively denotes. Nothing could more strikingly commemorate the recognition by theancients in general of the symbolic character of these and other metals,than the traditions they have bequeathed us of the Golden and Silver Ages,with the succeeding ones of brass and iron. That there were such ages isno dreamers fancy. Nor are the names mere pagan metaphors-Scrip-ture uses the very same phraseology. "For brass," says the Lord, inprophecy of his advent, "for brass I will bring gold, and for iron I willbring silver." (Isaiah Ix. 17.) Similar mention of the four metals ismade in other places, as in Joshua vi. 24, the brass and iron denotinginferior forms of truth and goodness, such as are possessed and practisedby men who act only from external motives. Spiritually and in fact,then, the golden age was that when every one did what was good fromthe pure love of goodness. Mythologi~al1y it was the time vhen, asOvid tells, fear and punishment were unknown, when mutual justiceand confidence prevailed, when the soldier was unborn, and the earthyielded plentifully of all that was needful to mans happiness and welfare. Ver erat mternum, placidique tepentibus auris Mulcebant zephyri natos sine semine flores : Flumina jam lactis, jam flumina nectaris ibant. " Then reigned eternal spring; gentle zephyrs cherished with kindly breath flowersthat grew unsOWD; and rivers of milk and honey* flowed lavish across the plains."-(Met. i. 106.) * The figure of flowing with milk and honey frcfluently occurs in ancient paganpoetry. See, for instance, Euripides, Bacchre 142-144, and Horace, Odes, xix.10, 12. For a fine description of the Golden Age, see also the chorus at the end ofthe first act of Tasso"s Aminta.
  97. !UTEBIALS FOB MORAL OULTUBB. The silver age was the era which saw the love of goodness in deed givew~y to inactive respect for it in thought. Moral declension had nowX>mmenced. The age of brass was one of a still further decline; andthat of iron witnessed the consummation of the wickedness to whichman almost inevitably falls when he turns away from God. The des-cription which Ovid gives of its horrors is one of his most powerfulpassages ;_u Piety," he concludes, U lies vanquished, and the virginAstnea, last of the heavenly deities, abandons the blood-drenchedearth." But though the first golden age has passed away, a brighter oneis yet to come. The New Jerusalem, with its golden streets, offers adwelling place to whoever will abide in it; and though the brilliantfigures of the poet depict miracles of peace and beauty as the qualitiesof an era that is historical, there are promises of Gods in store whichtranscend them infinitely. LEO. MATERIALS FOR MORAL CULTURE. (NEW SERIES.) " .All rellgion has relation to life, and the life of religion is to do good. "-SWEDEN-BOIW, Doe. of Life, No. l. "Nothing is more spiritual than that which is moraL"-DR. WUICHCorrsj pkorisms. I.REliGION, with an external Christian, is but an adjunct or incident,with as much morality annexed to the crude idea he entertains of religion~as inclination and interest may compromise with conscience. But withan internal Christian, religion is the one and all-absorbing principle-his very life and thought-to which all things are secondary and subor-dinate; and with him "all religion has relation to life, and the life ofreligion is to do good," and "nothing is more spiritual than that whichis moral." 11. The spiritual man acts from an influx into the intellectual things .of faith implanted in his conscience; the celestial man from an influx into his interior will or love. But in both cases the results, in action, appear to the beholder as of like quality; for he has only to deal with the acts, and whether the motives spring from faith with a mixture of incongruous things, or from pure love, he is unable to discern. Hence it sometimes
  98. 96 KATERIll,S FOR MORAl, CULTUBEItmay happen, that the gentle and retiring celestial man may be littlethought of, while the more showy spiritual man obtains high estimation. Ill. No one thinks his capability for the moral analysis of anothers cha-racter insufficient, until he has att.ained, by regeneration, so much ofmeekness and lowliness of heart as leads him to distrust his infallibility.Hence judgments are frequently formed, as unjust as they are preco-cious. No man can be qualified to anulyse anothers character (supposingit free from overt acts of immorality) until be has become well acquainteawith sound moral principles, and well practised in the faithful appli-cation of them in analysing his own character. IV. The advent of every divinely vital idea is an advent of "the Son ofMan." "Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord! " v. et Old friends will always dearer be As more in them of heaven we see." So says the poet: and 80 it should be. But old friends sometimes look for an unreasonable amolmt of conformity to their too selfish wishes; and not finding what, if they had it, would not be good for them, a dark cloud interposes-all that savours of heaven disappears; and although..the late friend may be unchanged, may be even a man of the purest charity, he is already numbered with enemies. Such is human infirmity, admonishing to seek friendship with God in the first place; and with man, to cultivate rather the heavenly friendship of charity than the earthly personal friendship which requires to be kept alive by a recipro- city of favours and pleasures, and is liable to fall oft when one of the parties becomes richer or the other becomes poorer. VI. The doctrifttl1, acknowledgment of the fatherly character of God mustmanifest its reality in the practical acknowledgment of the brotherhoodof man, or it is empty; possibly hypocritical. Man must shew long-suffering kindness to his brother, or be renders Gods paternal relationto himself merely nominal. We can only realise the blessing of theDivine patemal relation to ourselves, by realising the blessings of thebrotherly relation in all our dealings with universal man; for the former,aB the internal principle, derives from the latter, as its proper foundation,fixity and permanence, imparting in. return vitality and interior satis-faction.
  99. THE LITERAL SENSE OF THE FOURTH aOKKA.NDJrlENT. 97 VII. It is a striking proof of fallen mans feebleness, that while peoplegenerally dislike above all things to be imposed upon and cheated, theyare ever ready to cheat themselves, by imposing upon their o,vn judg-ment the counterfeit for the real, the false for the true, and even theevil for the good! VIII. How mean a thing it is to obey from no higher a motive than fear !This appears from the consideration that Wl in hell, who become subju-gated by the punishment generated by their evils, can attain no betterstate than this to eternity! And such is the quality of all our moralact8 (and it is questionable whether they are few in number) that aredone as in the sight of mao, and not as in the sight of God. IX. Sincere piety always marks, highly estimates, and devoutly acknow-ledges Gods mercies; and true charity does the same by mans kind-nesses. Sincere piety and true charity-gratitude to God and gratitudemman-are inseparable companions"; for the internal and its properelternal must always grow together: so much gratitude to God, somuch gratitude to man; so much gratitude to man, so much gratitude toGod. The application of this searching test in self-examination, wouldbe found beneficial by most people.THE LITERAL SENSE OF THE FOURTH COMMANDMENT.THERE being many portions of the Word which are obviously not to beunderstood, or cannot be understood, according to the sense of theletter, a strong argument is thus furnished for the existence of an inter-nal spiritual sense, since the words cannot be without some useful senseand meaning. This being the case, it is Dot surprising that youngreceivers of the doctrines should be ready to seize on such an argument,wherever it may appear to them, without making sufficient inquiry as tothe possibility of affixing a reasonable sense to the letter, although at first sight such a sense may appear to be impossible. This, no doubt, may be the case with some in respect to the first commandment with U prmnise " (the fifth in the Prayer Book version),-" Honour thy father and thy mother; that thy days may be prolonged upon the land whioh the Lord thy God giveth thee." Not a few persons understand the command as addressed to individual children, and the promise as aD- K. s. NO. lS5.-vOL. XII. H
  100. 98 THE LITERAL SENSE OF THE FOUBTH COIDfANDHENT.nexed to their obedience, and addressed to them only, declaring thatobedient children will live longer than other children. But it will beseen that the ten commandments, although to be kept by individuals,are addressed to ths whole people of IwtUl, and the promise, therefore.applies not to the obedient children, but to the whols people, which, as anation, will be affected beneficially by the command being obeyed. Itdoes not mean to say to a child, cc Obey this command, and you willhave a long life in this world," but it says to the whole people,. bothparents and children, "Let obedience be exacted by parents, and thenit will be yielded by children, and then such results will follow as willinsure to the nation perpetuity. "*- Now some, thus understanding the command, rightly so far,. mightadd, 110t so accurately, that God by his mighty power would reward theirobedience by continuing them in the possession of their good land,cc flowing with milk and honey." But we would suggest that the truesense is this :-that the natural or moral effect of such obedience wouldbe the continuous preservation of virtuous principles and habits in thepeople at large. " Train up a child in the way in which he should g9,and when he is old [or when he becomes a man] he will not depart fromit. It Granting these words of Solomon to be true, it follows, that fromthe obedience of the children, as children, would result their obedience,when grown to maturity, to all those laws of God contained in the Old,Testament, and in which their wise and good parents had piouslyinstructed them,-and this would ensure the continued possession, bythe adult population, of the good land which the Lord their God hadgiven them. But take the converse of Solomons proverb, to this effect :-" Suffer& child to follow his own will in rebelling against parental q.uthority andinstruction, and when he is old he will not depart from it." This mustbe equally true with the original proverb, and hence it follows, that theIsraelites would become, in consequence of prevailing filial disobedience,so corrupt, that, according to the tenor of their covenant, when thus * This command is clearly more addressed to parents than to children, since the~hilds honouringof his parents depepds almost entirely upon tJ~r training him tohabits of obedience, grounded in a just reverence for their moral and intellectualcharacter. Were the writer engaged in preparing the DecaJogue for Chriatian U8e8in education, he would feel himself bound, in order to guard the child from misap.prehension, to word the promissory portion thus :-" that thy days [0 Israel] maybe prolonged upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee." Any thoughtfulchild on being questioned as to the meaning of this command, would reply-Cl Itmeans that good children wiU live longer than others, but this does not seem to, meto be true."
  101. TIlE LITBaU. SENSE OF THE FOURTH COJO(ANDKEIlT. 99· koken and despised, their ejection from the land of Canaan must neces- sarilyensue. (Deut. viii. 19, 20.) One of the features of the fallen Old Testament Church, when the Lord came, was the odious filial ingratitude which bad become customary, as described in Mark vii. 9-13, where we are informed that the Phari- lees encouraged their disciples to avoid supporting their aged parents, by making a fictitious and merely nominal consecration, or pretended devoting, of all their property by which their parents might be relieved,. to religious uses connected with the Temple worship. From such Deglect of the commandment to honour parents, what other result could spring than the horrible crimes and inhumanities recorded by their historian, Josephus, as rile amongst the Jewish people of that age ? An American writer remarks, that- cc The Puritan fathen 01 New England, and most of the colonists from the Old World, brought with them the old notions of family discipline. 8tubbom chUdren, fared harder with the ....ly magWtratee of New England than the majority of thieves and murderers do now; for filial diJobedience or disrespeot waa then an iniquity to be punished by the judges. From homes thus governed, sprang the perDading ,pirit qf ortkr which survived the breaking up of old institutions, quietly awaited the inauguration of our state and nationai government, and then peacefully transferred its former allegiance to the newly-constituted authorities. It was luYrM-lwed habtJ" o1ofN that kept the nation above the waves of anarchy during the revolution; for the governments had only a nominal power, and might have been crushed by a verr alight outbreak of the mob spirit. Had not the American soldiers of the revolution been for the most part trained in well-ordered families, they never would have laid down their arms un tU they had received their pay in a more satisfactory form than what they deemed worthless paper; they would have levied their hard-eamed wages OD the goods of the unarmed, and would have elevated some chieftain less scrupulous than Waahington to the supreme authority, 88 the head of ... military deepotilm. TM ICe7&8 iI notD MJdly c1Ul/n,gld. The present generation [of Americans] has witne8led much social disorder. Laws are often left as a dead letter on the statute book. Our state and national legislatures have frequently been tbe theatre of outrages that would disgrace the hedge-fighters arena. Mobs bave often arrested. the course ofJaetiee, and have been abetted in 80 doing by men of education, and of high socialand political rank. And is it too muoh to eay, that suoh paroxy&IDs of violence andIawleI8De88 MW f"erulted fNYm the r.elazed ,tale of d07lwtic dilcipline,-from homeswhere the children have ruled, and the parents have served and submitted to them!It was only families organized and govemed after the Divine pattem, that made arepublic possible on these shores. If the old system of domestic order is to remainpermanently reversed, and the whitu of childhood, the freaks of youth, are togoYeIIl our·familiee instead of the wiSdom of mature experience, we may oount the618 of our republic numbered and finished. Undisciplined homes will underminethe state; and the world mU8t wait for a successful republic experiment until thereshall be a nation that shall obey the precept, and receive the promise, addresled nowto every Christian nation,- Honour thy father and thy mother, that tlJ)" days maybe prolonged ul0n the land which the Lord thy God givcth thee? "
  102. 100 THE LITERAL SENSE OF THE FOURTH COJOlANDMENT• . However solemn, or even gloomy, this view of the moral condition ofAmerica and her prospects of the stability of the Umon may seem tothe readers of this paper, the writer of it cannot withhold his cordialassent to, and sympathy with, the conclusion, that every nations trueprosperity, nay more, that the true prosperity of the church in everynation, mainly depends on the quality of the education of the youth.That a general complaint is heard from the lips of the more thoughtfulportion of our nation, of the want of proper feelings in our youthtoward their parents and elders, is notorious. Nor can we feel assuredthat this moral pestilence, for such surely it is, has not penetrated intoNew Church families. Why is it that so many young persons, oncoming to maturity, with ,ome preference to the New Church doctrinaland philosophical systems, do not remain in our societies, "adorningthe doctrine of God our Saviour in all things"? It is not for want ofsecular education that they have not become "so,ber-minded; neither ttis it for want of religious knowledge that they have Dot added thereto,as exhorted by the apostle Peter, "tempemnce, patience, godliness,brotherly kindness, and charity." That which has been lacking, is piousmoral training by their parents, inducing habits in youth of pioQS thought, judgment, and action! Their parents have been too actively engaged to be thoughtful enough on a subject 80 important in its nature, and 80 serious in its consequences. No gardener leaves his plants to grow up, like weeds, vithout care; nor fails to root up the weeds which, without vigilance, and to some extent in spite of it, will weaken the good plants by drawing away their nutriment. But fond parents leave their children to grow up of themselves, and, in moral respects, without sufficient culture; thus treating them, in reality, according to the character of worthless weeds, rather than of valuable, nay, inestimable plants. Adverting again to the testimony afforded by the American writer above cited, concerning the want of education, in its moral sense, in the United States, while, in its inteUsctual sense, it abounds. No doubt education, in the latter sense, abounds at the capital of New England, the celebrated city of Boston; but let anyone examine the religious journals published there, and he ,vill find the deepest lamentations over the deeply depraved character of a large portion of their youth who can read. The resorts of the vicious there are horribly numerous in pro- portion to the population. The above citation was copied from a BOSWD journal of the highest respectability. No doubt the tendency of mere secular knowledge is good, rather than the contrary, because it is one of the mediums of good, and the Divine 0I,eration acts upon all mediums
  103. THE OEBElIONIAL LAW. 101of good, and thus gives them, as far as possible, or as far as consistswith mans free agenoy, a tendency to good. But let every New Churchparent learn from this testimony how little dependence is to be placedupon aoy kind of education, as effectual to ~ad our youth from earth toheaven~ along the path of goodness (that is, the path of self-denial,-the way of "the CroS8 "), short of a judicious and eftective pious an~moral training by parents, and especially by the mother during theearliest period of childhood. W. M. [We beg respectfully to urge upon the attention of our readers whoare parents, the remarkable instance afforded by our correspondent ofthe failure of every system of education which is not based upon thesure and sOllnd foundation of intelligent domestic training to habits ofreligious obedience. It cannot be said that parents of the New Churchare without guidance on this all-important subject. We have takenfrequent opportunities to recommend The Parents Friend, written bythe Rev. W. Mason, which is, in fact, the only publication of any extent,if not the only one, concerning " Domestic Education," founded expresslyon New Church principles. We are happy to learn that Mr. Hodsonhas j us~ published a third edition of this valuable work, at a veryreasonable price; and we hope that those who have not seen it (for it~ been, we hear, some time out of print), will lose no time in sup-plying themselves with it.-EDITOB.] THE CEREMONIAL LAW.DID our Saviour fulfil, in the language of Scripture, the CeremonialLaw, in like manner as He did the moral? Or, which is the same thing, did He fulfil it in the sense in which He is said to have fulfilled it, in the following extract from Mr. Noble?* Mter making quotation of our Saviours assurance, that " He came not to destroy the law and the prophets, but to fulfi~," Mr. Noble goes ()n to observe,- "Some have found it difficult to reconcile this declaration with the fact, that the greater part of the ¥osaic law was abolished ~ the establishment of Christianity, the observance of it not being enjoined on Christians, and the power of observing it being taken away from the Jews by the destruction of their city and temple, where alone the chief of the ceremonies could be performed. It is indeed * Plenary Inspiration of the Scriptures, p. 73.
