Swedenborg emanuel-THE-WHITE-HORSE-a-translation-of-de-equo-albo-de-quo-in-apocalypsi-cap-xix-londini-1758-swedenborg-society-1955
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Emanuel Swedenborg

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Swedenborg emanuel-THE-WHITE-HORSE-a-translation-of-de-equo-albo-de-quo-in-apocalypsi-cap-xix-londini-1758-swedenborg-society-1955 Swedenborg emanuel-THE-WHITE-HORSE-a-translation-of-de-equo-albo-de-quo-in-apocalypsi-cap-xix-londini-1758-swedenborg-society-1955 Document Transcript

  • Concerning THE WHITE HORSE in the APOCALYPSE chap. xix and then concerning THE WORD, AND ITS SPIRITUAL OR INTERNAL SENSE from the ARCANA CAELESTIA by EMANUEL SWEDENBORG being a translation of his lVork " De Equo Albo de quo in Apocalypsi, cap xix. Et dein de Verbo et ejus Sensu Spirituali seu Interno, ex Arcanis Caelestibus. Londini. 1758." SWEDENBORG SOCIETY, INCORPORATED 20/21 BLOOMSBURY WAY LONDON 1955
  • PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY THE THANET PRESS, MARGATE.
  • PREFACE DE EQuO ALBO DE QUO IN ApOCALYPSI, CAP. XIX, ET DEIN DE VERBO ET EJUS SENSU SPIRITUALI SEU INTERNO, Ex ARCANIS CAELES­ TIBUS was first published in London in the year 1758. The first published English translation, by Robert Hindmarsh, appeared in the year 1788. There were subsequently a number of reprints, several of them being revisions of earlier editions. It is of interest to note that in the latest Latin edition, the Rev. A. W. Acton comments on the Appendix : .. The short appendix is found in a manuscript now in the Royal Library in Stockholm. It appears to be the first draft of a communication which Swedenborg sent to the Rev. Thomas Hartley in August 1769. It has sometimes been assumed that the document was also addressed to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, but this seems unlikely, and the Academy has no record of its receipt. The Stockholm manuscript has no title, but, in a letter to Dr. Messiter, Hartley states that the copy he received bore the title here given," (Appendix ad codicillum de Equo Albo). In this present translation use has been made of an unpublished revision undertaken by the Rev. W. H. Acton, and which was based upon ill
  • PREFACE the translation by the Rev. T. H. Gorman, published in the year 1871. Scripture quotations are given in the language of the Authorised Version, except where faith­ fulness to Swedenborg's rendering has neces­ sitated a change. Several additional references to the ARCANA CAELESTIA have been incorporated in square brackets after those references found in the original manuscript. A Table of Contents, together with Indices of principal subjects and of Scripture passages quoted or referred to, has been included. B. s. WILLMOTI Snod/and, 1954. iv
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS ~ ~~ 1-5 THE WHITE HORSE DESCRIBED IN THE ApOCALYPSE, CHAPTER XIX 6 THE NECESSITY FOR AND EXCELLENCE OF THE WORD 12 7 THE WORD IS NOT UNDERSTOOD EXCEPT BY THOSE WHO ARE ENLIGHTENED . . 13 8 THE WORD IS NOT UNDERSTOOD EXCEPT BY MEANS OF DOCTRINE FROM THE WORD .. 16 9 IN THE WORD THERE IS A SPIRITUAL SENSE, WHICH IS CALLED THE INTERNAL SENSE •• ..•. 19 10 THE INTERNAL SENSE OF THE WORD IS INTENDED ESPECIALLY FOR ANGELS BUT IT IS ALSO INTENDED FOR MEN . . 2I I I THERE ARE INNUMERABLE ARCANA IN THE INTERNAL OR SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD .. .. •• .. .• 25 12 THE WORD IS WRITIEN BY CORRESPON­ DENCES AND THUS BY REPRESENTATIVES .. 29 13 THE SENSE OF THE LETTER OR THE EXTERNAL SENSE OF THE WORD .. 35 14 THE LORD IS THE WORD " •• 36 15 CONCERNING THOSE WHO ARE OPPOSED TO THE WORD . • •. . . •. 39 16 THE BOOKS WmCH CONSTITUTE THE WORD .• .• .. .. •. 39 17 FURTHER PARTICULARS ABOUT THE WORD 40 APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE 42 V
  • 1] THE WHITE HORSE CONCERNING THE WHITE HORSE in THE APOCALYPSE , Chapter XIX 1. The Word as to its spiritual or internal sense is described by John in Revelation in these words : I saw heaven opened ; and behold a white horse ; and He that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in justice [A.V. righteousness] He doth judge and make war. His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on His head were many crowns; and He had a name written, that no man knew, but He Himself. And He was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood; and His name is called THE WORD OF GOD. And the armies which were in heaven followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. And He hath on His vesture and on His thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS. Rev. xix 11, 12, 13, 14, 16. It is not possible for anyone to have a clear idea of what each of these particular things implies, except from the internal sense. It is clear that each single thing is something representative and significative: as heaven being opened ; a horse which was white; He that sat upon him, injustice judging and making war ; His eyes being as a flame of fire ; many 1
  • THE WIllTE HORSE [I crowns being on his head ; that He had a name that no man knew but He Himself; His being clothed with a vesture dipped in blood, and that the armies which were in heaven followed Him upon white horses ; that they were clothed in fine linen, white and clean; and that on His vesture and on His thigh He had },.,..,... " a name written. It is stated openly that He is . the Word, and that it is the Lord Wno is ) THE_ WQRD ; for it is said, "Hisname is called THE WORD OF GOD," and later, " He hath on His vesture and on His thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS." From the meaning of each particular expression, it is evident that in this passage the Word.is described as to its . spiritual or internal sense. Heaven being opened represents and signifies that the internal sense of the Word can be seen in heaven and thence by thQs~)n the world to_whom--heayen ( is opened. The horse which was white repre­ sents and signifies the understanding of the ( Word as to interior things. It will be evident from what follows that this is the meaning of a white horse. That He that sat upon him is the Lord as to the Word, and thus the Word, is established, for it is stated, "His name is called the Word of God." He is called Faithful, and is said to judge in justice, from Good. And He is called True, and is said to make war in justice, from Truth, for the Lord Himself is justice. His eyes being as a flame of fire denote 2
  • 1] THE WlllTE HORSE the Divine Truth from the Divine Good of His Divine Love. The many crowns upon His head signify all goods and truths of faith. His having a Name written that no man knew but He Himself, means that no one but Him- self, and he to whom He reveals it, sees that the Word is.-9-f such_a_quality in the internal sense. Clothed in a vesture dipped in blood signifies the Word in the letter to which violence has - been offered. The armies in the heavens which followed Him upon white horses denote thos.e who are in the understanding of the Wordas ( to its interiors. Clothed in fine linen clean and whiteSignifies the same persons in truth from good. A Name written on His vesture and on His thigh signifies truth and good and their quality. From these things, as from those which precede and those which follow, it is evident that therein it is foretold, that about the last ·11'time of the Church the ~ritual or internal sense of the Word will be disclosed. And what wl1r come to pass at that time is even des- cribed there, verses 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. It is unnecessary to show here that such things are signified by these words, seeing that they are shown in detail in ARCANA CAELESTIA, as for example that : The Lord is the Word because He is the Divine Truth, (n. 2533, 2803, 2894, 5272, 7835) : The Word is Divine Truth, (n, 4692, 5075, 9987). He is described as sitting upon the horse, judging and making war in justice, because the Lord is Justice; the Lord is 3
  • mE WHITE HORSE [1 called Justice by reason of His having_of His own proper power saved the human race (n. 1813, 2025, 2026, 2027, 9715, 9809, 10019, 10152). And justice is merit which belongs to the Lord alone, (n. 9715, 9979). His eyes as a flame of fire signify Divine Truth from the Divine Good of the Divine Love; this is because eyes signify the understanding and the truth of faith, (n. 2701, 4403-4421, 4523-4534, 6923, 9051, 10569), and a flame of fire, the !!ood of love, (n. 934, 4906, 5215, 6314, 6832). The crowns which were on His head si~nify all goods and truths of faith, (n. 114, 3858, 6335, 6640, 9863, 9865, 9868, 9873, 9905). His havin~ a Name written which no man knew but He Himself, means that no one but He Himself, and he to whom He reveals it, sees that the Word is of such a quality in the internal sense; this is because a name denotes a thing's quality, (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006,3237,3421,6674,9310). Being clothed in a vesture dipped in blood, signifies the Word in the letter to which violence has been done : this is because vesture means truth, since truth clothes what is !!ood, (n. 1073, 2576, 5248, 5319,5954,9212,9216,9952, 10536), especially truth in its most external form, and so the Word in the letter, (n. 5248,6918,9158,9212) ; and because blood means the violence done to truth by what is false, (n. 374, 1005, 4735, 5476, 9127). The annies in the heavens which followed Him on white horses signify those 4
