"Charitymo/ be likened to        a   fi ame "   Z(/             El  This small book containsa simple key to the NewSociety...
CHARITY      A Translation   cif the   MS.        "De Charitate"                By EMANUEL SWEDENBORGTHE SWEDENBORG SOCIET...
CHARITY               EDITORIAL NOTETHIS work on " Charity " was left by Swedenborgamong his manuscripts.         The firs...
CHARITY   From a careful study of the PhotolithographeclEdition of the MS., in which the style of hand-writing of the vari...
EDITORIAL NOTESwedenborg, Vo!. 2, p. 999, had previously sug­gested that this treatise was the one promised inthe Preface ...
CONTENTS                                                                     PAGEORDER AND ARRANGEMENT          (First and...
CONTENTS                                                                 PAGE        7.	 Hence it follows that the" first"...
CONTENTS                                                                 PAGE v.	   ",rAN IS THE SUBJECT OF CHARITY. AND S...
CONTENTS                                                                 PAGE         6.	 A man is born to the end that he...
CONTENTS                                                                  PAGK XI.    THERE     AREC£!V~RSI~              ...
ORDER AND ARRANGEMENT.*                   [FIRST VERSION.]    1.   THE"   FIRST"    OF CHARITY IS TO SHUN EVILSBECAUSE THE...
ORDER AND ARRANGEMENT.*                   [SECOND VERSION.]   I. THE " FIRST" 01 CHARITY IS TO LOOK TOTHE LORD AND SHUN EV...
FIRST VERSION   5. SIGNS OF CHARITY ARE ALL THE THINGS THATARE OF WORSHIP.   6.   BElEFACTIONS   OF        CHARITY   ARE  ...
SECOND VERSION   S.   SIGNS OF CHARITY ARE ALL THE THINGS THATARE OF WORSHIP.   6. BENEFACTIONS OF CHARITY ARE ALL THEGOOD...
THE .. FIRST" 01" CHARITY IS TO LOOK TO       THE   LORD AND     SHUN       EVILS   BECAUSE THEY         ARE SINS; THIS IS...
NOS. 1-4   diabolical and hellish, and thus deadly, and because   accordingly there is eternal damnation in them.   If	 a ...
CHARITYwhat are sins, he can see them in himself, confessthem before the Lord, and repent of them.   It is said that he ca...
NOS.       5-86    4. Befure repentance, good is spurious good.  It is the same with charity, because guod is uf  charity....
CHARITY     look to the Lord and shun evils becau$e they a-re     sins.        Every good which a man does to the neighbou...
NOS.       9-13   but from the Lord. For the Lord cannot enter   with a man, and do any good from Himself   through him, b...
CHARITY      (4)	 In proportion as a man does not wish to do            evil to the neighbour, he wishes to do good       ...
NOS.   14-19   many other things that are his neighbours? From   which it is evident that not wishing to do evil to   the ...
CHARITY20	         3. A mall may be doing good, which he believes      t~     be of charity, and all the while not be shun...
NOS. 20-2622   Man has a twofold will, interior and exterior.   The interior will is purified by repentance; and   then th...
CHARITY      what is good; whereas good, from knowing what      is good, knows evil. 27	     5. Before the good a man does...
NOS. 27-4235       In a word, good to anyone is good in the same      degree and of the same kind as evil to him is evil. ...
CHARITY       Arrangement into order:       (1)	 A man is not a man from the form, but from            the good and truth ...
NOS.   43-50  44      It is said, .. good and truth, that is, will and       understanding," because Rood is of the will, ...
OiARITY     him is neighbour,* teaches that not every man IS     neighbour in the same way as another.51      He who does ...
:,105.   51-60     and hence one man is not neighbour in the same     degree [as another].         Good is distinguished, ...
CHARITY      accordance with which a man has his standing in      the world. Through his civil good a man is a      man of...
NOS. 61-72     Every form derives its own [character] from an   essence; therefore, such as the essence is, such is   the ...
CHARITY      (4)	 The human race is the neighbour in the           widest sense; but, because it is distinguished         ...
NOS.   73-81      societies; and when they meet they do not recog­      nize one another. In fact they are, each one, in  ...
CHARITY       presented to view as one man. I have seen an       eminent society as one man. The form of heaven       is t...
NOS,    82-87      kingdom does n~sire l-he good of ano~her, but      would ilKe- to destroy it as to wea!tnana power,    ...
CHARITY      kingdom; it cannot then be denied that to me he      is the neighbQur~<:ording to the good of h~eIl­   Ngion ...
NOS.   88-92                                 v90      MAN IS THE SUBJECT OF CHARITY, ANn SUCH AS IS        THE CHARITY WIT...
CHARITY     of wisdom, such is the man; but the life of wisdom     is love, and love is the essence, and wisdom is the    ...
NOS. 93-102g8      In the world a man is not a charity in respect of    his form, in face, body, or voice, but his mind ma...
CHARITY      Son to have Life in Himself" j* and elsewhere.      But, because Life is God, the Divine cannot be      appro...
NOS. r03-Ilr106    From these things it is evident that a man is    only a form of charity, and that the charity is of    ...
CHARITY112      It is in consequence of this that they who are in     charity are in light, or, if they are not in it, tha...
NOS. II2-120     will of good through the understanding of truth,     in the body. And so the tree first has existence.116...
CHARITY121      In a word, there is an image of the man in each      and everyone of these things.122      6. The neighbou...
NOS. 121-126      heaven. Al1 men have a general perception of      truth; but the love of what is lower casts a man      ...
CHARITY       (4)	 They also make a form which corresponds            to the human form.       (5)	 In this form, each one...
NOS.   127-133     I. What is Q.iYiII.e among them. 2. What is j~     among them. 3. What is moral among them.     4. Dili...
CHARITY      what follows; for there are many varieties, which      however always agree with this law.134      2. Ministr...
NOS. 134-142     are they. They are different in the east, the west,     the south, and the north. Everyone, on coming    ...
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947

897

Published on

Emanuel Swedenborg

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
897
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Swedenborg emanuel-charity-a-translation-of-de-charitate-1766-the-swedenborg-society-london-1947"

  1. 1. "Charitymo/ be likened to a fi ame " Z(/ El This small book containsa simple key to the NewSociety which the worlddemands. It shows that "Charity"is not merely the giving ofalms, but is that outlookand life which bind mentogether in a common pur­pose, destroying hatred andself-seeking. This work cannot fail toimpress the reader with itsmessage of hope. It is achallenge to thinking menand women to take theirpart in bringing a true andlasting peace among us.Price 3s.
