Swedenborg SMALL-THEOLOGICAL-WORKS-AND-LETTERS-latin-english-The-Swedenborg-Society-London-1975

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Swedenborg SMALL-THEOLOGICAL-WORKS-AND-LETTERS-latin-english-The-Swedenborg-Society-London-1975

  1. 1. SMALL THEOLOGICAL WORKSAND LETTERS OFEMANUELSWEDENBORG
  2. 2. SMALL THEOLOGICAL WORKSAND LETTERS OFEMANUELSWEDENBORGTHE SWEDENBORG SOCIETY1975
  3. 3. Published by the Swedenborg Society20/21 Bloomsbury Way, London, WCrA 2TH© The Swedenborg Society r975Printed in Great Britainat the University Printing House, Cambridge(Euan Phillips, University Printer)
  4. 4. CONTENTSPrefaceAbbreviationsDe DominoDe JustificationeIndex ad Formulam ConcordiaeDe Praeceptis DecalogiSummaria in Explicatione ApocalypseosDe Conjugio~inque MemorabiliaColloquia cum AngelisHistoria Ecclesiastica Novae EcclesiaeResponsum ad ErnestiEpistola ad BoncleEpistola ad MennanderEpistolae ad BeyerResponsum ad EkebomEpistola ad von H6pkenEpistola ad WenngrenEpistola ad Alstr6merEpistola ad MennanderEpistolae ad OetingerEpistolae ad LandgraviumEpistolae ad HartleyIndex of Scripture ReferencesIndex of References to the WritingsGenera! Indexpage vuIXI1757758S99159181191197201207213257265269273277281297309333335337
  5. 5. PREFACEThe prime purpose of this volume of SMALL THEOLOGICAL WORKSAND LETTERS is to make available all those relatively short theologicaldocuments that came from the pen ofEmanuel Swedenborg and tl1at arenot readily accessible in their original language or in English translations.For this reason some small works or letters which seem merely to repeatwhat Swedenborg said elsewhere and which would probably be excludedfrom a volume ofselected documents are included here; yet to preventit becoming over large certain small works such as CORONIS, INVIT A TIOAD NOVAM ECCLESIAM, or DE CONJUGIO III (see below page 99),for which English translations are still in print, have been omitted andwill appear instead in an edition of original texts that is to be publishedin the future.Not every small work or letter in this book is strictly speaking tl1eolo­gical in its content, yet where else is one to place those that deal with suchmatters as the nature of marriage, Swedenborgs intromission into thespiritual world, or mans communicating with spirits?Most of the points that would normally be made in a preface orgeneral introduction appear in this volume in the explanatory notes thatgo with particular sections. The following must however be stated here:1. The editor has endeavoured to provide a complete critical apparatusto the Latin and Swedish original texts.2. The Latin or Swedish spellings found in the original sources, but notthe punctuation, have been retained.3. In Swedenborgs correspondence with persons of equal rank thepolite forms of address that are customary in Swedish, such as HerrDoctor, Herr Handelsman, have been translated by the more normalEnglish you, your, etc., or not translated at all.The editor expresses his gratitude to his consultant Dr John Chadwick,F.B.A., ofDowning College, Cambridge, for help at every stage ofwhathas been a complicated task; to the Reverend Dennis Duckworth, theReverend Donald Rose, the 1{everend Erik Sandstr6m, and Mrs D. H.Harley, who, in addition to the consultant and the editor, have beeninvolved in establishing and translating individual texts; to Mr LennartVll
  6. 6. PREFACEAlfelt of the Swedenborgiana Library, Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania, forsupplying copies of original sources and for his researches relating todifficulties encountered with HISTORIA ECCLESIASTICA; and to theReverend Bjorn Boyesen for assistance with the Swedish letters.The editor prays that this volume will deepen mens knowledge andunderstanding of those matters that appear in all the theological writingsof Emanuel Swedenborg and which, New Churchmen believe, arenothing less than a revelation ofDivine Truth from our Lord Jesus Christ,the only God and Redeemer of mankind.Westcliff-on-Sea JOHN E. ELLIOTTVIll
  7. 7. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSHB James Hydes A Bibliography oj the Works ojEmanllel Swedenborg 1906, supple­ment 1967LM Alfred Actons The Letters and Memorials oj Emanl/el Swedenborg Vol 1 1948,Vol II 1955NCL New Church LifeTD R. L. Tafels Documents concerning the Life and Character ofEmanllel SwedenborgVOll 1875, Vol IT 1877References to other works of SwedenborgAC Arcana CoelestiaAE Apocalypsis ExplicataAR Apocalypsis RevelataDP Divina ProvidentiaJ. Post. De Ultimo Judicio (Posth.)SD Diarium SpiritualeVCR Vera Christiana ReligioVUa Doctrina VitaeAbbreviations in Critical ApparatusA Autograph or original document in Swedenborgs own handAc Correction in the autograph by another handAM Copy made by Swedenborg himself which he sent to H. MessiterAP Preliminary Draft in Swedenborgs own handAc Version edited by A. W. ActonC Decrees and Canons of the Council of TrentChad Conjecture made by Dr John ChadwickClemm Version printed in H. W. Clemms Vollstiindige Einleitl/ng in die Religionlmd Gesamte TheologieCu Version entrusted by Swedenborg to J. c. CunoC Version in the printed minutes of the Goteborg ConsistoryH Version published by Thomas HartleyHind Version published by Robert HindmarshI First printed editionJ Manuscript copy of C. JohansenJC Correction made by Johansen himselfK Version printed in A. Kahls Nya Kyrkan ocll dess Inflytande pi! TheologiensStl/dil/lu i SwerigeIX
  8. 8. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSN Manuscript copy of A. NordenskjoldNe Correction made by Nordenskjold himselfP Manuscript copy of H. PeckittSam Version printed in J. F. I. Tafels Sammlung von Urktmdm Betreffend das Lebenund den Charakter Emanuel SwedenborgsT Version edited by J. F. I. TafelU Manuscript copy now in Uppsala University. Scribe not knownW Version edited by S. Worcester1840 Version printed in 1840x
  9. 9. DE DOMINOINTRODUCTIONThe autograph of the fragmentary treatise of DE DOMINO, written inLondon in 1759, has been lost. A copy made by Augustus Nordenskjoldand brought to England in 1788 came through the Reverend ManoahSibly into the possession ofthe Swedenborg Society. A further copy madebyH. Peckitt and published in 1840 along with DE ATHANASII SYMBOLOis also in the library of the Swedenborg Society. The Reverend S. H.Worcester edited the two works in New York in 1885, producing aLatin-English edition in 1888. Besides the English translation made byWorcester there had appeared one in 1848 by A. Maxwell, prefaced by adedication to the Right Honourable the Lord Archbishop ofCanterbury,along with a lengthy Translators Apology.The manuscript consists of very brief doctrinal statements, obviouslyintended for fuller treatment elsewhere. Indeed, that it was to be used inthe preparation OfDOCTRINA NOVAE HIEROSOLYMAE DE DOMINOis noted by Swedenborg among the list of subjects enumerated to bepublished later (see SUMMARIA EXPOSITIO SENSUS INTERNI LIBRO­RUM PROPHETICORUM AC PSALMORUM, the note on treatises to bepublished). The material of the Manuscript is also included in volume VIof APOCALYPSIS EXPLICATA.As in the case of the manuscript of DE ATHANASII SYMBOLO thereis evidence of many copyists errors and of attempted emendations byother hands, and these have increased rather than simplified difficultiesin the effort to establish a sound Latin text.The terse style of the original is ofnecessity carried over to the Englishtranslation, which reads as a series of dogmatic assertions.It has been a privilege to have as consultant in this work Dr JohnChadwick, whose critical examination of the Latin text and the Englishtranslation has been of immeasurable help, which is acknowledged withgratitude.DORIS H. HARLEYI ssw
  10. 10. DE DOMINOPRAEFATIOI Q!od revelatum sit a Domino de coelo et inferno, de ultimo judicioquod peractum, de spirituali sensu Verbi, ita revelata est via ad salutem,et de statu hominis post mortem, et hoc plene et manifeste, ut quisquequi intelligit linguam Latinam scire possit, et hoc nunc ante annuumtempus, et communicatum; sed usque Ecdesia non id curat; miraturquam maxime in coelo quod Ecclesia in tali statu sit ut illa quae suntipsa essentialia ejus ne quidem spectentur, sed relinquantur sicut res -nonID alicujus momenti, indicium quod coelestia nihil occupent mentes eorum,nec videantur quando revelata.2 Exscribantur omnes articuli in 4 tractatibus ordine.3 Q!od Domino quoad Humanum fuerit a Se Ipso; ex Verba.4 Q!od Dominus ab aeterno fuerit; ex Verba.15 5 Q!od Dominus onmipotens; ex Verba.6 Q!od Dominus invisibilis factus sit, tamen in corpore Humano fuit,quod hoc non ex matre potuit esse; ex Verba.7 Q!id hoc quod Divinum sit distinctum in tres personas; ubi hoc inVerba.20 8 Q!id hoc quod Dominus natus ab aeterno. Sed quod Divinum situnum seu una Persona, seu unus Homo, hoc intelligitur, tum quodDivinum fuerit ab aeterno.9 Sed ignoscendi qui non sciverunt aliquid de Verbi stylo, quod sensusspiritualis insit cuilibet voci.25 10 De matre etiam dixit quod illa non beata ideo, sed qui audiuntVerbum et custodiunt, Luc. xi 27, 28; hoc dixit ne ei tribllerent aliquodDivinum quia mater.I I Q!od exiverit a Patre, et venerit in mundllm, et redeat ad Patrem.jah. xvi 27, 28.30 12 Q!od exiverit a Patre,jah. xiv 12, Cap. xvi 5, 10,16, 17, 30, Cap. xvii8;jah. x 9; Esai. xxv 9.13 Q!od descenderit e coelo; ex Verba.6 atillUum: annum N P W 9 ne quidem spectentur W 1840; et (deletum) nequidem spectentur N; et ne quidem spectentur P 10 iudicium W 1840;judiciumN P 22 ab aeterno Ne P W 1840; aeterno N 25 matre etiam Ne PW 1840; morte et N ideo: qd Ipsum portaverit interpolat supra lineam Ne audiuntNe W 1840; audit N P2
  11. 11. ICONCERNING THE LORDPREFACERevelation has been given by the Lord concerning Heaven and Hell,concerning the LastJudgment as having been accomplished, and concern-ing the spiritual sense of the Word, thus the way to salvation has beenrevealed, and concerning mans state after death. And tills has been donefully and plainly so that everyone who understands the Latin languagemay know about these matters. It is now a year since this was done, andcopies have been distributed. But still the Church pays no heed to it.( It is very greatly wondered at in heaven that the Church is in such a) s~e that those things which are its very essentials are not even con:-) ~!deredlrut-Me left as matters ofno moment, a sign that heavenly things( do not occupy their minds at all, neither are they seen when revealed.2 Let all the articles in four treatisesl be set out in their order.3 The Lord, as to the Human, had life from Himself; from the Word.4 The Lord was from eternity; from the Word.5 The Lord is omnipotent; from the Word.6 The Lord became invisible, yet He was in a Human body, but thiscould not have been from the mother; from the Word.;-What is this that the Div~as distinguished into three Persons;where is this in the Word?8 What is this that the Lord was born from eternity? But that theDivine is One or One Person, or One Man, this is intelligible; as well asthat the Divine existed from eternity.9 But they are to be excused who do not know anything about thestyle of the Word, that there is a spiritual sense within every single word.10 Concerning the mother, He also said that she was not blessed forthat reason, but they areblessed who hear the Word and keep it, Luke xi27, 28. This He said lest th~I.should attribute to her anythingJ?ivinebecause she was the mother. - . -Il He· C;U;:;e forth-fr~m the Father and came into the world, and Hereturns to the Father, John xvi 27, 28.12 He came forth from the Father, John xiv 12, xvi 5, 10, 16, 17, 30,xvii 8;John x 9; Isa. xxv 9.13 Be came down from heaven; from the Word.lAger considers that the reference is to TD 313 regards the reference as being cofour of the treatises published in 1758 and the Four Doctrines published in 1763.mentioned in n. 72 below.1-23