  • [1-2 THE WHITE HORSE who are in the understanding of the Word as to its interiors: this is because armies signify those who are in the truths and goods of heaven and the Church, (n. 3448, 7236, 7988, 8019) ; and a horse signifies the understanding, (n. 3217, 5321, 6125, 6400, 6531, 6534, 7024, 8146, 8381) ; and white means truth which is in the light of heaven, thus interior truth, (n. 3301, 3993, 4007, 5319). It is because linen or fine linen signifies truth from a celestial origin, which is truth from good, that being clothed in fine linen white and clean means these same persons in truth from good, (n. 5319, 9469). That a Name written on the vesture and on the thigh, means truth and good, and their quality, is because vesture means truth, and a name means quality, as above, and thigh signifies the good of love, (n. 3021, 4277, 4280, 9961, 10488). King of kings and Lord of lords is the Lord as to Divine Truth and as to Divine Good. The Lord is called King from Divine Truth, (n. 3009, 5068, 6148), and He is called Lord from Divine Good, (n. 4973, 9167, 9194). From these things the quality of the Word in its spiritual or internal sense is manifest, and that there is not a word in it that does not mean something spiritual relating to heaven and the Church. 2. A horse is mentioned many times in the prophetical parts of the Word, but that a horse means the understanding, and its rider one who understands, has hitherto been recognised by 5
  • THE WHITE HORSE [2 no one; and this, perhaps, for the reason that it appears strange and unusual that such a thing should be understood, in the spiritual sense, and thence in the Word, by a horse. Yet that it is always so can be confirmed from very many passages in the Word, only some of which I would quote here. In Israel's prophecy concerning Dan : Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an arrowsnake [A.V. adder] in the path, that biteth the horse's heels, so that his rider shall fall backward. Gen. xlix 17, 18. No one can understand what this prophecy concerning one of the tribes of Israel means, unless he knows what is meant by a serpent, and also by a horse, and its rider. There is no one who does not recognise that something spiritual is thereby implied. What, therefore, each individual thing means may be seen in ARCANA CAELESTIA, (n. 6398, 6399, 6400, 6401), where this prophecy is explained. In Habakkuk: o God Thou didst ride upon Thine horses, Thy chariots were [A.V. of] salvation.... Thou didst make Thy horses tread in the sea [A.V. walk through the sea with thine horses]. Hab. iii 8, 15. It is evident that in this passage horses mean something spiritual, because these things are said concerning God. What otherwise would be meant by God riding upon His horses, and making His horses tread upon the sea? In Zechariah: 6
  • 2] THE WHITE HORSE In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD. Zech. xiv 20. where in like manner a spiritual meaning is implied. Again in the same prophet: In that day, saith Jehovah, I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness: and I will open mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the people with blindness. Zech. xii 4. That passage treats of the vastation of the Church, which comes about when there is no longer the understanding of any truth. This state is thus described by a horse and its rider. What otherwise would be the meaning of every horse being smitten with astonishment, and of every horse of the people being smitten with blindness? What could this have to do with the Church? In Job: God hath deprived her of wisdom, and hath not imparted to her understanding. What time she lifteth up herself on high, she scorneth the horse and his rider. Job xxxix 17, 18, 19 et seq. It is clearly evident that here the understanding is signified by horse. Similarly in David, Nhere [God] is said to ride upon the Word of truth, Ps. xlv 4. in addition to many other passages. More­ over, who would be able to know why it is that Elijah and Elisha were called the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof; and why by Elisha's servant the mountain was seen full of 7
  • THE WHITE HORSE [2-3 horses and chariots of fire; unless it were known what chariots and horsemen signify, and what Elijah and Elisha represented? For Elisha said to Elijah : My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof. 2 Kings ii 11, 12. And Joash the king said to Elisha : My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof. 2 Kings xiii 14. And, of Elisha's servant : Jehovah opened the eyes of Elisha's servant, [A.V. the young man]; and he saw: and, behold, the moun­ tain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha. 2 Kings vi 17. Elijah and Elisha were called the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof, because each of them represented the Lord as to the Word, and because by chariot is meant doctrine from the Word, and by horsemen, intelligence. That Elijah and Elisha represented the Lord as to the Word, may be seen in ARCANA CAELESTIA, (n. 5247, 7643, 8029,9372), and that chariots signify doctrine from the Word, (n. 5321, 8215). 3. That a horse means the understanding is derived from no other source than from representatives in the spiritual world. Horses are seen there frequently, and persons sitting upon horses, and also chariots. And in that world everyone knows that they indicate 8
  • 3-4] THE WHITE HORSE intellectual and doctrinal things. I have often observed, when any there were thinking from their understanding, that they appeared as if to be riding on horses. Their meditation re­ presented itself in such a manner before others, they themselves being unconscious of it. There is also a place there, where many come together who think and speak from the under­ standing concerning truths of doctrine. And when others come to that place, they see that entire plain filled with chariots and horses ; and novitiates, who are curious to know whence this comes about, are taught that this is an appearance resulting from their intellectual thought. That place is called the assembly of the intelligent and wise. I have even seen shining horses and fiery chariots when some were taken up into heaven, which was a sign that they were then instructed in the truths of heavenly doctrine, and had become intelligent, and were thus taken up. As I beheld this attentively, there came into my mind what was signified by the chariot and horses of fire by which Elijah was taken up into heaven, and also by the horses and chariots of fire seen by Elisha's servant when his eyes were opened. 4. In the Ancient Churches it was very well known that chariots and horses signified such things, since those Churches were representative Churches, and among those who were in them, the science of correspondences and representa­ 9
  • THE WHITE HORSE [4 tions ranked as the most distinguished science. From those Churches the signification of a horse, as being the understanding, was handed down to the wise men round about, even into Greece. Hence, it was their custom, when they were describing the sun, in which they placed the god of their wisdom and intelligence, to attribute to it a chariot and four fiery horses. And when they were describing the god of the sea, because the sciences which exist from the understanding were signified by the sea, they endowed that also with horses. And when they were describing the origin of the sciences from the understanding they conceived of a winged horse, which with its hoof caused a fountain to break forth, at which were nine virgins, who were the sciences. For from the Ancient Churches they knew that by a horse was sig­ nified the understanding, by wings spiritual truth, by a hoof something scientific derived from the understanding, and by a fountain doctrine from which come the sciences. Nor is anything else signified by the Trojan horse than a device of their understanding for des­ troying the walls. Indeed at the present time when the understanding is described after the accepted custom among those ancient people, it is usual to describe it as a flying horse, or Pegasus, doctrine as a fountain, and the sciences as virgins. But scarcely anyone knows that the horse, in a mystic sense, signifies the understanding, and still less that 10
  • 4-5] THE WHITE HORSE these significatives have been passed down to the Gentiles from the Ancient Representative Churches. 5. Since by the White Horse is signified the understanding of the Word as to its spiritual or internal sense, those things now follow which have been shown in the ARCANA CAELESTIA concerning the Word and concerning that sense. For in that work all things contained in Genesis and Exodus are explained according to the spiritual or internal sense of the Word. 11
  • lHE WHITE HORSE [6 THE WORD AND ITS SPIRITUAL OR INTERNAL SENSE FROM THE ARCANA CAELESTIA 6. THE NECESSITY FOR AND EXCELLENCE OF THE WORD. Nothing can be known from the light of nature concerning the Lord, heaven and hell, man's life after death, and the Divine truths through which man has spiritual and eternal life, (n. 8944, 10318, 10319, 10320). This can be confirmed from the fact that many persons, men of education among them, do not give credence to these things, although born where the Word is, and by means of it instructed concerning them, (n. 10319). It was therefore necessary that there should be some revelation from heaven, since man was born for heaven, (n. 1775). In every age, therefore, there has been a revelation, (n. 2895). Various forms of revela­ tion have succeeded each other on this earth, (n. 10355, 10632). With the most ancient people, who lived before the flood, and whose time was called the golden age, there was immediate revelation; and for that reason Divine Truth was written on their hearts, (n. 2896). In the Ancient Churches, which existed after the flood, the Word was both historical and prophetical, (n. 2686, 2897) ; concerning which Churches see THE NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS HEAVENLY DOCTRINE, (n. 247). The historical 12