  2. 2. CHARITY A Translation cif the MS. "De Charitate" By EMANUEL SWEDENBORGTHE SWEDENBORG SOCIETY (Inc.) Bloomsbury Way, London, W.C. 1 1947
  3. 3. CHARITY EDITORIAL NOTETHIS work on " Charity " was left by Swedenborgamong his manuscripts. The first part of it(Chapters i-xi of the first draft) was publishedin London in 1840 from a copy of the originalMS. In 1870, under the editorship of the Rev.R. L. Tafel, a photographic reproduction of theMS. was made; and from this a transcription ofthe Latin text was made by the Rev. S. H.Worcester, and published in New York by theAmerican Swedenborg Printing and PublishingSociety in 1878, and in subsequent editions. Thepresent English translation has been made fromthis Latin text, corrected after a careful comparisonwith the Photolithographed Edition. What remains of the work, as Swedenborg leftit, is written on 24 sheets measuring 1St x 4tinches. Of these, the first eighteen have beennumbered, 1-16, 19, and 20. The remaining sixsheets are unnumbered. Two sheets, 17 and 18are missing. It consists of a first draft of thetreatise, chapters i-xi (except for the portion ofviii and ix contained in the missing sheets 17 and18), preceded by an " Order and Arrangement"of the chapter headings. To this was subsequentlyadded a revised list of chapter headings, "Thesections in their series." The six unnumberedsheets contain chapter i and part of chapter ii ofa second and fuller draft, also a short draft ofchapters xii and iv on one page, and the headingonly of chapter iii by itself on another page. ii
  4. 4. CHARITY From a careful study of the PhotolithographeclEdition of the MS., in which the style of hand-writing of the various corrections and additionsmade in the "Order and Arrangement" andelsewhere has been considered, it appears that thefollowing was Swedenborgs order of writing: A. Order and Arrangement (First list of head- ings). B. First Draft (Chapters i-xi). C. The sections in their series (Revised list of headings resulting from the writing of the First Draft). D. Second Draft (Chapters i and ii only, and some fragments)."Ve have followed this order in the present edition. For the convenience of the reader we have giventwo versions of the " Order and Arrangement,"the first as it stood before Swedenborg started onthe text, and the second after he had made anumber of corrections during the writing of thetext. Numerous changes and deletions occur else-where in the work, but these have not been shown. There is no evidence to show whether any con-siderable time elapsed between the writing of thefirst and second drafts. The date of the work canbe only approximately determined. The earliestpossible date for its completion is the latter partof 1764, after the publication of ANGELIC WISDOMCONCERNING THE DIVINE PROVIDENCE, referred toat the end of chapter xi; but a reference to aprojected work on "The Doctrine of the NewJerusalem concerning Charity" in THE ApOCA-LYPSE REVEALED, no. 915, published in 1766, sug-gests the latter part of 1766 as more probable.This is the date assigned to the work by the Rev.James Hyde in his Bibliography of SwedenborgsTV orks, where the evidence is considered in detail.The Rev. R. L. Tafel, in Documents concerning iii
  5. 5. EDITORIAL NOTESwedenborg, Vo!. 2, p. 999, had previously sug­gested that this treatise was the one promised inthe Preface to THE DOCTRINE OF THE LORD underthe title" Angelic vVisdom respecting Life." The only title in the work itself is CHARITY (DeCharitate), which appears at the beginning of thesecond draft. We have adopted this in preferenceto .. The Doctrine of Charity" and .. The Doc­trine of the New Jerusalem concerning Charity,"under which titles the work has previously beenpublished. The numbering of the paragraphs in the presenttranslation is that adopted by the Rev. J. F. Pottsin the S7.vedenborg Concordance. Except for theportions containing Swedenborgs own marginaladditions, the footnotes are the Editors; also thefew additions in the text placed in square brackets. This little work, although unfinished and frag­mentary, consisting as it does in part of merenotes of things to be written, contains neverthelesssustained rational argument and passages of rarebeauty. It presents teaching about charity, as aspiritual endowment given by the Lord to thosewho shun evils as sins against Him, which isentirely consistent with the rest of Swedenborgstheological writings. Its practical bearing on theproblems of social order, government, and thedaily lives of all sorts and conditions of men, willcommend it to those who would learn how to lovetheir neighbour, and in so doing love the LordJesus Christ. I am indebted greatly to the Rev. E. C.Mongredien for valuable assistance and advicegiven me in the preparation of this translation,and for the results of his comparison of the Latintext with the MS., and investigations into theorder of writing of the work. FRANK F. COULSON. iv
  6. 6. CONTENTS PAGEORDER AND ARRANGEMENT (First and Second Versions) I T. THE "FIRST" OF CHARITY IS TO LOOK TO THE LORD AND SHUN EVILS BECAUSE THEY ARE SINS; THIS IS DONE BY REPENTANCE . 4 J. In so far as anyollc does not look to the Lord and shun evils because they are sins, he remains in them . 4 2. In so far as anyone does not recognize and know what are sins, he does not see otherwise than that he is without sin . 5 3. In so far as anyone recognizes and knows what are sins, he can see them in himself, confess them before the Lord, and repent of them 5 4. Before repentance, good is spurious good. It is the same with charity, because good is of charity . 7 5. Consequently the" nrst " of charity is to look to the Lord and shun evils bccause they are ~m 7 IT. THE "SECOND" OF CHARITY IS TO DO GOODS BECAUSE THEY ARE USES . 9 1. Not wishing to do evil to the neighbour is of charity 10 2. Wishing to do good to the neighbour is of charity II 3. A man may be doing good, which he believes to be of charity, and all the while not be shunning evil; and yet every evil is contrary to charity I I 4. In proportion as a man does not wish to do evil to the neighbour, he wishes to do good to him; but not the reverse. 13 5. Before the good a man does is the good of charity, evil must first be put away, because it is contrary to charity; and this is done by repentance 14 6. Such as the recognition of evil is, and its con­ sequent putting away by repentance, such is the good which is of charity 14 v
  7. 7. CONTENTS PAGE 7. Hence it follows that the" first" of charity is to look to the Lord and shun evils because they are sins; and that the "second" of charity is to do goods 15Ill. THE NEIGHBOUR TO BE LOVED IS, IN A SPIRITUAL IDEA, GOOD AND TRUTH 15 1. A man is not a man from the form, but from the good and truth with him, or what is the same, from the will and understanding . 16 l. It is therefore the good and truth with a man that is the neighbour to be loved 17 3· The quality of the neighbour with a man is in accordance with the quality of the good with him; or such as a man is. such a neigh­ bour is he 17 4· The degree of neighbour is in accordance with the degree of good and truth with the man; and hence one man is not neighbour in the same degree [as another] . 18 5· The good ,of the internal will is the neighbour to be loved, and not the good of the external will, unless this makes one with it 20 6. Truth is the neighbour in so far as it makes onc with good, and it makes one with it as a form makes one with its essence 20I . THE OBJECT OF CHARITY IS A MAN, ALSO A SOCIETY, ALSO ONES COUNTRY. ALSO THE HUMAN RACE; ,110 ALL ARE THE NEIGHBOUR IN A NARROW AND IN A WIDE SENSE 21 1. Every individual man is the neighbour accord­ ing to the quality of his good . 22 2. A society. small or large, is the neighbour according to the good of its use. 23 3. Ones country is the neighbour according to its spiritual, moral, and civil good 24 4. The human race is the neighbour in the widest sense; but, because it is distinguished into empires, kingdoms, and republics, anyone of these is a neighbour according to the good of its religion and of its moral qualities, and according to the good which it performs to ones country, and which makes onc with its good 25 l