  12. 12. DE DOMINOCRED1TUR14 Creditur in orbe Christiano quod angeli assumpserint corporahumana, et sic apparuerint, sed non assumpserunt, verum aperti suntoculi spiritus hominis, et sic visi sunt. Sic angeli apparuerunt Abrahamo,5 et reliquis; sic apparuerunt equi et currus ignei circa Elisseum, ubi dicitur,Aperi oculos. QEod ita apparuerit Dominus, notum est; sed cum differen­tia quod Dominus quoad corpus quod in mundo habuit; angeli autemquoad corpora quae sunt spiritibus, quae in forma humana sunt, sed nonsicut Dominus.IQ IS QEod ita visa sint]ohanni quae in Apocalypsi, dicit etiam quod-Cap.i 10.16 QEod homines per tentationes fiunt spirituales notum est, multomagis Dominus, quia a conceptione Deus.17 QEod homo per tentationes fiat spiritualis et conjungitur coelo,15 spiritualis enim fieri est conjungi coelo, Dominus autem per tentationesconjunxit Suum Humanum Ipsi Divino quod in Ipso, et sic quoadHumanum Deus factus est.18 QEod Anima, quae Ipsum Divinum non habitare possit in corporeinfinno, quale est ex sua natura, quisque potest videre; aliter corpus20 hominum, qui nascuntur a patre in affectiones malas.19 QEod omnes sortiuntur Ioca in coelis secundum ideam fidei deDivino Humano Domini, et ideo secundum receptionem Domini pervera et bona, afferantur gentes de quibus-EX RATIONE25 20 QEod per id Pontificii sibi vindicaverunt potestatem Divinam.21 Ipsa affectio, quae amoris, est a patre, quae etiam est ipsa vita seuanima hominis; induitio est a matte. lode patet qualis Dominus quoadanimam seu vitam, quod fuerit Divinus Amor, et hic non potest una essecum induitione a matre, quin id successive ejiceret; nam mater erat nata30 in peccata sicut omnis homo. Hoc erat infirmum quod assumpsit, ut3 sic apparuerunt: hominibus add. Ne 10 visa W 1840; visi N P IZ tenta­tiones W 1840; tentationem N 16 conjunxit W; conjungit N P 21 sortiunturN P 1840; sortiantur W 22 ideo W (cj); idea N P 23 de quibus-hocconfirmatur add. Ne 25 vindicaverunt N; vindicaverint W 26 etiam Ne P1840 W; et N 27 induitio 1840 W; inductio N P; inductio autem Ne 29 in­duitione 1840; illductiOnc N P; induto W quill Ne 1840 W; quia N P4
  13. 13. THE LORDIT IS BELIEVED14 It is believed in the Christian world that angels have assumed humanbodies, and have thus appeared. Yet they did not assume them, but theeyes of mans spirit were opened, and so they were seen. In this way didangels appear to Abraham and others; in this way did the horses andchariots of fire appear around Elisha, where it is said, Open his eyes.1It is well known that the Lord appeared thus; but with the differencethat the Lord appeared as to the body which He had in the world,angels, however, as to the bodies which spirits have, which are in humanform, but not as the Lord was.15 Thus did JOM see the things that are in Revelation. He says also thathe was in the spirit, i la.16 It is well known that men become spiritual through temptations.This was much more so with the Lord because He was God fromconception.17 It is through temptations that man becomes spiritual and is conjoinedwith heaven, for to become spiritual is to be conjoined with heaven.But the Lord, through temptations, conjoined His Human to the DivineItself which was in Him, and so, as to the Human, became God.18 Anyone can see that His Soul, which was the Divine Itself, could notdwell in a body that is weak such as it is by its nature. It is different withthe bodies of men who from their fathers are born into evil affections.19 To all are allotted places in the heavens in accordance with theconcept their faith gives them ofthe Lords Divine Human, and thereforein accordance with the reception of the Lord through truths and goods.Let the Gentiles be instanced concerning whom-FROM REASON@ Through this2 the Papists have claimed for themselves Divine ower.21 Affection itsel , w ich belongs to love, is from the father, and thisis also a mans very life or soul. Th,e covering, however, is from the. mother. Hence it is clear what was thequalityof~Lordas t6--Iiis Soulor Life, that He was the Divine Love. And this cannot exist togetherwith the_cg~ng from the mother without His casting it off by stages;for the mother was born int~s, as is every human being. This was theI 2 Kings v 17. 2 I.e. their false ideas about the LordsHuman; ef AR 294. 11.5
  14. 14. DE DOMINOpotuisset admittere in Se tentationes, et omnia in coeIis et in infernisdisponere in ordinem, quo ejecto univit Humanum Divino, seu Humanumglorificavit-Notum esse potest quod qualis homo est quoad affectioncmquae amoris, talis sit.-~is non alterum aestimat secundum illam?5 22 ~od Dominus fecerit judicium cum in mundo fuit, constatevidenter ex pluribus locis in Verbo, etiam ex omnibus illis ubi dicitur,Dies Jehovae, quod terribilis, quae vocatur Dies Zebaoth.23 Ex Athanasio, ibi legitur quod Divinum ad Se Humanum suscepit,sed ex Domini verbis est, quod Divinum suscepit ad Se Humanum,IQ etiam Humanum ad Se Divinum suscepit, nam dicit,Credite Mihi quod Pater in Me et Ego in Patre;quod de Humano Suo hoc dixerit, constat ex mox praecedentibus,~i videt Me, videt Patrem, etc.24 Asseverare et pro certo dicere possum quod qualis ide~i hominisIS est de Divino, talis ei conjunctio in codo sit.AB EXPERIENTIA25 ~ia datum est mihi cum angelis consortium habere, cum illisloqui, et videre quae in coelis, et quoque loqui cum illis qui obiverunt,cum fere omnibus quos notos habui, velim aliquid narrare de hac re20 quod audivi.26 ~od plerique Christiani agnoscant tres deos et quaerant vel unumvel alterum, et quod solum illi qui in affectione veri spiritualis suntagnoscant Dominum solum Deum.27 ~od qui agnoscunt Patrem separatum et unicum Deum, naturam25 colant, et­28 ~od omnes angeli Divinum Humanum ex perceptione agnoscunt.29 ~od omnes qui agnoscunt corde Divinum Domini in HumanoIpsius recipiantur in coelum, et quod reIiqui non possint recipi; causae.30 ~od gentes agnoscunt cum instruuntur et quod inde sit quod30 rccipiuntur, secundum Domini verba,Venient ab oriente et occidente.I et omnia in coelis: et occurrere in coelis N; et vincere et omnia Ne P;et vincere inferna et omnia Ne2 ~V (Fortasse !lie dust aliquid) 2 ordinem Ne W1840; ordine N P quo Ne W 1840; et quo N P 6 Verbo Ne P W; verbis (?) Net N P 1840; ut W 7 quae vocatur Ne P W 1840; quaeratur N IS deDivino N P; de Domino W 1840 25 et- N P; etc. W 29 sit W 1840;sintN6
  15. 15. THE LORDinfirm [nature] which He assumed so that He might allow Himself tobe tempted, and set in order [everything] in the heavens and in the hells.When this was cast off, He united th..!-Human to the---R.bi.ne, or glorifiedthe Human. It may be known that according to the quality of a mansaffection which belongs to love, such is the man. Everyone bases his~ti;;;ate danother on that. ­22 That the Lord effected a judgment when He was in the world isclearly established from many passages in the Word; also from all thosein which the day of]ehovah as being terrible is mentioned, and whichis called the day of Zebaoth.23 From Athanasius; we read there that the Divine took to Himself theHuman. But it is among the Lords words that the Divine took to Itselfthe Human and that the Human took to Itself the Divine; for He says,Believe Me that the Father is in Me and I in the Father.! That He saidthis concerning His Human is clear from the words immediately preced­ing, He that sees Me sees the Father, etc.224 I can assert and say for certain that the nature ofa mans conjunctionin heaven depends upon what concept about the Divine his faith hasgiven him.FROM EXPERIENCE25 Because it has been granted me to have fellowship with angels, tospeak with them and to see things that are in the heavens, and also tospeak with those who have died, with nearly all who were known to me,I should like to relate something of what I have heard on this subject.Q§) Christians, for the most part, acknowledge three gods, and seek forone or other; indeed, only those who have an affection for sRiritual truth~vdedge_the Lorcrafo~ as the(;nly God.27 Those who acknowledge the Father as a separate and only God,worshi Nature, and­28 All angels acknowledge from perception the Divine Human.29 All who from the heart acknowledge the Lords Divine in theHuman are received into heaven; and the others cannot be received;the reasons why.30 The Gentiles so acknowledge when they are instructed, and thisis why they are received, according to the Lords words,They shall come from the east and the west.31 John xiv I I. 3 Matt. viii I I; Luk(xiii 29.2 Jolm xiv 9.7
  16. 16. DE DOMINO3I ~od Maria agnoverit Ipsum pro suo Deo et pro suo Domino,auditum viva voce.32 ~od Pontificii se averterint et non potuerint respondere quicquamcum dictum quod non alius pro Patre intelligatur quam Divinum Domini.5 33 ~od omnes infantes in codo non aliud Divinum sciant.34 ~od nullus in Novam Hierosolymam veniat nisi agnoscat ~Humanum Domini.35 ~od hoc intelligatur per adventum Domini in gloria.36 Lege Deut. xxxiii 8, 9, et Sachar. xiv 9; Esai. xl 3-12, Esai. xxv 9.10 Plura adducantur ex collectis quae conveniunt.EX VERBO37 Ex Verbo quod Deus unus seu non praeter Me Deus.38 ~od Dominus conceptus sit ex Ipso Divino, quod Jehovah etPater nominatur, adducatur Matth. i 18-25, et Luc. i 31-35.IS 39 ~od Ipse Deus venit in mundum, ac induit Humanum, et hocDivinum fecit, Joh. i 1,3, 14, nempeDeus erat Verbum, et Verbum caro factum est,ita Deus factus est caro, hoc est, Homo; et quod fuerit Creator, est quiadicitur, Mundus per Ipsum factus est.20 Turn Esai. ix 5, Cap. vii 14; Jerem. xxiii 5, 6, Cap. xxxiii 15, 16; Esai.xlii 8; Malach. iii I; Esai. xxv 9, turn quod ab aetemo fuerit, ex Evan­gdistis.40 ~od Ipsius Divinum fuit quod assumsit Humanum, et quod idDivinum fuit quod vocavit Patrem, et non aliud Divinum, quod ideo25 dicat,~i videt Patrem, videt Me,etIpse in Patre, et Pater in Ipso, et quod unum sint, Joh. xiv 7-11, Cap. x30 , 38.30 41 ~od gIorificaverit Humanum Suum ex Divino in Ipso, videglorificare.42 ~od matrem non ampIius agnoverit, nee Davidem, adducanturloca; et sic quod non filius ipsius esset.43 ~are Divinum Humanum adeundum sit et colendum ex fide et35 amore; adducantur loca ex DOCTRINA NOVAE HIEROSOLYMAE­I Ipsum add Ne W 1840 2 auditum W 1840; auditu N P 6 veniat in rasllra NIS venit N P 1840; venerit W induit N P 1840; induerit W 23 fuit N P1840; fuerit W 28 Pater W; Patre N P 1840 35 Doetr. N8
  17. 17. THE LORD31 Mary acknowledged Him for her God and her Lord; this was heardfrom her own lips.l@ The Papists turned away and could not make any reply when it wassaid that no other is understood for ~han the Lords Divine. «J33 All little children in heaven know no other Div~-34 Nobody comes into tile New Jerusalem unless he acknowledges theLords Divinc Human.@ This is meant by the coming of me Lord in glory.36 Read Deut. xxxiii 8, 9;2 also Zech. xiv 9; Isa. xl 3-12, xxv 9. Othcrsuitable passages to be adduced from collected extracts.FROM THE WORD37 That God is one or beside Me there is no God,3 from the Word.38 The Lord was conceived from the Divine Itself which is calledJehovah and Father; let Matt. i 18-25, and Luke i 31-35 be quoted.39 God Himself came into the world and put on the Human, and thisHe made Divine, John i 1, 3, 14; that isThe Word was God and the Word became flesh.Thus God became flesh, that is, Man. He was also the Creator, for it issaid the world was made by Him.Also Isa. ix 6,4 vii 14; Jer. xxiii 5, 6, xxxiii 15, 16; Isa. xlii 8; Mal. iii I;Isa. xxv 9; also He was from eternity; from the Gospels.40 It was His Own Divine which assumed the Human, and this was meDivine which He called the Father, and not another Divine. ThereforeHe says he that sees Me sees the Father, and that He is in the Father andthe Father in Him, and that they are one, John xiv 7-I!, x 30,38.41 He glorified His HU1!!?n from me Divine in Himself; see to glorify.642 He no longer acknowledged the mother, nor David; let passages bequoted; and thus He was no longcrher~.43 Wherefore the Divine Human is to be approached and worshippedfrom faith and love; let passages be quoted from the DOCTRINE OF THENEW JERUSALEM-.1 See SD 5834. • The verse numbered 6 appears in the• The relevance of this passage is not Latin as 5 in accordance with the Schmidiusimmediately obvious; perhaps an incorrect Bible used by Swedenborg.reference. Verse 7 may be intended in view • The reference is to Swedenborgs Indexofthe meaning ofJudah in the internal sense; to SD (vol 3) where the entry is headed,ef AC 3862. 3. •Glory, Glorification.• Isa. xliv 6.9