  • 6-7] THE WHITE HORSE books of this Word were called The Wars of Jehovah, and the prophetical books, The Enunciations, (n. 2897). That Word was similar to our Word as to inspiration, but adapted to those Churches, (n. 2897). It is mentioned by Moses, (n. 2686, 2897). That Word has been lost, however, (n. 2897). There were also revelations by prophecy with others, as appears from Balaam's prophecies, (n. 2898). , The Word is Divine in all and every part, (n. 639, 680, 10321, 10637). As to every titt1e and jot, the Word is Divine and holy, from experience, (n. 9349). The manner in which it is explained at this day, that the Word is inspired as to every jot, (n. 1886). The Church exists specifically where the Word is, and where the Lord is known by it and Divine truths revealed, (n. 3857, 10761). But they who are born where the Word is, and where the Lord is thereby known, are not on that account of the Church : they are of the Church who are regenerated by the Lord by means of truths from the Word, who are they who live in accordance with the truths therein, thus they who live a life of love and faith, (n. 6637, 10143, 10153, 10578, 10645, 10829). 7. THE WORD IS NOT UNDERSTOOD EXCEPT BY THOSE WHO ARE ENLIGHTENED. The human rational, if it be not enlightened by the Lord, cannot grasp Divine things, nor even spiritual 13
  • THE WHITE HORSE [7 things, (n. 2196, 2203, 2209, 2654). So it is that only they who are enlightened comprehend the Word, (n. 10323). The Lord enables those who are enlightened to understand truths and, moreover, to tliscern truths in those things which appear to contradict each other, (n. 9382, 10659). The Word in the sense of the letter is not consistent with itself and some­ times appears to contradict itself, (n. 9025), and on that account it can be explained and interpreted, by those who are not enlightened, to confirm any opinion or heresy, and to defend any worldly and corporeal love, (n. 4783, 10330, 10400). They are enlightened from the Word, who read it from a love of truth and good, but not those who do so from a love of reputation, gain or honour, and so from a love of self, (n. 9382, 10548-10551). They are enlightened who are in the good of life and thence in the affection of truth, (n. 8694). They are enlightened whose internal is open, thus who as to their internal man can be raised up into the light of heaven, (n. 10400, 10402, 10691, 10694). Enlightenment is an actual opening of the interiors of the mind, and also an elevation into the light of heaven, (n. 10330). Holiness from the internal, that is, through the internal from the Lord, flows in with those who hold the Word sacred, they themselves being ignorant of it, (n. 6789). They are enlightened and see truths in the Word, who are led by the Lord, but not they who are led by themselves, 14
  • 7] THE WHITE HORSE (n. 10638). They are led by the Lord, who love truth because it is truth, who indeed are they who love to live in accordance with Divine truths, (n. 10578, 10645, 10829). The Word is made living with man according to the life of his love and faith, (n. 1776). Those things which are derived from his own inteliigence have no life in themselves, because from man's pro­ prium 1 there is nothing good, (n. 8941, 8944). They cannot be enlightened, who have con­ firmed themselves strongly in false doctrine, (n. 10640). It is the understanding that is enlightened, (n. 6608, 9300). The understanding is receptive of truth, (n. 6222, 6608, 10659). Concerning every doctrinal thing of the Church there are ideas of the understanding and of thought thence, according to which the doctrinal is perceived, (n. 3310, 3825). Man's ideas are natural as long as he is living in the world, because he then thinks in the Natural; but, nevertheless, with those who are in the affec­ tion of truth for its own sake, spiritual ideas are concealed within them, and man comes into these ideas after death, (n. 3310, 5510, 6201, 10236, 10240, 10551), [10237]. There can be no perception concerning any subject whatsoever, without ideas of the understanding and thence of thought, (n. 3825). Ideas con­ cerning matters of faith are laid open in the 1 The Latin word p,.oprium means" what is one's own. H Swedenborg uses it in a special sense involving" what is of the self". 15
  • THE WHITE HORSE [7-8 other life, and their quality is there seen by angels, and man is then conjoined with others according to them, in so far as they proceed from an affection which is of love, (n. 1869, 3320,5510,6201,8885), [3310,6200]. Therefore the Word is not understood except by a rational man, for to believe something without an idea of the thing itself and without the insight of reason, is only to retain an expression in the memory devoid of all life of perception and affection, which is not believing, (n. 2533). It is the literal sense of the Word which is enlightened, (n. 3619, 9824, 9905, 10548). 8. THE WORD IS NOT UNDERSTOOD EXCEPT BY MEANS OF DOCTRINE FROM THE WORD. The doctrine of the Church must be from the Word, (n. 3464, 5402, 6832, 10763, 10765). The Word is not understood without doctrine, (n. 9025, 9409, 9430, 10324, 10431, 10582). True doctrine is a lamp to those who read the Word, (n. 10400). Genuine doctrine must be from those who are in enlightenment from the Lord, (n. 2510, 2516, 2519, 9424, 10105). The Word can be understood by means of doctrine formed by one who is enlightened, (n. 10324). They who are in enlightenment form doctrine from the Word for themselves, (9382, 10659). There is a distinction between those who teach and learn from the doctrine of the Church, and those who do so from the sense of the letter of the Word alone; its 16
  • 8] THE WHITE HORSE quality shown, (n. 9025). Those who are in the sense of the letter of the Word without doctrine do not arrive at any understanding of divine truths, (n. 9409, 9410, 10582). They fall into many errors, (n. 10431). When they who are in the affection of truth for the sake of truth become adults, and are able to see from their own understanding, they do not simply remain in the doctrinals of their Church, but find out from the Word whether they are true, (n. 5402, 5432, 6047). Otherwise, everyone's truth would be derived from another, and from the land of his birth, whether he were born a Jew or a Greek, (n. 6047). Nevertheless the things which have become matters of faith from the literal sense of the Word are not to be blotted out except after full consideration, (n. 9039). The true doctrine of the Church is the doctrine of charity and faith, (n. 2417, 4766, 10763, 10765), [10764]. The doctrine of faith does not constitute the Church, but the life of faith, which is charity, (n. 809, 1798, 1799, 1834, 4468, 4672, 4766, 5826,6637). Doctrinal things are nothing unless man lives in accord­ ance with them : everyone can see that they are for the sake of life, and not for the sake of the memory and something of thought there­ from, (n. 1515,2049,2116). In the Churches at the present time there is a doctrine of faith, but not of charity; the doctrine of charity has been degraded into a science, which is 17
  • THE W HlTE HORSE [8 given the name of moral theology, (n. 2417). The Church would be one if men were acknow­ ledged to be of the Church on account of life, and so of charity, (n. 1285, 1316, 2982, 3267, 3445, 3451, 3452). How much superior is the doctrine of charity to the doctrine of faith separate from charity, (n. 4844). They who know nothing of charity are in ignorance concerning heavenly things, (n. 2435). They who hold only the doctrine of faith, and not that of charity, fall into errors, concerning which see, (n. 2383, 2417, 3146, 3325, 3412, 3413, 3416, 3773, 4672, 4730, 4783, 4925, 5351,7623-7627,7752-7762,7790,8094,8313, 8530, 8765, 9186, 9224, 10555), [2385]. Those who are only in the doctrine of faith and not in the life of faith, which is charity, were formerly called the uncircumcised, or Philistines, (n. 3412, 3413, 3463, 8093, 8313, 9340). With the ancients there was the doctrine of love to the Lord and of charity towards the neighbour, and the doctrine of faith was made of service to this, (n. 2417, 3419, 4844, 4955). Doctrine formed by one who is enlightened can afterwards be confirmed by rational things and by knowledges, (scientifica), and it is thus more fully understood and corroborated, (n. 2553, 2719,2720, 3052, 3310, 6047), [2557, 3057]. More concerning this subject may be seen in THE NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS HEAVENLY DOCTRINE, (n. 51). Those who are in faith separate from charity would have the doctrinals 18
  • 8-9] THE WHITE HORSE of the Church simply believed without any rational consideration, (n. 3394). It is not the part of a wise man to confirm dogma, but to see whether it be true before it is confirmed, and this happens with those who are in enlightenment, (n. 1017, 4741, 7012, 7680, 7950). The light of confirmation is natural light, and not spiritual, and is possible even with the evil, (n. 8780). All things, even those that are false, can be so far confirmed as to appear as if they were truths, (n. 2480, 2490, 5033, 6865, 8521). 9. IN THE WORD THERE IS A SPIRITUAL SENSE, WHICH IS CALLED THE INTERNAL SENSE. No one can know what the spiritual or internal sense of the Word is, unless he knows what correspondence is, (n. 2895,4322). Each and all things that exist in the natural world, even to the smallest single thing, correspond to spiritual things, and thence signify them, (n. 2890-2893,2987-3003,3213-3227), [1886-1889]. Spiritual things, to which natural things correspond, appear in what is natural under another form, so that they are not distinguished, (n. 1887, 2395, 8920). Scarcely anyone knows wherein what is Divine resides in the Word, when nevertheless it is in its internal and spiritual sense, which at this day is not known to exist, (n. 2899, 4989). The mystical element of the Word is no other than that which its internal or spiritual sense contains, and in 19