  104. 102 THE OEREMONIAL LAW.said, and wit" t1~tk, that the whole of the ceremonial law was fulfilled-by J esllS Christ in his own person; but this does not account for theabolitio1t of it afterwards; otherwise we must suppose the moral law,which he fulfilled likewise, to be abolished also; and this has never beenasserted by any but the wildest Antinomian perverters of Divine Troth."* Did Mr. Noble permit of the signification commonly attached to theword "fulfil" in reference to the ceremonial law, but which it is evidenthe does not, nor do they who hold with him, then the contradictionherein stated would not obtain. Applied to the ceremonial law, whichwas abolished, the word "fulfil" must be allowed to mean,-to bebrought to an end, by the things fore-shadowed therein being virtuallyaccomplished: not that the shadow itself was in troth and of a verity" fined full" with the Divine, as the moral law was afterwards, other-wise we must ~uppose the moral law, which he fulfilled likewise, to be.abolished also. We shall commence our answer to this question,-u Did our Saviourfulfil the ceremonial law in like manner as He did the moral?" bystating it in the proposition form : - 1st. The moral law speaks from within, and was made perfect inChrist, even to the lowest principles of His sinless Humanity. 2nd. The ceremonial law speaks from without, and was not, and could not, in the very nature of things, be perfected in Christ in like manner. t In the one case the law, which is the moral, was fulfilled even to its-outermost, and thereby was established for ever: in the other, the law, ,vhieh is the ceremonial, was emptied of its life, which it held only bycorrespondence, and was thereby made null and void, or abrogated forever. Thus the moral law, in itMlJ divine, was perfected in Christ,whilst the ceremonial law, in itself dead, was of· necessity abolished. The truth of Ulese propositions will, we tmst, be made evident in thesequel. We hold, then, that it is not true that our Saviour fulfilled theceremonial law, in like manner, and in the same sense in which Hefulfilled the moral law, even to its literal observance; for that would * The italics are oun. t The oeremoniallaw also speaks from ttJith,ia, by virtue of ita spiritual 8eD1e, . .well as the moral law; and this latter law also speaks from trit.hout as weD as fro-UJitll,in,. Thus the Ten Commandments are the moral law, which may be ob8erfedeither from without only, or at the l&IIle time, from flJilkiA also. Hence a man may"batain from murder and adoltery in the outward act, but if not from within at theame time, be is still a murderer and an adult8rer.--BD.
  105. rBB CEREMONIAL LAW. 108have been to have served, in obedience, that which was only permis- sive, and which was providentially commanded or allowed in order to keep the carnal-minded, stiff-necked, and rebellious Jews from falling into a lower, more idolatrous, and sinful state than they otherwise would have done. In as far as, and in the sense.in whch, the ceremonial law can be saidto have been fulfilled in Christ, it remains with us to this day,-and, in the very nature of things, will ever so remain; for where Christ has been in Spirit, there He ever is, and must ever henceforth be. Inasmuch then as the ceremonial law, strictly 80 called, has been abolished in outward or literal observance, we have every reason, weconceive, to conolude. a priori, that it was not literally observed byour Saviour, and this we shall find to be Scripturally true.* To say thatit was first fulfilled, and then abolished, is to mistake, in our opinion, the only true meaning of Scripture; for the term fulfil signifies, inBiblical language, to fill full; now what Christ, as our Saviour, hasfilled full, must remain 80 to eternity. This He did with the morallaw in every, even the least, particular, and this law was therebyestablished for ever. Had He done the same by the ceremonial law, it too would thereby have been lastingly established, not abrogated. In this respect, then, we conceive Mr. Noble to be in error when he says that" our Saviour, it is true, fulfilled the ceremonial law as well as the moral," but that "the former is now abolished, whilst the latter remains;" and we hold him to be in truth, in the admission, that the t fulfilment of the ceremonial law does not account for its abolition afterwards, whilst the fulfilment of the moral law sufficiently testifies to its more * We are sorry that we have cause thus to state the matter, but. the manner hasbeen forced upon us; for if it be maintained, as Mr. Noble, in the extract abovegiven, clearly does, that the ceremonial law was fulfilled in like manner as the morallaw, it must from the very necessity of the cue have been literally and .trictl,.observed, for thus it could only have been perfectly fulfilled. Whereas our opinion.is. that they were each fulfilled (if the same word "fulfil " be used in respect ofboth laws) in a dift"erent manner :-the ceremonial law waa fulfilled to Us abolition,by the eduction or withdrawal from it of those prinoiples whioh the J eWl, in theiriporanoe, believed it to contain in Iaot,·or i", CClttM, the truth being, that it held themonly ia"«4, aDd thie by mere and outward oorreepondence; whilst the moral law,011 the other hand, was ful8lled to ita more perfect establishment, by the inductionOJ the indrawal of the Divine, the law in its letter being made, in Christ, thecontinent thereof. The one, the ceremonial law, spoke to 118 in prinoiple, by corres-po~eDoe merely; the other, the moral law, spoke to us then.;.:...still does, and ever will continue to do-morally in the letter, but spiritually and diVinely in its interiorIIld imlenaoet. . t We here UBe it ill the 8eI18e iD. whieh 1th Noble does.
  106. 104- THE OlmDlONIAL LAW.perfeQt establishment. The ceremonial law in its literal oDservance, twas made binding upon the external-minded Jews, in adaptation to, andin compassion of, their state. It was a bene6cent permission, althoughan apparent command, to enable them to hold communion with theirGod, by the merest outward correspondence, they being no longer illcondition to retain it otherwise. The Jews, in this state, were belowthe mark, if I might 80 term it, of the lowest natural condition of life,wherein true worship could either be given or offered up by them,-below that plane, in fact, whereon saving principles can alone rest, andwhence they could, by possibility only, be made at-tainable. This beingthe case, they could only hold communion with God out of themselves..Inward communion they knew not of; hence the sacrifices of bulls andgoats were considered by them, as in themselves saving, needful, andefficacious; hut whioh, we are expressly told, were worthless beforeGod, and unacceptable to Him. These outward surifices our Savion~did not perform, nor could fulfil, being as they were destitute of allefficacy, displeasing to God, dead in ibemselves, and only shadowingforth the living by correspondence. To the point where the Jews werecapable of being saved, if we might so express it, by the inward enfix-ment or implantation, or rather, to speak more correctly, reception ofliving principles, our Saviour followed them, and fulfilled the law thathad thus been given them; beyond this He could not have gone withoutpartaking of a fallen nature, on being convinced of sin. For it wasthrough their sinfulness the ceremonial law was enjoined, and it couldonly be through needlessness, in a Being without sin, that it could befulfilled. To say that our Saviour performed needless satrifices, is t&detract from His great name, and to make Him other than God. Thesacrifice He underwent, was the sacrifice of the Infirm Humanity Heassumed, and which He offered up acceptably, and without sin, to theDivinity within. Having done ,this, there was :no necessity-nay, infact, it would have been sinful to have gone out of Himself for thepurpose of offering up other useless and unacceptable sacrifices :_U Inthe blood of bulls and goats God delighteth not; neither seeketh Hethese at your hands." The same Gdd that declared this in the OldTestament, and affirmed that it was only through the hardness of the~hearts that such requirements were made, was indwelling in ehriswhilst on earth, and to Him the sacrifice of the Humanity, which Hederived from the mother, was offered, completed, and fulfilled. DivinityHe brought down, or implanted into the very lowest principles of sirUes.:aumanity. To say that He brought Divinity down still lower, or ful--filled ceremonies that were, in mercy. commanded to be kept by the
  107. THE OEBEHONIAL LAW. 105JinYS, by reason of their sinfulness, is, virtually, to draw Divinity out ofHimself, and to place it in the animals sacrificed. Such an idea as thisis as nnscriptural as it is erroneous. The principles represented by the outward offerings, Christ fulfilled and magnified in Himself, thereby making them honourable. Out of Himself there could be no fulfilment. The law which He fulfilled is "holy, just, and good," and against this law Paul speaketh not. The law which He did not fulfil, nor in the very nature of things, according fA) the conception, could have fulfilled, was abolished,-and from this law, Paul saith, "we are freed." .But it is said, the ceremonial law is partof the Word, and Christ, it must be acknowledged, came as the Word.In the purpose of this statement a virtual denial is involved of theceremonial law being abolished at all. To this a counter-statement might legitimately, and in all fairness, be raised, and that is, it mightbe said,-" The ceremonial law is abolished, and Christ, as the Word,came not to abolisb,- but to establish; therefore, and the inference is ajust one, the ceremonial law cannot have been part of the Word asgiven us by God." Nor was it so given to naturally well-disposed andbelieving men. We are expressly and repeatedly told, that it was byreason of the 11 hardness of their hearts" that thus it was commandedthem. To sacrifice out of oneself was then, is now, and ever will be, asign of the hardness of our hearts, or the sinfulness of our nature:and to say that thus Christ sacrificed, is to convince Him of sin. Thusfar, then, we may rightly conclude, we think, that where the ceremonial .law begins, which Ohrist by His coming abolished, there uselessness ofaction or sinfulness obtains; and that by how much it was observedbeyond this point, had it been possible with God, by so much wouldthe sinlessness of that Humanity have been destroyed, sinfulness beingestablished in its stead. To the extent of its observance, too, after tM mn" When our SatJiour was no longer subjlCt to His parmtB, would the ceremonial law have been for ever made good. Being abolished, it W8I not fulfilled; not being fulfilled, it could Bot have been observed. Again, it is said, that the ceremonial law was abolished by reason of its fulftlment; whilst the moral law, by the same means, was more per- fectly established, which is, in fact, to say, in comparison of NJBult, a positive contradiction. In the epistle to the Hebrews, we are led to have some conception as to the means by which the ceremonial law was abolished, wherein St. Paul declareth, in quotation from the Old Testa- ment-u Sacrifice, and offering, and burnt-offering, and offering for sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein, which ars ojferltl by the law; -then said He, La, I come to do thy will, 0 God. He taketh
  108. 106 THE CEREKONIAL-LAW. away the first that He may establish the second. " In the :keeping of the law here spoken of, there can have been no life, for it is plainly affirmed, that God "had no pleasure" in the performance of its requirements, but only in the doing of His will; whilst in the keeping of the law whioh remains, viz., the moral law, we have our Saviours assurance therl is life, for when speaking of the commandments, and in answer to a question put to Him, He saith, " Keep these, and thou shalt live. lOan it then be said that Christ, a8 our Saviour, and in obedience to the will of God, submitted himself to that which was sinful, or at ~ events, to that in which God coold take no delight ?God forbid. U He taketh away the first, to establish the second,tt-not by submitting Himself to its observance, nor acting in obedience to its dictates, but by casting out that, in the Humanity assumed, whioh was disposed to bow the knee to its requirements, and bringing down that which was lawful,.j ust, and good in its place. In like man- ner as He freed U8 from this law, He delivered us from the works of the devil: and as Satan found no place in Him, but was cast behind Him, so the ceremonial law, which was given in consequence of the sinfulness of our fallen Datura, met with no observance by Him, but was at onoe and for ever abolished. Hence as sin was overcome in Him by the sacrifice of Himself, so the ceremonial law, which fore- shadowed the need of such sacrifice, and that by reason of our exceeding sinfulness, was abolished, as soon as the needed sacrifice for that purpose was completed. And as in the one case it would be blasphemous to suppose that sin found either part or favour in God our Saviour, or that it was in anywise necessary that He should first enter into sin previous to His expulsion of it from and out of the Humanity assumed,-so in the other, it would be equally irreverent to declare. that in order to abolish what was far from Gods will, and anything but pleasing in His sight,. it was first needful for Him to act in observance of it, and in Qbedience to its strict requirements for its proper fulfilment. Sin was overcome by being cast out, not entered into: the ceremonial law, strictly so called, was abolished by reason of the impossibility of ~ts ful- filment, as God could not act contrary to His own divine will, nor have permitted the Humanity He assumed to do that which was dis- pleasing in His sight. In conclusion, then, we trust it ,vill not be considered that our judg- ment is without proof, when we declare it as our opinion that the. ceremonial law, as tM clrlmOniaZ law, was never fulfilled; and that the only and proper answer to be given to the question which heads this article, must be in the negative. GEO. WILKIN.