  8. 8. CONTENTS PAGE v. ",rAN IS THE SUBJECT OF CHARITY. AND SUCH AS IS THE CHARITY WITH HIM SUCH A SUBJECT OF IT HE IS; AND SUCH IS THE CHARITY HE EXERCISES TOWARDS THE NEIGHBOUR 27 1. Man was created to be a form of love and wisdom 27 2. At this day, for a man to be man, he o.ught to be a charity in for.!!1 . 28 3. A man ought to be a charity in form, not from himself but from the Lord; thus he is a receptacle of charity . 29 4. A man is a form of charity of such quality as, with him, good of the will is conjoined to truths of the understanding 31 5. Whatever proceeds from such a man derives from that form that it is a likeness of it; thus it is charity 3~ 6. The neighbour can be loved from what is not charity; and yet this, regarded in itself. is not loving the neighbour 34 7. He loves the neir;hbour, who does SJ fronl the charity in himself 35VI. A MAN IS BORN TO THE END THAT HE MAY BECOME A CHARITY; BUT HE CANNOT BECOME A CHARITY UNLESS HE CONSTANTLY DOES THE GOOD OF USE TO THE NEIGHBOUR FROM AIFECTlON ANn DELIGHT. 35 I. The general good exists from the goods of use the individuals each perform; and the goods of use they each perform subsist from the general good 36 2. Ministries, functions, offices, and various occupations are the goods of use the indi ­ viduals each perform, from which the general good exists . 38 3. All the offices and employments, regarded as to the goods of use, make a form which corresponds to the heavenly form . 38 4 They also make a form which corresponds to the human form . 40 5. In this form. each onc is a good of use in accordance with the scope of his office or employment 41B vii
  9. 9. CONTENTS PAGE 6. A man is born to the end that he may become a charity; but he cannot become a charity unless he constantly does the goods of use to the neighbour from affection and its delight 42VrI. EVERY l>IAN WHO LOOKS TO THE LORD AND SHUNS EVILS AS SINS BECOMES A FORM 01 CHARITY, PROVIDED THAT HE HONI:STLY, JUSTLY, AND FAITHFULL.Y CARRIES OUT THE WORK OF HIS OCCUPATION OR I:MPL.OYMENT . 42 Charity in the case of the Priest 43 Charity in the case of Governors 44­ Charity in the case of Officials under them 45 Charity in the case of Judges . 45 Charity in the case of the Commander of an Army 46 Charity in the case of Officers under the Comman ­ der of an Army 47 Charity in the case of the Common Soldier 48 Charity in the case of the Business Man 48 Charity in the case of Workmen 49 Charity in the case of Farmers 50 Charity in the case of Ships Captains 50 Charity in the case of Sailors 51 Charity in the case of Servants. .. 52VIII. IS:Ns.lOF CH,RITY ARE AL.L THE THINGS THAT ARE ZORSHIP. . . . 53 I. Charity itslill., is in the Internal man, and its ~ IS in the External 54 • • • • fIX. rBENEFACTlONS OF CHARITY ARE ALL. THE GOODS .. WHICH A M~N WHO IS A CHARITY DOES IN FRgEDOM, . OUTSIDE THE SCOPE OF HIS OCCUPATION] . ~-- .56 • • • • • 4. No one is saved by means of these benefactions, but by means of the charity out of WhictWhey are done, and which thereforeTs in these benefactions 56 X. ~IONS OF CHARITY ARE AL.L THOSE THINGS IT BEHOVES .... MAN TO DO IN ADDITION TO THOSE SET FORTH ABOVE 57 viii
  10. 10. CONTENTS PAGK XI. THERE AREC£!V~RSI~ OF CHARITY. WHICH ARE VARIOUS ENJOYMENTS AND PLEASURES OF THE BODILY SENSES. USEFUL FOR RECREATING THE MIND (antmus) 59 The conjunction of charity and faith 64The Sections in their Series . 66 I. THE .. F[RST" OF .CH.RITY IS TO LOOK TO THE LORD AND SHUN EV[LS AS S[NS. 68 1. No one can have charity except from the Lord 69 2. No one can have charity from the Lord unless he shuns evils as sins 71 3. A man ought to shun evils as sins. as from himself, while doing so nevertheless from the Lord 74 4. In so far as anyone does not shun evils as sins, he remains in them 75 5. In so far as anyone does not recognize and know what sins are. he sees no otherwise than that he is without sin. 77 6. In so far as anyone recognizes and knows what sins are. he can see them in himself, confess them before the Lord. and repent of them 79 7. Good before repentance is not good. nor, before repentance, is charity charity 80 8. Consequently, the" first" of charity is to look to the Lord and shun evils as sins, which is done by repentance 81 11. THE" SECOND" OF CHARITY IS TO DO GOOl) TO THE NEIGHBOUR. 82 1. Not wishing to do evil to the neighbour is .J -- loving him. ____ . . . . 83XII. ,WHERE THERE IS NO TRUTH OF FAITH. THE CHURCH DOES NOT EXIST; AND WHERE THERE IS NO GOOD O! LIFE-;- RELIGION D~T EXIST - 86 IV. THE NEIGHIlOUR IS TO BE LOVED IN ACCORDANCE WITH HIS SPIRITUAL GOOD, AND HIS MORAL. CIVIL. AND NATURAL GOOD THEREFROM; CONSEQUENTLY IT IS GOOD THAT. [N A SPIR[TUAL SENSE. [S THE NEIGHBOUR TO BE LOVED 87 Ill. IN A NATURAL SENSE. THE NEIGHBOUR WHO IS TO BE LOVED IS A FELLOW-CITIZEN. ALSO A SOCIETY, S1<IALL OR LARGE, ALSO ONES COUNTRY. ALSO THE HUMAN RACE 88 ix
  11. 11. ORDER AND ARRANGEMENT.* [FIRST VERSION.] 1. THE" FIRST" OF CHARITY IS TO SHUN EVILSBECAUSE THEY ARE SINS. 2. THE" SECOND" OF CHARITY IS TO DO GOODSBECAUSE THEY ARE USES. 3. THE ESSEl-:CE OF CHARITY IS GOOD, WHICH ISUSE; AND THE OBJECTS OF CHARITY ARE, IN 1NARROW SENSE AN INDIVIDUAL MAN, IN A WIDERSENSE i SOCIETY, IN A STILL WIDER SENSE ONESCOUNTRY, t AND IN THE WIDEST SENSE THE HUMANRACE; AND THESE ARE THE NEIGHBOUR. 4. CHARITY ITSELF IS TO ACT HONESTLY, JUSTLY,AND FAITHFULLY, IN EVERY WORK THAT BELONGS TOANYONES OCCUPATION; AND, THROUGH THIS, A MANBECOMES A CHARITY. * This is as Swedenborg first wrote it out, before startingon the text. t Note in left-hand margin: "the Church." 1
  12. 12. ORDER AND ARRANGEMENT.* [SECOND VERSION.] I. THE " FIRST" 01 CHARITY IS TO LOOK TOTHE LORD AND SHUN EVILS BECAUSE THEY ARE SINS;THIS IS DONE BY REPENTANCE. 2. THE" SECOND" OF CHARITY IS TO DO GOODS!lECAUSE THEY ARE USES. 3. THE NEIGHBOUR, IN i SPIRITUAL IDEA, IS USE;:ND USE IS THE GOOD OF CHARITY. [4.a] A MAl IS THE SUBJECT OF CHARITY, ANDSUCH AS THE SUBJECT IS, SUCH IS THE CHARITYEXERCISED BY HIM. i" 4. [b] CH.RITY ITSELF WITH ANYONE IS TO ACTHONESTLY, JUSTLY, jND FAITHFliLLY, IN EVERYWORK THAT BELONGS TO HIS OCCUPATIOI; AND,THROUGH THIS, A MAl BECOMES . CH.RITY . .. This is as i l stood after a number of corrections hadlleen incorporated in it. Many of these corrections, as thehandwriting of them made at different times shows, weremade during the wntinl!; of the text. There are a coupleof strokes drawn vertically through these headings, a usualsign with Swedenborg that he had made use of it forre.writini(. This was probably done when the new listof headings, " The sections in their series," was prepared.See page 66. t This heading as inserted between 3 and 4 in theMS. without the succeeding numbers being changed. la
  13. 13. FIRST VERSION 5. SIGNS OF CHARITY ARE ALL THE THINGS THATARE OF WORSHIP. 6. BElEFACTIONS OF CHARITY ARE ALL THEGOODS WHICH A MAN WHO IS A CHARITY DOES, INFREEDOM, OUTSIDE THE SCOPE OF HIS OCCUPATION. 7. OBLIGATIONS OF CHARITY ARE ALL THOSETHINGS IT BEHOVES A MAN TO DO IN ADDITION TOTHOSE ABOVE NAMED. 8. DIVERSIONS OF CHARITY ARE VARIOUS ENJOY­MENTS OF THE BODY AND ITS SENSES. 9. VITHOUT FAITH, CHARITY IS NOT CHARITY;THEY ARE ONE LIKE ESSENCE AND FORM. 10. SUCH AS THE CHARITY IS, SUCH IS THE FAITH;THE FAITH THAT PRECEDES CHARITY IS THE FAITH OFCOGNITIONS, WHICH IS A HISTORICAL FAITH ORMATTER OF KlOWLEDGE. I I. CHARITY CONJOINS A MAN TO THE LORD, ANDTHE LORD TO THE MAN. 12. LOVE TOWARDS THE NEIGHBOUR, WHICH ISCHARITY, INWARDLY IS LOVE TO GOD, THAT IS, THELORD. 2
  14. 14. SECOND VERSION S. SIGNS OF CHARITY ARE ALL THE THINGS THATARE OF WORSHIP. 6. BENEFACTIONS OF CHARITY ARE ALL THEGOODS WHICH A MAN WHO IS A CHARITY DOES, INFREEDOM, OUTSIDE THE SCOPE OF I-llS OCCUPATION. 7. OBLIGATIONS OF CHARITY .RE .LL THOSETHINGS IT BEHOVES t. MAN TO DO IN ADDITION TOTHOSE ABOVE NAMED. 8. DIVERSIONS OF CHARITY ARE VARIOUS ENJOY­MENTS AND PLEASURES OF THE BODY AND ITS SENSES. 9. WITHOUT FAITH, CHARITY IS NOT CHARITY,AND WITHOUT CHARITY, FAITH IS NOT FAITH; THEYARE ONE, LIKE ESSENCE AlD FOR,;!. 10. SUCH AS THE CHARITY IS, SUCH IS THE FAITH;THE FAITH THAT PRECEDES CHARITY IS THE FAITH OFCOGNITIONS, WHICH IS A HISTORICAL FAITH, IXITSELF KNOWLEDGE. 11. IN CHARITY THERE IS THE CONJUNCTION OF AMAN WITH THE LORD, .XD OF THE LORD WITH THEMAN. 12. CHARITY, OR LOVE TOWARDS THE NEIGHBOUR,IS ALSO LOVE TO THE LORD. a
  15. 15. THE .. FIRST" 01" CHARITY IS TO LOOK TO THE LORD AND SHUN EVILS BECAUSE THEY ARE SINS; THIS IS DOSE BY REPENTANCE. To be expounded in this order: (I) In so far as anyone does not shun evils because they are sins, he remains in them. (2 ) In so far as anyone does not recognize and know what are sins, he does not see other­ wise than that he is ~Vit/101lt sin. (3) In so far as anyone recognizes and k11O~VS what are sins, he can see Ihem in himself, confess them before the Lord. andrepent of them. (4) Before repenlallce, good is spurio1/s good. It is I,he same with charity, beca1/se good is of charity. (5) Consequently the " first" of charity is to look to the Lord and sh1/1I evils because they are sins.2 I. In so far as anyone does not looh 10 the Lord and shun evils because they are sins, he remains in them. Man is born into evils of every kind. His will, which is his proprium, * is nothing but evil. Unless, therefore, a man is reformed and regenerated, he not only remains just as he was born, but becomes even worse, because he adds actual evils himself to those hereditarily acquired. A man remains such if he does not shun evils as sins. Shunning them as sins is shunning them as * The Latin word propri/l m means" what is ones own," Swedenborg IIses it in a special sense involving what is of the self, 4