  • THE WHITE HORSE [9 which the Lord is treated of, the glorification of His Human, His kingdom and the Church, and not natural things which are of the world, (n. 4923). In very many places the prophetic parts would not be understood, and thus would be of no use, without an internal sense, shown by examples, (n. 2608, 8020, 8398). As, for example, what is meant by the White Horse in Revelation, (n. 2760 and following nos.) : what by the keys of the kingdom of the heavens given to Peter, (see Preface to Gen. xxii, and n. 9410) : what by flesh, blood, bread and wine in the Holy Supper, (n. 8682) : what by Jacob's prophecies concerning his sons, (Gen. xlix, n. 6306, 6333-6465) : what by many prophecies concerning J udah and Israel, which do not tally with that nation, and do not agree with one another in the sense of the letter, (n. 6333, 6361, 6415, 6438, 6444), in addition to very many other instances, (n. 2608). Further concerning correspondence may be seen in the work on REAYEN AND HELL, (n. 87-102, 103-115, and 303-310). Concerning the internal or spiritual sense of the Word in general, (n. 1767-1777, 1869-1879). In each and all things of the Word there is an internal sense, (n. 1143, 1984, 2135, 2333, 2395,2495,2619). These things do not appear in the sense of the letter, but nevertheless they are contained within it, (n. 4442). 20
  • 10] THE WHITE HORSE 10. THE INTERNAL SENSE OF THE WORD IS INTENDED ESPECIALLY FOR ANGELS BUT IT IS ALSO INTENDED FOR MEN. In order that it may be known what the internal sense is, its quality and its origin, this shall be stated in general. In heaven they think and speak differently from what they do in the world-in heaven spiritually, in the world naturally; wherefore, when man reads the Word, the angels who are with him perceive it spiritually, whilst men understand it naturally. Hence, angels are in the internal sense, whilst men are in the external sense. Yet, nevertheless, they make one by correspondence. Not only do angels think spiritually, but they also speak spiritually. They are likewise present with man and their conjunction with man is by means of the Word. This may be seen in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, where it treats of the wisdom of angels of heaven, (n. 265-275) ; their speech, (n. 234-245) ; their conjunction with man, (n. 291-302); and of conjunction by means of the Word, (n. 303-310). The Word is understood in a different way by angels in the heavens from what it is by men on earth. With angels there is the internal or spiritual sense, but with men there is the external or natural sense, (n. 1887, 2395). Angels perceive the Word according to the internal sense, and not according to the external sense, shown by the experience of those who have spoken with me from heaven when I was 21
  • THE WHITE HORSE [10 reading the Word, (n. 1769-1772). Angelic ideas of thought and also angelic speech are spiritual, but human ideas and speech are natural ; the internal sense, therefore, which is spiritual, is for angels, (explained from ex­ perience, n. 2333). Nevertheless, the sense of the letter of the Word serves as a medium for the spiritual ideas of angels, comparatively as the words of speech express the sense of a subject with men, (n. 2143). The things of the internal sense of the Word fall into such things as are of the light of heaven, thus into angelic perception, (n. 2618, 2619, 2629, 3086). On that account those things which angels perceive from the Word are precious to them, (n. 2540, 2541, 2545, 2551). Angels do not understand even one word of the sense of the letter of the Word, (n. 64, 65, 1434, 1929). Neither do they have any knowledge of the names of persons and places mentioned in the Word, (n. 1434, 1888, 4442, 4480). Names cannot enter into heaven, nor can they be pronounced there, (n. 1876, 1888). All the names in the Word signify things, and in heaven they are changed into ideas of the things, (n. 768, 1888, 4310, 4442, 5225, 5287, 10329). Angels even think abstractly from persons, (n. 6613, 8343, 8985, 9007). How elegant is the internal sense of the Word, even where there are only names, (shown by examples from the Word, n. 1224, 1888, 2395). Again, many names in series express one thing in the internal sense, (n. 22
  • 10] TIlE WHITE HORSE 5095) ; all numbers, also, in the Word signify things, (n. 482, 487, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 6175, 9488, 9659, 10217, 10253). Spirits, too, perceive the Word in its internal sense, in so far as their interiors are open to heaven, (n. 1771). The sense of the letter of the Word, which is natural, is, with angels, changed in a moment into the spiritual sense, because of the cor­ respondence that exists, (n. 5648). And this is without their hearing or knowing what is in the sense of the letter or external sense, (n. 10215). Thus the sense of the letter or external sense is with man alone and does not pass beyond him, (n. 2015). There is an internal sense of the Word, and also an inmost or supreme sense, (concerning which, see, n. 9407, 10604, 10614, 10627). Spiritual angels, that is, those who are in the Lord's spiritual kingdom, perceive the Word in the internal sense, and celestial angels, that is, those who are in the Lord's celestial kingdom, perceive the Word in the inmost sense, (n. 2157, 2275). The Word is for men, and also for angels, being adapted to both, (n. 7381, 8862, 10322). The Word is what unites heaven and earth, (n. 2310,2493,9212,9216,9357). The conjunction of heaven with man is by means of the Word, (n. 9396, 9400, 9401, 10452).•On that account the Word is called a covenant, (n. 9396), inasmuch as covenant signifies conjunction, 23
  • TIlE WHITE HORSE [10 (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804, 8767, 8778, 9396, 10632). There is an internal sense in the Word, because the Word has come down from the Lord through the three heavens even to man, (n. 2310, 6597). And in this manner it has become adapted to angels of the three heavens, and also to men, (n. 7381, 8862). Hence it is that the Word is Divine, (n. 2899,4989), [4279] ; that it is holy, (n. 10276) ; that it is spiritual, (n. 4480) ; and that it is inspired by the Divine, (n. 9094). This is inspiration, (n. 9094). Indeed, the man who is regenerated is actually in the internal sense of the Word, although he is unaware of it, since his internal man, which has spiritual perception, is open, (n. 10400). But with him the spiritual of the Word flows into natural ideas and is thus presented naturally, since while he lives in the world, he thinks in the natural man, so far as it comes to his perception, (n. 5614). Hence the light of truth, with those who are enlightened, is derived from their internal, thus, through the internal, from the Lord, (n. 10691, 10694). In that way, also, there is an influx of holiness with those who regard the Word as holy, (n. 6789). Since the regenerated man is actually in the internal sense of the Word, and in its holiness, although unaware of it, therefore after death he comes into it of himself, and is no longer in the' sense of the letter, (n. 3226, 3342, 3343). The ideas of the internal man are 24
  • 10-11 ] THE WHITE HORSE spiritual, but man, while he is living in the world, does not notice them since they are within his natural thought, to which they impart its rational faculty, (n. 10236, 10240, 10551). But after death man comes into them as into his own, because they are peculiar to his spirit, and he then not only thinks but also speaks from them, (n. 2470, 2478, 2479, 10568, 10604). Hence it .is, as has been stated, that the regenerated man is not aware that he is in the spiritual sense of the Word, and that he has enlightenment therefrom. 11. THERE ARE INNUMERABLE ARCANA IN THE INTERNAL OR SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD. In the internal sense the Word contains countless things which surpass human com­ prehension, (n. 3085, 3086), even things which are too great for words and incapable of being explained, (n. 1965). These are apparent only to angels and are understood by them, (n. 167). The internal sense of the Word contains arcana of heaven which relate to the Lord and to His kingdom in the heavens and on earth, (n. 1,2,3,4,937). Those arcana do not appear in the sense of the letter, (n. 937, 1502, 2161). There are many things in the Prophets which appear as if unconnected, which, in the internal sense, have continuous coherence in a beautiful series, (n. 7153, 9022). In its original language not a single word, nor even a single jot, can be taken away from the sense of the letter of the 25