  109. TBE CEBEKONlAL LAW. 107 [AB we have always been desirous of affording toe greatest latitude ofthought in reference to every subject of inquiry admitted into the pagesof our Periodical, we have agreed to insert the above paper. Our opiI!ion,however, founded upon what we consider to be the teaching of Sweden-oorg, as to this subject, differs from that of our respected correspondent.We consider that the Lord, not only apirituaUy but litlwally fulfilledthe ceremonial law of the Jewish dispensation, and that Mr. Noblesassertion, quoted by our correspondent, is perfectly correct. The cere-moniallaw, as to all its rituals, was of divine appointment-the veryletter is divine. Now Swedenborg frequently declares that the Lord.fulfilled the entire Word, and this entire fulfilment, we apprehend,involves the lAter and the ritual Of the ceremonial law, as well as itsmoral and spiritual sense. The case we consider to be this ;-that up to the time when Jesusbegan to preach, being about thirty years of age, (Luke iii. 23.) He hadstrictly observed all the ritual law, and had fulfilled it both as to itslpirit and its letter, thus exhibiting a perfect example to the Jew, and as he declares Himself, ,. fulfilling all righteousness," which divine declamtion, we presume, implies every requirement of the divine law, and of the entire Word, both intsmal and e:ct8maZ; both apiritual and literal. It is divinely stated that aU things in rupee to Je8U8 were per-forTT&Ml acclWding to tAl law of the Lord, :_CC And when they had per- formed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Gallilee." (Luke ii. S9.) Now this declaration involves, we think, that 88 the rite of circumcision and the sacrifice of a pair of turtle doves, ~ere performed, when Jesus was presented to Jehovah, according to the law, (Luke u, 24.) so every ceremonial of the law was observed by Him, during his life as a Jew, exhibiting to the Jews the most perfect example, as already stated, of His own divine law both as to its ceremonial and literal, as well as to its moral and spiritual sense. In order to see how the Lord literally fulfilled all the requirements of the ceremonial law, it is not necessary to suppose that He Himself offered any sacrifices, or that He assisted at the slaughter of any of the victims used for that purpose. After the Babylonish captivity synago- gues were established throughout the land, which, although not enacted by the Levitical law, yet evidently met with the Lords approval, since it was ,. His custom to go into the synagogues on the Sabbath days," and to take part in the service. (Luke iv. 16.) At these places no sacrifices were offered, but the Word was read, and the people were exhorted by the minister and ruler of the synagogue; and sometimes by the invitation, or by the permission of the ruler, others were allowed to give a word of exhortation to the people. (See Acts xiii. 15.) The sacrifice of the lamb, both morning and evening, was offered at the temple; and the sacrifices whieh took place at the three great festivals, and on other occasions, were all offered at the temple and conducted by the Levites. There is abundance of evidence to shew that the Lord went up to these feasts, according to the divine appointment, (Exodus xxiii. 17.) that It all the males should appear before J ehovah three times in the year," and that he then went into the temple and worshiped according to the law. Nor is it requisite to suppose that the Lord him-
  110. 108 THE CEREMONIAL LAW.self offered any sacrifices of sheep, or lambs, &c., or that he evenattended to witness the slaughter and the sacrifice of those animals.For it pleased him to be born among the poor of his people, for whom,in certain cases, a commutation of sacrifices and offerings was providedill the law. But the sacrifices, with the exception of the two lambsmorning and evening, and the lamb at the passover. were, for the mostpart, sacrifices for sin, and for trespasses of various kinds, or for thecleansings of the leprosy and of other diseases; thus they were offeredfor ex.piation and atonement on account of actual sins and trespassescommitted, and on account of actual diseases which appeared. But asthe Lord had no actual sin, and had no leprosy or any malady as a resultof actual sin, it was not necessary that He should Himself offer any ofthese sacrifices for sin, or for purification from diseases. It is true thatin the Humanity inherited from the mother, "He bore our sicknessesand infirmities;" (Matt. viii. 17.) but these infirmities and sicknessesnever came forth into actual sins and actual diseases, and therefore nosacrifices on this account can be supposed as having been offered byHim, as was necessary in the case of the ,Jews, when sins and diseasesactually appeared amongst them. Nevertheless, all the sacrifices, inthe supreme sense, represented the Lord as to His work of redemptionand the glorification of His Humanity, and consequently as to the greatatonement or reconciliation which He thus accomplished between fallenhuman nature and the Divine Nature. But when the Lord, up to the time He began to preach, being aboutc thirty years of age," had "performed all things according to the law,"or had punctually fulfilled all the external requirements of His owndivine law in relation to Himself, He then began to abrogate it. As allthe rites and ceremonies were fulfilled in his own divine Person,they naturally and necessarily ceased, precisely as when the realityappears, the effigy and the representative disappear, or as when thesun arises all minor lights vanish from the view. (See A.a. 8384.) But even the representatives of the ceremonial law were Truths in the ultimate of order; (A.a. 10,728.) and as the Lord fulfilled all Truth, he consequently fulfilled the representatives of the ceremonial law, which are "truths in ultimates." But as truths in ultimates can be changed, as one kind of garment can be changed for another, 80 the representatives of the Jewish church could be abrogated and changed, for 8, more universal ultimate suited to all people and nations of the earth. Such an ultimate are the truths of Christianity as ulti- mated in the letter of the Word, and especially of the Gospel. Now, although Truth, in its representative or ultimate form, can be abrogated and changed, and was abrogated and changed by the Lord after he had, in his own Person, fulfilled its divine requirements, it by no means follows that because the Lord fulfilled the moral law, this should, as intimated by our correspondent, be abrogated" also. For Truth in its interior form, such as it is in the moral law, and in the spiritual sense of the Word, is like its divine Author, unchangeabls; but not so in its lowest. or ceremonial and representative form. For in the lowest form Truth may be changed according to the states and cir- cumstances of the church. Thus the sword, which is truth in its
  111. UNITARIANS AND THE NEW CHURCH. 109ultimate form combating, may be changed into the ploughshare, whichis truth in its ultimate form cultivating the mind; (see Isaiah ii. 4.) or,tJic6 V8rsa, the ploughsharl may be changed into the BUord. tSee J oeliii. 10.) We trust now, that our correspondent, on reflection, will seethat the Lord actually fulfilled all the requirements of the ceremoniallaw in relation to Himself, and that the assertion of 1lr. Noble isoorrect.-EDITOB.] UNITARIANS AND THE NEW CHURCH. OcCASIONALLY articles have appeared in our Magazine, indicating the friendly feeling of American Unitarians towards the New Church. It is matter for rejoicing that Tripersonal sects, both in this country and America, are relaxing somewhat of their bigotry aud ill feeling towards Unitarians; and possibly, by and by, they may abate somewhat of their unjust and unneighbourly estimate of the New Church. But probably this will not be the case until the New ·Church increases sufficiently in numbers to command respect from external and prejudiced minds, which are too much swayed by current report and outward appearances, to judge fairly. An American Unitarian Journal extracts from a Trinita- rian Journal, with feelings of satisfaction, the following kindly expres- sions :-" We only hope that the time is at hand when the Unitarians and the Trinitarians of New England, neighbours as they are in locality,. 8:11d nearer still to each other in the world of letters, will not fear to become acquainted with, and to understand and appreciate each other. Then, if they still feel bound earnestly to dissent from and oppose each other, as they may, the controversy will at least have the diguity of freedom from personal prejudice, and of purity, and comprehensiveness of doctrinal statement." The evidence of a growing spirituality amongst American Unitarians, occasionally presented in former numbers, receives confirmation from the following letter from our friend and brother, the Rev. Thomas Worcester, of Bo~ton, United States, which we extract from the Ameri- can Unitarian journal, The Ohristian &gister, the editor of vhich thus introduces the communication to his readers : - [CC We will Dot attempt to conoeal the pleasure with which we hail every indioatioll Qf a warmer sJIDpathy among religious bodies. What follows is from an eminent clergyman * with whom we bave DO personal acquaintance, but whose wordB are DOne the lea welcome to 118 on that aooomt."] * * * "It is very gratifying to me to lee the present tendencies of your .. In America all religious ministers of every denomination are called " olergymeD.~
  112. 110 UNITARrANS AND THE NEW CHURCH!"paper,-the diapoAition to build up, rather than. to p1lll down,-the effort to raiseJourselves and other men up to the level of true Chriatian principles, rather than tobring those prinoiples down to our level,-the disposition to exalt the Lord JeIU8€hrist, ra.ther than to degrade Him,-the tendency to true faith, rather than to·intidelity,-and the tendenoy to true charity, which is a love to the neighbour, ratherthan to selfishness, sectarianism, and domination. These things I love and honour,and I wi.h to have you: know that I do. " I hope· that I have some of the same spirit myselt. I regard it as produced bythe intiuence oC the Holy Spirit; and I conceive that one of the effects of receiYiDgit is, that it pes us the power of perceiving it in other" and that it gives us a dis·position to rejoice in it,. to ao1mowledge it, and to fraternize with it wherevswe do see it. "Gentlemen, I am very respecttnl1y, " Your friend and: fellow-se~nt, "TsolUs WORCBSTBB;" Boston, May 23rd, ] 850." Swedenborg says, that all sections of the church would be in harmonyif they made gpodness of more account than doctrine. The friendly feeling generally existing between our body and Unitarians (who agru with US in this, pOll1iCular) goes far to confirm the above declaration of our author. Some time- since there appeared in the London Unitarian Inquirer the following remarks, and we confess to a considerable feeling of interest in the apparently upward tendencies in the Unitarian body-which they appear to evidence, as well as in other instances:- " We think much more prominence might be given to the perlOfl, of Christ, as aon-stitnting the ruhject of revelation. A natural reaction against the errors of the popu..Jar belief led the Unitarian divines of the last age to put forth Christianity too much·88 a rule or law,-a form eertainly in which religion cannot have much influence overthe character. It doeI not tol.Uih the affections, and therefore does not go deep enoughto affect that part of our nature in which habits have their roots. But to us Christis much more than a lawgiver or a prophet proclaiming new troth. He is tJu mediumthrough which fietD spiritual p01JJerl have been introduced into the world. Disciple-ebip has a higher meaning than that of sitting at his feet. It implies a union fIJit1Him of OUr inmost nature, as the body is the source of vitality to the limbs, or thetrunk of a tree to the branches. (John xv.) In this view, he becomes an object ofviVid and profound affections. We see in Him the moral attributes of God soreflected as to be brought into co_tact UJitA each of tu. It is, in fact, only by Jell()W-,hip lJ)uh OhM that our relationship, as that of children to the Father, is realized;for apart Jrom, hil influence (whether we are oonscious or unconscious of it), we .areoverwhelmed by the vastness of a conception, of the Divine Nature, which on evertside roDS out and loses itself in abstraction. Preaohing, therefore, will have morepower as it gives more prOmiR.tR.C6 to the Perlofl, than to the Doctrine of the Saviour." This must be admitted to be a great improvement on the Unitarianism·of former years; and unquestionably, the. view presented ab.ove is· not. b
  113. EXTRACTS FROM SWEDEN BOBGS. SPIRITUAL DIARY. ];11only more rational, but also more edifying and spiritual than the Evan·-gelical and Romish representations of. Christ interceding with theFather, and moving Him to, mercy by the display of his ever-bleedingwounds! Jesus Christ is spoken of, it will be noted, as communicatingan "influence." lA this influence the same as the Holy Spirit which·Unitarians usually represent as proceeding only from the InvisibleFather? Do they begin to see that the Spirit of the Father proceedsthrough the Son, as the medium of its immediate communication? TheUlrd Jesus is spoken of as the medium or introducing new spiritualpowers into the world, and these powers are spoken of as somethingdistinct from Christian doctrine, or its, necessary influence a, ths Tmth.What "poW8rS," then, can these be, except they are those which areoommunicated by the Holy Spirit, proceeding from "the Sun ofRighteousness" ? We hail, with thankfulness, the rays which appearto be forcing their way, from this Only Source of spiritual light, intowhat we have hitherto been accustomed to consider as a very dark.quarter of professed Christianity. EXTRACTS FROM SWEDENBORGS SPIRITUAL DIARY: ( N of, hitherto tm""lat6d.) FOUR DEGREES OF FAITH. 2947. There are four degrees of Faith :-First, a scientific faith, or"a mere knowledge of those things which constitute faith, and which atl)an retains in his memory, from which he can relate and preach themto others; or which a man learns for the sake of honour, that he may.be accounted learned, and that he may acquire merit in society. Thushis faith is a mere thing of the memory. He, indeed, calls it faith, buthe does not believe in it, not even in the least degree. All such arebad pastors and preachers. The Iscond degree of faith is intellectual faith, or faith- in the intellect. A man has this faith when he is intellectually persuaded, either from the connexion and harmony of things, or from being confirmed either by natural or by spiritual things, that what he has admitted to constitute his faith is true; but who, nevertheless, deposits it in the memory only, and does not allow it to come into the life. He, therefore, does not live according to it, except in the external form, for the sake of honour or gain. Wherefore his faith is but a mere shell, which has little or no connexion with the kernel, that is, with.any genuine affection. A third degree of faith is a persuasion affecting the will. The man!