  16. 16. NOS. 1-4 diabolical and hellish, and thus deadly, and because accordingly there is eternal damnation in them. If a man so regards them, then he believes that there is a hell and a heaven; he also believes that the Lord can remove evils, if he, too, as from himself, makes an effort to remove them. But the things which are shown on this subject in THE DOCTRINE OF LIFE FOR THE NEW JERUSALEM, nos. 108-113, may be seen, to which I will add this: All evils are innately delightful, because man is born into the love of self, and that love delights in all the things that are of his proprium, that is, the things that he wills and thinks. Unless these inbred delights are subdued, everyone remains in them until death; and they are not subdued unless they are regarded as sweet poisons which kill, or as flowers beautiful in appearance but inwardly toxic, that is, unless the delights of the evils are regarded as being fatal, and this until they become undelightful.3 2. In so far as anyone does not recognize and know what are sins, he does not see otherwise than that he is without sin. Because of the Word, he knows that he is a sinner, in evils from head to foot, yet he does not really know, because he does not see any sin in himself. Consequently he prays with a ringing voice as it were, he confesses with a ringing voice as it were, and yet inmostly in hirriself he believes that he is not a sinner. This belief is made evident in the other life; for then he says, " I am pure, I am clean, I am guiltless "; nevertheless, when he is examined, he is impure, unclean, indeed even carrion. I t is as if the ski n were outwardly clear and soft, [but] the inner parts from the heart itself were diseased; or as if a liquid were, on the sur ­ face, like water, but in its depths putrid from stagnation.4 3. In so far as anyone recognizes and knows 5
  17. 17. CHARITYwhat are sins, he can see them in himself, confessthem before the Lord, and repent of them. It is said that he can if he will, and he whobelieves in eternal life does will. But even so, heought to think not about the things he does, butabout those he wants to do, which, when he be­lieves them allovvable, he also does, or, if he doesnot do them, it is on account of the world. Thereis an internal effect and an external eJlect, orinternal and external deed. The external effect ordeed proceeds and has "existence from the internalefTect or deed, just as action from effort. Effort ina man is will; consequently, although he does notdo a thing in body, yet if he makes it allowable,then the effort or will remains, and this, in spirit,is action itself. Therefore, recognizing and know­ing what his sins are is recognizing and knowinghis thoughts, and in them what he makes allow­able, and then what he lusts after and favours inhis thought. For example, if a man considerswhether whoredom is a sin, and what a serious sinit is, whether hatred and acts of revenge are sins,whether thefts and the like, arrogance and pride,contempt also for others, and avarice, are sins; hemust then remove any disguises he has cast overthem, that is, any confirmations, and let him con­ sult the vVord. and he will see. Everyone sees that he who acknowledges that a sin is a sin lcan see the sins in himselrj ; but he who makes them allowable in thought, and, on account of the world, not allowable in the body, cannot sec them. He is like a man turning a mirror upside down to see his face, or like one who wants to sec his face putting a piece of linen gauze in front of it.-¥.­ * Note on the left-hand margin of the original MS.:Investigation: I, If only as to actions it does not find outmuch," and this does not suffice; the reason; 2, but if asto thoughts and intentions then it finds out more; 3, butif he investigates what he reckons as a sin or as not a sin, G
  18. 18. NOS. 5-86 4. Befure repentance, good is spurious good. It is the same with charity, because guod is uf charity. For therc is evil inwardly with the man, because it has not been opcned, and therefore not healed; and genuine good cannot spring from evil. The fountain is impure. The good which springs from evil may, in its outward form, appear good; but within it, is the man, such as he is inwardly. All that the man does thence is an image of him. Before the angels he himself appears in his own image, indeed, outside himself; which I have seen a thousand times. On this account the good which anyone does with the body may appear good before those who see only the external; but within there lies hidden the will and intention, which may be that he wishes to be thought sincere and good, so that he may impose on others for the sake of honour and gain. In a word, it is good that is either merit-seeking, or hypocritical, or diabolical, which is in order to deceive, revenge, kill, etc.; but this good is taken away at death when he is let into his interior things, and it becomes openly evil.7 Every good that a man does to the neighbour is of charity, or is charity. The quality of the charity therefore may be recognized from the three things preceding, namely: I, To what extent he shuns evils as sins; 2, To what extent he knows and recognizes what are sins; 3, And to what extent he has seen them in himself, confessed them, and repented. These are the indications to anyone of what quality is the charity he has.S 5. Consequently the "first" of charity is to then he finds out indeed. For whatever a man makes allowable in himself, that he does. To make allowable is of the will; it is effort, and in spirit is a deed; and he will do it in the body when obstacles are removed. Machiavellians also are such. 7
  19. 19. CHARITY look to the Lord and shun evils becau$e they a-re sins. Every good which a man does to the neighbour for the sake of the neighbour, or for the sake of truth and good, thus for the sake of what is in accordance with the -Vord, or for the sake of religion, thus for the sake of God, which therefore is from a spiritual love or affection, is called a good of charity, or a good work. This is not good in so far as it derives [anything] from the man, but is good in so far as it is from the Lord* through the man. The Lord does good to everyone, chiefly through others, but yet so that Cl man scarcely knows otherwise than that it is from himself; and therefore He quite often moves the wicked to do good to others, but from an affection of the love of self and of the world. This good is indeed of the Lord or from the Lord, but the man is not on that account rewarded. But a man is rewarded if he does good, not from a merely natural love or affection, but from a spiritual love or affection. The reward is the heavenly delight of that love and affection, which awaits him in eternity; and this in so far as he does not do it from himself, that is, in so far as he believes that all good is from the Lord, and does not place merit in it.9 That no one can from himself do good which is good, but that in so far as a man shuns evils as sins, he does goods not from himself but from the Lord, may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF LIFE FOR THE NEW JERUS,LEM, FROM THE PRECEPTS OF THE DECALOGUE, nos. 9-17, and 18-31.IQ From these it is evident that before repentance it is charity, the good of which is not from the Lord but from the man; but after repentance it is charity the good of which is not from the man * The Latin original has ex liomine (from the man), but the context demands ex Domino (from the Lord). 8
  20. 20. NOS. 9-13 but from the Lord. For the Lord cannot enter with a man, and do any good from Himself through him, before the devil, that is, evil, is cast out, but after he is cast out. The devil is cast out by repentance, and when he is cast out the Lord enters and does good there through the man, yet always in such a way that the man does not per­ ceive otherwise than that he is doing it from him­ self; though he knows nevertheless that it is from the Lord.I From these things it is now evident that the " first" of charity is to shun evils as sins, which is done by repentance. Who does not see that an impenitent man is wicked? And who does not see that a wicked man has not charity? And who does not see that he who has not charity cannot do charity? Charity must be from charity in the man.u In conclusion, let some passages be brought for­ ward from the Word, for example from the Lords words to the Pharisees, about the internal man having to be purified. Passages in Isaiah i. Some of the passages in THE DOCTRINE OF LIFE FOR THE NEW JERUSALEM, nos. 28-31; also 50-52. II3 THE" SECO;O;D" OF CILRITY IS TO DO GOODS BECAUSE THEY ARE USES. To be expounded in this order: (I) Doing no evil to the neighbour is of charity. (2) Wishing to do good to the neighbour is of charity. (3) A man may be doing good, which he believes to be of charity, and all the while not be shunning evil; and yet every evil is contrary to charity. 9