  18. 18. DE DOMINO44 ~od viderint Dominum in Humana forma, et vocatur Jehovah,ab Abrahamo; adducatur etiam-id confirmatum a Domino, quod Ipseprius fuerit quam Abraham.45 ~od etiam visus discipulis, et quod homo fuerit coram oculis,et quoque Homo cum invisibilis factus-. Unde hoc.46 ~od omnipraesens sit omnibus diebus, ex Matthaeo, et omnipraesensin Sancta Coena quoad Humanum, et omnipraesentia est Divina.47 ~od Ipsi sit omnis potestas in coelis et in terris, et quoad Humanum.48 ~od Ipse judicaturus omnes, quod datum sit Ipsi judicium etiamIQ in ultimo die.49 ~od unitus sit Suo Divino successive, ob causas de quibus infra;et quod unitus sit per tentationes et victorias; et quod plena unitio factasit per passionem crucis; ex locis in Verbo.50 ~antum unitus, tantum locutus est cum Se, et quantum nondum15 unitus, tantum locutus est sicut cum alio; ilIud erat status humiliationisIpsius; hoc autem status glorificationis.51 ~od Semet inteIlexerit cum nominavit Patrem, constat a locissupra alIatis.52 ~od ob sensum internum nominavit Patrem Divinum Bonum et20 Divinum Verum Christum, constat ex Matth. xxiii 9,10, quod adducatur,et ex permultis aliis locis.53 ~od cognoscere et agnoscere suum Deum sit primum et primariumEccIesiae, quia absque eo nulIa salus, ut constare potest ex Judaeis, quodquando non coluerunt Jehovah, tametsi in ritibus caeteris permanebant,25 devoti sint; loca ex Verbo; tum quod Dominus toties dixit, ~ia credis,ideo iIIis factum; hoc enim primum tunc erat credere in Dominum, etquod Ipsi fuerit omnis potestas; et ob eorum fidem priorem dixit Patremcoram ilIis, sed intelIexit Semet, ut constat a locis; adducantur loca.­~od cognitio et agnitio ilIa conjungat, et absque ilIa, nuIIa conjunctio ita30 nec salvatio.54 Forte adducantur omnia loca ubi dicitur, Pater meus, Pater vester,Pater qui est ill coelis, et quid significant brevirer.6 omnibus diebus W; omnibus dictus N P 1840 7 quoad Humanum Ne W1840; quod Humanum N 8 et quoad N P; etiam quoad Ne W 1840 9 datumWI840;dataNP;datuNe etiamNc W1840;etNP 14 etNP;atNeWI84019 nominavit Ne 1840; nominaverit NW 23 absque eo Ne W 1840; ab eo N Pquod om omn 24 permanebant W; permaneant N P 1840 25 credisN P; credunt Ne W 27 omnis potestas: omni potestas N P; onmipotestas W 184028 a locis: pluribus add Ne10
  19. 19. THE LORD44 They saw the Lord in a Human form, and He was called Jehovahby Abraham; let-also be quoted. It was confirmed by the Lord that Hewas before Abraham.145 He was also seen by the disciples, and was a Man before their eyes,and He was also a Man when He became invisible-; whence this was.246 He is omnipresent always; from Matthew,3 and He is omnipresentin the Holy Supper as to the Human; and omnipresence is Divine.47 He has all power in heaven and on earth, also as to the Human.48 He is to judge all; to Him has been given judgment, also in thelast day.49 He was united to His Divine by successive stages, for reasons thatwill be given below; and He was united by means of temptations andvictories; and a full uniting was effected by the passion of the cross; frompassages in the Word.50 So far as He was united, to that extent He spoke with Himself;but so far as He was not united, He spoke as with another. The latter wasHis state of humiliation, but the former the state of glorification.51 That He meant Himself when He named the Father is evident fromthe passages quoted a~52 That on account of the internal sense He named Divine Good theFather, and Divine Truth the Christ, is evident from Matthew xxiii 9, 10,which may be quoted, and from very many other passages.53 To know and acknowledge her God is the first and foremost thingof the C urch, because wit out t lat t ere IS no sa vatlon, as can be~blished~from the Jews, that when they did not worship Jehovah,although steadfast in other rites, they were accursed; the passages from[he Word. Also the Lord so often said, Because you believe thereforeit was done to them. For this then was the first thing, to believe in theLord, and to believe that He had all power; and because of their formerfaith He said in their resence the Father but meant Himse , as isestablished from the passages; the passages are to e quoted.-Thisknowledge and acknowledgment conjoin; and without that there is noconjunction and thus no salvation.54 All the passages may perhaps be quoted in which it is said MyFather, your Father, the Father Who is in the heavens, and brieflywhat they mean.) JollI/ viii 58. 3 Malt. xxviii 20.! Jolm xx, xxi.II
  20. 20. DE DOMINOEX RATIONE55 ~od unus Deus sit, et quod hoc agnoscatur in universo orbe.56 ~od anima inducat similitudinem corpori, et quod corpus nonsit nisi quam forma externa quae animae.57 ~od Ipsum Divinum fuerit Anima Ipsius, ac Divinus Amor, quodnon aliter possit quam ut corpus simile sit-.58 ~od omnes affectiones patris maneant in liberis, ab experientia.59 ~od in orbe Christiano aegre habeant ideam Divini in Humano,sed quod usque ubivis, recenseantur gentes, et ubivis.10 60 ~od cum agnoscuntur tres personae Divinitatis, nequaquam possitagnosci unus Deus-.6r ~od agnitio trium personarum abduxerit Mahumedanos, Judaeos,aliosque, a receptione Christianismi.62 ~od quisque debet scire suum Deum, ut conjungi possit Ipsi et15 salvari, et quod videri possit Dominus fide et cognosci amore, non autemPater. ~od Patremnemo viderit, adducantur loca in DOCTRINA NOVAEHIEROSOLYMAE n. 283.DE SPIRITU SANCTOULTIMO20 63 Ex iBis quae in EXPLICATIONE SUPER APOCALYPSIN n. r83.64 ~id hoc quod Sanctus Spiritus procedat ex Domino; seu quid quodSanctum procedat, quod vocatur Spiritus Sanctus.65 ~od peccatum contra Spiritum Sanctum sit negare DivinumDomini, Matth. xii 28, 32; Marc. iii 28, 29; Luc. xi 20, seq. Hoc patet a25 praecedentibus; dixerunt quod per principem daemoniorum faceret,et dixit quod per Spiritum Dei, ita per Divinum Suum. IlIa negatio cordenon remittitur, non enim possunt intrare coelum; ut omnes Sociniani;de illis aliqua, ab experientia.66 Etiam qui intra Ecclesiam negant Divinum Domini, et solum30 agnoscunt Patrem, non salvari possunt. Et quod plerique ex illis agnoscant12 abduxerit W 1840; abduxerint N P 14 debet N P 1840; debeat W20 p. 175 et seq. 11 Vol add Ne 21 sed N W 1840; seu (c) Chad. Q!id hocNW 1840; Q!od hoc Ne P12
  21. 21. THE LORDFROM REASON55 There is one God, this is acknowledged in the whole world.56 The soul induces a likeness in the body, and the body is nothingelse than the external form of its own soul.57 His soul was the Divine Itself, and Divine Love. It was inevitablethat the body should be similar.58 All the affections ofthe father remain in the children; from experience.59 In the Christian world they hold with difficulty an idea of the Divinein the Human, but still everywhere (the heathen to be enumerated), andeverywhere.1(@ n three ersons of the.l2iYin.it.y are-E-cknowledged, one God canb no means b owledged-.1 An acknowledgment pf three persons has led Mohammedans, Jews,and others awJ"y from the recepti~n of C~tianity. -­62 Everyone ought to how his God so as to-be conjoined with Himand be saved. The Lord can be seen by faith and known by love, but notthe Father. Nobody has seen the Father. Let passages be quoted from theDOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM n. 283.CONCERNING THE HOLY SPIRITLASTLY63 From those things that are in APOCALYPSE EXPLAINED n. 183.64 What is meant by this, that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Lord,that is, what is meant by the Holy that proceeds, which is termed theHoly Spirit.65 Sin against the Holy Spirit is de~ing the Lords Divine, Matt. xii28,32; Mark iii 28,29; Luke xi 20 f. This is obvious from what precedes.They said that he acted through the prince of demons, but He said thatHe did so through the Spirit of God, thus through His Divine. Suchdenial in the heart remains unforgiven, for they are unable to enterheaven, as is the case with all Socinians. Some details concerning themfrom experience.66 Nor can those people within the Church be saved who deny the~rds Divine and acknowledge only the Father. Very many of them1 The sense here is incomplete, presum­ably this idea is to be found everywhereamong the heathen; cf AC 5256.13
  22. 22. DE DOMINOnaturam, quare illi de Divino non aliam ideam habent quam ut de naturain minimis. QEod non possint verti ad Dominum, causae; sed ad amoresmundanos, haec ultimo.67 QEod per Spiritum Dei intelligatur Divinum, etiam patet apud5 Lucam, ubi dicitur per digitum Dei, et digitum Dei significat potentiamDivinam, Luc. xi 20.68 QEod per Divinum Domini intelligatur Pater, et quod Dominusdicat, Matth. xii 27, quod filii eorum ejecerint daemonia per Ipsum; tumLuc. xi 19; Jesus dedit discipulis potestatem super omnia daemonia,10 Luc. ix I, X Il, 20; Marc. xvi 17, 18; quod in nomine Domini ejecerintdaemonia, Luc. ix 49, 50; Marc. ix 38.() QEod Humanum distinctum sit a Divino et fuit mere humanum,)imprimis fuit propter Papam qui non se dicere ~s vicarium pei.70 QEod omnis homo nascitur ignorans veri, et tupiens malum, quiaIS anima ejus ex patre est affectio mala, at Dominus solus natus est appetensbonum et desiderans verum, quia Anima ex Patre erat Ipsum Divinum,ita affectio Divini Amoris, seu Divinus Amor, a quo domavit externumquod ex matre.71 Per Filium Hominis intelligitur Verum ex Divino; quid hoc non20 intelligitur.ULTIMO72 Ultimo adducatur de Domino ex DOCTRINA NOVAE HIERO­SOLYMAE,- et ex ARCANIS COELESTIBUS.Demum ex opere DE COELO ET INFERNO, ex opusculo DE ULTIMO25 JUDICIO,- et ex TELLURIBUS IN UNIVERSO, modo citationes ubi deDomino.1 quare Ne W 1840; quarum N P 2 causae W 1840; causa N P 7 paterNe 1840; patet N P W 8 dicat W 1840; dicet N P 12 ~od HumanumN; ~od inter Christianos humanum Ne W 1840 fuit P N (?); fecerunt Ne 1840;factum W 18 ex matre Ne; a matre P W 1840 19 quid hoc non intelligitur(ej) Chad; quia hoc non intelligitur N; quia hoc non intelligitur explicandum est1840; 01/1 W14