  114. 112 WHETHER SWEDENBOBGS.BSPECIAL SPIRITUAL ILLUllINATION,ETC.is thus persuaded by the Lord that a thing i~ true,~ and he is adIDOnish~that it is so as often as be is led to act otherwise than his faith dictates.Thus he is governed by the dictates of conscience" and acts accordingto his faith. The fourth degree is a confirmed persuasion; in which case a mancannot act otherwise than he believes, for he perceives that he is thenled by the Lord; wherefore, this persuasion is conjoined with per-ception, concerning which I have spoken .before.-1748, Aug. 27.WHETHER SWEDENBORGS ESPECIAL SPIRITUAL ILLU- MINATION COMMENCED IN 1748, IN 174:t, OR IN 1745.*ALL these various dates are given by Swedenborg himself as the periodwhen his especial spiritual illumination commenced, and it has occasionallybeen asked how this matter can be satisfactorily explained. We thinkthat the subject now admits of a satisfactory solution. In 1743 theauthor first became· sensible of an extraordinary mental state, which hebegan to experience He had not yet come into open communicationwith spirits, but it appears, we think, from the following extract from theDiary, that he commenced then to have his extraordinary experience, theindications and signs of which he here mentions. In 1744 it is probablethat this extraordinary experience had considerably increased, so as tbform, as it were, a second degree of its development; and in 1746 be wasadmitted into a full and open communication with spirits, by the fulldevelopment of his internal or spiritual senses. 1ms theory, as 8solution of the difficulty, we derive from the following extract, entitled-How dijficult it is for a man to be persuaded thqt h4. is governed by spirits. 2957. Before my mind was opened so that I could converse with spirits,and thus be persuaded by living experience that man is governed [of theLord] by them; I had for several years such experimental proofs of thefact, that I now wonder that I did Dot then come to the belief that theLord govems man by spirits. For I not only, for some years" haddreams in which I was informed concerning those things _which werewritten; t but there were also changes of state whilst I was writing" and * See letter to Hartley, in whioh 1743 is the period stated. See also A. Et, fOl. vi.p. 392, in which passage 1744 is the period alleged. See also Diary 397, _where 17-5la the period stated. See also this Periodical for 1840, pp. 409, 475, 570. t This relates to his writings in the latter parts of his " Animal Kingdom," wherehe a14IO mentioDl tbia extraordinary fact.
  115. REVIEW. 113a certain extraordinary light was manifest in those things which shouldbe written. I afterwards experienced, when my [bodily] eyes were shut,se,eral visions and a light miraculously given, and I sensibly perceivedthe influx of spirits as manifestly as the operation of the bodily sensations,and often I experienced infestations, in various modes, from evil spirits,which were temptations, and especially when those things were writtenwhich evil spirits hold in aversion, and this to such a degree, that I wasalmost seized with horror. I also saw fiery lights, and in the earlyput of the morning I heard voices, and experienced besides many otherindications [of the operation of spirits] t until at length a certain spiritaddressed me in few words, and I was greatly astonished that he couldperceive my thoughts. I afterwards wondered much, when my internalsenses were opened, that I could converse with spirits, and the spiritsthemselves also wondered. Hence it may be concluded, with whatdifficulty a man can be led to believe that he is governed by the Lordthrough spirits, and with what difficul ty he recedes from the opinion thathe lives from himself his own life, without [the association of] spirits.-1748, Aug. 27. Now from this extract it is, we think, abundantly evident, that theauthor was gradually led from the first perception ot extraordinaryindicatiODS of his intercourse with the spiritual world, until at length hismind was so prepared as to come into full and open communication ,vithspiritual beings. We therefore conclude that the first indication of thefact, as stated in the letter to Mr. Hartley, was in 1743, and that theeommunication was fuUy and openly established, as alleged in the Diary,and as is commonly believed, in 1745. Both dates, therefore, we think~ are correct. REVIEW.MISCELLANBOUS SERMONS OF THE LATE REV. THOMAS GO~DEB (Mi- nister of the New Church); WITH A SKETCH OF HIS LIFE AND LABoURS; selected from hi MSS. after his decea,s, and Editst/,· by ki" broth",., the Rev. D. G. Goyder. London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. Ipswich: J. M. Burton and Co. 1850. THIS volume of fifty-two sermons is a useful addition to this branch of New Church literature. Mr. Goyders long and valuable services in N. 8. NO. 185.-vOL. XII. I
  116. 114 REVIEW.assisting the growth and improvement of the New Jerusalem, will beaffectionately remembered by a large circle of friends, and to which theConference, in a resolution passed at its last sitting, paid a just andrespectful tribute. The work before us is a sort of evidence and memo-rial of the character of Mr. Goyders general preaching, 80 far as it canbe judged of without the "living voice." The gentleness and simpli-city of character which so peculiarly distinguished this active· minister,are obvious in all his writings; but they are more conspicuous in thiscollection of his sermons than in any other of his works which weremember to have consulted. Not having been written with a view topublication, they evince no pretension to literary art. They seem tohave been the offsprings of spontaneous sentiment, desirous of pre-senting some important thoughts on remarkable passages, in anaffectionate and intelligible form. We take them to be good specimensof Mr. Goyders usual Sunday teachings. About their style there is aplainness and quietude which will render them attractive to those whoare fond of sermon reading; and the various lights under which he hasenforced piety, and the necessity of the good of life to constitute thegenuine Christian character, must render them a favourite with un-critical and amiable minds. The sermons, in general, are not d~tailed explanations of the texts, but the principal feature or drift of it is selected and usually exhibited in a satisfactory and instructive lighL On some occasions he appears to have been more happy and effective in his explanations than on others, and the general handling of them less desultory and inconsecutive. These circumstances, no doubt, arose from what is the common experience of ministers, namely, from the great differences of states under which sermons are prepared, or fromthe subjects of them being more agreeable to the genius, or morefamiliar to the knowledge. Some of these sermons are more thanordinarily short, for which the editor satisfactorily accounts in his " advertisement. " His sketch of "the life and labours" of his brother is affectionately and sensibly written, and we feel assured it will be read with interest. We should have been happy to have made some extracts, if we could have done so with justice to the work; but we feel that it will be more useful to recommend the pernsal of it, which, in our opinion, cannot be done without profit to instrnction and piety. A portrait is prefixed, which, though a resemblance, is not so striking as we should have liked to have seen it. * * *
  117. MISCELLANEOUS. IIQ MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. IxTBLLIGBNCE PROM. lHB EAST INDIES. Trinity of three distinct Persons in the Godhead; but after comparing this tractTo tie Pamw oJ tJu N t:IJ) JertUalt:m Church, with the Word of God, assisted by se- Petw-Itreet, Mancheater. veral other tracts, we were compelled to Chunar, East Indies, acknowledge that we had heen all our 8th September, 1850. lives in error on this point; and the ex- Reverend Sir,-You will no doubt be planation, or application, appeared 80 surprised at receiving a letter from this tme, 80 reasonable, and so plain, that we far distant country, and from one who is were astonished that ever we could have an utter stranger; but, after you have read the Word of God 80 many years read the contents, you will no doubt be without a tme knowledge of the God- glad to hear that the tracts published in bead. We met in prayer, carefully read Manchester (my native home) have found every tract, about forty in number, com- their way to this heathen land, and not paring them with the Word of God, a.nd only so, but that they, by the blessing of now we have such clear views on the divine Providence, have kindled a fire Trinity, that we often bless God for send- which I heartily pray may spread more ing us such glorious truths. We then and more, until the glorious truths of the circulated the tracts to every member of New Church shall be universally acknow- the church, many of whom are convinced ledged from one end of this vast empire of their former errors, and are desirous of to the other. God alone must have sent embracing the doctrines of the New these wonderful writings of that heaven- Church. After circulation in this placelike man, Swedenborg; and it is equally we forwarded them to Benares, wherewonderful how these tracts were sent to they were received kindly: one personus. It appears from a letter received by has openly acknowledged his error at thatMr. Conductor Green, of this place, that place, Mr. MGonagall. We then sent some ten or twelve months ago his friends, them to some friends at Agra, but theyresiding in Birmingham, were sending returned them; yet we may hope thathim a box containing sundry articles, and seed ha. also been sown there.there being an empty corner in this box, During this time Mr. Green wrote tohis brother filled it up with a bundle of your his brother in Birmingham for informationtracts. Upon its arrival Mr. Green read as regards the mode of worship, &c. usedthese tracts, and appeared to like them in the New Church; and Mr. MGonagallmuch. On one ocoosion I went to spend wrote to Glasgow on the same subject.the evening at his house, when he intro- "r e received letters of infornlation induced the subject of these tracts, asking reply from the Rev. O. Prescott, Glasgow,me if I knew & religion called Sweden- and the Rev. }Jr. Madeley of Birmingham,borgianism ? I said that I remembered and we feel truly grateful to these gentle-they lIad a large chapel in Peter-street, men for the kindness shewn towards us.opposite Watson-street, but that I thought Two persons in Calcutta (at the indigothem a strange sect. He said he had factory) heard of our little Christianthought so too, but that he now believed band, and one of them, a Mr. Green, hasthem to be a true sect; he then brou~ht given us much information, and also sentont the bundle of tracts, and we dis- us a number of tracts, periodicals, andcussed various subjects. At length we sermons. I have just received a parcel ofcame to tract No. 4 or 10, I forget which the "Intellectual Repository" for 1846,at this moment, as the tracts in question which appears to be full of useful inform-are out; we circulate them in different ation; but thete are other points on whichparts of India where we are known; but we require informa.tion, and which ap-it is the one on the Trinity, where God- pears to have become a sort of stumblingJe1uYvaJ, is represented as the loul, God block to some of our number, all ofthe S(YfI, &8 the body, and God the Holy whom are looking to us for information,Spirit as the operative energy proceeding which is the principal reason of my ad-from that 80ul and body, shewing that the dressing you; and 88 I am writing to mythree names are the one and same God, brother, who is a resident of Yanchester,just as our soul, body, and action, form I have enclosed this in his letter, hopingone man. Now, we have both been you will kindly answer the few undermen-members of the Baptist church for several tioned questions, with any other informa-1ear1, and consequently believed in the tion or advice you may deem necessary.