  21. 21. CHARITY (4) In proportion as a man does not wish to do evil to the neighbour, he wishes to do good to him; but not the reverse. (5) Before the good a man does is the good of charity, evil must first be put away, because it is contrary to charity; and this is done by looking to the Lord, and by repentance. (6) Such as the recognition of evil is, and its consequent putting away by repentance, such is the good which is of charity. (7) H el/ce it follows that the" first" of charity is to look to the Lord and shun evils as sins; and that the " second" of charity is to do goods.14 1. Not wishing to do evil to the neighbour is of charity. Everyone sees that charity does not do evil to the neighbour, because charity is love towards the neighbour, and he who loves someone is afraid of doing evil to him. There is a conjunction of minds bet"veen them. It is because of this that, when he does evil to him to whom he is conjoined by love, it is perceived in his mind as though he were doing evil to himself. Who can do evil to his children, wife, or friends ?-For doing- evil is contrary to the good of love. 115 vVho does not see that anyone hating another, acting against him with hostility and animosity, burning with revenge, and desiring his death, is not loving the neighbour? that anyone who would commit whoredom with someone elses wife, who would deflower virgins and abandon them, or violate women, is not loving the neighbour? that he who would plunder and upon one pretext or another steal his goods, who injures another per­ sons reputation by slandering and so bearing false witness, is not loving the neighbour? Nor, in­ deed, he who covets his house, his wife, or the 10
  22. 22. NOS. 14-19 many other things that are his neighbours? From which it is evident that not wishing to do evil to the neighbour is of charity.16 Concerning this Paul writes thus, " Loving the neighbour is fulfilling the law," in two places.* And elsewhere from the Word:17 2. Wishing to do good to the neighbour is of charity. This is well known, for it is believed that giving to the poor, succouring the needy, assisting widows and orphans, benefiting ministers, contributing to churches, hospitals, and various pious uses, is of charity; again, that feeding the hungry, giving drink to the thirsty, sheltering the stranger, cloth­ ing the naked, visiting the sick, going to those bound in prison, and many other things, are good works of charity. But yet they are good only in so far as a man shuns evils as sins. If the man does these good works before shunning evils as sins, they are external, even merit-seeking, because they spring from an impure fountain, and things issuing from such a fountain are inwardly evil. There is the man in them, and the world in them.18 That doing Christian good works is of charity is well known; and many people believe that good cancels out evil, and that so there are not [any] evils with a man, or that they are not regarded; but good does not cancel out evil unless the man thinks about the evils with himself, and repents of them.19 There are many who have so believed, and have supposed that there was no evil with them. When examined, they have confessed that they were full of evils, and that unless they were kept in external things, they could not be saved . .. Probably Rom. xiii. 8,10, and Gal. v. /4 were intended. II
  23. 23. CHARITY20 3. A mall may be doing good, which he believes t~ be of charity, and all the while not be shunning evil; and yet every evil is contrary to charity. It is evident that to shun evil [and to do Chris ­ tian good] are two distinct things; for there are people who do every good of charity from piety and from thinking about eternal life, and all the while they do not knov that hating, bearing revenge, committing whoredom, plundering and injuring, slandering, and so bearing false witness, and many [other things, are to bc shunned]. There are judges who live piously, and yet do not count it a sin to make their judgments on a basis of friendslliv, relationship, or with a view to honour and gain; and even if they do know they are evils, they confirm themselves in the belief that they are not. So also do others. In a word, there are two distinct things, shunning cvils as sins, and doing Christian good. He who shuns evils as sins does Christian goods, but they who do good and do not shun evils as sins, do not do any Christian good; for evil is contrary to charity, and is therefore to be abolished first before the good which anyone does is accompanied with charity, that is, is of charity. No one is able to do good and at the samc timc to do evil, or to will good and also evil. 21 Evcry good that in itself is good proceeds from the interior will. From this will, evil is removed by repentance.:-i.H. Thc evil into which a ll1an is born resides I here also. Unless, therefore, he repents, evil rcmains in the interior will, and the good proceeds from the exterior will, and so his condition is a perverted one. The interior qualifies the exterior, and not thc exterior the interior. The Lord says: " Cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter. "* * Matt. xxiii. 26. 12
  24. 24. NOS. 20-2622 Man has a twofold will, interior and exterior. The interior will is purified by repentance; and then the exterior does good from the interior. Exterior good does not remove the evil of lusting, OF evils root.23 4. In proportion as a man does not wish to do evil to the neighbour, he wishes to do good to him; but not the reverse. There is civil good, there is moral good, and there is spiritual good. Good, before a man shuns evils as sins, is civil and moral good; but as a man shuns evils as sins, the good, both civil good and moral good, becomes spiritual as well, but not before.24 Lusting lies hidden within, and its delight is outside. When, therefore, a man thinks from lusting and its delight, either he confirms evil and believes it to be allowed, and so is in evil; or he does not think about any evil with himself, and so believes himself to be sound.25 It is true that a man ought to confess to being a sinner, and that from the head to the sole of the foot there is no soundness in him. This he can say, and say from knowledge j but still he cannot inwardly believe it unless he" knows it through investigation. Then he can say these things, and then he first discerns that there is no soundness in him. In this and in no other way is the ulcer opened and healed. In any other way it is palliative curing.26 Did not the Lord preach repentance; the dis- ciples also; and John the Baptist? Isaiah says that the first thing" is to cease from evils, and that then one learns to do good. * Nor does one know, before that, what is good, or of what quality good is. Evil does not know * Isaiah i. 16, 7. c la
  25. 25. CHARITY what is good; whereas good, from knowing what is good, knows evil. 27 5. Before the good a man does is the good of charity, evil must first be put away, because it is contrary to charity; and this is done by repentance. Since evil must first be known for the reason that it is to be put away, the Decalogue was the " first" of the Word, and in the whole of Christen­ dom is also the " first" of the doctrine of the Church. All are initiated into the Church through knowing evil, and, because it is against God, not doing it. 28 Therefore this "first" was so holy, for the reason that no one is able to do Christian good before. 29 That good follows, is clear.ly evident from ,this: A judge says, I do not intend to pass judgmentN .B. from evil, for various reasons, but justly; and he does good. 30 A farmer says, I do not intend to do my work except justly and faithfully; so he does good work. 31 So in a thousand other instances; when anyone does not do evil he does good. 32 It can therefore be taken as a maxim, that to shun evil as sin is to do good. 33 6. Such as the recognition of evil is, and its consequent putting away by repentance, such is the good which is of charity. According as a man knows what is more or less evil. According as he knows the evils of faith and also the evils of life. And how he desists from them; And desists from them as he looks to the Lord and believes in Him. 34 Examples can teach. Whether he is such inwardly; then the purer he is; then of better water is the fountain from which his good flows. 14.