  23. 23. THE LORDacknowledge nature, and therefore they have no other idea but that ofnature in least things. They are unable to be turned towards the Lord - thereasons why. Instead they are turned towards worldly loves. These thingslastly.67 That the Divine is understood by the Spirit of God is obvious also inLuke where it says, By the finger of God, the finger of God meaningDivine power, Luke xi 20.68 The Father is understood by the Lords Divine. The Lord says inMatt. xii 27 that their sons cast out demons through Him, and again inLuke xi 19. It also says thatJesus gave the disciples power over all demons,Luke ix I, x n, 20; lvfark xvi 17, 18, and that in the name ofthe Lord theycast out demons, Luke ix 49, 50; Mark ix 38.@ The Human was set apart from the Divine and considered to be.1 purely human chiefly on account of the Po e who did not dare to call11 himself~c~r_of God.70 Every human being is born into ignorance of the truth and lustingafter evil, for his soul, which is derived from his father, is evil affection.1l1e Lord alone was born hungering for good and desirous of truth, forHis Soul, which was derived from the Father, was the Divine Itself, thus[ the affection belonging to Divine Love, or Divine Love from which He[~rpQweredthe external that was from the mother.71 By the Son of Man is understood Truth from the Divine. What thisis is not understood.LASTLY72 Lastly quote passages concerning the Lord from the DOCTRINE OFTHE NEW JERUSALEM, - and from ARCANA COELESTlA.Then from the work HEAVEN AND HELL, from the small work onTHE LASt JUDGMENT,~and from EARTHS IN THE UNIVERSE, butonly quotations where it deals with the Lord.15
  24. 24. DE JUSTIFICATIONEINTRODUCTIONThe history of this remarkable little work (mainly a collection of notesan4jottings at the hand of Emanuel Swedenborg) is given fully andthoroughly by the Rev. Alfred Acton in New Church Life 1902, pp. 327-36.In the same periodical, in following issues, Dr Acton gives his translationinto English of what was originally styled Annotata de Calvino (Notes onCalvin), and which later became known as A Treatise on Justification andGood Works. This latter composite title occurs at the head of the auto­graph, but it should be borne in mind that the work ~SLwhole is.a_.!!!2stdiffyse and disconnected one, whose parts may be fairly regarded asJ.distinct and separate from one another.Codex 48 of the Swedenborg manuscripts in the Library of the RoyalAcademy ofSciences at Stockholm consists of279 pages, long and narrow,of which only eighteen contain any writing at all. The penmanship isrough and uneven, and in parts approaches indecipherability. BothI2rs J.s.LTafel and Alfred Acton, the publishers of the first Lajin andfirst English editions respectively, have confessed to the aifficulties ofreading the autograph. This, together with the evidence of the text itself,makes it obvious that what we now call DE JUSTIFICATIONE wasoriginally a copy-book used for the collection of extracts and r~p().E!s( (memorabilia), and for the compilation of notes and theme-headings. Forexampre;-the quotations from The Canons and Decrees of the Council ofTrent are by no means strictly verbal, and have the appearance ofjottingsmade by Swedenborg for his own use. As therefore DE JUSTIFICATIONEis a work published posthumously, it should be assumed that if Sweden­borg had intended to publish such extracts he would first have verifiedthem carefully.The notes contain much preparatory material for the small treatisepublished in 1769 under the title SUMMARIA EXPOSITIO DOCTRINAENOVAE ECCLESIAE, and may therefore be dated about 1768.The Contents are as follows:CD Notes and Extracts onJustification, from the Canons and Decrees ofthe Council of Trent.€) Conversations with Calvin and his followers.17
  25. 25. DE JUSTIFICATIONE[Prael11issa]De Justificatione et de bonis operibus apud Catholico-Romanos, exConcilio Tridentino, in summario p. 3, et colIecta, pag. 3,4, 5,6.~od Fides hodie regnans apud Reformatos, desumpta sit ex Romano­Catholicis, pag. 201.Dc Persona Christi ex Symbolo Athanasii cum Calvino, et 50 cJusasseclis, pag. 7.De Trinitate Personarum ex Symbolo Athanasii cum Calvino et eJusasseclis, pag. 8.-aliquid de Calvino ibi, pag. 8 fin.10 Cum sacerdotibus ex Reformatis de justificatione, pag. 8.De remissione peccatorum, Canon. pag. 101.Haec nota invenitur in media pagina praecedente.DE JUSTIFICA TIONE ET BONIS OPERIBUS APUDCATHOLICO-ROMANOS EX CONCILIO TRIDENTINO15 I ~od peccatum Adami transfusum sit in omne gcnus humanum, exquo status ejus et ab ilIo omnium hominum perversus (,ctus et abalienatusa Deo, et sic facti sint inimici et filii irae. ~od ideo Deus Pater ex gratial11iserit Filiul11 Suum, ut reconciliaret, expiaret, propitiaret, satisfaceret,et sic redimeret, et haec per quod fieret justitia. ~od Christus hoc20 fecerit, per quod obtulerit Se Deo Patri sacrificium super ligno crucis,ita per Suam passioncm et Suum sanguincl11.7 et ejus asseclis A; et aliquibus ejus asseclis T 9 aliquid de Calvino ibi A;Aliquid ibi de persona Calvini, qualis, T18
  26. 26. IJUSTIFICATIONcDGod the Saviour Jesus Christ.The Reformed Faith (crossed out).(5) A Specimen and Sketch of the Doctrines of the New Church.-+-Four lines on Predestination (crossed out).Nos. I and 5 provide material for the published SUMMARIA EXPOSITIODOCTRINAE; nos. 2 and 3 are unique; nos. 4 and 6 are not transcribed.DENNIS DUCKWORTHPreliminary NotesMost of these preliminary notes became the titles of sections in the materialthat follows.Justification and good works with the Roman Catholics-summarisedon p. 3 of Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, and dealtwith more fully in matters set out on pp. 3-6.The faith that prevails nowadays ~mong the %formed was acquiredfrom the Roman Ca~s, p. 201.The Person of Christ with Calvin and his adherents was taken from theAthanasian Creed, p. 7.The Trinity of Persons with Calvin and his adherents was taken from theAthanasian Creed, p. 8,-something about Calvin, p. 8e.The clergy of the Reformed Church on justification, p. 8.The forgiveness of sins, Canon p. 101.This fIrst short section would seem to consist of Swedenborgs general summaryof the teaching concerning JustifIcation and Good Works as contained in theCanons and Decrees of the Council of Trent.~ JUSTIFICATION AND GOOD WORKS WITH THEROMAN CATHOLICS, FROM THE COUNCIL OFTRENTAdams sin was transmitted to the entire human race, by which hisstate, and the consequent state ofall men, became perverse and estrangedfrom God, and so men became enemies and children ofwrath. ThereforeGod the Father graciously sent His Son that He shouid reconcile, expiate,atone, make satisfaction, and thus redeem; and He did these things bybecoming justice. Christ accomplished this by offering Himself to Godthe Father as a sacrifice upon the tree of the cross, thus by His passion andHis blood.
  27. 27. DE JUSTIFICA TIONE2 Q!od Dominus J[esus] C[hristus] solus meruerit. Q!od hoc Ipsiusmeritum, a Deo Patre per Spiritum Sanctum homini imputetur, tribuatur,applicetur, et in ilIum transferatur, et quod ab homine sic rel110veaturpeccatum Adami, remanente usque concupiscentia, ut fomite ad peccan­5 dum; quod hoc fiat primum per baptismum, et dein per sacramentumpoenitentiae.3 Q!od justificatio fiat per fidem, spem, et charitatem. Q!od fiattunc innovatio interioris hominis, unde homo ab inimico fit amicus, eta filio irae filius Dei. Q!od fiat a Deo Patre per meritum Filii Ipsius10 operante Spiritu Sancta, ex gratia, et quod sit unio cum Christo, quia fitmembrum vivum corporis Ipsius, et sicut palmes in vite.4 Q!ae quia flUnt ex gratia, et dantur gratis, et sic quod sint dona, et quiaSolus C[hristus] J[esus] meruit, nemo possit aliquid meriti sibi attribuere.5 Q!od quia receptio justificationis innovat hominem, et hoc fit per15 translationem l11eriti Christi in ilIum, sequatur quod opera sint merita,et quod justificatus et sanctificatus non reputetur justus et sanctus, sedquod fiat justus et sanctus.6 Q!od fides sit ex auditu, dum credit vera esse quae Divinitus reveIatasunt, quod sit exordium justificationis, sed quod operetur per charitatel11,20 quia fides absque operibus est mortua.7 Q!od liberum arbitrium non al11issum sit, et quod homo cooperaridebeat; et quod accedere et recedere possit, alioquin nihil ei potestdonari; et foret sicut inanimatum corpus.8 Q!od homo per poenas satisfactorias sibi a ministro il11positas25 satisfaciat, et quod hoc nihil deroget satisfactioni Christi, quol1lamdebemus compati.9 Aliquid de Praedestinatione.CONFIRMATlO ILLORUM EX CONCILIO TRIDENTlNO30 Q!od totus Adam, per suae praevaricationis offensam, secundum corpuset animal11 in deterills COml1111tatus fuerit. Q!od Adae praevaricatio nonilIi soli nocuerit, sed etiam ejus propagini; quod non modo mortem et10 et quod sit ... in vite in margine A 20 est A; sit T 32 non modo T; om A20
  28. 28. JUSTIFICAnON2 The LordJesus Christ alone had merit. This merit of His is imputed,attributed, and applied to man, and transferred to him, by God theFather through the Holy Spirit; and so Adams sin is taken away fromman, though lust remains as the incitement for sin. This is effected firstby baptism, and afterwards by the Sacrament of Penance.3 Justification is effected by faith, hope, and charity. Then comes arenewal ofthe inner man, by which he ceases to be an enemy and becomesa friend, and ceases to be a child of wrath and becomes a child of God.It is done by God the Father through His Sons merit by the action of theHoly Spirit, from grace; and it is a union with Christ, because the manbecomes a living member ofHis body, and, as it were, a branch in the vine.4 Since these things are done from grace, are freely given, and arethus gifts, and since Christ Jesus alone had merit, no one can attributeany merit to himsel£5 Because the reception ofjustification renews man, and this is doneby a transference of Christs merit to him, it follows that his works aremerits; and that one who isjustified and sanctified is not simply just andholy by repute, but becomes just and holy.6 Faith comes from what man gives heed to when he believes thatthings Divinely revealed are true. This is the commencement of justi­fication; but it operates by charity, because faith without works is dead.7 Free-will is not destroyed, and man ought to co-operate [with God].He has the ability to approach and retire; ifit were not so, nothing couldbe given to him and he would be like a lifeless body.8 Man makes satisfaction by penances ofsatisfaction imposed upon himby a minister, and this takes nothing away from the satisfaction made byChrist, since we ought to suffer with Him.9 Something on Predestination.This section is a confirmation of the summary teaching by quotations from theCanons and Decrees of the Council of Trent (1546-7). The quotations howeverare not always verbal; words and clauses are omitted, and occasionally there isparaphrase. Swedenborg was apparently extracting the material for his own use.A CONFIRMATION OF THE ABOVE POINTS FROM [THECANONS AND DECREES OF] THE COUNCIL OF TRENTThrough the fault of his transgression Adam underwent a completechange for the worse both in body and soul. Adams transgression washarmful not merely to himself but also to his descendants, transmitting21