  118. 116 KISCELLAKlCOUI.:My brother will give you fIffrY iDforma- (DOt the ~clOlOlibable, nndeftnable ".Mo-tion as to who and what I am. derate Calvinists) 8&r to the followillg [Here follow a few questions, which re- sentence of Dr. Vaughan P "Every-late to infant and adult baptism,--the where the power to become obedieo.tsize of the book called "A.rcana Cm- must determine the extent of obligationle&tiaj"--Vhether Adam was the first to obedience." Thi8 is oommon-«mseJ:DaJ1? Whether the New Church bIB a but certainly not Calvinism. Eagliahcorrected translation of the Bible? and Calvinistic Presbyterians have nearly alla few others, which have been answered become Unitarians: are the more intelli-by the minister of the church in Peter... gent Co~tionalista about to followstreet.] their example P Or may we cherish the hope, that both Unitarians and Tripel8OD-CSANGBS IN THE LINES OF DSJlARCATlOK alists are taking & direction from different OF RELIGIOUS OPINIONS. positions towards a middle point of meet- ing, and that not very wide of the doc- Dr. Vaughan, the able editor of the trines of the New Church? This, sooner N ortJ" British Review, and president of a or later, must be the issue of the won- college of the Congregational body, drous fluctuations of religious sentimeuc (nominally Calvinists) about a year since which prevail at the present period.publishcd a work caned U The Age andChristianity." This was reviewed in anAmerican Unitarian J oumal, the Boston PROPOSED MEBlING 01 MIDI_BB 011 TB&Chri&tia", Register, with high praise of its NEW CHURCH DURING rHB Gwu:r.ability and usefulness, and the reviewer ExHIBITION. at length makes the following startling remark :_u We are glad to find that, "hete- Within the month the committee haTerodox as we are accounted, we hold views received only two lettersj-one from "A: concerning the InCQlrJl4tiqn, and the mft1lr strangerin a strange land," with a donatioa mce 01 tlli6 Spirit especially in accordance of 5s. j the other from Aahton, saying thatwith those of Dr. Vaughan." But the about six friends may be expected ~reviewer adds, "With reference to TM attend, and that they will bear their pan;.Atonement, we are not sure that we under- in the expense. The committee are un-stand our author j indeed, we have never willing to attribute this paucity of com- had the happiness to find a writer of re- munications to any want of sympathy-puted orthodoxy, and at the same time among the members or societies in regard-of strOltg and indep,rtdfm,t intellect, who to the proposed meeting, but rather--aaseemed .to us intelligible on this subject ! indeed they have heard,-to the faet that Yet as the matter is here presented, we the precise objects contemplated, &ad the:find very little from which we should be amount of expense to ~ inOUll"ed, are obliged to dissent." This, we add, ap... not generally understood.pears to confirm an opinion that we have In this place it may be expedient to long been inclined to, that there is no mention that a strong desire has been ex.-great difference i", idea between the one pressed to have the Confa-enOG this yearparty saying that J eS118 is not God, and in London, &8 the attraction of tile ~~the other, that Jesus is not the Supreme bition will be 10 great that the country,-God, being subordinate to God the friends will generally be desirou8 to comeFather. The latter is the idea of Jesus to London, and therefore, in manr in-generally entertained by Tripersonalists, stances, as ministers and othe18 will beexcepting while they.are declarin~, in the unable to attend both, they will be pre-words of the Creed of A than481.·U8, that cluded from the pleasure of particip&tiDSthe three Persons are co-equal. The in one of the meetings, and by this meansformer is their spontaneous and usual, both would be weakened. The soci8ti..the latter their induced and occasional in London have been consulted on thestate of thought. It is tme that some Inatter. and they will be very happy tomoro decided partizans dwell on the have opportunity of again welcoming thewords of the Creed so frequently that Conference: the Edinburgh frieBde bavethe ideas they present become habitual also been written to, and should theyto them. But what will the Congrega- deem the changeadvisable. the presidenttionalists say to this sympathy between of Conference will most probably give Wa~Dr. Vaughan and Unitarians? And sanction to it, which will duly he oom~what will the real Calvinists among them mlmicated to the churoh-P088ib1y."en~
  119. XISCELLANZOUS. 11 7hl md~pr8len£number of the Repository. CommuniO&tioDl are requested notShould this be done, it will be expedient later than the 15th of the month.to postpone the intended great meeting H. BU!"lER, Sec.from the secoad week in July to about the 48, Oloudesley Terrace,19th of August. . Islington, 20th Feb., 1851. In refenmce to the meeting itself, wemay state that it is ptopased to hold it in PROPOSAL TO HOLD THE CoNFBllENCB IXBreemaecm8 Hall, which has been en- LONDON, INSTEAD OP AT EDI:NBURaH.gaged for the purpose. It is a nobleroom, in a central fJituation, and capable To tAe Editor.~ acoommodating upwards of one thou- Dear Sir,-It has been mentioned bysand per8()ns. The public may therefore several friends who are deeply interestedbB, iDritedy whioh must be done by ad- in the welfare of the ohurch, that it wouldvertisement-the admission by tickets, be more beneficial to the good cause, andto be ilbtaned t fru, at certail1"plaoes to more satisfactory to our friends generally,be llamed.· At the meeting, addre8sea if the General Conference eould be held inwill be delivered by ministers and others London this year, instead of at Edinburgh.on given topics, which will doubtless If our Scotch brethren would forego the-prove iDt8resting to our own friends, and pleasure and consent to its removal, anduseful to strangers, ,making them ac- our London friends would undertake toquainted with" the existence and the make provision, the whole church in Greatprinciples of the New Ohurch. It has Britain, as represented in Oonference,~n suggested that a reporter should be would be sure to meet with receivera fromengaged to take down those addresses, every other part of the World. If it werewith a view to their being revised by their only to enable the ministers and repre-"authors and published. Many ot the sentativ88 to shake hands with theJnernbers would be glad to possess such a brethren from every coun try and clime onrecord, &Dd it mi~ht very usefully be put earth, it would be worth the removal.into the hands of strangers to the dOG- There is no rule of Conference which nines, and might lead to fnrther inquiry. would forbid the alteration. If the Tracts should be freely distributed at the president and secretary could make it meetiJag. It is estimated that the agreeable in London aIld Edinburgh, that expenses, inoluding rent, advertisements, would be all that is necessary. Every &o~, will be horn £20. to £25. And one appears to be inclined to go to thewith regard to tracts, that £50. or even Exhibition, and if ConfErence were to be tl00. might be beneficially devoted to beld in the metropolis, New Church" their dissemination, not only in English, visitors would, no doubt, go up during its bot ill Freneh, German, and other sittings, anti our friends there would seelauguages, espeQially as so many foreigners such a muster of receivers from the will then be visiting the metr()polis. No country &8 never was in London before. _ch opportanityhas ever before occurred, If this suggestion be acted opon, sub- and ntmlerons meetings will be held by scriptions would not be wanting to carry difterellt detrominati01l8 of Christians, out any extra e1fort that the friends In zealoUs for the promotion of religious London might deem desirable. A simpleknowledge; at, these meetings appropriate meeting of the kind n&nled in former New Church tracts should be distributed numbers of your RepOlitorg, •seems to fall in:large aumbers. short of what the church desires to soo on >&tough has been said, it is hoped, to such an extraordinary gathering as the &hew the grounds on which the Conference display at the "Crystal Palace" will ." anxious for support, and wish to know bring together. .The .Conference is the et1J1lg what atnount of fnnds will be at thing; and we wonder it was not thought, their· disposal. I t is auggested. that, of at its last meeting., It is not, however, when convenient, collections be made for too late to remedy tbe mistake, and we the purpose, so as to afford an opportunity hope that the president will instruct the for Individuals to contribute according to secretary to make the necessary inquiries. their means. It is not too soon, even I am, yours, &c. now, to be making some arrangements, A MINISTBR. e8pecially in regard to tracts. Delay in [The Editor begs to take this opporth- tIri& matter will be certain to cause nity aftorded by his correspondent, to inconVenience, and, to a certain extent, inform the church, that he has receivedfaihue. .. .., applications from various quarters, Abd
  120. 118 ¥JSCELLANEOUS.from numerous individual., to the same 1834." Thil work was extensively re-effect-that the Conference be held this viewed in this Periodical for 1836; seeyear in London inst.ead of Edinburgh. It p. 357 and p. 47a. In 1848 Dr. Ta.lelwill, therefore, be gratifying to all such to published the first volume of anothersee, from Mr. Butters letter on the work, entitled "Fundamental P1l,iJ,o,ophy"Great Exhibition," that our London in it" GeMtical Development, &:c." Wefriends are happy to make arrangements are not aware that the second volume hasto have the Conference this year in the yet appeared. As to the immediatemetropolis ; and our brethren at Edin- object of our correspondents inquiry, weburgh will, no doubt, from the reasons beg to say, that the title Dr., of whichalleged in the above letter, be ready to there are various degrees, is the moreacquiesce in the arrangement, provided permanent, and also the more honourable,that next year the Conference be held since a man may be a Professor withouteither in Edinburgh or Glasgow, as our being a Dr., but a man cannot legiti-friends in Scotland may determine. mately be~ Dr. in reference to any branchShould this change be agreed upon-and of literature without being able to teachour readers Md correspondents are at full it, for a Doctor signifies a teacher, con-liberty to express their opinions on the sequently a Professor. Among the stu-subject-the president, the secretary, and dents at the German universities it isthe trustees of Conference will see that customary to call the public teachersthe legal forms, if any in relation thereto, projeuor" and we presume it was fromare properly regarded.] hearing Dr. Tafel so called, that Mr. Bayley has more frequently employed that DR. TAFBL, OB. PROFESSOR TAFEL. appellation.--EDITOR. ]To the Editor. llIPORTANT AND CONCLUSIVE ARGUMENT Sir,--I notice that Mr. Bayley, in the AGAINST BOTH THE TRIPERSONAL ANDaccount of his visit to Germany, given in UNITARIAN THEORIES.the January number, invariably speaks of.c Dr." Tafel as Prqff,38Dr Tafe!. May I The Tripersonalist believes in theask what is the nature of the Professorship Father, Son, and Spirit, as three Divinewhich he holds? If he does hold any Persons; the Unitarian believes in themsuch appointment, I do not think that it as being and meaning, first, One Divineis generally known in the church here. Being; S8OOndly, one finite human per-But if he does, I doubt the correctness son (J eaus Christ); and, thirdly, a Di-and propriety of designating him by the vine~uencepr~gUomtheDinnelesser title, instead of the greater. The Being, not from Jesus Christ. Now thetitle of Dr. is the more permanent, being words of Jesus Christ prove that there isfor life: the title of Professor only con- but One Divine Person, namelyt thetinues during tenure of office. Thus the Father, and that He and the Father areRev. Mr. Bush, having resigned his One Divine Person. First, let it beHebrew Professorship, is no longer, pro- settled that a person, in order to be aperlyJ called Prqfu8Dr Bush. In the case person, must possess 8elf-actio"" or theof the Regius Professors in our Univer- power of acting, or not acting, from Ailsities, I believe the title of Professor is own mo?Jing. Every finiU penon has thisthe more honourable, &8 being for life, power. How, tAen, can. a Di-rine PW,04or till the party is raised to a higher be witltout it 1 And yet Jesus Christ saysdignity. Perhaps your correspondent most expressly that he is not a P~will explain. and also that the Spirit is not a PerlO4, T. C. for he expressly declares that MitlI6 [Dr. Tafel is ProfessorofIntellectual and p08l688U tiLe P01JJ61 of acting Of" ~Speculative Philosophy at the University jrOm Ail O1Dn fAOlJing, or "of limael/-"of Tiibingen. In this department he has Of "the Son," Jesus declares this inpublished several works of great merit,- John v. 19, 30; viii. 38; xii. 49; and ofone entitled "A History and Critique of the Spi1-it, in John xvi. 13. But of theSkepticism and Irrationalism, in relation }ather the like is never said. Thereto Modem Philosophy, with special refer- can, then, be only One Divine Person, forence to Hegel ; together with irrefragable of only One Divine Ag~nt can self-actionArguments for the Existence of (lod, the be predicated, cODsistently with the Scrip-Laws by which the operations of Reason tures. Consequently, the Tripersonalistare conducted, Freedom and Immortality. is in error in saying that the Son, is a
  121. MISCELLANEOUS. 110lOOOod, and the Spirit a third Divine 7. The laity therefore intercede withPerson j neither are they Persons at all; the priests, paying them in proportion tofor the indispensable personal attribute the (11,Q/n,tity of their intercession.of self-action is denied to both by the The Protestant Tripersonalists stophighest authority, namely, by Him who short with the interceuion of the thirdspate from his own lips the words of Person by the firRt, and the intercessionGod who dwelt in Him in infinite fulness; of the first Person by the second; andwho manifested His invisihle EseEnce in here liee the chief difference between thehis Person, as in ku tnlm, glorified human Romish and Protestant Tripersonalists.form in which He dwelt as a soul in its But some Protestant priests and peoplehody. According to the Scripture testi- think highly of the efficacy of the inter-mony, the One Self-acting Divine Person, ces9ions of the Protestant, but nothingJehovah, invested Himself-not with ano- of the intercession of the Romish priest-ther Person, havinR distinct self-action, hood. !!!whether Divine or Human, bnt with apersonal form, having no action but that THE GLORIOUS FUTURE.of the Father who dwelt therein, yet hav-ing that reaction which the body of JIUtIl An orthodox Baptist minister latelypossesses to the action of its soul, with closed a lecture in a provincial town withwhich it forms One Person. The Unita- the following description of the gloriousrian is right in saying that the Holy future, little dreaming that he was des-~pirit is not a person, but he is wrong cribing the descent Qf tk New Jerurin saying that the Son iI a human person, lalem, or that the writings of Swedenborgand therefore possessing self-action; for, have anything to do with that brightas shewn above, Jesus denies that &DY manifestation of troth he 80 beauti-personality appertains to Him besides the fully hails. He remarked as follows:-alon.e lelf-acting Infinite Person of the "Through the midst of all the compli- Father, the Only Divine Person wor- cated movements of this great world, itsshipped under the Old Testament Dis- governmentll, its merchandise, its arts,pensation. W. M. and its revolution, a highway of the Lord, iB preparing, along which a triumphant MODERN CHRISTIANITY A. SUIBS OP and benfjicent Christwnity will advance, PERSONAL INTER~IONS. with songs of everlasting joy. cc There is a fount about to stream, The Romish religion consists of the There ia a light about to beam,following scale of intercessions:- There is a warmth about to glow, 1. God the third Person will not sanc- There is a flower about to blow, There is a midnight blackness changing into graytify us, unless God the first Person inter- :Men of thought and men oC action, clear the way icedes in our behalf: (It is ,aid that the Aid the dawning, tongue and pen,first lends the third Person, but as the Aid it, hopes of honest men, Aid it, paper, IUd it, type,Persons are " C()-~," 8ending must be Aid it, for the hour is ripe,identical with interceding). And our earnest must not slacken into play, 2. God the first Person will not inter- Men of thought and men of action, clear the way !tJcede with the third Person, unless Godthe second Person will intercede with PROPOSALSHim. For COfI,tinuing and cOmpleting fk Wor1: 3. God the second Person will not cOm~ by flu late Rev. T. Goyder,interoede with God. the first Person, unless entitled "Spiritual &JI.«tiou for Ewryhis Virgin Mothe& will intercede with Day in, the Year, tIJitA Moming anaHim. Evening Prayer,." 4. The Virgin will not intercede withthe second Person, unless the departed Two volumes out of the four contem-"saints" will intercede with her. plated by the author have been publlshed. 5. The" saints" will not intercede with Since the publication of the volume ofthe Virgin, -unless some one at least of sermons by the same author, the Rev.the Romilh priest8 (and especially the D. G. Goyder has received many requestsPope, or a prelate or dignitary of the to complete the work commenced by hisRomish church) intercede with them. late brother. This, if Providence permit, 6. The priests will not intercede with he is willing to do, provided a sufficient~he saints unless they are paid for their number of 8ubscribers can be obtained tom1e1"OO88ion. secure him from loa.