  • THE WHITE HORSE [11 Word without an interruption to the internal sense. And, on that account, by the Lord's Divine Providence the Word has been preserved so very complete as to every tittle, (n. 7933). There are countless things contained in every single part of the Word, (n. 6617, 8920), and in every expression, (n. 1689). Countless things are contained in the Lord's Prayer and in its every particular, (n. 6619) ; and also in the precepts of the Decalogue, notwithstanding that in its external sense there are some things such as are known without revelation to every nation, (n. 8862, 8902). There is something holy in every tittle of the Word in the original language, shown from heaven-as may be seen in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, (n. 260), where the Lord's words are explained, Not one jot or one tittle shall pass away from the law. Matt. v 18. In the Word, especially in the prophetical parts, there are two expressions as it were of the same thing, but one has relation to good, and the other to truth, (n. 683, 707, 2516, 8339). Goods and truths are wonderfully conjoined in the Word, but that conjunction is manifest only to him who knows the internal sense, (n. 10554). So it is that in the Word and in its every particular there is the Divine Marr­ iage and a heavenly marriage, (n. 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712, 5138, 7022). The Divine Marriage, which is the marriage of Divine Good and Divine Truth, is thus the 26
  • 11] THE WHITE HORSE Lord in heaven, in Whom alone that marriage exists there, (n. 3004, 3005, 3009, 5138, 5194, 5502, 6343, 7945, 8339, 9263, 9314). Again, by Jesus is meant the Divine Good, and by Christ the Divine Truth, and thus by both is signified the Divine Marriage in heaven, (n. 3004, 3005, 3009). This marriage, and thus the Lord as to Divine Good and Divine Truth, is in every particular of the Word in its in- ternal sense, (n. 5502). The marriage of good and truth from the Lord in heaven and in the Church is what is called the heavenly marriage, (n. 2508, 2618, 2803, 3004, 3211, 3952, 6179). Thus, in this respect, the Word is as it were heaven, (n. 2173, 10126). Heaven is likened in the Word to a marriage by reason of the marriage of good and truth therein, (n. 2758, 3132, 4434, 4835). The internal sense is the genu!l}e doctrine itself of the Church, (n. 9025, 9430, 10400). 1leY who understand the Word according to the internal sense, know the true doctrine itself of the Church, because the internal sense comprises it, (n. 9025, 9430, 10400). Again, the internal of the Word is the internal of the Church, as it is also the internal of worship, (n. 10460). The Word is the doctrine of love ( to the Lord an:cr-orcharity towards the neigh- bour, (n. 3419, 3420). In the letter the Word is as it were a cloud and the glory is in the internal sense, (Preface to Genesis xviii, and n. 5922, 6343, where the 27
  • THE WHITE HORSE [11 words are explained, that the Lord would come in the clouds of heaven with glory. In the Word a cloud also means the Word in the sense I of the letter, and glory the Word in the internal l sense. (Preface to Genesis xviii and n. 4060, 4391,5922,6343,6752,8106,8781,9430,10551, 10574). Those things which are in the sense of the letter, compared with those in the internal sense, are like the rough projections placed around a polished optical cylinder from which nevertheless there is brought forth to view in the cylinder a beautiful representation of a man, (n. 1871). In the spiritual world they who wish for and acknowledge only the sense of the ( letter, are represented by an ugly old woman. But they, who, at the same time wish for and acknowledge the internal sense, are represented by a virgin beautifully clothed, (n. 1774). The Word in its whole complex is an image of heaven, for the Word is Divine Truth, and (Divine Truth constitutes heaven; and heaven resembles one man, and in this respect t!le Word is as it were the image of a inan, (n. 11S7). (That heaven as a whole resembles one man may be seen in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, n. 59-67 ; and that the Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord makes heaven, n. 126-140, 200-212.) The Word is presented to the angels themselves in a beautiful and charming way, (n. 1767, 1768). The sense of the letter is as it were the body, and the internal sense as it were the soul ofthat-.£.ody, (n. 8943). Hence, the. 28
  • 11-12] THE WHITE HORSE life of the Word is from the internal sense, (n. 1405, 4857). The Word is pure in the internal sense but it does not appear such in the sense of the letter, (n. 2362, 2395). The things which are in the sense of the letter are holy from the internal things, (n. 10126, 10728):- There is also an internal sense to the historical parts of the Word, but it is within them, (n. 4989). Thus, equally with the prophetical, the historical parts of the Word contain arcana of heaven, (n. 755, 1659, 1709, 2310, 2333). Angels do not perceive those parts as relating I to history, but as to doctrine [dogmatice] because they perceive them spiritually, (n. 6884). The interior arcana contained in the historical parts are less clear to man than those in the prophetical parts, the reason being that the mind is intent upon and paying attention to the things relating to history, (n. 2176, 6597). The quality of the internal sense of the woro is again shown, (n. 1756, 1984, 2004, 2663, 3035, 7089, 10604, 10614), and illustrated by com­ parisons, (n. 1873). 12. THE WORD IS WRITTEN BY CORRESPOND­ ENCES AND THUS BY REPRESENTATIVES. As to the sense of the letter the Word is written by nothing but correspondences, and so by such things as represent and signify the spiritual things of heaven and the church, (n. 1404> 1408, 1409, 1540, 1619, 1659, 1709, 1783,2179, 29
  • THE WHITE HORSE [12 2763, 2899). This was done on account of the internal sense in every particular, (n. 2899). Thus it was for the sake of heaven, since they who are in heaven do not understand the Word according to the sense of its letter, which is natural, but according to the internal sense, which is spiritual, (n. 2899). Because He spoke from the Divine, the Lord spoke by corre­ spondences, representatives and significatives, (n. 9049, 9063, 9086, 10126, 10728). The Lord thus spoke in His own person to the world and to heaven at the same time, (n. 2533, 4807, 9049, 9063, 9086). The things spoken by the Lord reached to the entire heaven, (n. 4637). The historical parts of the Word are repre­ sentative and the words significative, (n. 1540, 1659, 1709, 1783, 2686). The Word could not have been written in any other style in order that there might be communica­ tion and conjunction with the heavens by means of it, (n. 2899, 6943, 9481). They are greatly mistaken who make little of the Word on account of its apparently simple and rough style, and who believe that, had it been written in a different style, they would have accepted the Word, (n. 8783). The most ancient people's manner and style of writing was also by correspondences and representatives, (n. 605, 1756, 9942). The wise people of ancient times were delighted with the Word because of the representatives and significatives therein; (from experience, n. 2592, 2593). If a man of 30
  • 12] THE WHITE HORSE the Most Ancient Church had read the Word, he would have seen those things clearly which are in the internal sense, but obscurely those which are in the external sense, (n. 4493). The sons of Jacob were led forth into the land of Canaan because, from the most ancient times, all places in that land were made representative, (n. 1585,3686,4447,5136,6516), and so that a Word might be written there, in which places were to be named on account of the internal sense, (n. 3686, 4447, 5136, 6516). On account of that nation, however, the Word as to the external sense was entirely altered but not as to the internal sense, (n. 10453, 10461, 10603, 10604). Many passages concerning that nation are quoted from the Word, which must be understood, however, according to the internal sense, and so in a different way than according to the letter, (n. 7051). Since that nation represented the Church, and because the Word was written among them and about them, therefore Divine heavenly things were signified by their names; as, for example, by Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Ephraim, Joseph and the rest. And, by Judah, in the internal sense is signified the Lord as to celestial love and also His celestial kingdom, (n. 3654, 3881, 5583, 5782, 6362-6381). So that it may be known what correspondences are, their quality, and the quality of representa­ tives in the Word, something shall also be said about them. 31
  • THE WHITE HORSE [12 All things which correspond also represent, and hence signify, so that correspondences and representatives are one, (n. 2896, 2897, 2973, 2987, 2989, 2990, 3002, 3225). What corre­ spondences and representatives are, shown from experience and by examples, (n. 2763, 2987­ 3002, 3213-3226, 3337-3352, 3472-3485, 4218­ 4228, 9280). Among the ancients the science of correspondences and representations was the pre-eminent science, (n. 3021-3419,4280,4748, 4844,4964,4966, 6004, 7729, 10252), and prin­ cipally among the people of the east, (n. 5702, 6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10252, 10407) ; and in Egypt more than in other places, (n. 5702, 6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10407); and also among the Gentiles, as in Greece and elsewhere, (n. 2762, 7729). But at the present time, especially in Europe, it is among the lost sciences, (n. 2894, 2895, 2995, 3630, 3632, 3747, 3748, 3749, 4581, 4966, 10252). Yet this science is the most excellent of all sciences, since without it the Word is not understood, nor the significance of the rites of the Jewish Church of which we read in the Word; neither is heaven's quality known, nor what is spiritual, nor how there is an influx of the spiritual into the natural, nor the manner of the influx of the soul into the body, besides many other things, (n. 4180, and in passages cited above). All things which appear among angels and spirits are representatives according to correspond­ ences, (n. 1971, 3213-3226, 3475, 3485, 9457, 32