  29. 29. DE JUSTIFICATIONEpoenas corporis in omne genus humanum, sed etiam peccatum, quod estmors animae, transfuderit, Sess. V. 1546, 17 Jun.Si quis hoc Adae peccatum, quod origine unum est, et propagationenon imitatione transfusum inest unicuique proprium, quod non peraliud meritum potest tolli quam per meritum unius Mediatoris D [omini]N[ostri] J[esu] C[hristi], qui nos Deo reconciliavit in sanguine Suo,factus nobis justitia, sanctificatio, redemtio, Sess. V. 1546,17 Jun. pag. 3.Unusquisque agnoscet et fatebitur quod omnes homines in praevari­catione Adae facti sint immundi, filii irae, sub potestate diaboli et mortis,IQ Sess. VI. 1547, 13 Jan.Q!!od coelestis Pater, Pater rnisericordiarum et Deus totius con­solationis, C[hristum] J[esum] Filium Suum, cum venit beata plenitudotemporis, ad homines miserit, ut et Judaeos sub lege redimeret, ac gentesquae non sectabantur justitiam, justitiam apprehenderent, atque omnes15 adoptionem filiorum reciperent. Hunc proposuit Deus propitiatorem perfidem in sanguine Ipsius pro peccatis nostris, non solum pro nostris, sedetiam pro totius mundi, Sess. VI. 13 Jan. Cap. 2.Q!!od Deus et Dominus noster Semet Ipsum in ara crucis, morteintercedente, Deo Patri obtulerit, ut aeternam illic redemptionem20 operaretur: quod sacrificium Missae esset id propitiatorium pro vivis etpro defunctis, Sessio XXII. 17 Sep. 1562, Cap. I et H, de institutioneMissae, pag. 146 et 148.IIQUOD NON AB HOMINE MERITUM25 Q!!od Adae peccatum, quod unicuique inest proprium, non per humanaenaturae vires, nec per aliud remcdiumtollatur, quam per meritum uniusMediatoris D[omini] N[ostri]J[esu] C[hristi], Sess. V. 1546, 17Jun. p. 3.Causa meritoria justificationis est dilectissimus Unigenitus Dei, quicum essemus inimici, propter nimiam charitatem, qua dilexit nos, Sua30 sanctissima passione in ligno crucis, nobis justificationem meruit, et pronobis Deo Patri satisfecit, Sessio VI. 1547, 13 Jan. Cap. 7 §2.Gratis justificatur homo, quia nihil eorum quae justificationem praece­dunt, sive fides sive opera, ipsam justificationis gratiam promeretur, sienim gratia, jam non ex opcribus, alioquin gratia non foret gratia, ibid.35 Cap. 8.11 consololationis A 20 esset T; esse A 31 satisfecit T; satis satisfecit A32 justificatur T; justicatur A 33 promeretur: promerentur A T22
  30. 30. JUSTIFICATIONnot only death and bodily suffering to the entire human race but also sin,which is the death of the soul, Session V, 17th June 1546.should anyone claim that this sin of Adam-which was a single thingin its origin and was transmitted by propagation, and not by imitation,so as to be in every mans proprium-can be removed by any othermeans than the merit of the only mediator, our Lord Jesus Christ, whowith His own blood reconciled us to God and for us became justice,sanctification, and redemption; [or should anyone claim that it can beremoved by the power of human nature or any other means; let him beanathema], Session V, 17thJune 1546, p. 3.Everyone will acknowledge and own that by Adams transgression allmen became impure, sons of wrath, under the power of the devil and ofdeath, Session VI, 13th January 1547.The heavenly Father, Father of mercies and God of all consolation, Isent Jesus Christ His Son to men in the blessed fullness of time both thatHe might redeem the Jews under the Law, and also that the gentiles 1who did not seek justice might learn justice, and that all might be adopted Ias sons. God offered Him as a Pro itiator through faith in His blood forour sins, and not only ours but the sins of the whole world, Session VI,13thJanuary, Chapter 2.Our Lord and God offered Himself to God the Father on the altar ofthe cross and experienced death, that in this He might work an eternalredemption. The sacrifICe of the Mass was that propitiatory for the livingand the dead, Session XXII, 17th September 1562, Chapters I and 2.On the institution of the Mass, pp. 146, 148.11MERIT IS NOT OF MANAdams sin, which belongs to every man, is not taken away by the powerof human nature, or by any other remedy than the merit of the onlymediator, our Lord Jesus Christ, Session V, 17th June 1546, p. 3.The meritorious cause of justification is the dearly beloved only­begotten of God, who, when we were yet enemies, because of theabounding charity with which He loved us, merited justification for usby His most holy passion on the tree ofthe cross, and made satisf.Ktion forus to God the Father, Session VI, 13thJanuary 1547, Chapter 7, para. 2.Man is justified freely, because none of those things which precedejustification, whether faith or works, deserves the grace ofjustification;for ifthere is a grace, it is not ofworks, or the grace would not be a grace,Ibid. Chapter 8.23
  31. 31. DE JUSTIFICATIONECum Ipse J[esus] C[hristus] tanquam caput in membra, et tanquamvitis in palmites jugiter virtutem infundat, quae virtus eorum operasemper antecedit, et comitatur et subsequitur, et sine qua nullo pactograta et meritoria esse possunt, quae justitia nostra, ilIa eadem Dei est,quia a Deo infunditur per Christi meritum. Absit tamen, ut Christianushomo in seipso vel confidat vel glorietur, et non in Domino, cujus tantaerga homines bonitas, ut eorum velit esse merita, quae sunt Ipsius dona,ibid. Cap. 16.Si quis dixerit hominem suis operibus, quae vel per humanae naturae10 vires, vel per legis doctrinam fiunt, absque Divina perJ [esum] C [hristum]gratia possejustificari coram Deo, anath[ema] sit, Can. I de Justificatione.Si quis dixerit sine praeveniente Spir[itus] S[ancti] inspiratione, atqueejus adjutorio, hominem credere, sperare, diligere posse, sicut oportet, ut eijustificationis gratia conferatur, anath[ema] sit, Canon 3 de Justificatione.15 Si quis dixerit homines sine Christi justitia, per quam nobis meruit,justificari, anath[ema] sit, Can. 10 de Justificatione.~ia ex nobis, tanquam ex nobis nihil possumus, eo cooperante quiconfortat, onmia possumus, inde non habet homo unde glorietur, sedomnis gloria nostra in Christo est, in quo vivimus, in quo meremur, in20 quo satisfacimus, facientes fructus dignos poenitentia, qui ex IlIo vim ha­bent, ab ilIo offeruntur Patri, et per Illum acceptantur a Patre, Sess.XIV. Cap. 8, de Contritione p. 125.QUOD ILLA FIANT PER SACRAMENTUM BAPTISMI ETSACRAMENTUM POENITENTIAE25 ~od Ch[risti] J[esu} meritum per baptismi sacramentum rite collatumtarn adultis quam parvulis applicetur; quia non aliud nomen sub coelodatum est hominibus, in quo oporteat nos salvos fieri, unde ilia vox, EcceAgnus Dei qui tollit peccata mundi, et ilIa, ~icunque baptizati estis,Christum induistis, Sess. V. 1546, 17 Jun. p. 5.30 Si quis per J[esu] C[hristi] D[omini] N[ostri] gratiam, quae in bap­tismate confertur, reatum originalis peccati remitti negat, aut asseritnon tolli totum id, quod veram et propriam rationem peccati habet, sed2 infundat: infiuat A T 10 fiunt A; fiant C T 21 Sess. XIV T; om A22 de Contritione A; de satisfactione C T 25 collatum C; collocatum A T24
  32. 32. JUSTIFICATIONSince Jesus Christ Himself continually imparts strength, as the headdoes to the members of the body, and as the vine does to its branches-astrength which always precedes, accompanies, and follows their works,and without which these cannot in any way be welcome and merito­rious-thatjustice ofours is the same as Godsjustice, because it is impartedby God through Christs merit. However, far be it from a Christian totrust or boast in himself and not in the Lord, whose goodness towardsmen is so great that He wills that the things which are His gifts should betheir merits, Ibid. Chapter 16.If anyone says that man can be justified before God by his own works,which are done either in the strength of human nature, or through theteaching of the law apart from Divine grace through Jesus Christ, lethim be anathema, Canon I, concerning Justification.If anyone says that, without the prevenient inspiration of the HolySpirit and its help, man can believe, hope, love, or repent, as he ought, inorder that the grace ofjustification may be bestowed upon him, let himbe anathema, Canon Ill, concerning Justification.If anyone says that men are justified without Christs justice, by whichHe achieved merit for us, let him be anathema, Canon X, concerningJustification.Since we can do nothing of ourselves, but can do everything with theco-operation of Him who strengthens us, man has no cause to boast ofthis, but all our boasting is in Christ, in Whom we live, in Whom we havemerit, and in Whom we make satisfaction; bringing forth fruits worthy ofrepentance, which from Him have their effectiveness, by Him are offeredto the Father, and through Him are received by the Father, Session XIV,Chapter 8, concerning Contrition, p. 125.THESE THINGS TAKE PLACE THROUGH THE SACRAMENTOF BAPTISM AND THE SACRAMENT OF PENANCEThe merit of Christ Jesus is applied both to adults and children throughthe due administration of the Sacrament of Baptism, since there is noother title under heaven given to men under which we ought to be saved.Whence this declaration, Behold the Lamb of God, which takes awaythe sins of the world; and this other, As many as have been baptised haveput on Christ, Session V, I7thJune 1546, p. 5.If anyone denies that by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ which isconferred in baptism, the guilt of original sin is remitted, or asserts thatthe whole ofthat which has the true and proper nature ofsin is not taken25
  33. 33. DE JUSTIFICATIONEillud dicit tantum radi, aut non imputari, anath[ema] sit. Sed quod inbaptizatis maneat concupiscentia vel fomes, Synodus fatetur et sentit,et quod illa concupiscentia non sit peccatum, sed quod sit a peccato, etad peccatum inclinet, Sess. V. 1546, 17 Jun. pag. 5.~od ex merito Christijustificentur per poenitentiam, dum proponuntsuscipere baptismum, inchoare novam vitam, et servare Divina mandata,ibid. [Sess. VI] Cap. 6.~od per poenitentiae sacramentum, ex merito Ch[risti] amissa gratiarecuperari possit, ib. Cap. 14.10 IIIEtsi Christus pro omnibus mortuus est, non onmes tamen mortis Ipsiusbeneficium recipiunt, sed ii duntaxat, quibus meritum passionis Ipsiuscommunicatur; ita nisi in Christo renascantur, nusquam justificantur,cum ea renascentia per meritum passionis Ipsius, gratia, qua justi fiunt,IS illis tribuatur, Sess. VI. 1547, 13 Jan. Cap. 3.~od justificatio impii sit translatio ab eo statu in quo homo nasciturfilius primi Adae, in statum gratiae et adoptionem filiorum Dei persecundum Adam J[esum] C[hristum] Salvatorem nostrum, quod trans­latio illa fiat per lavacrum regenerationis seu baptisma, et ejus votum,20 ib. Cap. 4·~od justificatio non sit sola peccatorum remissio, sed etiam sanctifi­catio et renovatio interioris hominis per voluntariam susceptionemgratiae et donorum, unde homo ex injusto fitjustus, et ex inimico amicus,et haeres secundum spem vitae aetemae, ibid. Cap. 7.~anquam nemo potest esse justus nisi cui meritum passionis Ch[risti]J [esu] communicatur, id tamen in hac impii justificatione fit cum ejusdemsanctissimae passionis merito per Sp [iritum] S[anctum] charitas Deidiffunditur in cordibus eorum qui justificantur, et ipsis inhaeret; undein ipsa justificatione cum remissione peccatorum haec omnia simul infusa30 accipit homo per J[esum] C[hristum], cui inseritur per fidem, spem, etcharitatem. Nam fides, nisi ad cam spes accedat et charitas, neque unitperfecte cum Christo, neque corporis Ejus vivum membrum efficit,ibid. Cap. 7 § 3.~a ratione dicitur fidem sine operibus mortuam et otiosam esse, fides35 per charitatem operatur; unde et statim Verbum Christi audiunt, Si visad vitam ingredi, serva mandata; ita veram et Christianam justitiam258 sacramentum: sacrificium A T 31 spes C T; spem A 35 et C T; ut A26