  122. 120 MISCELLANEOUS-UABRIAGE-OBITUA.BY. Those persons, therefore, who may be handsome style as the volume of sermons,wUling to subscribe, are requested to do and will be sent free of carriage to the80 on or before the 1st of May next. In 8ubscribers. The price to be the same ascase a sufficient number of subscribers is the other volumes, viz. 3s. each.procured, the third volume will be issued Subscribers will please to transmiton the 30th of June, and the concluding their names to the Rev. D. G. Goyder,volume on the 30th of September. Ipswich, Suffolk. The work to be paid The work will be printed in the same for on delivery. Ipswich, Feb. 1, 1851. flllarriage. ?tlanied, at Albion Chapel, Leeds, Feb. John Firth, to Maria, youngest daughter6th, 1851, by the Rev. Re Edleston. Mr. ofMr.JamesSwift;bothofthesameplaoe. ~bituarp. Died, 20th September, at Cirenooster, death, and at length, at the right period, aged 47 years, Mrs. Legg, wife of Mr. she was delivered from her triala, and Charles Legg, late of Chippenham. She _en, we tmst, to a glorious home. was brought up an Independent, and from early childhood cared for eternal things. On the 7th of November, 1850, Mr. She became a member of the Inde- J oseph TurnbuIl, of Sootswood, near pendent church attended by her family, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, departed this life and continued for many years in commu- at a very advanced age. Deceased only nion with congregations of that perswr survived his wife about six weeks, who sion, in various places where she was was also very ~ed. He was one of the called to reside. From education she oldest receivers of the New Church imbibed the errors of Calvinism, and she doctrines in Northumberland, and was remained in these fallacies till about her one of those who aided the efforts of a 30th year, when the doctrines of the New zealous and intelligent soldier, who, J erusaJem were set before her through on Sundays, attended Scotswood and the instrumentality of an elder brother. preached the doctrines, nearly half a As might be expected from her religious century ago. The deceased was a worthyeducation, and her long continuance in and consistent memher of the church,the errors of predestination, she resisted and, though his circumstances were poor, them for a long period, but the truth, in 80 that he could not buy many Newits mightiness, at length began to illumine Church works, the few that he did buyher mind. Now all things gradually were freely lent among his friends andbecame new to her, and from the light inquiring acquaintances; so much so, thatthus given she was enabled to look into he told the writer a short time before heherself. Growing in this most essential died, that he had not one left to himself.knowledge, she constantly mOurJ1ed her So long as our late friend was able todepravity; sometimes 80 deeply as almost walk, even by the aid of a stick, he was ato lose sight of a Deliverer. She was regular attender on divine worship. Hisnaturally of a very nervous temperament. conntenance always wore a cheerfulThe Lord, in his Love and Wisdom, aspect, and always brightened with joysaw fit to lead her, for the sake of her when he heard of the spread of the Newpurification, through a "great and ter- Church doctrines; because be consideredrible wilderness." From time to time, that the well-being of mankind is involvedas her strength permitted, she gave advice in their reception in faith, love, andto th08e around her. Once during her practice!last day she said, " I die, thanking God forthe beautiful light of the new dispensa- At Newcastle, on the 21st Januarytion, and lamenting that I have been William Gowdy, Esq., Commander R.N.,such an unworthy receiver." The ex- aged 63 years. He was for upwards ofquisite tone in which the word bM/utijul twenty years a member of the Newwas uttered the writer will never forget: Church Society here, and therefore wasif tone corresponds to affection, she must privileged to he amongst the earliestindeed have loved the truth. Every trace receivers of the heavenly doctrines, theof the old leaven had disappeared from henefits of which, we doubt not, be ishuman observation some time before her gone to realise. R. O. Caw ana Sever, Printer" 18, St. Ann,..,treel, ~Yanckuter.
  123. TBBINTELLECTUAL REPOSITORY AKD NEW JERUSALEM MAGAZINE. No. 186. APRIL, 1851. VOL. XII. THE OHURCH; OR, HEAYEN UPON EARTH.WHAT the Church really is, and what really constitutes its essence, itslife, its intelligence, and its activity, . or its love, its faith, and its goodworks, has from the beginninf.{ been much discussed, and is still thesnbjeet of controversy. It may be useful to place this subject in whatmay be considered its true light, and to show that of all the institutionswhich it has pleased the Providence of God to establish upon earth forthe good, both natural and spiritual, of the human race, that which isealled the CHURCH stands first and foremost. I t is, 88 to its tendencyin promoting every good for man, infinitely superior to every other insti-tution. This fact, however, has been obscured and weakened in theminds of many by the perversion to which, in almost every age, theChurch has been subject on the part of its unworthy members and of& despotic priesthood. Instead of being an institution for the promo-tion of every good to mankind, it has been employed as the engine ofspiritual and of civil despotism, until its name has, in many periods ofits history, been a "hissing and a byword" in the earth. Most of theinfidelity and scepticism which in latter ages have abounded amongstmen, may be certainly traced to the Church perverted and destroyedby merely human devices and traditions, and by the all-grasping powerof a tyrannical priesthood. If the Church from the beginning hadbeen as a " city set upon a hill," that is, if its doctrines had all emanated from love to God and to man, and had tended to promote these two great principles in the world, which it is the divine mission of Chris~ tianity to accomplish, infidelity and scepticism-Cl the seed of the ser- N. S. NO. 136.-VOL. XII. J[ .
  124. 122 THE CHURCH; OR, IlEAVEN UPON BARTH.pent tt-would have been almost unknown and unheard of amongstmen. Let DO one, therefore, judge of what Christianity is by theperverted and fallen states of the Church. The term Church is of Saxon origin in our language; but the termecclesiastical, denoting what belongs to the Church, is of Greek origin.It often happens that nouns derived from the Saxon have adjectives,not from the same source, but from either Latin or Greek. Thiscircumstance occasions, sometimes, a little obscurity in the minds of those,vho from not having studied the ancient languages, are not aware of theetymologies of terms in English which are derived from those sources.The term in the New Testament which signifies Ohurch, is ekklaia(~a~£OUI). This is derived from a term which signifies to call out. Theekklesia, therefore, signifies those who are called out, that is. out of anatural to a spiritual state of life, out of a merely worldly to a heavenlystate; as Abraham was called out of the land of his nativity, to go to aland which the Lord would show him, (Gen. xii. 1.) and as the people of Israel were called out of Egypt:-the IJlerely natural state-to go andtake possession of the holy land-the spiritual state. The Lord says.U Many are called. but few are chosen." (Matt. xx. 16.) Here the termchosen (£«A£KTOL) denotes those who are selected or chosen out, and whoconsequently have obeyed the divins call, and have come out of the merely natural state, and who therefore constitute the ekklesia, or the Church. But in the New Testament the Church. is also called a flock..(Luke xii. 82.) and afold. "There shall be one fold and one Shepherd.~(John x. 16.) It will, therefore, follow that according to this definition, all those who acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ as the ONE SHEPHERD, and who in their life and worship look to Him alone, and who conse.- quently live under the guidance of His Divine Word, or who feed upon the good pastures which the Good Shepherd alone can give them, con- stitute His fold, that is, His Ohurch. This definition is important, because it clenrly shows what the Church is, its relation to the Lord in His Divine Humanity, as the Good Shepherd, whose voice the sheep bear, who follow Him, and who are fed by Him alone. It will now b.. seen that all, wheresoever they be, vho acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ as the one only Shepherd of the great fold.. and who worship Him alone by hearing His voice, and by living according to His precepts, constitute the Church. The names indeed by "hich the Church is designated are numerous. I t is called a sanctuary, a temple, the house of God (1 Tim. iii. 15), the vineyard, the harvest, &0. All these designa- tions denote the Church under various points of view, from which a much clearer understanding tnay be obtained of its true natu~e, and ~f
  125. THE CHUBCH; OR, HEA.VEN UPON EARTH. 123the mode by which its formation and establishment are effected. Inshort, all those parables in which the Lord likens the kingdom of heavento a sower, to a net, to a mustard seed, &0., may also Le predicated ofthe Church, 88 the realization of heaven upon earth. And in the Old Testament the Church is chiefly designated by a termanalogous to ,kkle.ia. This term is kahaZ t~:-IP) to call, and especiallyU» call together an assembly. as by trumpets. Hence the Church amongthe Jews was called the" congregation (kahal, literally, the ~alled out) ofJ ehovah" (Numb. xvi. 8; xx. 4), and the "congregation of Israel"(Dent. xxi. SO); and frequently the kahal, or the congregation; as acongregation among Christians is called a Church. But the entirepeople of Israel formed the Church among the J e"s, that is, the repre·sentative, or the type of a Church, .and to this end they were a chosenpeople, separated, for this purpose, from other nations. (Deut. ~ii. 6.)Not that they were chosen, in the sense of predestinariane, for heaven;according to the Calvinistic dogma of unconditional election; but theywere elected, or chosen, for the purpose of forming the type or repre·sentative of a Church upon earth, and this, irrespective of their internalstates, whether good or bad. The Church also among the J ewe had~arious designations, as a viTl8Yard (Isaiah v.), a t~ple, ·a garden, andparadise, &e. Now the Church is to be considered in a general and also in a parti-cular sense. In a gmwal sense all the faithful who acknowledge "theOns BMpkertl 01 the one fold," are the Church, and in a sense less generalevery society of faithful Christians, whether large or small; and in aparticular sense every faithful member, in whom- the Church, (Lukexvii. 21.) is a Church in its least form. Thus things in regard to theOhurch are, as in heaven, the same in the least form as in the greatest. We cannot sufficiently dwell on the fact that a man iB not necessarily a member of the Church by bearing the name of Christian, by professing Christianity, and by belonging to any Christian society. But in order to be a member he must not only be born into the Church, but the"Church must be born in him, otherwise he is a merely nominal member, and it is almost certain that he will, by his conduct, bring disgrace upon the Church. The New Church must hold in dread those who are botu into its bosom, who grow up in external connection with its members and its worship; but whose minds have never been awakened to any love of its Truths, or to any per.onal interest in its formation in their own souls and character. Such merely nominal members will, by their worldly-minded, thoughtless, and licentious conduct, bring more scandal upon the Church, and cause morc " offences to come, Jt than any hostile
  126. ]~4 THE CBUBOS; OB, BBAVBN lJPO!f BA.BTB.antagonists from without. They will "wOODd the Lord in the boue ofHis frienda," (Zech. xiii. 6.) and will be the greatest obstroctives to theprogress of the New Church upon earth. "So let yoar light shine be-fore men. that they may see your good works, and glorify your FatherwhichAs in heaven." (Matt. v. 16.) The Chureh always "comes down from God out of heaven." (Bev.#i. 2.) This, we apprehend, is a universal Troth; applicable to themost ancien~ or Adamic, the Nohetie, the Israelitisb, and the Christian.as well as to the New Christian, or the New Jerusolem Church. But inwhat manner does it come down from God out of heaven? First, bymeans of the Divine Word, which supplies all ihe materials by whichthe Church can be established upon earth. Here are all the truths bywmoh the temple must be buUt. The Church must be founded uponthe Word, and espeeially upon a li~ing faith in the Lord, as the fOCkupon which it alone can stand. (Matt. xvi. 18.) Henee as the Wordhas come down from God out of heaven, so must the Church founded onthe Word, 4md constructed of materials derived from the Word only,come down from God out of heaven also. But IIcondly, the Churcheomes down from God out of heaven by being the channel of conveyingheavenly iJtftuenees to the world, as well 8S the plaee of their especialhabitation. For the Church, properly speaking, is the realization ofheaTen npon earth, or the establishment of divine Goodness and Truthfrom the, Lord in the ultimates of His own divine order, which ~8 theDaiural world. All the principles, therefore. whioh form· the Church inthe soul must come down from the Lord through heaTen, since He is theAll in all of His Church, as He is Ule All in all of heaven. He is theBead. COol. i. 18), from whom every vital principle! most .come to givelife and to bless all the members depending on that Head; precisely.asin :tbe body every vital inlluence which actuates the limbs, the organs oft8DS8, and the .viscera, comes from the head. And. this is the, true ,ideaQf .the .apostolic declaration, that "JUUll OANt ia tAl hMld of t1uJOJnweA." (See Eph. i. 22; iv. 15; Col. i. 18.) Not the ·head merelyiD the sense of a governor, or of a king, but as being in the same rela·UoD to the Church as the head is to the body. Hence the Church isaalled Ohrists mystical body. No greater proof can be required as aJational illustrati.nl to show that all the Life, the Love, .and the TrothGf the Church comes from the Lord in His Divine Humanity, or His:.g1orioU& body," (Phil ill. 21.) and that not to acknowledge the Lord. iuHis Divine Humanity, as " over all, God blessed for ever," (Rom. ix. 6) isto take away the head from the body, in whioh case everything in theWy, or·he Church, mU&t inevitably perish. "Where the calC888 is,