  26. 26. NOS. 27-4235 In a word, good to anyone is good in the same degree and of the same kind as evil to him is evil. The one cannot be separated from the other.J6 In so far as anyone puts off the old man, he puts on the new.37 In so far as anyone crucifies the flesh, he lives in the spirit.38 No one can serve two masters at the same time.39 Recognition involves that what is true and what is false has to be known. Putting away is of the will. Both are of the life.40 7. Hence it follows that the (( first" of charity is to look to the Lord and shun evils because they are sins; and that the (( second" of charity is to do goods. An evil man, as well as a good one, can do good. He can help someone in need, can do him many good offices, from goodwill, kindness, friend­ ship, or compassion. But nevertheless these things are not of charity with the one who does them, but with the one to whom the charity is exercised. To outward appearance it is charity.41 When anyone has shunned an evil as a sin several times, then there appears to him only the good that he is doing; and they [that is, the prior shunning of evil and the subsequent doing of good] are with him together. But nevertheless the one must be prior; and the one really is prior and interior. III42 THE NEIGHBOUR TO DE LOVED IS, IN A SPIRITUAL IDEA, GOOD AND TRUTH. It is said, " in a spiritual idea ", because it is in this that the spiritual man is interiorly, and because the angels are in the same idea. This idea is dis­ sociated from matter, from space and time, and dissociated especially from person. 15
  27. 27. CHARITY Arrangement into order: (1) A man is not a man from the form, but from the good and truth with him; or what is the . same, from the will and understanding. (2) It is therefore the good and truth with a man that is the neighbour to be loved. (3) The quality of neighbour with a man is in accordance with the quality of the good and truth with him; or such as the man is, such a neighbour is he. (4) The degree of neighbour is in accordance with the degree of good and truth with the man, and hence one man is not neighbour in the same degree as another. (5) The good of the internal will is the neigh­ bour to be loved, and not the good of the external will, unless this makes one with it. (6) Truth is tlte neighbour in so far as it pro­ ceeds from good, and makes one with it as a form makes one with its essence.43 1. A man is not a man tram the form, but from the good and truth with him, 01 what is the same, from the will and ullderstanding. That the will and understanding are the man himself, not the form, which may appear like a man in face and body, is well known. There are some who are foolish and insane, and yet they appear to be men. There are some so natural that they are like animals, except that they can speak. There are others who are rational, and others who are spiritual. It may even be that the human for.m of the latter appears less beautiful, yet they are men more than the former. Take good and truth away from them, and there is a human form with­ out a man in it. They are like paintings and sculp­ tures, and like apes. 16
  28. 28. NOS. 43-50 44 It is said, .. good and truth, that is, will and understanding," because Rood is of the will, and truth is of the understanding; for the will is the receptacle of good, and the understanding is the receptacle of truth. 4S But yet it is only in their subject that good and truth can be. A thing cannot be separated from its subject; and therefore man is the neighbour; but in a spiritual idea it is good and truth, man being a man from these. 46 2. It is therefore the good and truth with a mall that is the neighbour to be loved. Put in front of you three or ten persons whom you may select for some domestic matter. Do you select otherwise than according to the good and truth with them? It is from the latter that a man is a man. 47 If you are selecting someone for your household staff out of ten persons, do you not inquire about his will and understanding? 48 The one of them you select is to you the neigh- bour who is loved. In like manner, a devil-man may, in face, look like an angel-man. Is it not an angel-man that is to be loved, not a devil-man? You do good to an angel-man on account of the good and truth with him, but not to a devil-man. Charity requires that the latter should be punished if he does evil, and the angel-man rewarded. 49 If you have in view ten maidens for the purpose of selecting one of them to be your wife, five of whom are harlots and five chaste, do you not select One of the chaste, in accordance with the good in her that agrees with your own? 50 3. The quality of the neighbour with a man is in accordnnce with the quality oft he good [and truth] with him; or sLlch as a man is, such a neigh- bOllr is he. The Lords parable of the man wounded by robbers, where it is said that the one who helped 17
  29. 29. OiARITY him is neighbour,* teaches that not every man IS neighbour in the same way as another.51 He who does not make distinctions in regard to the neighbour in accordance with the quality of the good and truth with him may be deceived a thou­ sand times; his charity becomes confused and at length what is not charity. A devil-man may exclaim, " I am your neighbour: do good to me! " and if you do good to him, he may kill you or others. You are placing a knife or a sword in his hands.52 This is what the simple do. They say, " Every man is equally my neighbour," also" It is not my business to investigate his quality, but this is re­ garded by God; I must simply help my neigh ­ bour." Yet this is not loving the neighbour. He who loves a neighbour from genuine charity finds out what sort of a man he is, and does good to him with discrimination, in accordance with the quality of his good. 53 In the other life such simple people are removed from others and kept apart; for if they come among diabolical spirits they are drawn into doing good to them, and into doing evil to the good. The evil cry out, " Set me free, help me!" ThisN.B. is the very great strength that they acquire for themselves. Without the help of the simple, and as it were conjunction with them, they are not strong at all; but together with those they have deceived by the name of " neighbour," they are strong. 54 Genuine charity itself is prudent and wise. TheN .B. other charity is spurious, because it is of the will or of good only, and not at the same time of the understanding, or of truth. SS 4. The degree of neighbour is in accordance with the degree of good and truth with the mall; • Luke x. 29-37. 18
  30. 30. :,105. 51-60 and hence one man is not neighbour in the same degree [as another]. Good is distinguished, in accordance with its degrees, into civil good, moral good, and spiritual good.56 The neighbour a man ought to love from charity is spiritual good. Apart from this good there is no charity; for the good of charity is spiritual good, since it is in accordance with that good that, in the case of each one in the heavens, conjunction is effected.57 Moral good, which is human good itself, being the rational good according to which man lives with man as a brother and companion, is the neigh- bour according to how much it derives from spiri- tual good. For moral good without spiritual good is external good; it is of the external will, and is not internal good. It may be evil, which ought not to be loved.58 Civil good is the good of a life in accordance with the civil laws; and its beginning and founda- tion, which is " not to act against those laws," is on account of the penalties. If there is not moral good in this good, and spiritual good within that, then it is no other than the animal good in which beasts are, when kept shut up or chained, towards those who feed, punish, or caress them.59 A man learns these goods in early childhood from the Decalogue. The laws of the Decalogue are first made civil laws, next moral laws, and at length spiritual laws; and then first the goods become goods of charity, in accordance with these degrees.60 Charity itself regards the good of a mans soul first, and loves it as being that by which conjunc- tion is effected. Next, it regards his moral good, and loves that in so far as he lives morally, in accordance with the state of perfection of his reason. And lastly it regards the civil good, in 19
  31. 31. CHARITY accordance with which a man has his standing in the world. Through his civil good a man is a man of the world; in accordance with his moral good he is a man above the worldly man and lower than the heavenly; but in accordance with his spiritual good he is a man of heaven, or an angel. The associating of men together is effected through this good, and then, according to these degrees, through the goods of the lower degrees. For example: There is the spiritual man who wishes well and does not understand well; and a man who does not understand well does not do well, so that he is scarcely a rational moral man. There is the man who understands well and does not wish well. He is the neighbour accoruing to the understanding. But a man who does not wish well, however well he understands, is not the neighbour.61 In a word, the will makes the neighbour, and the understanding in so far as it is of the will.62 5. The good of the internal will is the neighbour to be loved, and not the good of the external will, unless this makes one with it. There is an internal will and an external will; likewise an,internal and an external understanding.63 The internal will has conjunction with heaven, and the external will with the world.64 Every good is of the will; and the good-of­ charity itself is the good of the internal will.65 I t is customary for these to be separated with man; and they are separated to the greatest extent with hypocrites, pretenuers, and flatterers for the sake of gain.66 But when those wills make a one, then both the goods make one good, which is the neighbour. These things to be illustrated by means of exam ­ ples, and comparisons.67 6. Truth is the neighbotlt in so far as it makes one with good, and it makes one with it as a form makes one with its essence. 20
  32. 32. NOS. 61-72 Every form derives its own [character] from an essence; therefore, such as the essence is, such is the form.68 This can be illustrated by the fact that the understanding, regarded in itself, is such as the will is.69 It can be illustrated by sound and speech. And by several other things.70 That truth is good in form, may be seen in THE APOCALYPSE EXPLAINED. *71 From this it is evident that, in a spiritual idea, good is the neighbour to be loved; or a man accord ­ ing to his good. IV7 2 THE OBJECT OF CHARITY IS A MAN, ALSO A SOCIETY, ALSO ONES COUNTRY, ALSO THE HUMAN RACE; AND ALL ARE THE NEIGHBOUR IN A NARROW AND IN A WIDE SENSE. That a man is the neighbour is well known. A society is the neighbour because a society is a composite man; ones country is the neighbour because it consists of many societies, and so is a more composite man; and the human race is the neighbour because it is composed of large societies, each one of which is a man in composite form, hence it is a man in the widest sense. Let these things be explained in this order: (I) Every individual malL is the neighbour according to the quality of his good. (2) A society, small or large, is the neighbour according to the good of its use. (3) O~o!l:-ntry is the neighb,?ur according to its spiiltual, moral, and civil good. * See nos. 136, 2422, 4782, 725. 21