  34. 34. JUSTIFICATIONaway, but says it is only erased, or not imputed; let him be anathema.Yet the Synod admits that there remains in those baptised concupiscenceor an incitement, and is of the opinion that this concupiscence is not sin,but is from sin, and inclines to sin, Session V, 17thJune 1546, p. 5.Of Christs merit, men are justified through penance, when proposingto wldergo baptism, begin a new life, and keep the Divine command­ments, Ibid. [Session VI,] Chapter 6.Of Christs merit, by the Sacrament of Penance, lost grace can berecovered, Ibid. Chapter 14.IIIThough Christ died for all, it is not all that receive the benefits of Hisdeath; but only those to whom the merit ofHis passion is communicated.So, if they are not reborn in Christ, they are never justified; since, inthat rebirth through the merit of His passion, the grace by which theyare made just is bestowed upon them, Session VI, 13th January 1547,Chapter 3.The justification of a wicked man is a transference from the state inwhich the man is born a child of the first Adam to a state of grace, and toadoption among the children of God through the second Adam, JesusChrist our Saviour. This transference is effected by means of the laver ofregeneration, that is, baptism and its promise, Ibid. Chapter 4.Justification is not only the remission of sins, it is also sanctificationand the renewal of the inner man by his voluntary reception of grace and[Divine] gifts. So that man, from being unjust, becomes just; from beingan enemy, becomes a friend; and becomes an heir in hope of eternal life,Ibid. Chapter 7.Though no one can be just, except him to whom the merit of ChristJesuss passion is communicated, yet this is done, in this justification ofthe wicked, when-by the merit of that same most hoIy passion-Godscharity is diffused by His Holy Spirit in the hearts of those who are beingjustified, and adheres therein. It is from this that in the very act ofjusti­fication accompanied by the remission of sins a man receives all thesegifts imparted together through Jesus Christ, in Whom he is implantedby faith, hope, and charity. For faith, unless hope and charity are addedto it, neither unites man perfectIy with Christ nor makes him a livingmember of His body, Ibid. Chapter 7, para. 3.For which reason it is said that faith without works is dead and profit­less; faith works by charity. For the same reason [they who are beingjustified] immediately heed Christs saying, If yOll would enter into life,27
  35. 35. DE JUSTIFICATIONEaccipientes, eam, ceu primam stolam, pro ilIa quam Adam sua inobedien­tia sibi et nobis perdidit, per J[esum] C[hristum] ilIis donatam, candidamet immaculatam jubentur statim renati conservare, ut eam praeferantante tribunal D[omini] N[ostri] J[esu] C[hristi] et habeant vitam aeter­5 nam, ibid. Cap 7 § 4.Q!!od ex operibus justificetur homo, non ex fide tantum, ib. Cap. 10.Q!!od per J[esum] C[hristum] accessum habeant ad gratiam, ibid.Cap. I!.Si quis dixeritjustos non debere pro bonis operibus quae in Deo fuerint10 facta, exspectare et sperare aeternam retributionem a Deo per Ejusmisericordiam et JIesu] C [hristi). meritum, si bene agendo et Divinamandata servando usque in finem perseveraverint, anath[ema] sit, ibid.Can. 26.Si quis dixerit, per ipsa novae legis sacramenta ex opere operato non15 conferri gratiam, sed solam fidem Divinae promissionis ad gratiamconsequendam sufficere, anath[ema] sit, [Sess. VII] Can. VIII, de Sacra­mentis.IVHaec confirmata sunt ab omnibus quae praecedunt, imprimis in primo et20 quoque haec.Q!!od exordium justificationis in adultis sit a Dei per J[esum]C[hristum] praeveniente gratia, hoc est, ab ejus vocatione, ad converten­dum se ad suam ipsorumjustificationem eidem gratiae libere assentiendoet cooperando, disponantur, quod homo possit abjicere gratiam, neque25 tamen sine gratia Dei se movere, etc., unde dicitur, Convertimini adme, et Ego convertar ad vos, libertatis nostrae admonemur, Sess. VI. 1547,13 Jan. Cap. 5.VQ!!ia justificatio est renovatio spiritus mentis, et quia Christus habitat30 injustificatis, seujustificati, ut palmites in vite, ut ex prius adductis legitur,ideo sequitur hoc.Q!!od non modo reputamur, sed vere justi nominamur et sumus,justitiam in nobis recipientes, unusquisque secundum mensuram quam1 inobedientia C T; obedientia A 6 Cap. 10 T; Cap. 9 A 12 sit om A T13 Can. 26 T; Cap. 26 A 16 sit om A T21 Dei C T; Dco A 23 ipsorumC T; ipsam A 26 convertar C T; convertam A 32 reputamur C T;reputemur A28
  36. 36. JUSTIFICATIONkeep the commandments. Thus receiving true and Christian justice, theyare bidden immediately on being born again to preserve it pure and spot-less, as the first robe given them throughJesus Christ in lieu of that whichAdam, by his disobedience, lost for himself and for us; that they mightbear it before the judgment seat ofour LordJesus Christ, and have eternallife, Ibid. Chapter 7, para. 4.Man is justified by works, and not by faith only, Ibid. Chapter 10.Through Jesus Christ men have access to grace, Ibid. Chapter 11.Ifanyone says that thejust ought not, for their good works done in God,to expect and hope for an eternal recompense from God, through Hismercy and the merit ofJesus Christ, if they persevere in well doing andkeeping the Divine commandments to the very end, let him be anathema,Ibid. Canons 26.If anyone says that through the very sacraments of the new law graceis not conferred from the act performed, but that faith alone in theDivine promise is sufficient for obtaining grace, let him be anathema,Session VII. Canons 8; concerning the Sacraments.IVThese things have been confirmed by all the preceding statements,particularly in I, and also the following:Justification in adults begins from the prevenient grace ofGod throughJesus Christ, that is, by Gods summons men are inclined to turn to theirown justification by freely assenting to and co-operating with that samegrace. Man can reject grace, but cannot bestir himself without Godsgrace, etc. Wherefore in the words, Turn to Me and I will turn to you,we are told ofour freedom, Session VI, 13th January 1547, Chapter 5.VBecause justification is the renewal of the spirit of the mind, and becauseChrist dwells in those who are justified, or the justified [in Christ] likebranches in the vine, as stated in the previous quotation, this conclusionfollows:That we are not only just by repute, but are truly called and really arejust, receiving justice within us each according to his own measure, which29
  37. 37. DE JUSTIFICATIONESp[iritus] S[anctus] partitur singulis sicut vult, et secundum propriamcujusque dispositionem et cooperationem, Sess. VI. 1547, 13 Jan. Cap. 7§ 2.Si quis dixerit hominis justificati bona opera ita esse dona Dei, ut nonsint etiam bona ipsius justificati merita, aut ipsum justificatum bonisoperibus quae ab eo per Dei gratiam etJesu Christi meritum, CltiUS vivummembrum est, fiunt, non vere mcreri, anath[ema] sit, Can. 32, p. 76.VIDisponuntur per justitiam, dum excitati Divina gratia, et adjuti, fidem10 ex auditu recipientes libere moventur in Deum, credentes vera essequae divinitus revelata et promissa sunt, atque illud imprimis, justificariimpium per gratiam, per redemptionem quae est in C[hristo] J[esu],Sess. VI. 13 Jan. Cap. 6.~od justificetur homo per fidem gratis, est quia per fidem justificari15 dicimur, quia fides est humanae salutis initium, fundamentum et radixomnis justificationis, sine qua impossibile est placere Deo, et ad filiorumejus consortium pervenire. Gratis justificari dicimur, quia nihil eorumquae justificationem praecedunt, sive fides sive opera, ipsam justificationisgratiam promerentur; si enim gratia, jam non ex operibus, alioquin20 gratia non foret gratia, ibid. Cap. 8.Meritum Christi inseritur per fidem, spem, et charitatem; nam fides,nisi ad eam spes accedat et charitas, neque unit cum Christo, ncque corporisejus vivum membrum efficit, ibid. Cap. 7 § 3.~a ratione dicitur fidem sine operibus mortuam et otiosam esse,25 fides per charitatem operatur, unde ut statim Verbum Domini audiunt,si vis ad vitam ingredi, serva mandata, ibid. Cap. 7 § 4.~od ex operibus justificetur homo, non ex fide tantum, ibid. Cap. 10.~od per J[esum] C[hristum] accessum habeant, ibid. Cap. 11.Si quis dixerit, sola fide impium justificari, ita ut intelligat nihil aliudrequiri, quod ad justificationis gratiam cooperetur, et nulla ex parte30 necesse esse, eum suae voluntatis motu praeparari atque disponi, anath[ema]sit, Can. 9.Si quis dixerit homines justificari vel sola imputatione justitiae Christi,vel sola peccatorum remissione, exclusa gratia et charitate, quae in7 sit 0111 A T 17 dicimur T; dicamur C; dicimus A quia nihil T; quae nihil A25 unde ut: unde et C T 27 Cap. IQ C T; Cap. 9 A 29 requiri C T;justificari A 31 sit 0/11 A T30
  38. 38. JUSTIFICATIONthe Holy Spirit distributes to everyone as it wills, and according to eachones own disposition and co-operation, Session VI, 13th January 1547,Chapter 7, para. 2.If anyone says that the good works of a justified person are in such away Gods gifts that they are not also the good merits of the justifted onchimself, or that the justified one himself does not truly acquire merit bythe good works which are done by him through Gods grace and themerit of Jesus Christ, of Whom he is a living member, let him beanathema, Canons 32, p. 76.VIMen are inclined to justice so long as, stirred and aided by Divine grace,they accept faith upon hearing it preached and freely respond to God,believing those things which have been Divinely revealed and promisedto be true; and especially that a wicked man is justified by grace, by theredemption which is in ChristJesus, Session VI, I3thJanuary, Chapter 6.Man is justified by faith freely, since we are said to be justified byfaith. For faith is the commencement of human salvation, the ground­work and root ofall justification, without which it is impossible to pleaseGod and to enter into the fellowship of His children. Wc are said to bejustified freely, because none of those things which precede justification,whether of faith or works, merits the grace ofjustification; for ifthere isgrace, it is not ofworks, or the grace would not be grace, Ibid. Chapter 8.Christs merit is introduced by faith, hope, and charity; for faith, unlesshope and charity are added to it, neither unites man with Christ nor makeshim a living member of His body, Ibid. Chapter 7, para. 3.For which reason it is said that faith without works is dead and profit­less; faith works by charity. For the same reason [they who arc beingjustified] immediately heed the Lords saying, If you will enter into life,keep the commandments, Ibid. Chapter 7, para. 4.Man is justified by works, and not by faith only, Ibid. Chapter 10.Through Jesus Christ men have access [to grace], Ibid. Chapter I!.If anyone says that a wicked person is justified by faith alone, so as tounderstand that he needs nothing that would co-operate towards [thepossession of] the grace ofjustification; or that there is no necessity at allfor him to be prepared and influenced by the inclination of his own will,let him be anathema, Canons 9.Ifanyone says that men arejustified solely by the imputation ofChristsjustice or solely by the remission of sins, to the exclusion of grace and31
  39. 39. 51015202530DE JUSTIFICATIONEcordibus eorum per Spiritum Sanctum diffunditur, atque illis inhaeret,vel dicit gratiam tantum esse favorem Dei, anath[ema] sit, Can. II.Si quis dixerit, fidem justificantem nihil aliud esse quam fiduciamDivinae Misericordiae peccatum remittentis per J [esum] C [hristum] veleam fiduciam [solam] esse, quajustiflcamur, Can. 12, et plura Can. 13, 14,19, 20, 21, 24, 29.VIISi quis dixerit liberum arbitrium a Deo 1110tUl11 et excitatum nihilcooperari assentiendo Deo excitanti atque vocanti, quo ad obtinendumjustificationis gratiam se disponat et praeparet, nec posse dissentire sivelit, sed velut inanil11e quoddam, nihil ol11nino agere, l11ereque passivese habere, anath[ema] sit, Can. 4.Si quis dicit sola fide il11piul11 justificari, ita ut intelligat nihil aliudrequiri, quod ad justificationis gratiam consequendul11 cooperetur, etnulla ex parte [necesse esse] cum suae voluntatis motu praeparari atquedisponi, anath[ema] sit, Can. 9.Si quis dixerit justificatum peccare, dum intuitu aetemae mercedisbene operatur, anathema sit, Can. 31.QEod per Adae peccatum liberum arbitrium minime exstinctum sit,viribus licet attenuatum, et inclinatum, Sess. VI 1547, 13 Jan. Cap. 1.QEod homo ex libera voluntate convertere se possit, gratiae libereassentiendo et cooperando, ibid. Cap. 5.VIIIDe satisfactione, quod homo satisfaciat per poenas satisfactionis sibi asacerdote impositas, et quod hoc nihil deroget satisfactioni Christi,Sess. XIV. Cap. 9, pag. 134, n. 32, 33·IXQEod nemo nisi ex speciali revelatione scire possit quos Deus sibi elegit,Sess. VI. 1547, 13 Jan. Cap. 12; et plura de Praedestinatione, Canones15, 16, 17·Z sit om Aesse C T; oomATm A5 fiduciam solam16 sit om A TC; om A18 anatThemIZ sita sit T; oom Am AT2615Sess.necesseXIV T;