  127. THB OBUBOB; OB, HI>ATEN UPON EABIB. 1~there will the eagles be gatbered .together" (Matt. xxiv. 28), that is,overy kind of falsity must prevail when the Church is thus separatedfrom its Dh,ine Head; and still more must this be the case where anyman, as the Pope, is vicariously substituted in the Lords stead as thehead of the Church; when it must indeed become as a putrid carcase. We will now hear what Swedenborg says respecting the Church:- "That wbieb _ekes hea.en with maB, makea al80 the church ",ith him; for AI loveand faith eoBltitato hea.en, 10 al90 love and faith coDltltute tile church. HenOBfrom what hu before been said coacerning heaven, it is evident what the ohurch la. " That ia called the eh.rea wllere the Lord is aokno"ledged, and where the WOMisreadj for the essential priaeiples of the church are love and faith in the Lord fromthe Lord, and the Word teaebcs how man should live in order to receive love and&ith from the Lord. •• That the eluueh . ., exlet t1aere must be doctrine from the Word, -nee withoutjootrine the Word. cannot be anderakKKl; but doctrine alone doel not make thecllureh "ith maD, hut a life according to doctrine. Hence it foUows that faith alonedoes not make the church, but the life of faith, which is charity. Genuine doctrine is the doctrine of charity, and at the same time, of faith; and not the !atter withoutthe former. For tlae doetrine of charity, and, at the saute time, the doctrine of faith,it the doctrine of life, but not the doctrine of faith without the doctrine of ob&rity. " Those who are .at of the church and acknowledge one God, and who lift inaome degree of obarity to their neighbour from their religions princlpl8, are in COID-munion witla those who are of the church; inasmuch U DO one who believes in God, and who lives well, is condemned. Hence it is evident, tlaat the Lords church is everywhere in the universal world, although it is especially there where the Lord.la acknowledged, aDel where the Word Is read. 6. Every one with or In whom the church fa, i8 Dved; but every one with whoa the ehumh isllOt, le -.demned."-H. D. 241-245.Nothing can be plainer than these statements. The life of love andfaith forms the Church with man; and these principles must come fromthe Lord by means of His Word, and, as the One great Object- ofall adoration and praise, be again directed to Him in life and worship.Again; he often defines the Church as consisting of the ,,.,,ha of Fai,la,and of the fOOtU of Low. As this definition may seem obscure to some,Who are not much instructed in the doctrines of the New Church, we will explain it. Truth are very various and numerous. There are in general, two classes of Truths ;-natural and spiritual. Natuml Truths rela~ to the world, the various sciences, and to the civil and external moral order in which a man lives in the world. All these truths, as being merely natural, are· not the truths of Faith; that is. a man is Dott"eqeired to know and believe the tnlths. of geology, astronomy. ~hemiatry, &0., nor the truths of· poli~al economy, &e., in order to besaved. But he mtCIt !.wow ant/, bIlisw the Truths of Vaith in order toaalvatioD. These Troths are spiritual, aad are revealed in the Word,
  128. 126 THE CHURCH; OB, BEATEN" UPON EARTH which is the only source whence they can be received by manlP HeD8e the ~ery great importance of acquiring a knowledge of these Truths; for without them nothing of the Church, and, oonsequently, nothing of heaven. can be formed in man. Were this fact more generally knoWll and considered as it ought to be, many would not be so unconoerned about the acquisition of Truths as they are. They would not remain in the merest elements of Christian doctrine which they had acquired in their childhood; but would make the Word the chief object of their study and delight. But the goods oj Love must also be explained. Love, as it is the essential life of God, (1 John iv. 8.) so it is the essential life of man, the image of God. But in man, his lifes love, accordi.ng to his nature, may be either good or evil. Now as God is infinite Low, so He is infinite Goodness, for love and goodness are eorrelative terms; we call that good which we love, and that evil which we hate. Goodness, there.. fore, ,ill always be according to the nature of the love from which it springs. Thus, what Swedenborg calls goods are always to be under.. stood according to the principle or love from which they spring. In general there are natural goods and spiritual goodl. Thus the good which arises from the application of the truths of astronomy for the purposes of navigation, of determining time, &e., is a natural good only. In like manner the good which arises from the application of the truths of other sciences, as of agriculture, botany, chemistry, &e., is only natural, and, therefore, is not necessary to constitute salvation. But the goods of love, as arising from the love;of God ana of our neighbou" are essentially necessary and indispensable to salvation, since no man can possibly be saved without this good. Hence it is that every Truth from the Word tends to promote this Good, for on the two Commud-, .menta which establish this love and goodness in heaven, in the Church, and in the human soul, U hang all the law and the prophets." (Matt. xxii. 40.) It is of immense importance to trace the origin of good in the soul, 80 as to see whether it spring from a merely natural ~round in the external, or.from a spiritual ground- in the internal man, and conse- quently from the Lord, who always acts first into the internal, and,theD, jf there be no ..obstacle, into the external man. - Now, there, is much external benevolence, friendship, philanthropyt almsgi,ing, ) charity, moral order,.and propriety, &c. in the world, which would, indeed, ,be very wretched without such manifestations. But the-important quesPon .is, whetherthese things be the gooclB of llYD6, and, oon8equen~y, suob as can be acknowledged in heuen, and oontribute to mans, salvation.? One inquiry will suffice to solve the questimJ-,-Does the 1D&B who
  129. THE SPIRITUAL· SENSE OF THE WOBD, ETC. ] 27 manifests this spirit, so useful to his fellow-men in the world, act from intemal principles originating in the Word, or in love to God and man? Does he seek "the kingdom of God and his righteousness" in the first place, and Buffer his life and the motives of his oondllCt to be governed by the divine laws, or the dinne Truths of the Word? In such case those benevolent and philanthropic exertions are the good, of lOVI. Thus.it is spiritual Truths which give quality and elevation to the Good from whieh a D18n acts; and on the other hand, it i9 that good which gives life, strength, firmness, and energy to the truths we receive 8S the essential elements of a holy and an enlightened faith. From this, then, we may see that ,it is not Truth alone, nor Faith alone, Dor Love or Goodness alone, nor Good Works alone, that cau 1I8.ve us; bot Love, or Charity, and Faith and Good Works combined, can alone accomplish salvation; precisely as the motion of the heart must be united with the respiratory action of the lungs in order topreserve life in the body, and to manifest that life in external results. What the Church therefore is, and what is its tme nature, will, we think, be abundantly obvious. It only remains that we endeavour to impress upon our minds the necessity of acquiring Truths from the Word, and of applying them to life, when the Lord, u who always stands at the door and knocks," ready to enter, whensoever we by hearing His t voice, or by obeying His precepts, open the door,-when He enters into 08 and eotnmunicates to us all the blessings of His kingdom. APEX.THE SPIRITUAL SE~SE OF THE ""ORD, AS ACKNOW- LEDGED BY THE PRI~11TIVE CHRISTIANS PRIOl~ TO THE COUXCIL OF NICE IN 3Q6. (Conti",uu.ljr()1ll, pog~ 88.) VIII.-lu sbort, aooording to Origen, the mystical or spiritual senseof sacred Scripture is that which represents the state, nature, andhistory of the spiritual or mystical world. F01" besides this corporealworld.- consisting of matter, there is another world which is spiritualand remote .£mm our senses; and this again is twofoldt-hea~lRlyand«Lrtltly, which {although eerthly~ may be called mystical; for thismystical or spiritual earthly world is the church of Jesus Christ uponthis earthly globe, or the new creation, «T&~. * Thus the world andthe ornament of the world [in a spiritual sense] is the church. A See OJisen·. worb Comm. in Johann. Tom. ix. Tol. iL p. 1~7. Edit. Huetii. ·
  130. THE SPIBlTUAL SENSE OF THE WOlU), "The ehurch (says Origen) is called the world, when it is eDligl)~ed by the Saviour. "* This spiritual or heavenly world is situa~ in the regions above, and, in every part, corresponds to this lower and corporeal world. For the world which we now inhabit is formed accord.. ing to the exemplar, or image, of that superior world. Origen a own statement is as follows : - U Besides this visible world, obvious to our senses,t there ia another",vorld coDsisting of heaven and earth, or of hea,·eos, and aD earth in "hieh the things which are there seeo, exist. And this entire [systeuij is another world, invisible ~o our corporeal eyes, but is an intell@qWworld, ,visible to our spiritual senses.: The vision and beauty oftbisworld will be enjoyed by those who are, of a pure heart, and who. beingprepared by this purity, have penetrated even to a vision of God Wm...,self, in so far at least as God can be seen by us." This world (continues Mosheim) is remote from every sense,., fltliivisible only to our intelligence. But it is to be considered, as ~read,stated. ~ divided into provinces similar to those of our corporeal worl~;that is, in like manner as the land of Canaan is divided into "andsWrounded by regions and provinces, as Tyre, Sidon, Egypt, Persia,Arabia, &c.; in like manner the superior, or heavenly world, has regionsand provinces similar or analogous to these. The inha:bitants of theheavenly worlds are souls or spirits; the kings and magistrates [or thesuperior powers] are the angels; in beaven, of course good, and in hell.evil. Whatever things occur in this world, the same also happen, in tbeother or superior world, so that there is a perfect similitude [of tbiDgs]in both worlds. § * AfYffT/JO) l"OVVV 1 ~~1(1UJ ICOd.,J,Of OTf V7rO l"OV CT6>T7fpOS cf>o)T~fTQ". t .,.01 a"lCVV/Uvov lea, Qt.(1/JrrrOJl 1C0(1POJl. ! 1C0(1p,Df aopaTOs ov fJAmoJUVOs leat. JIO1TOS ICO(1pDS. § In this statement of MOIheim the New Church reader will become senelble ofthe truth made known in the writings of Swedeaborg, tha thiDfJI in the splriw-l,agree with things in the natural world only in oue particular, wbich is, rima.,·in all other respects they are totally difFerent; thus their origin, 8S well as the lawsby which they are govemed, are different. It is obviou8, however, that in formertimes, many facts respecting the spiritual world were dimly seen, which are nowclearly brought to·light in the writings ofSwedenborg. Thus, the statement 81)08,."that in the spiritual world there are regions and prOviDCel .imw. to Cbe 88IIle in: thenatural world," is true, if understood according to correapondeneea; but it is~ ~true, if we thiuk of regions in the spiritual world with the same ideas of locality &lldapace &8 we think of them in the natural world. (See SwedenboIRs work on,Heaven, and Hell, where the things relating to the spiritual world, obscurely seeD andadmitted by Origen and the fathers- and Cbrlstians of the Primitive church, aree1ear1y explained. )-)4~DltOL
  131. AS AOKNOWLEDGED BY THE PBt:MITIVE CHRISTIANS, ETC. 129I This doctrine Origen explains nowhere so fully as in Lib. iv. Princip.tee. u. p. 181, where be first, as he thinks, demonstrates that there isa certain heavenly Jodea, a heavenly Jerosalem, and a heavenly Hebrewpeople. Thus, 88YS Origen,- " ID orcler to mise our intelligence, in a certain manner, from earth,and to exalt our ideas, the apostle S8Y8,- Behold Israel after the flesh !(1 Cor. x. 18.) by whioh he certainly indicates that there is anotherIsrael which is not oft". ths fluk, but qfter th6 8pirit. If, therefore,there are certain souls in this superior world which are called Israel,.and in heaven a certain city which is named Jerusalem, (see Gal. iv. ~6.)it (ollows that· these cities, which are said to belong to the Israeliti.Jhpeople, have as their metropolis the heavenly J erusalem, concerning,,·hieh we consider th~t the prophets, in some of their mystic narrations,have spoken. * * Whatever things, therefore, are either nattatedor prophesied concerning J erosalem, are certainly predicated of thatoity which Paul mentions as the heavenly J en.sslem; and in this,[spiritual] manner we ought to understand whatsoever things are said ofall places and cities which belong to the holy land." fhese things (says M08heim), Origen extends and applies to the entireearth, thus:- "It-, therefore, the things which are prophesied concerning Judea andJerusalem, and concerning Judea, Israel, and Jaeob, when they are .BOtunderstood by U8 in a literal and carnal manner, involve certain divinemysteries, it follows that those prophecies which relate to Egypt or the~~n8, and to Babylon or to the Babylonians. and to 8idoD and theSidonians, &c., do not relate to those cities and people 88 such in thisworld, but to them as inhabitants of the spiritual world. For as thereis a heavenly Jerusalem and Judea, and as there is, no doubt, a peoplecalled [the spiritual] Israel who inhabit those places; so in like manner,we may-infel- that when Egypt, Babylo~ &0., are mentioned in Scrip-tare, they are to be understood in this mystical sense." From this; doctrine (says Mosbei m), Origen concludes that whateverhappens in this lower world, also takes place in the higher world. Weshall soon see how far Origen wanders in this direction. This wonderfulopinion of Origen is a singular proof to sho,v how far he accommoda~dhia theology to the philosophy of Plato, which he had embraced. Forhowever Origen may endeavour to persuade his readers that he hadderived tl1is doctrine of a two-fold yorld,-an inferior and a 8uperior,-from the words of Paul in 1 Cor. x. 18; Rom. H. 28, 29; Gal. iv. 26 ;Heb.,~ii. Q2,and a few other places; it is nevertheless evident that sucha doctrine is nothing but the teaching ~f Plato and of the Platonic phi-