  • 12] THE WHITE HORSE 9481, 9576, 9577). The heavens are full of representatives, (n. 1521, 1532, 1619). Repre­ sentatives are so far more beautiful and more perfect as they are more interiorly in the heavens, (n. 3475). Representatives therein are real appearances since they are from the light of heaven, which is Divine Truth, and this itself is the essential of all things that come into existence, (n. 3485). The reason why each and all of those things which are in the spiritual world are represented in the natural world, is that the internal clothes itself with concordant forms in the external, by means of which it renders itself visible and is seen, (n. 6275, 6284, 6299). Thus the end adopts a suitable guise, that it may present itself as the cause in a lower sphere, and then that it may present itself as the effect in a sphere still lower. And when the end, by means of the cause, becomes the effect, it then becomes visible or appears before the eyes, (n. 5711). This may be illustrated by the influx of the soul into the body, namely, that the soul is clothed with such things in the body by means of which all that it thinks and wills can be expressed and manifest in a visible form. Wherefore, when thought flows down into the body, it is represented by such gestures and actions as correspond to it, (n. 2988). The affections of the mind are plainly represented in the face by means of its various expressions to such an extent that they may be observed 33
  • THE WHITE HORSE [12 there, (n. 4791-4805, 5695). Hence it is plain that in each and all things of nature there is interiorly concealed a cause and an end from the spiritual world, (n. 3562, 5711), since the things which are in nature are ultimate effects, within which are things prior, (n. 4240, 4939, 5051, 6275, 6284, 6299, 9216). Internal things are what are represented, and external things are what represent, (n. 4292). What corre­ spondences and representations are may be further seen in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, wherein it treats of the correspondence of all things of heaven, with all things of man, (n. 87-102); the correspondence of heaven with all things of earth, (n. 103-115) ; and reprefientatives and appearances in heaven, (n. 170-176). Since all things in nature are representative of spiritual and celestial things, therefore in ancient times there were Churches in which all the externals, which were rituals, were repre­ sentative. Those Churches were therefore called representative Churches, (n. 519, 521, 2896). The Church established among the sons of Israel was a representative Church, (n. 1003, 2179, 10149). Therein all the rituals were externals, which represented the internal things which are of heaven and the Church, (n. 4288, 4874). The representatives of the Church and of worship came to an end when the Lord came into the world and manifested Himself, because the Lord revealed the internals of the Church, and because all things of that 34
  • 12-13] THE WHITE HORSE Church, in a supreme sense, looked to Him, (n. 4835). 13. THE SENSE OF THE LETTER OR THE EXTERNAL SENSE OF THE WORD. The sense of the letter of the Word is expressed according to appearances in the world, (n. 589, 926, 1832, 1874, 2242, 2520, 2533, 2719), [1408, 1410]. And it is adapted to the comprehension of the simple-minded, (n. 2533, 9048, 9063, 9086). In the sense of the letter the Word is natural, (n. 8783), because what is natural is the ultimate in which spiritual and celestial things terminate, and upon which they stand like a house upon its foundation. Moreover, without an external, the internal sense of the Word would be like a house without a foundation, (n. 9360, 9430, 9433, 9824, 10044, 10436). Being of such a character the Word is the containant of a spiritual and a celestial sense, (n. 9407), and because it is such there is a Divine holiness in the sense of the letter as to each and all things therein, even to every single jot, (n. 639, 680, 1869, 1870, 9198, 10321, 10637). Although abrogated, the laws laid down for the Israelites are still the Holy Word on account of the internal sense within them, (n. 9211, 9259, 9349). Among the laws, judgments and statutes laid down for the Israelitish or Jewish Church, which was a representative Church, there are some still binding both in the external and internal sense ; there are some which ought to 35
  • THE WHITE HORSE [13-14 be wholly observed in their external sense; some, which may be of use, if people wish to observe them, and some which are entirely abrogated, (n. 9349). The Word is Divine, even as to those things which are abrogated, on account of the heavenly things which lie concealed within their internal sense, (n. 10637). What the quality of the Word is in the sense of the letter, if it is not understood at the same time as to the internal sense, or, what is the same thing, according to true doctrine from the Word, (n. 10402). Without the internal sense, that is, without genuine doctrine from the Word, an immense profusion of heresies springs up from the sense of the letter, (n. 104(0). Those who are in externals without internals cannot endure the interior things of the Word, (n. 10694). Such were the Jews and such also are they today, (n. 301, 302, 303, 3479, 4429, 4433, 4680, 4844, 4847, 10396, 10401, 10407, 10694, 10701, 10707). 14. THE LoRD IS THE WORD. In the inmost sense of the Word the Lord alone is treated of, and all the states of the glorification of His Human are described ; that is, of His union with the Divine Itself; and also all the states involved in the subjugation of the hells, and of the bringing into order of all things therein, as well as in the heavens, (n. 2249, 7014). So that the Lord's whole life in the world is 36
  • 14] THE WHlTE HORSE described in that sense, and by means of that sense the Lord's presence with the angels is continuous, (n. 2523). Accordingly in the inmost of the Word there is the Lord alone, and the Divinity and holiness of the Word have their origin thence, (n. 1873, 9357). The Lord's saying that the Scripture concerning Himself was fulfilled, means that all things contained in the inmost sense were fulfilled, (n.7933). The Word means the Divine Truth, (n. 4692, 5075, 9987). The Lord is the Word because He is the Divine Truth, (n. 2533). The Lord is also the Word because the Word is from Him, and concerning Him, (n. 2859), and in its inmost sense concerning the Lord alone; thus the Lord Himself is therein, (n. 1873, 9357) ; and because in each and all things of the Word there is the marriage of Divine Good and Divine Truth, which marriage is in the Lord alone, (n. 3004, 3005, 3009, 4137, 5194, 5502, 6343, 7945, 8339, 9263, 9314), [5138J. Divine Truth is the sole Reality, and that in which it is, which is from the Divine, is the sole Substan­ tiality, (n. 5272, 6880, 7004, 8200). Since the Divine Truth, proceeding from the Lord as the Sun in heaven, is light there, and the Divine Good is heat there ; and because all things therein come into being from these, just as all things in the world come into being from light and heat, which are also in their own substances, and act by means of them ; and because the 37
  • THE WHITE HORSE [14 natural world exists by means of heaven or the spiritual world; it is clear that all things which were created, were created from the Divine Truth and thus from the Word, according to these words in John, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, and by it were all things made that were made; and THE WORD WAS MADE FLESH. John i I, 2, 3, 14. (n. 2803, 2894, 5272, 6880). Further particulars concerning the creation of all things from Divine Truth, thus by the Lord, may be seen in the work on HEA YEN AND HELL, n. 137 ; and more fully in the passage concerning the Sun in heaven, where it is shown that it is the Lord, and that it is His Divine Love, (n. 116-125) ; and that Divine Truth is the light, and Divine Good is the heat from that Sun in heaven, (n. 126-140). The Lord's conjunction with man is through the Word, by means of the internal sense, (n. 10375). Each and all things of the Word effect this conjunction, and hence the Word is wonderful beyond comparison with every other writing, (n. 10632, 10633, 10634). Since the writing of the Word it is by this means that the Lord speaks with men, (n. 10290). See, in addition, the facts adduced in the work on HEAYEN AND HELL, concerning the conjunction of heaven with man by means of the Word, (n. 303-310). 38
  • 15-16] THE WHITE HORSE 15. CONCERNING THOSE WHO ARE OPPOSED TO THE WORD. Concerning those who ridicule, blaspheme and profane the Word, (n. 1878) ; their quality in the other life, (n. 1761, 9222). They relate to the viscous things of the blood, (n. 5719). How very dangerous it is to profane the Word, (n. 571-582). How harmful it is, if principles of falsity, especially those which are favourable to the love of self and the world, are confirmed by means of the Word, (n. 589). They who have no affection for truth for the sake of truth are utterly disdainful of those things which belong to the internal sense of the Word, and are nauseated by them. (Shown from experience of such persons in the spiritual world, n. 5702.) Certain persons in the other life, who made an attempt to spurn utterly the interiors of the Word, were deprived of rationality, (n. 1879). 16. THE BOOKS WHICH CONSTITUTE THE WORD. The books of the Word are all those which contain an internal sense. Those, on the contrary, which do not contain an internal sense, are not the Word. The books of the Word in the Old Testament are :-THE FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES, THE BOOK OF JOSHUA, THE BOOK OF JUDGES, THE TWO BOOKS OF SAMUEL, THE TWO BOOKS OF KINGS, THE PSALMS OF DAVID, the Prophets ISAIAH, JERE­ MIAH, THE LAMENTAnONS, EZEKIEL, 39