  40. 40. JUSTIFICATIONcharity which is diffused in their hearts by the Holy Spirit and adherestherein, or says that grace is but Gods good pleasure, let him beanathema,Canons 11.Ifanyone says that ajustifying faith is nothing but confidence in Divinemercy remitting sin through Jesus Christ, or that this confidence is thatby which we are justified, [let him be anathema,] Canons 12, and furtherin Canons 13, 14, 19-21,24, 29.VIIIf anyone says that free-will, stirred and roused by God, by giving itsassent to God in His rousing and calling, in no way co-operates towardsinfluencing and preparing itself to obtain the grace ofjustification, thatit cannot refuse its consent ifit would, but like a lifeless thing does nothingat all and is completely passive, let him be anathema, Canons 4.If anyone says that a wicked person is justified by faith alone, so as tounderstand that he needs nothing that would co-operate towards thepossession of the grace ofjustification, or that there is no necessity at allfor him to be prepared and influenced by the inclination ofhis own will,let him be anathema, Canons 9.Ifanyone says that ajustified person sins when he does good works witha view to eternal reward, [let him be anathema,] Canons 3I.By Adams sin, free-will, although weakened and upset, was certainlynot extinguished, Session VI, 13th January 1547. Chapter I.Man can turn of his own free-will by freely giving his assent to graceand co-operating with it. Ibid. Chapter 5.VIIIConcerning satisfaction: Man makes satisfaction by the penalties ofsatisfaction laid upon him by the priest, but this does not take anythingaway from the satisfaction made by Christ, [Session XIV.] Chapter 9.p. 134. nos. 32, 33·IXNo one can know. except by special revelation. whom God elects forHimself, Session VI, 13th January 1547, Chapter 12; and further con­cerning Predestination, Canons 15-17.ssw2 33
  41. 41. DE JUSTIFICATIONEDE ATHANASII SYMBOLOPAG. 2, 3,4 FORM[ULA CONCORDIAE]DE PERSONA CHRISTILegi Athanasii Symbolum coram Calvino, et cum his ibi.Est fides recta, ut credamus et confIteamur quod Dominus nosterJesus Christus, Dei Filius, Deus et Homo est, Deus ex substantia Patris,ante saecula genitus, et homo ex substantiis in saecula natus.~i licet Deus et Homo, non duo tamen, sed unus est Christus. Unusautem non conversione Divinitatis in carnem, sed assumtione humanitatis10 in Deum. Unus omnino, non confusione substantiae, sed unitate personae;nam sicut anima rationalis et caro unus est homo, ita Deus et Homo unusest Christus.MEMORABILE QUAESTIONIS DE PERSONA CHRISTI CUMCALVINO, EX LECTIS VERBIS ILLIS EX ATHANASII SYMBOLO15 Postquam haec legi coram Calvino, et simul coram quinquagintasacerdotibus ejus asseclis, quaesivi Calvinum numne recesserit ab hisin Symbolo, quod tamen a toto orbe Christiano agnitum et receptum est.Dixit Calvinus, I ~od videat se plane recessisse. 2 ~aesivi cur ita;respondit quod non attenderit ad illa verba, et quod nunc cum attendit,20 videat se recessisse, et scripsisse secundum suam cogitationem. 3 ~aesiviI Symbolo T; symbolum A 4 his A; haec T 7 ex substantiis A; ex sub­stantia [Matris] T 8 Qgi licet Deus et Homo A; Qgi licet Deus [sit] et HomoT 9 sed assumtione T; sed cOIlversione A34
  42. 42. JUSTIFICATIONThis intercsting and uuiquc section consists mainly of a record (memorabile) ofa convcrsation ill the spiritual world with Calvin and his followers on the sub­ject of Justification. It leads on to the notes on God the Saviour esus stpossibly intended for paragraph themes or aragra 1 headings. This latter presentsmany lieu ties III e autograp 1.<!) THE ATHANASIAN CREEDTHE FORMULA CONCORDIAE, LEIPZIG 1756pp. 2, 3,4ON THE PERSON OF CHRISTI read the Athanasian Creed in Calvins presence and with those who werethere:The right faith is that we believe and confess: that our LordJesus Christ,the Son of God, is God and Man,God, of the substance o(tk Father, begotten before the worlds; andMan of the sub~ance [of the mother], b~l!..jnto the world ...Who, although He be God and Man, yet He is not two, but oneChrist;One, not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh, but by taki~~of the Manhood into God; ­One altogether,E~(Fy confusion of sub~e,but b unit of erson. /For as the reasonable soul and the flesh is one man, so God and Man is I(one Christ.A NOTE OF AN INQUIRY WITH CALVIN INTO CHRISTSPERSON, FROM THOSE WORDS READ OUT OF THEATHANASIAN CREEDAfter I had read out these words to Calvin as well as to fifty clerics ofhis sect, I asked Calvin whether he had not departed from these statementsin the Creed-a Creed acknowledged and accepted by the entire Christianworld.Calvin said (I) he saw that he had plainly departed from them.(2) I asked why he had done so. He replied that he had paid no heedto those words, but now when he did take notice of them he saw thathe had departed from them and had followed his own thoug"ht inwriting.2-235
  43. 43. DE JUSTIFICATIONEquid nunc; respondit, si Symbolum verum est, et si agnoscitur universil1lut vera doctrina de Trinitate et de Divinitate Christi, se plane erravisse.4 ~aesivi numne velit agnoscere quod Divinum et Humanum, seuDeus et Homo in Christo sit una Persona, sicut anima et caro sunt unushomo, secundum verba in Symbolo; respondit quod velit, sed quodnon possit, quia aliter se con£Irmavit. 5 ~aesivi num credit Christumunam esse Personam, vel duas; respondit unam, si unio hypostatica faciatunam, sed quod crediderit Filium Dei esse alium et apud Patrem, etJesum Christum separatum ab ilIo, quia in coelo. 6 ~aesivi num sic10 Christus sint duo; respondit quod ita, et quod in hoc aSYl1lbolo recesserit.7 ~aesivi de unione hypostatica, a quo; respondit quod a Deo Patre,quod hanc ideam habuerit. 8 ~aesivi de anima Christi, quid ilia,numne Ipsum Divinum, quia legitur apud Lucam, ex Spiritu Sancto etvirtute Altissimi; respondit quod viderit hoc apud Lucam, sed quodIS tacite apud se crediderit ex Josepho. 9 ~aesivi numne Christus quoadHumanum sit Filius Dei, ut aperte dicitur Luc. i 35, turn quando bapti­zatus est Matth., ut et a Johanne, turn quando transformatus, ac multislocis alibi, respondit quod cum nominavit et sensit Filius Dei, non intel­lexerit Ch[ristum] Jes[um] quoad Humanum; cum dixi quod ita intel­20 ligere sit contra Scripturam, respondit quod videat quod ita sit, sed quodnon cogitaverit esse contra ilIam; volui quod renuntiaret, sed consciitsuam cogitationem in mundo, et dixit quod propterea non possit.10 Tandem fassus est quod cogitaverit Christum fuisse £Ilium Josephi,sed quod hoc non ausus sit scribere.25 Sacerdotes ejus asseclae usque ad 50 aderant, et audiebant Calvinumilia respondentem ad quaestiones, et quaesivi ilIos numne videant quodplane recesserint a Symbolo Athanasii quoad Personam Christi, respon­derunt quod Symbolum ilIud saepius legerint, sed quod ad ilia verba ibinon attenderint, ac mirati sunt quod nunc primum ilia ex attentione7 hypostatica T; hypostica A 11 hypostatica T; hypostica A 28 ibi [non]attenderint T; ibi attenderint A
  44. 44. JUSTIFICATION(3) I asked him what he thought now. He answered that ifthe Creedwas true, and if it was acknowledged on every side a~he true doctrineon the Trinity and on Christs Di.ri.t!ity, plainly he had erred.(4) I asked, Did he not want to acknowledge that the Divine and theHuman, or God and Man, in Christ were one person, as soul and fleshwere one man, according to the words of the Creed? He said he wouldlike to, but could not because he had made up his mind dIfferently.-­(5) I asked whether he belIeve mst to e one person or two. Hereplied, One, if hypostatic union made one, but he held the view thatthe Son of God was not the same [as Christ] and was with the Father,and that Jesus Christ was separate from the Son because the Son was inheaven.(6) I asked, Was Christ then two? He replied... Yes; and in this he haddeparted from the Creed.(7) I asked about hy ostatic union, who was it from? He replied,From God the Father; that was the idea he had had.(8) I asked about Christs soul, what was it? Might it not be the DivineItself, since it was said in Luke that it was from the Holy Spirit and thePower of the Most High? He answered that he had observed this in Luke,but had believed tacitly within himself that the soul was from Iosel?h.(9) I put the question, Was not Christ as to His Human the Son ofGod, as is openly said in Luke i 3S? And in Matthew [iii 17], when Jesuswas baptised; also in John [i 34]; and when He was transfigured [inMatthew xvii 5; Mark ix 7; Luke ix 35]; and in many other passages?He answered that when he mentioned or thought about the wordsthe Son of God, he did not mean Christ Jesus as to His Human.When I said that to comprehend it in that way was contrary to Scrip­ture, he answered_ that he saw it to be so, but had not thought it to havebeen so. I wanted him to renounce the idea, but he was conscious of his~ while in the world and said that on that account he could not.(IO At engt e admitted that he had thoug t Christ was Iosep ~sson, but had not dared to write it.There were as many as fifty present of the clergy who followed him,and they heard Calvin give these answers to the questions; so I asked themwhether they did not see that they had plainly departed from the Atha­nasian Creed on the question of Christs person.They answered that they had read that Creed very often, but had paid[nc:8. attention to these particular words in)t, and they were astonishedt~t they were then for the first time looking at those words attent~ely.They also admitted that there was an open disagreement, and confessed37
  45. 45. DE JUSTIFICATIONEvideant; et fassi quod apertus dissensus sit, et fassi sunt quod quotiesnominaverunt aut audiverunt nominari Christum, non intellexerintFilium Dei, sed purum hominem, qui Justitia pro genere humano factusest, et quod cum nominaverunt Deum solum, inteIIexerint DeumPatrem.DE TRINITATE PERSONARUM EX SYMBOLO ATHANASIICORAM CALVINOLegi coram Calvino et coram aliquibus sacerdotibus ejus asseclis exAthanasii Symbolo haec, Alia est Persona Patris, alia Filii, et alia Spiritus10 Sancti; turn haec, Sicut singillatim unamquamque Personam Deum etDominum confiteri, Christiana veritate compeIIimur; ita tres Deos auttres Dominos dicere, cathoIica religione prohibemur.I ~aesivi Calvinum num ex illis verbis confessus sit, seu cogitaverittrcs Deos, tametsi ore dixerit et dicat unum Deum; respondit quodIS cogitaverit tres Deos unanimos. 2 ~aesivi quomodo potest conciliareet facere ut cogitatio et sermo unum sint, cum licet confiteri quodunaquaevis persona sit Deus per se; respondit quod non possit. 3 ~aesiviquomodo possunt tres unum esse, num per unanimum consensum, velnum aliter; respondit, Per influxum. 4 ~aesivi quomodo potest una20 persona continue cogitare idem cum altera, numne una aliquid cogitetper se; respondit quod de hoc non prius cogitaverit, et quod nunc cumde eo cogitat, percipiat quod unaquaevis persona etiam cogitet aliquidper se. 5 ~aesivi quomodo tunc sunt una et individua essentia, fitnc sicdividua; respondit quod quandoque sic dividua, sed quod se accom­25 modent tandem. 6 Num dividua est, cum Filius ut Mediator et Intercessorloquitur ad Patrem; respondit, Est tunc dividua, sed solum illo momento.7 ~aesivi numne sic tres creatores universi fuerint; respondit quod tres,sed quod unus per Alterum, Pater per Filium, et Filius per SpiritumSanctum. 8 ~aesivi quam ideam habuit de nativitate Domini ab aeter­30 no; respondit quod vagam.