  132. 130 TUB SPIBITUAL SENSE 0 .. THB WORD,1000phers concerning the eternal images of all things, as having pro-ceeded originally from the divine intelligence, and conceming this visibleworld as being constructed and formed according to tbe image of thoseeternal ideas, as Plato called them. This doctrine, Origen, a man afmost fertile genius, and too much influenced by the love of his own phi-losophy, amplified and applied to the Sacred Scriptures. Those who areacquainted with the philosophy of Plato, are aware, that that school, fromthe authority of its master, taught that the images of all things had,from eternity, flowed from the divine intelligence. lhey also taughtthat these images are immutable natures or substances, which, althoughthey flowed from the divine mind, are nevertheless separated from it.They likewise asserted that God, when he created this eorporeal world,kept his eye fixed upon these VUtJl, in a manner similar to that in whicha painter fixes his eye upon the ohject which he desires to paint by hiscolours upon his canvas. All corporeal H.nd finite things are consequentlycopies of these eternal images or ideas. in which all truth and-lightreside.. Minds involved in matter can only perceive obscure shadows ofthese ideas. The human mind may, however, by meditation and study,gradually amve at a contemplation of these ideas, which, acconling toPlato, is the ultimate end of all science or knowledge. All these helps[from the philosophy of Plaw] Origen brings to bear upon his subject,and hence his dream, otherwise difficult to be understood, of this lowerworld being so entirely similar to the higher. as to be made according toits likeness; although I am Dot aware (continues Mosheim), whether anyof the Platonic philosopers 80 far extended this doctrine as Origen did. * * Mosheim, it is evident, has entirely mistaken the subject when he eays thatOrigen derived his idea of the two worlds, and of their sinliJarity to each other, fromthe philoaophy of Plato. It is trae that PJato taught the existence of an ~1IKWld. and asserted that it is enlightened by an in.tdltctlltOl 8",,~· hut he doe. notmake mention of any objects in that world 88 eppearing to the intel1eGtaal or spiri-tual senses as objects appear to oar natural senses in this world. Mosheim, theN-fore, does well, according to his usual candour, to quality his statement b18&J-ing that "he is not aware that any of the Platonic philosophers extended this doctrine10 far &8 Origen did. " Origen, no doubt, derived his ideas on this subject not fiom Plato, but from the Scriptares and from ancient tradition.. For the Word of God,8Speoially in the prophets Ezekiel, Zachariab, and John, plalDly teach that; tile8piritoal world Is full of objeote, which as to their appearance" are aimiIar to theobjects in this world. And from ancient traditi0n8, whioh mjpt have, ~~ in Origen8 time, it is probable that his views taken from the Scriptares were _ •. firmed. And it is also probable that the teaching of Plato respecting an intelleetual world .. distinot from this natural world, might have confirmed him in his ideas. We beg again to guard the reader agaiD8t the fallacy of supposing that beo&nl8, 11 Orige, statee, tbiDp in the lpiritual are similar to things in the natural world,
  133. AS ACKNOWLEDGED BY THE PRJJlITIVE OHRISTIANS, ETe. 1S1 These philosophers did not, (saY8 Mosheim) as I am aware, assert thatall things which happen amongst men also take place in the heavenlyworld, and that souls live in the higher or spiritual world, as men livein the lower or natural world, and that in the heavenly world angelsgovem and wage wars,. as kings and princes do in this world. Howeverthis may be, it is plain, that as Origen 80 taught, he should, to be con-sistent, also teach that whatever things the divine Scriptures narrateconcerning the countries, the peoples, the kings of this world, and theirdeeds, must also refer to the superior or spiritual world, and that conse·quently the history of this world contains also the history of the higherworld and of its inhabitants. And this, indeed, Origen clearly assertswhen he says : - Cl It will consequently follow, that the prophecies which, in the letter,relate to particular nations, should, in their mystic sense, be referred tosouls, and to their various heavenly habitations; and also that the his-toneal records, narrating the things which happened to the people ofIsrael, or to Jerusalem, or to Judea, have rather a relation to thosenations of souls who dwell in that heaven which is said to pass away(Rev. xii. 1), or who must be supposed as now dwelling there."-(De:P:rincip. lib. iv. p. 186.) Again, in reference to this subject, Origen says:- "I think, that as we see in the Scriptures certain names either ofnations or of princes which, it cannot be doubted, relate to evil angelsand to malignant powers; so, in like manner, those things which arewritten ooncerniDg holy men and a religious people, should be referredto holy angels, and to benignant powers."-{Homilia xi. in NumerosTom. it Opp. p. 807.) ttherefore they are to be considered in a similar manner; for things in that world,although as to appearance they are similar to things in this world, are nevertbeleufrom a different origin, and under the influence and government of difterent law&.-EDITOR. ,* We should imagine that Origen derived this idea from the Apocalypse :-" Andthere was war in heaven; Miahael and hie angel& fought againBt the dra~D; and tb.dragon fought and his angels." (Chap. xii. 7.)-EDITOR. t From·these two extracte it is evident that Origen and the Christiau of the firstcenturies believedthat the bistorical parts of tbe Word have a spiritual sense, asflell &8 the more obscure prophetical parts; and also from what was adduced above,(~p. 81.) that the historical parts of the New Testament involve, in like manner,eplritual ideu. Now, we beg the reader to attend to this fact, whieh it is the objectof these papere to demoDltrate, that in the first centuries of Ohrietianity, whieh bylDOIt Christians at the present Umo are often referred to &8 the purest age of ChrIetim doctriIu and lif6, the acknowledgment of a 8piritual sense in the Seriptures wu general among Cbriltians; howsoever 81 to certain points of doctrine they might
  134. 132 THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD, IX.-As therefore (continues Mosheim), there is. according toOrigen,a two-fold mystical or sphitual world, one inferior, or the church u.ponearth, and the other a superior or spiritual, ~oording to the image of·which this world, consisting of matter and of corporeal bodies, is formed;and as the divine Scriptures contain the history of both these wOl~lds,~there is, consequently, a two-fold mystical se"nse in Scripture, O.B& relatingto the church upon earth, and the other to the heavenly world". That,vhich relates to Christs kingdom upon earth, or to the church, iacalledthe Allegorical Sense; and that which relates to the heavenly world canbe called the Ana.gogical Sense. Origen does not, indeed, always bythe term allegorica.l, understand that sense of the Sacred Word bichexhibits the things done by Christ and his apostles upou earth, and theevents of his kingdom, since he sometiules uses that term in a widersense. But many of the examples of allegorical seDse which are foundin great numbers in his various books, confirm the description which ~ehave given of the allegorical sense. X.-The mystical sense (says Origen), pervades the whole of SacredScripture, nor is there a single expression in the divine books in which there does not lie hidden something which relates either to the c~urchof Jesus Christ, or to the heavenly world. Thus Origen exp~essly states : - .c Believing in the words of my Lord Jesus Christ, I do not thinkthat there is one jot or tittle in the law and the prophets which is devoid of mysteries, nor do I believe any thing can pass away except all be ful- filled."-(Homil. i. in Exodus, p. 131, Tom. ii. Opp.) These things Origen everywhere states, both in respect to the Old Testamen~ as well as to the New, which he considered to be equal in dignity and excellence to the Old Testament. See Lib. vi. de Princip.pp. 171, 172, and algo at p. 174, where he expressly maintains that the New Testament contains a spiritual and mystical sense equally as the Old; for he says : - U Not only these things which the Holy Spirit has inspired as writtenin the prophets respecting the advent of Christ, but as it is one and thesame Spirit proceeding from the one only God which inspired the ePsn- gelists and apostles, therefore, in like manner, their vritings involve spiritual things, so that the narrations which the Holy Spirit inspired through the evangelists are not without that i~terior wisdom which we have described above."differ, they nevertbeless agreed that the Seriptures have a Apiritual sense, &s distinctfrom the letter 8S the soul is from tlle body, and which is in the same relation to theliteral sense as the soul is to the body. (See this, as 8.88erted by Origen lbove,p. 84.)-EDITOR.
  135. AS ACKNOWLEDGED BY THE PRIMITIVE CBRISn.uS, ETC. 183 Hence he lays down this precept:- "I maintain (says Origen), that if there be any things in the SacredScripture which, although as to their literal sense they may stand [thatis, have an intelligible meaning], nevertheless, there is also even in suchpassages necessarily an allegorical sense."- (Homil. xi. in Numeros,Tom. ii. Opp. p. 8 and 5.) Here Origen uses the term Alkgorical in a wider sense, as involvingalso the Anagogical sense mentioned above. And soon afterwards hesays:- U Some things have, indeed, according to the letter, their own sense,nevertheless they admit usefully and necessarily of an allegorical sense,besides the literal. U Hence (says Mosheim), it is, beyond controversy, evident that thoselearned men are mistaken who have asserted, that according to Origen-,many parts of the Holy Word have only a literal and not a spiritualsense also, for this assertion is quite contrary to the declarations of Ori-gen. Nor must we give credence to what De la Rue, and the writerwhom he has followed, assert, when they say that the following is a ruleof Origen :_U That there are passages in Sacred Scripture which haveonly a literal sense, and that there are passages which have only a moralor mystical sense." For those who assert that this is one of the rules ofOrigen, in his interpretation of Scripture, have not diligently read theworks of Origen. XI.-Both kinds of the mystical sense, namely, the allegorical andthe anagogical, are not found in all the passages of Scripture; in somethere is only the allegorical, and in others the anagogical. The inter· pretations which Origen gives plainly show that this was his opinion. For, from many passages of the Scriptures which he explains, he only elicits a certain sense relating to the church of Christ upon this earth; and sometimes. in his interpretations, he ascends to the heavenl)· and sublimer ,vorld. Xlr.-The moral sense of Scripture is coextensive with the Scripture itself, nor is there a single passage in which there is not some precept, useful to the edification of our souls, and to the improvement of our lives. X~II.-But it is otherwise with the grammatical, literal, or historical sense of Scripture. For there are many passages of Sacred Scripture, says Origen, which in their literal sense are devoid of any power or of any intelligible meaning. From many passages in which he expresse$ this opinion ,ye shall ~elect only the following : - u There ar~ passages (says he) in ,vhich there is no body (that is, no literal sense); there are passages in which there is only, as it were, a
  136. 134: THE S;PIIUTUAL SENSB OF THE WORD,·soul (that is. DO intelligible literal sense), and in which the moral andspiritual signification must be sought."* XIV.-All the 8tatements, therefore, of Holy Scripture are of a two-fold kind; some of which have only two senses, a moral and a mystical,or an allegorical and an anagogicalsense; others, however, have a thl·ee-fold sense, a grammatical or literal, and a moral and mystical. Butthere is no passage in the Secred Volume in which there is only onesense. This teaching of Origen is plain from Lib. iv. de Princip.,p. 169, where, from the Gospel of John, chap. ii., he gives us anexample of the allegorical sense as explained from the divine text.John states that at the marriage of Can8 in Gallilee "there were sixwater-pots placed after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, holdingtwo or three firkins a-piece," which Origen mystically interprets thus : - " By which (wllter-pots) under a veil is understood the purification oftl)ose who, according to the apostle, are inwardly Jews, (Rom. ii. 29.)to shew that they are pUlified by the Scriptures, which hold tVO [orthree] firkins; that is, 80 to speak, a 8oul, or moral sense, and a spirit,or mystical sense, and sometimes an earthly 8en8~, when in some casespassages have, besides the 80ul and the 8pirit, also a body, [that is, anintelligible literal sense] which can also edify." XV.-The literal sense is obl"ious to all who attentively read theScriptures; but to find out the moral sense a greater amount of intelli- •gence is required; this sense, however, is not 80 recondite and hidden[but that it may be readily discovered by such as look for it]. XVI.-But the mystical, or pure spiritual sense, cannot be perceivedby any but by such as are wise and dirinely instructed. For accordingto the manner of that age, he refers the spiritual interpretation of theScriptures to the extraordinary gifts of the spirit, v.hich gifts areaccorded to only few Christians. Now as Origen was of that modestyas not to dare to arrogate to himself that gift, he, therefore, for the mostpart, gives his spiritual interpretation with great modesty and prudence,and he often intimates that he rather conjectures and supposes such tobe the mystical or spiritual signification, than confidently a~rm8 it tobe 80. t * EL(n TI.II£~ ypa1>aL TO (6)p.aTI.ICOII ov3ap.6)~ £XOVU4L £1.1,11 cnrov OI.Ollfl. .,.".fvX1" lCat TO Tr£J1fVp.a .,.,,~ ypaepl~ p.GJIQ. XPI ",.£1,11. t Here we see it to be the confession of Origen himself, that the especial gift ofthe spirit is neOO88&ry to the right interpretation of the spiritual sense. This is true;but the spirit enlightens man, whilst in the world, by knowledges, as the receptacle.of lUuatration from the spirit of God. And this knowledge, which is the science orolrrOlpondence. between tbinp aaturalaDd 8lliritual, and now happily vouchsafed in
  137. AS ACKNOWLEDGED BY THE PBIM:JTIV& CHRISTIANS, ETO. 185 Thus again, in reference to this subject, Origen says : - "As visible and invisible things are reciprocally related together, as the earth with heaven, the soul with the flesh, the body with the spirit, and as, from the conj unction of these things the world is formed; thus we should also believe that the Holy Scripture consists of invisible and visible things; first, as of a certain kind of body, which is the literal sense, and which is obvious to the senses; secondly, of a soul, which is a sense that is perceived within the letter; and thirdly, of a spirit, or, as the apostle says, the Scripture involves certain celestial things, ~use the letter sorves as a t)pe and shadow of such things." (Beb. viii. 5.) These words of Origen. although they do not contribute much light on tbe.subject. immediately before us, yet I have thought it proper to adduce them (says Ilosbeim)t because they not only clearly and concisely explain his doctrine concerning the three-fold seDse of Scripture, but they also show that he. was not wanting in philosophical arguments to confirm his views. For he here advances an argument drawn from the analogy of things to demOIH:ltrate his doctrine of· the three-fold sense of Gods Vord. Let us now hear the remainder of Origens statement on this 8ubj ect : - . U Now as this is the case (says he), with the things of Q8.ture, whichI( consist of wha