  • THE WHITE HORSE [16-17 DANIEL, HOSEA, JOEL, AMOS, OBA­ DIAH, JONAH, MICAH, NAHUM, HABAKKUK, ZEPHANIAH, HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI. In the Ne~ T~am~nt, the four Evangelists :-MAT­ THEW, MARK, LUKE, JOHN, and the REVELATION. The rest do not contain an internal sense, (n. 10325). The book of Job is an ancient book in which, indeed, there is an internal sense, but not in a connected order, (n. 3540, 9942). 17. FURTHER PARTICULARS ABOUT THE WORD. In the Hebrew tongue WORD means various .things, such as the (spoken word, l.. thought.?of the mi~d, every thing that really 3 comes into existence,J and also ~something, L (n. 9987). ' The Word signifies I5ivmelfuth and the Lord, (n. 2533, 4692, 5075, 9987). Words denote truths, (n. 4692, 5075). They signify do~rinal trungs, (n. 1288). The Ten Words mean all Divine Tn~ths, (n. 10688). In the Word, and es pecially in the pro­ phetical parts, there are two expressions for one and the same trung. One relates to good and the other to truth, which are thus conjoined, (n. 683, 707, 2516, 8339). It cannot be known, except from the internal sense of the Word, which expression has relation to good and which to truth. For there are special words used to express what relates to good, and others to express what relates to truth, (n. 793, 801). 40
  • 17] THE WHITE HORSE This is so consistently the case, that merely from the words used, it may be known whether they treat of good or of truth, (n. 2722). Again, at another time, one expression involves something general, and the other some par­ ticular derived from that general principle, (n. 2212). There is a kind of reciprocation in the Word, (concerning which, see n. 2240). Most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, (n. 4816). The internal sense is in keeping with its own subject after the manner of a predicate, [no 4502]. They who have taken delight in the Word, in the other life receive the warmth of heaven, in which is heavenly love, according to the quality and degree of their delight from love, (n. 1773). 41
  • APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE [1-2 APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE 1. Since it cannot but appear strange at the present day that a horse should mean the un--9~standing of tr.!:!.th, and in an opposite sense, reasonings in confirmation of falsity, as if from perception, I wish to bring together still more passages from the Word where the horse is mentioned. They are the following: Is Thy wrath against the sea, 0 Jehovah, that Thou didst ride upon Thine horses? Thy chariots are [A. V. of] salvation. Thou hast trodden [A. V. didst walk through] the sea with Thine horses, the mire of the waters [A.V. the heap of great waters]. Hab. iii 8, 15. The hoofs of the horses of Jehovah shall be counted like rocks [A.V. flint]. Isa. v 28. At Thy rebuke both the chariot and horse have fallen asleep [A.V. are cast into a dead sleep]. Ps. Ixxvi 6. I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms ; and I will overthrow the chariots, and those that ride in them ; and the horses and their riders shall come down. Hagg ii 22. I will cut olf the horse from Jerusalem, and he shall speak peace unto the nations [A.V. heathen]. Zech. ix 10. 2. By a horse, in these passages, is meant the understanding of the truth of the Church. By a chariot is meant the doctrine derived therefrom, and by those who ride in chariots 42
  • 2] APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE and on horses, those who are in the under- standing and in doctrine from the Word. This appears still more clearly from these passages: Gather yourselves on every side to My sacrifice. Ye shall be filled at My table with horse and chariot. So will I set My glory among the nations [A.V. heathen]. Ezek. xxxix 17, 20, 21. Gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God, and [A.V. that ye may] eat the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them. Rev. xix 17, 18. Here the New Church to be established by the Lord is treated of ; and that then the under- I standing of the Word will be opened and me?-l will be instructed in the doctrine of trutn; therefrom. What otherwise would it be but nonsense, that they should be filled at the Lord's table with horse and chariot: and that they should eat the flesh of horses and of them that sit on them! In addition to the passages adduced the meaning of a horse and chariot is evident from the following: Gird Thy sword [A. V. upon Thy thigh], a Mighty ! Mount up, ride upon the Word of truth [A.V. ride prosperously because of truth]. Ps. xlv 3, 4. Sing ye ; extol Him that rideth upon the clouds [A.V. heavens]. Ps. Ixviii 4. Jehovah rideth upon a cloud. Isa. xix I. a sing praises unto the Lord ; To Him that rideth upon the heaven of heavens, which was of old. Ps. Ixviii 32, 33. God rode upon a cherub. Ps. xviii 10. 43
  • APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE [2-3 Then shalt thou delight thyself in Jehovah ; and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth. [Isa. lviii 14]. Deut. xxxii 13. I will make Ephraim to ride. Hosea xII. In these passages to ride means to instruct and to be instructed in the truths of doctrine, and so to become wise. By thehigh -places' of the earth are signified the sublimer truths of the J Church. By Ephraim, also, is meant the under­ standing of the Word. Similar things are meant by horses and chariots, by the four chariots going forth from between the mountains of brass, and by the four horses harnessed to them, which were red, black, white and grisled, which are also called spirits, and are said to have gone forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth, (Zech. vi 1-15). Similar things are also meant by these words : When the Lamb opened the seals of the Book, there went forth horses in order; at first, a white horse, secondly a red horse, thirdly a black horse and fourthly a pale horse. . . Rev. vi 1-8. By the Book whose seals the Lamb opened, is understood the Word. It is evident that nothing else could come forth from this but the under­ standing of it. How otherwise could it be understood that horses went forth out of an opened Book ! 3. It is confirmed that a horse means the understangi!!g of truth, and a chariQt doctrine, fromtne same things when mentioned in an 44
  • 3J APPENDIX TO TIlE WHITE HORSE opposite sense. In this sense a horse signifies the understanding under the influence of reasonings from the falsification of truths, and a chariot, the doctrine or heresy arising therefrom, as in the following passages : Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help; and stay on horses ; and look not unto the Holy One of Israel; for Egypt is man [A.V. the Egyptians are men] and not God; and his [A.V. their] horses flesh and not spirit. Isa. xxxi 1, 3. Thou shalt set a king over Israel, whom Jehovah shall choose; but he shall not multiply horses to himself nor bring back the people into [A.V. cause the people to return to] Egypt, to the end that he may multiply horses. Deut. xvii 15, 16. These things are said because Egypt signifies the natural man, who perverts the truths of the Word by reasonings from the bodily senses. What else :::an be meant by the horses of Egypt being flesh and not spirit, and by the king not multiplying horses, but falsities of religion? Asshur shall not save us ; we will not ride upon a horse. Hosea xiv 3. Some in a chariot, and some in horses: but we will glory in [A.V. remember] the name of our God. Ps. xx 7. An horse is a lying thing for safety. Ps. xxxiii 17. The Holy One of Israel hath said ; in confidence shall be your strength. But ye said, No ; we will flee upon an horse, we will ride upon the swift. Isa. xxx 15, 16. 45
  • APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE [3 Jehovah shall make Judah as a horse of glory ; and the riders on horses shall be made ashamed [A.V. confounded]. Zech. x 3, 5. I will bring against Tyre the king of Babylon, with horse, and with chariot, and with horsemen; by reason of the abundance of his horses their dust shall cover thee : thy walls shall shake at the voice of the horseman, and of the chariot. With the hoofs of his horses shall he tread down all thy streets. Ezek. xxvi 7, 10, 11. By Tyre in the Word is meant the Church as to the cognitions 1 of good and truth, and by the king of Babylon, their falsification and profana­ tion. It is on this account that it is here said that he would come with horse, and with chariot and with horsemen, and that by reason of the abundance of horses their dust would cover [it]. Woe to the city of bloods, it is all full of a lie [A.V. lies] . . . the neighing horse and the jumping chariot. Nahum iii 1, 2. By the city of bloods is meant doctrine drawn from falsified truths of the Word. As well as in other passages, as in: Isa. v 26, 28 ; Jer. vi 23; viii 16; xlvi 4, 9; 1 37, 38, 42; Ezek. xvii 15 ; xxiii 5, 6, 20; Hab. i 6, 8, 9, 10 ; Ps. lxvi 11, 12 ; cxlvii 10. The understanding IThe term cogniliones, here used in the Latin, js translated U cognitions " to distinguish these knowledges from those that are meant by the Latin scientifica also used in the Writings of Swedenborg. Two of the meanings most commonly associated with cogllillones are, (1) a particular species of knowledge. as knowledges of the Word, of good and truth, or of spiritual things (A.C. 24, 3665, 9945 ; N.J.H.D. 51 ; H.H. 111, 351,469,474,517,518); and (2) a higher type of knowledge which is from understanding and perception (A.C. 1486-7 ; H.H. 353). 46