  46. 46. JUSTIFICA TIONthat as often as they had used Christs name, or had heard Him mentioned,they had not understood the Son of God, but a perfect man who wasmade Righteousness for the human race; and when they had used theword God on its own, they had understood God the Father.ON A TRINITY OF PERSONSFROM THE A THAN ASIAN CREED READ TO CALVINI read before Calvin and several of the clergy that followed him thesewords from the Athanasian Creed:There is one person of the Father, another of the Son, and another ofthe Holy Spirit.And also these words:As we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge everyperson by himself to be God and Lord, so are we forbidden by thecatholic religion to say, There be three Gods or three Lords.(I) I asked Calvin whether, on the basis ofthese words, he had admittedor thought of three Gods, although he had talked and was still talkingabout one God.Be replied that he had thought ofthree like-minded Gods.(2) I asked how he could reconcile what he thought and said, andmake them one, when it was permissible to confess each person as Godin himself. He answered that he could not.(3) I put the question, How can three be one? by unanimous consent,or in some other fashion? He replied, By influx.(4) I asked how one person all the time could think the same thoughtsas another. Did the one not think anything for himself? He answered thathe had not thought of this before, but on thinking it over he saw thateach one person would think for himself.J)) I asked, Then how are they one indivisible essence? Does not thatessence get divided? He said that sometimes it was so divided, buteventually the parts fitted together again.(6) Was that essence divided when the Son as a mediator and inter-cessor was speaking to the Father? He replied that then it was, but only atthat moment.Jj) I asked, Then have there not been three creators of the universe?He answered, Yes; but one has acted through another-the Fatherthrough the Son, and the Son through the Holy Spirit.(8) I asked him what idea he had about the Lords birth from eternity.He replied, A va ne idea.39
  47. 47. 510152025DE JUSTIFICATIONEPostea quaesivi Calvinum quomodo potuit cum idea trium deorumascendere in coelum, et cum idea de Domino quod sit duo; responditquod in quandam societatem inferiorem coeli introl11issus sit, et quod ibiinter postremos habitaverit, qui non ita explorantur, sed quod quandoexploratus est, descenderit, quia non potuit ibi subsistere, et quod secontulerit ad Lutherum in mundo spirituul11, et quod cum ilIo nuncquodal11 tempore habitaverit; ex causa quia Lutherus agnovit HumanumDomini esse Divinum, et quod non alibi se viderit tutum. Dicebantsacerdotes de Calvino quod esset vir probus sed simplex, et quod scrip­serit secundum suam simplicem cogitationem, non pensitando num con­cordet vel non concordet cum Scriptura Sacra, sicut nec num cumSymbolo Athanasii.CUM SACERDOTIBUS EX REFORMATIS DE JUSTIFICATIONEPostquam cum ilIis loquutus sum de articulo justificationis per solal11fidem. I Q!!aesiti sunt quid per bona opera intelligunt, num solum taliaquae Romano-Catholici injunxerunt, vel etiam opera secundae tabulaeDecalogi; responderunt quod utraque. 2 Q!!aesiti num opera Decalogiillius tabulae quicquam faciant ad salutem; responderunt quod nonquicquam, sed quod usque facienda sint, quia mandata. 3 Q!!aesiti nUl11placet Deo si homo facit ilia; responderunt, Si non meritum in illisponunt. 4 Q!!aesiti quomodo inteIligunt ilia in Verbo, quod qui facitpraecepta amet Deum, et ametur a Deo, tUl11 quae de fructibus bonis, etde operibus secundum quaejudicabitur, et plura alia; responderunt quodsequantur ex fide. 5 Q!!aesiti quomodo sequuntur ex fide, num sichomo facturus sit iIla, vel num credendum quod Deus ilia faciat perhominem; responderunt quod homo facturus sit iIla ex suis viribus, quiasunt opera civilia, et quod Deus nuIlam partem in ilIis habeat. 6 Q!!aesiti,Sunt ilIa bona opera quae sequuntur fidem? responderunt quod sint.4°
  48. 48. JUSTIFICATIONAfter this I asked Calvin how he could rise to heaven with his notionof three Gods and his notion that the Lord was two. He replied that hehad been sent into a certainly lowly society of heaven and had livedthere among the most remote who were not much tested. But when hewas tested he went down from there because he could not remain there,and took himself off to Luther in the world ofspirits. He had been livingwith Luther for some time, and this was the reason-that Luther acknow-ledged the Lords Human to be Divine, and Calvin saw that he was safenowhere else.The clergy described Calvin as an upright man, but simple, and saidthat he had written according to his own simple thought; not consideringwhether this agreed with Sacred Scripture or did not agree, as he had notconsidered either whether it agreed with the Athanasian Creed.WITH THE CLERGY OF THE REFORMED CHURCHON JUSTIFICATIONAfter I had had a talk with these clergy on the topic ofjustification byfaith alone, they were asked,(I) What did they understand by good works? Did they mean simplythe kind the Roman Catholics enjoined, or did they mean also the works ofthe second table of the Decalogue? They answered that they meant both.(2) They were asked if the works of that table of the Decaloguecontributed anything towards salvation. Their reply was, Nothing;though those works had to be done because they were commandments.(3) They were asked, Was it pleasing to God if a man did them?They replied that it was, as long as men placed no merit in them.(4) They were asked how they understood these passages in theWord-He that keeps the commandments loves God and is loved byGod; passages about good fruit; about the works according to which manis to bejudged; and many other passages? They answered that the worksfollowed from faith.(5) How, they were asked, from faith? Was it in this way that manwould accomplish those works, or should it be believed that Godaccomplished them through man? They replied that man in his ownstrength would accomplish them because they were works of civil life,and God had no part in them.(6) Asked if these were the good works that followed faith, theyanswered, Yes.41
  49. 49. DE JUSTIFICATIONE7 ~aesiti quomodo possunt sequi fidem cum in illis non est aliquid aDeo, sed solum ab homine, et inde nec aliquid vinculum est inter fidemet opera; responderunt, ~ia per fidei imputationem remissa sunthomini peccata, et tunc quicquid homo facit, bonum in oculis Dei sit,ita quoque illa opera. 8 ~aesiti num afiquis debeat poenitentiam agere,quoniam per fidem omnia peccata remissa sunt, responderunt quod possintsi veIint, sed quod id nihil conferat ad vitam aeternam sed ad vitamsaecularem. 9 ~aesiti quomodo tunc bona opera sequuntur fidem;responderunt sicut fructus ex arbore bona. 10 ~acsiti num fides simifiter10 producit bona opera sicut arbor fructus; responderunt quod per fructusex bona arbore intelligant omnia quae homo post acceptam fidem facit,quia in oculis Dei bona sunt. II ~aesiti num bona opera cum fidecohaereant sicut fructus cum arbore; responderunt quod non similiter.12 ~aesiti num sic aliquod vinculum sit bonorum operum cum fide;15 responderunt quod nullum. Ex his conclusum factum est quod bonaopera sequantur fidem sicut fructus arborem, sit modo vox, et praetereanihil.DE DEO SALVATORE JESU CHRISTO~od unus Deus, non modo sit Creator, sed etiam Redemptor et20 Regenerator.~od Ipse quoad Divinum Verum desccnderit, et susceperit Humanum,confirmatur apud Johannem Cap. i 13, 14, et quod ab aeterno fuerit, et exnativitate Ejus, Luc. i 32 , 34, 35.Ex Scriptura Sacra quod sit Veritas et Lux, tum quod sit Verbum et25 quod id omne impleverit.~od per Ipsum omnia facta sint.~od Divinum Verum in sensu spirituali dicatur Filius Dei.~od Divinum Verum intelligatur per Messiam, Christum, Regem,Unctum, et per Davidem.30 ~od Divinum Verum intelligatur per angdum, et per Missum.~od Divinum Verum intelligatur per gIoriam.~od non aliter potueritomnia in coeIiset in infernis in ordinem redigere.~od non aliter potuerit veterem Ecclesiam destruere, et novaminstaurare.19 modo T; 0/11 A 22 13,14 T; 01/1 A 23 32,34,35 T; 0/11 A 33 non T; 011/ A42
  50. 50. JUSTIFICATION(7) They were asked, How can those works follow faith when thereis not a thing from God in them, but only from man, and consequentlyno link exists between the faith and the works. Their answer was, thatmans sins are remitted through the imputation of faith, and then what­ever man does is good in Gods sight; so, those works are good.(8) They were asked, Since all sins are remitted through faith, does any­one need to repent? They replied that people could if they wished, butit was of no consequence to eternal life, only to life in the world.(9) Then, asked how good works followed faith, they answered, Likethe fruit of a good tree.(10) They were asked, Does faith produce good works in a similarmanner to a tree bearing fruit? They said that by the fruit of a good tree,they meant all the works men performed after they had received faithbecause they were good in Gods sight.(II) They were asked whether good works adhered to faith as the fruitadhered to the tree. They answered, Not like that.(12) They were then asked if there was any link between good worksand faith, and they replied, None.The outcome of this conversation was the conclusion that the expres­sion Good works follow faith like the fruit on a tree was only a saying,and nothing morc.CD GOD THE SAVIOUR JESUS CHRISTThe one God is not [only] the Creator, but is also the Redeemer andRegenerator.That He descende as to t e jQHimself is confirmed in Jo nC apter i [13, 14]; and that He was frometernity is confirmed even by His birth, in Luke i [32, 34, 35].Passages from Sacred Scriptures to show that He is truth and light,and that He is the Word and has fulfilled the whole of it.All things were made by Him.Divine Truth, in the spiritual sense, is termed the Son~od.Divine Truth is meant by Me~ah, Christ, King, Anointed, and David.Divine Truth is meant by an angel and by one sent.JDivine Truth is meant by glory.In [no] other way could Hebring all things in the heavens and thehells~er.In no other way could He break down the old church and build up 11the new.43
  51. 51. DE JUSTIFICAnONEQEod non aliter potuerit tentationes in se admittere, et pati.QEod nee aliter potuerit in statu exinanitionis esse, et sicut absens adDeum Patrem orare.QEod non aliter potuerit redemptio etjustitia fieri, ex propria potentia.5 Ita quod non aliter potuerit unire Humanum Divino, et vicissim, et sicadjicere Humanum in tempore Divino ab aeterno.QEod nee aliter potuerit unum esse et fieri cum Patre.QEod in Humano omnia simul sint quae in Divino.QEod Humanum Suum glorificaverit, sicut hominem facit spiritualem10 seu ange!um. De duobus statibus regenerationis hominis.QEod sic Humanum fecerit Divinum.QEod sic factus sit Primus et Ultimus, ita omne in omnibus.QEod operatio Divina sit a primis per ultima, et quia ultima defeceruntin Ecclesia, quod Ipse Se ultimum fecerit.15 QEod homo non possit cum Deo conjungi nisi medio Humano,visibili et accessibili.QEod omnis masculus ex Vero, ut semine, ex origine spirituali nascatur.QEod hactenus id non perceperint, et quod tot opiniones de HumanaChristi natura cxstiterint, fuerit causa quia non intellexerunt distincte20 Bonum et Verum, et conjugium illorum, nee voluntatem et intellectum,nee animam et corpus.8uod virgo etiam ex qua natus, significet Ecclesiam quoad affectionem..-Ym..uod 0 ortuerit nasci ex vir ine in conu io le itimo cum ose ho.25 QEo So us Christus sit Homo ab aeterno, et Homo naturalis intempore.QEod in Ipso omne sit Divinum, ex Divino in Se.QEod Ipse SoIus adeundus sit, ut sit salvatio.~od immediate adeundus sit, et quod si mediate, intercipiatur30 communicatio.Afferantur ilia quae de afflictione magna et quae sequantur.QEod colere tres deos sit colere nullum.QEod nemo veniat ad Deum, nee conjungatur Ipsi, nisi adeaturHumanum Ipsius, quod alioquin non accessibilis.35 QEia Deus Pater est redemptor quoad Humanum.QEod ut conjl1nctio sit, erit Deus visibilis et sic accessibilis et fixus,hoc Christianis non ita apparet, sed omnibus aliis.QEod Divinum Verum passum sit.2 nee aliter A; non aliter T 18 pereeperint T; pereeperit A 34 HutnanumIpsius A; Humanum T44
  52. 52. JUSTIFICATIONIn no other way could He admit temptations into Himself and suffer.In no other way could He be in a state ofexinanition and, as ifseparate,pray to God teat er. - - ­In no other way could He become redemption and justice of Hisown power.So, in no other way could He unite the Human to the Divine and the ~everse, and so add the human in time to the Divine ram eternity. ~Nor in any other way could He become and be one with the Father.All things that are i~the Divine are simultaneously in the Human.He glorified His Human, just as !:le makes mal! s-Firitual or makes himan an el. Concerning the two states of mans regeneration.Thus He made His Human Divine.Thus He became the First and the Last, and so the All-in-all.~..............,~...t.a.lation is an operation from first things thr.oug~~t things; ~and becaus_e the last things in the church failed, He made Himselfthe Last.Man cannot be conjoined with God except by means of a visible andapproachable human.E r m le is born, as to his spiritual origin, fr truth as a seed.The reason why people have not perceived this before, and why somany notions have existed about Christs human nature, is that they havenot understood good and truth separately, and their marriage; nor thewill and the understanding, nor the soul and the body;...__-:­The Virgm a so, 0 w om e was om, slgni les the church as 0 theaffection of truth.He had to be born of the Vir in in lawful wedlock with Joseph.0Christ alone is man rom eternity an natura man in time.In Him everything is Divine from the Divine in itself.He alone must be approached to achieve salvation.He must be a roached directly; if He is approached indirectlycommunication is cut off.Passages to be given about the great affliction and the things thatfollow it.To worship three Gods is to worship none.No one comes to God or is conjoined to Him unless His Human isapproached; God is not otherwise approachable.For God the Father is the Redeemer as to the Human.In order that there might be conjunction there must be a visible God,and so a God a roachable and fixed. This is not so apparent to Christians,{ but it is to all others..It a cl D-~lv~l:"::nC::e-""r=u:-;t:-C:-:t:r:a~t-:s::ua:e:re::nU45

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