  33. 33. CHARITY (4) The human race is the neighbour in the widest sense; but, because it is distinguished into empires, kingdoms, and republics, any one of these is a neighbour according to the good of its religion, and according to the good which it performs to ones country and to itself.73 I. Every individual man is the neighbour according to the quality of his good. Since, in a spiritual idea, good is the neighbour, and a man is the subject of good, and also the object of him who does good, it follows that in a natural idea a man is the neighbour.74 One man is not the neighbour more than another in respect of his person merely, but in respect of the good from which he is such and such a man; for there are as many differences of neighbour as there are of good, and the differences of good are infinite.75 It is supposed that a brother, a kinsman, or a relation, is more the neighbour than a stranger; and that anyone born in ones country is the neigh­ bour more than one born outside it; but everyone, whether Greek or Gentile, is the neighbour accord­ ing to his good.76 The neighbour indeed is what everyone is accord­ ing to spiritual relationship and kinship. This can be seen from the fact that after death every man comes among his own, with whom he is similar in respect of good, or, what is the same, similar in regard to affections. Moreover, natural relation­ ships perish after death, spiritual relationships taking their place; for all in the same heavenly society recognize one another, and are associated together because they are in a similar good. Of ten brothers in the world, five may be in hell, and five in heaven, and the latter five in different 22
  34. 34. NOS. 73-81 societies; and when they meet they do not recog­ nize one another. In fact they are, each one, in face, their own affections. From this it is evident that every man is the neighbour according to the quality of his good.77 The goods according to the quality of which a man is the neighbour are especialIy spiritual goods. Charity regards these in the first place.78 2. ,1 society, small or large, is the neighbo!tr according to the good of its use. Every society in a kingdom is established in accordance with the uses [in that kingdom], which are various. There are societies whose work is to administer justly various civil affairs, which are manifold; various judicial affairs; various affairs relating to the structure of the state; and various ecclesiastical affairs, such as consistories, acad­ emies, and schools. There are societies for the advancement of knowledge, which also are several.79 Every society can be regarded no otherwise than as a man in composite form; for which reason it is the neighbour according to the good of use it performs. If a society performs eminent uses, it is the neighbour t~ a greater extent; if lowly uses, it is the neighbour to a lesser extent; if evil uses, it is the neighbour no otherwise than as a wicked man is; and the good I desire for him is that he may become good, and be provided, so far as is possible, with the means to improve, even though it should be by threats, corrections, penalties, or privations.80 A society having one function cannot be regarded except as one composite man. lVhen a kingdom is regarded as a man, certain persons are calIed members of the government; but among them­ selves they constitute one man, whose members are the individuals therein.81 This is the same as in heaven. There every society, smalI or large, is as one man. It is also 23
  35. 35. CHARITY presented to view as one man. I have seen an eminent society as one man. The form of heaven is the human form.82 So, too, a society on earth appears as one man before angels in the heavens.83 3. Ones country is the neigl1b.Qur according to its spiritual, moral, and civil good. J In everyones idea his country is as it were one thing; and therefore all the laws, both those relat ­ ing to justice and those relating to the structure of the state, are framed as it were for one man. His country, therefore, is as it were a man in com­ pound form: it is, besides, c~~~__ b-?~y! .in w!!,!ch the king.i~j.!Lthesup_ren~e_posltlOn. Its good, which ought to be considered, is termed the public good and the common good. It is also said of the king that the people are in the body of his government.84 Indeed, when it pleases the Lord, aQLone king- ~ dom iLPE~ented to view b_t:fore angels in heaven as one man, in the form, moreover, answering to its quality. That form is the form of their spiritual raffection; th~~C.!ts face -15elng tne----rorrrt of /fIthe affection of its spiritual good, and the form of I its body being the form of its civil good, while its ~ manners, speech, and the like, are its rational good. When o~_sees a kingdom as one man, it Ican be seen such as It really is; and In accordance_. /IWiilitl1iSiti-S theneighbour.~ Birth does not make anyone the neighbour more than another, not even when it is ones mother or father; nor does education. These are estimations from natural good. Nor does kinship nor relation ­ ship make anyone a neighbour more than another, thus country does not either. Ones country should be loved according to the quality of its good; but it is a duty to do good to it, and this is done by having regard for its use, since one thus has regard l for the welfare of all. It is nota duty tOdoiood J No other kingdOmSoutside that one, because one 24
  36. 36. NOS, 82-87 kingdom does n~sire l-he good of ano~her, but would ilKe- to destroy it as to wea!tnana power, thus also as to its protection. To lov~()t.!!er kingdom more than ones own, therefore, by hav-I lEg more._regard for its use, woul~ contrary to the good of the kingdom one is.in; for WhiCh) reason ones country should be loved in a higher degree.86 Take .this example: If I had been born in Venice or Rome, and if I were a Reformed Christian; ought my country, or where I ~ born, to be loved, for its spiritual _K()2d? I <;annotJove it on th~Q..I"l_nt, nor on account of its moral and civil good in so far as this depends, as it does, on its spiritual good. In so far, however, as it does not depend on this, I can, even though that country hates me. So I must not hate an unfriendly or hostile country, but must still love it, bringing no harm upon it, but having r~ard for its~ i_~~o ) far as it has good, but not having such regard to it as to confirm it in its own falsity and evil. But more about the love of country in another place.87 4. The human 1ace is the neighbour in the widest sense; but, because it is distinguished into empires, kingdoms, and republics, any 0Tt!!...Ef th~se is a neig~bour accordin!!:o the ~ootrOf1.ts 1errifon and oT~ts momZ qualItIes, and accordmg to the good which it performs to ones count1y, and which makes one with its own good. These subjects are too extensive to be separately elucidated, It is en0ug-h that, if some man or other, from some kingdom or other, is at my house, and I am staying in the same house as he is, or in the same city. to me he is th~n the neig-h­ bour according to his good. ItJLthe__same with all in that kingdom whom that particular man resembles~ Slipposing he is an ambassador of that kingdom, representing his king and therefore the 25
  37. 37. CHARITY kingdom; it cannot then be denied that to me he is the neighbQur~<:ording to the good of h~eIl­ Ngion and of his moraf qua:Iifies-;- ana ac~iainLas JI ~:wishes good to my country and his own; especi­ ally in so far as this makes one with his own good.88 I am not speaking of any other good than the good of charity, and the good of genuine charity. ~ It ~ossible for wicke<Lp.e_Q2J~[Jobbersand devils ev~n, to I~~e_each other mutually, fiUt not fromcharity, or thegoodoCinterior love. But because- of their joining in evil-doing, stealing, whoring, taking revenge, killing, and blasphem­ ing, they are neighbours among themselves. These are not meant, however, because charity and its good are treated of here.89 I can love all in the universe according to their religion, not mQ~SO those~y native land than those in other kingdoms, nor those in Europe more th.an those in Africa. I love a Gentile in preference f :to_ a Christ!M.~e liveLwcll accora~his eligion, if he worsllip"s God from the heart, say­ ing, " I will not do this evil because it is against God." I do not love him on account of his doc­ trine however, but on account of his life; since if I love him on account of his doctrine only, I am loving him as an external man, while if I love him Ion account of his life, I .am loving him as ~n ~internal man. For if he has the good of religion, he also has moral good, and civil good as well. They cannot be separated. But he who is only in doctrine cannot have religion. And so his moral and civil good does not have life in it. It is merely external. It wants to be seen, and to be thought to exist. 26
  38. 38. NOS. 88-92 v90 MAN IS THE SUBJECT OF CHARITY, ANn SUCH AS IS THE CHARITY WITH HIM SUCH A SUBJECT OF IT HE IS; AND SUCH IS THE CHARITY HE EXERCISES TOWARDS THE NEIGHBOUR.* Let these things be explained in this order: (I) Man was created to be a form of love and wisdom. (2) At this day, for a man to be man, he ought to be a charity in form. (3) .4 man ought to be a charity in form, not from himself but from the Lord,. thus he is a receptacle of charity. (4) A man is a form of charity of such a quality as, with him, good of the will is conjoined to truths of the understanding. (5) TVhatever proceeds from such a man derives from that form that it is a likeness of it; thus it is charity. (6) The neighbour can be loved from what is not charity,. and ;yet this, regarded in itself, is not loving the neighbour. (7) He is loving the neighbour, who loves hinl from the charity in himself.91 I. Man was created to be a form of love and wisdom. He was created into the image of God, into the likeness of God ;i and God is Love Itself and Wisdom Itself.92 It is well known that such as a man is by virtue • In the MS. this heading has been deleted. Cf. 4a in the "Order and Arrangement" on page la, and V in " The sections in their series" on page 66. t Genesis i. 26. 27
  39. 39. CHARITY of wisdom, such is the man; but the life of wisdom is love, and love is the essence, and wisdom is the form of love, as is shown in many places in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM, to which. it is not necessary to add more here.93 2. At this day, for a man to be man, he ought to be a charity in form. I t is said, at this day, because, in the process of time since the first creation, man has become external. For from love to the Lord he has turned away to wisdom. He has eaten of the tree of knowledge, and eaten of wisdom; and internal love is turned into exterior love.94 The third heaven, which is from the first men, is in love and wisdom; whereas the second heaven is from the lower love called charity, and from the wisdom called intelligence. And at length, when man has become altogether external, then his love is called charity, and his wisdom, faith. Such is the state of the Church with men at this day.9S With some there is spiritual love, but not celes­ tial love, and spiritual love is charity; but with them then faith is the truth, and the truth makes the understanding or intelligence.96 By a charity in form is meant that the mans life is a charity, and the form is from his life; but how this is will be told in what follows in the fourth article.97 In heaven an angel appears in form as a charity. The quality of the charity is apparent from the face and is heard from the voice, a man after death becoming his own love, that is, the affection of his own love. Neither spirit nor angel is anything else; indeed, the form of his charity is in fact the spirit or angel himself in respect of his whole body. By some an angel was seen, and they discerned the form of his charity in each of his members, which is marvellous. 28