  • 3] APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE of the truth of the Word, when it is falsified and destroyed, is also meant by the red, black and pale horses, in Rev. vi 4, 5, 8. Since, therefore, horse signifies the understanding of truth, and in an opposite sense the under­ standing of falsity, it is evident of what quality the Word is in the spiritual sense. It is well known that in E.,gypt there were hieroglyphics, and that these were inscribed on the columns and walls of the temples, etc. ; but at the present time no one knows what things were signified by them. They weLe . nothing else than correspondences of natural qnd spiritual things, which the Egyptians studied more than any other people in Asia of their time, and according to which the orae~t writers of Greece composed their fables. The most ancieIltStyle of writing was no other. To this I will add this new information, that all things which appear in the spiritual world before angels and spirits are nothing but correspondences. It is on this account that the whole Sacred Scripture is written by corre­ spondences, so that by means of it, because it is such, there might be conjunction between men of the Church and angels of heaven. Moreover, because the Eg1Qli.ans, and with them others of the kingdoms or Asifl, began to turn those correspondences into idolatries, to which the sons of Israel were inclined, therefore the latter were forbidden to make any use of them of their own accord. This is clearly evident from 47
  • APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE [3 the first commandment of the Decalogue, where it is said : Thou shalt not make to thyself a graven image, of any form that is in the heavens above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the waters under the earth: Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them, for I am Jehovah thy God. Deut. v 8, 9. besides in very many passages elsewhere. From that time the science of correspondences has been obliterated by degrees to such an- extent Ithat at the present day it is scarcely known that it ever existed and that it was something of importance. Now, however, because a New Church founded upon the Word is to be I established by the Lord, which is understood by the New Jerusalem in Revelation, it has pleased the Lord to reveal that science, and thus to open the Word such_as it (s interiqrly in its bosom, that is, in the spiritual sense. This has been done through me in ARCANA CAELESTIA, published in London, and later in APOCALYPSE REVEALED, published in Amsterdam. Since .that science of corresPQ.lli!.en-ces was regarded It by the ancients as the science of sciences, their wisdom being derived from it, it is important that someone of your Academy should devote his attention to the study of it. This can be done, in the first instance, from the cor!:.espondences disclosed in APOCALYPSE REVEALED, and proved from the Word. Should it be desired, I am willing to _explain the 48
  • • 3] APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE Egyptian hierogJyphics, which are nothing but correspondences, and to publish their meaning, which cannot be done by anyone else. EM. SWEDENBORG. 49
  • • INDEX ANCIENT CHURCHES. They were representative Churches, 4. All their externals or rituals were repre­ sentatives, 12. APOCALYPSE REVEALED. The work mentioned, App. 4. ARCANA CAELESTlA. Contents of the work, 5. Extracts from it, I, 2, 6-17. The work mentioned, App.4. ASSEMBLY OF INTELLIGENT AND WISE. Seen by Swedenborg in the Spiritual World, 3. CANAAN. All places in that land were made representa­ tives, 12. CHARIOT. Signifies doctrine from the Word, 2, App. 2. Also false doctrine, App. 3. CHURCH. The Ancient Churches were representative, 4. Charity constitutes the Church, 8. A New Church is understood by the New Jerusalem, App. 2, 4. CLOUD. Means the Word in the sense of the letter, 11. CONJUNCTION OF THE LORD WITH MAN. Effected through the Word, 14. CORRESPONDENCE. What it is, 9. The internal and external senses of the Word make one by it, 10. The Word is written by correspondences, 12. The Science of corre­ spondences a pre-eminent science among the ancients, 12. The Lord spoke by correspondences, representatives and significatives, 12. Knowledge of correspondences lost, App. 4. Now revealed anew, App. 4. DOCTRINE. Is necessary to understand the Word, 8. Must be from those who are in enlightenment, 8. Can be confirmed by rational things, 8. The internal sense is the genuine doctrine itself of the Church, 11. EGYPT. Represents the natural man, App. 3. Hierogly­ phics, App. 4. Rise of idolatry in Egypt, App. 4. ELIJAH AND ELISHA. Represented the Lord as to the Word,2. 50
  • INDEX ENLIGHTENMENT. Is necessary to understand the Word, 7. Is given when the Word is read from a love of truth and good, 7. Is an actual opening of the interiors of the mind,7. GLORIFICATION OF THE LORD'S HUMAN. Is described in the inmost sense of the Word, 14. GREECE. Fables from correspondences, 4, App. 4. HEAVEN. As a whole resembles one man, 11. Is likened to a marriage, 11. The heavens are full of representatives, 14. The conjunction of heaven with man, 14. HEAVEN AND HELL. The work referred to, 9, 10, ll, 12,15. HIEROGLYPHICS. Are correspondences, App. 4. Swedenborg willing to explain them, App. 4. HORSE. Means understanding, 2. Its signification derived from representatives in the Spiritual World, 3, and from the Ancient Churches, 3. Pegasus, 4. Trojan horse, 4. Explained as to correspondence, App. 1-4. INFLUX. Of soul into body, 12. INMOST SENSE OF THE WORD. Treats of the Lord alone, 14. INSPIRATION OF THE WORD. How explained at this daY,6. What it is, 10. INTERNAL SENSE OF THE WORD. Intended especially for angels, 10. Contains countless arcana, I I. Is the genuine doctrine itself of the Church, 11. There is also an internal sense to the historical parts of the Word, I I. JOB. Book of, 16. JUDAH. In the internal sense signifies the Lord as to celestial love and also H is celestial kingdom, 12. JUSTICE. Is the merit which belongs to the Lord alone, I. MARRIAGE. There is a marriage of Divine Good and Divine Truth in the Word, 11. NAMES. In the Word signify things, and in heaven are changed into ideas of the things, 6. Reuben, Simeon, etc., 12. NEW CHURCH. Is meant by the New Jerusaiem, App. 2. Science of correspondences is now revealed for this New Church, App. 4. 51
  • INDEX NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS HEAVENLY DOCfRINE. The work mentioned, 6, 8. PHILISTINES. Those in the doctrine of faith and not in the life of faith were formerly called Philistines, 8. PLACES IN THE WORD. Were named on account of the internal sense, 12. PROFANATION OF THE WORD. Its danger, 15. REVELATION. Its necessity, 6. Its various forms, 6. The revelation of the internal sense of the Word, App. 4. SENSE OF THE LETTER OF THE WORD. Is not consistent with itself, 7. Serves as a medium for the spiritual ideas of angels, 10. In the sense of the letter the Word is as it were a cloud, 11. IS wntten by pure correspondences, 12. Is expressed in accordance with appearances in the world, and adapted to the com­ prehension of the simple-minded, 13. From the sense of the letter, without the internal sense, an immense profusion of heresies springs up, 13. VASTATION OF THE CHURCH. Takes place when there is no longer any understanding of truth, 2. WHITE HORSE. Description in Rev. xix 11-14, 16 in I. Represents the understanding of the Word as to interior things, I, 5. WORD, THE. The Lord as the Word, I. Its necessity and excellence, 6. The Ancient Word, 6. Cannot be under­ stood except by those who are enlightened, 7. Is not understood without doctrine, 8. Is for men and angels, being adapted to both, 10. Unites heaven and earth and hence called a Covenant, 10. Has come down from the Lord through the three heavens, 10. The reason for its Divinely providential preservation, 11. The Divine and heavenly marriage is therein, 11. Is as a cloud in the letter, and the glory in the internal sense, 11. Is an image of heaven, 11. Is the containant of a spiritual and a celestial sense, and hence is Divine as to every jot, 13. The Lord is the Word, 14. The Lord's conjunction with man is through the Word, 14. The Books which constitute the Word, 16. Opened by the Lamb, App. 2. 52
  • INDEX INDEX OF SCRIPTURE PASSAGES QUOTED OR REFERRED TO GENESIS EZEKIEL xlix 9 xvii 15 App.3 xlix 17, 18 2 xxiii 5,6,20 App.3 xxvi 7,10, I1 App.3 DEUTERONOMY xxxix 17,20,21 App.2 v 8, 9 App.4 xvii 15,16 App.3 HOSEA x 1I App.2 2 KINGS xiv 3 App.3 ii 11, 12 2 vi I7 2 NAHUM xiii 14 2, 3 iii 1,2 App.3 JOB HABAKKUK xxxix 17,18,19 2 i 6,8,9,10 · App.3 PSALMS iii 8, 15 . 2, App. I xviii 10 App.2 xx 7 App.3 HAGGAI xxxiii 17 ii 22 App.l · App.3 xlv 3,4 · App.2 xlv 4 ZECHARIAH 2 vi 1-15 Ixvi 11,12 App.2 · App.3 lxviii 4 App.2 ix 10 App.l Ixviii 32,33 App.2 x 3,5 App.3 Ixxvi 6 App.l xii 4 2 cxlvii 10 App.3 xiv 20 2 ISAIAH MATTHEW v 26,28 : App. 3 v 18 11 v 28 App. I xix 1 · App.2 JOHN xxx 15, 16 · App.3 i 1-3, 14 14 xxxi 1,3 App.3 Iviii 14 App.2 REVELATION vi 1-8 App. 2, 3 JEREMIAH vi 4, 5, 8 · App.3 vi 23 App.3 xix 11-14,16 1 viii 16 App.3 xix 17,18 · App.2 xlvi 4, 9 App.3 xix 17, 18, 19, I 37,38,42 App.·3 20,21 53