  40. 40. NOS. 93-102g8 In the world a man is not a charity in respect of his form, in face, body, or voice, but his mind may be; and after death his mind is a spirit in human form. Nevertheless, a sincere man, who thinks nothing contrary to charity, can be known from his face and voice; with difficulty however, because there exist such hypocrites as are able to imitate to the life, and even to put on, the sincerity of charity. But if an angel looks at his face and hears his voice, he recognizes what he is, not seeing the material cov(ring that is over it, to which, how­ ever, a material man pays attention. 99 The forms of charity are innumerable, as many as the angels of the second heaven. In number they are unlimited. The varieties of charity are as many as the varieties of the affection of truth from good; and this affection is charity.lOO He who is not a form of charity is a form of hatred, or he who is not a form of the affection of truth from good, is a form of the affection of falsity from evil. It is of such that hell consists: they are all varieties of hatred and of lusting.101 As there are genera of affections, and species of these genera, so there are also of charities. There are therefore charities in the plural, and there are degrees of charity of a twofold kind; which degrees are dealt with in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM, PART nl.102 3. A man ought to be a charity in form, not from himself but from the Lord,. thus he is a receptacle of charity. The life of a man who is to be regenerated is the affection of truth from good, or charity; and that life does not exist except from Life, thus from the Lord, who is Life in Himself, as He Himself teaches: that He is " the Way, the Truth, and the Life" ;* and elsewhere, that " As the Father hath Life in Himself, so hath He given unto the * John xiv. 6. o 29
  41. 41. CHARITY Son to have Life in Himself" j* and elsewhere. But, because Life is God, the Divine cannot be appropriated to man, who is finite and created, but it can inl10w into, and be adjoined to, a receptacle; just as the eye is not light in itself, but can receive light, and as the ear is not hearing in itself, but is the receptacle for it. So with the rest of the senses. So, also, with the mind and its interior senses.103 Man, therefore, is indeed the subject of charity, but a receptive subject, for he is created into a form receptive of life, just as the eye is created into a form receptive of light and its objects of sight by means of light; and the ear into a form receptive of sound by means of inflowing sound with its harmonies.104 He who believes he is a form of charity from himself is mistaken; either he believes that he is God, or he believes that the Divine is transfused into him: so he denies God; or, if he does not think this, he places merit in works of charity, and so his external is made a charity, and not his internal; and in that case the Lord cannot dwell with him. The Lord does not dwell in the things of a mans proprium, but in that which is His own. He must dwell in what is Divine, and so He makes the man receptive of the Divine proceeding, which is of charity.JOS Man, however, is so created that he may think and will as from himself, and therefore speak and act as from himself; yet it is given him to know that every good of charity and truth of faith is from the Lord. He who does not think according to this truth is not in the light (lux) of truth; but in a fatuous light (lumen), and this, in the light of heaven, is darkness; and as a result he cannot be enlightened in any other truths, except as concerns the memory only, but not as concerns perception, which is faith in its essence. * John v. 26. 30
  42. 42. NOS. r03-Ilr106 From these things it is evident that a man is only a form of charity, and that the charity is of the Lord with him; anu that it is given to the man as if he himself were the charity, to the end that he may become the receptacle of it, and so be in reciprocal conjunction, as from himself, though really from the L()rd.107 4. A man is a form of charity of stlch a quality as, with him, good of the will is conjoined to truths of the understanding. Everything of the will is called a good, and everything of the understanding a truth, because the will is in the heat of heaven, and the under­ standing in the light of heaven. And just as the will withOlt the understanding has not any quality, and so cannot be called anything, but takes on a quality and becomes something in the understand­ ing, and becomes of such and such a quality, or is something or other, according to what is in the understanding ;-so it is in the case of a good without truth, and a good with truth.loS Genuine truths should be learned therefore: with them the good of the will conjoins itself, and thus does the good of the will become the good of charity.109 It is in this way, that is, from the truths in the understanding, that every variety of charity origi­ nates; for a truth in its essence is a good, the truth being the form of the good, precisely as speech is the voices form. Let this be illustrated.110 There are two forms of the voice; the one of singing, the other of speech; likewise of the affec­ tion of truth from good, or of charity. Let these things be treated of. N .B.111 This being so, it is accordingly said that charity is the affection of truth from good, or the affection of spiritual truth. From this comes the affection of rational or moral truth, and the affection of civil or natural truth. 31
  43. 43. CHARITY112 It is in consequence of this that they who are in charity are in light, or, if they are not in it, that they love light. Light is truth and heat is good; and it is well known that all quickening and fructi­ fication is from good by means of truth; so also is spiritual quickening and fructification.113 Those who are not in charity, however, do not love truth in the light, but they are able to love truth in the shade; and this truth is what the truth of faith is at the present day, that is, that it ought to be believed to be true, although it is not seen to be so with the understanding. In this way, indeed, falsity may be called truth, and, from its confirma­ tion, may be called* truth; as is done.114 5. Whatever proceeds from such a man derives from that form that it is a likeness of it j thus it is charit.y. There are three things that proceed; there is thought, there is speech, and there is action. From a man who is a form of charity, there proceeds thought from the affection that is charity, speech from the voice which is of affection, and in which there is the affection of the thought, and action by means of a movement in which there is charity. This movement proceeds from effort; and the affection of the thought makes the effort. 115 The form of charity is first of all in his interior perception, which proceeds from the heat and light of the Spiritual. There, indeed, the man himself is a man. Out of that, charity is brought forth into the resulting or lower things; it both puts itself forth and brings itself into effect, scarcely other­ wise than as there is produced from a seed the shoot and, little by little, the tree, the tree becoming as it were a tree in permanent being; while its fruits are the good works that are done, from the • The MS. here reads" called" (vO<"ari) , but the context suggests that" believed" ((r~di) may have been intended. 32
  44. 44. NOS. II2-120 will of good through the understanding of truth, in the body. And so the tree first has existence.116 Its inmost form is like seed. It is well known that no other thing can spring from a seed than what is of that stock. 1t is the same with ail, though with much variation; but still both the twig and the branch with fruit on them, are recog­ nized as being from that tree.117 Whatever, therefore, a man does who inwardly is a charity, is from his charity, although his deeds and speech and thoughts are of unlimited variety. All the things he brings forth are as it were images of him under differing forms, in all which, however, there is a common form, as the plane out of which they are (ex quo).*118 For this reason it happens that, if only a mans ruling affection is known, then, when he is saying or doing anything, another recognizes from what purpose and from what love, as it were from what fountain, it springs. The Lord says that an evil tree bringeth forth evil fruit, and a good tree good fruit, and that an evil tree cannot bring forth good fruit. t119 A mans life is in everything he wills and thinks, in everything he says, and in everything he does. No one can carry out any action from life other than his own; all these things are effects of his life; and therefore there is the likeness.1:0 In the spiritual world all affections are imaged forth variously, as trees, gardens, birds, animals: in these, when inmostly inspected, there is seen to be an image of the man; they are representatives of him. • The following note is on the left·hand margin of the oriQ"inal MS. opposite nos. 117.122: There is a compassion of charity, a clemency of charity, a friendship of charity, a good-will of charity, a modesty of charity: in a word, all virtues are of charity, but they come under another name, and so under another category. t Matt. vii. 17, 18; Luke vi. 43. 33
  45. 45. CHARITY121 In a word, there is an image of the man in each and everyone of these things.122 6. The neighbour can be loved from what is not ­ charity; and yet this, regarded in itself, is not loving the neighbour. Let examples illustrate. An evil man can love a good man, and yet not in himself love good. Of a gentile, who says he will do his work faithfully because God so wills, one can say, ., This is a man an atheist can love." When anyone who does not love his country hears someone else speaking and knows that he does love his country, he can as it were love him for it. He listens to him, saying to himself, " He is good at heart; he speaks from love," paying heed to him. I have heard hundreds pay heed to a man reputed to love his country, and scarcely ten of them were men who loved their country. The same can be the case with anyone who, hearing a preacher, says that he speaks from God, out of zeal for their souls; and the-se who do not love God at all, and believe nothing, are affected all the same while hearing him, and they praise him, and love him, and send him gifts. Every sincere man is loved by some who are insin­ cere; every truthful man is loved by some liars; the faithful man by the unfaithful; the chaste man who loves his wife, by the unchaste; and so on. 12 3 However, this happens with everyone while paying attention in a general way; but as soon as general perception passes away, then the light passes away too. This takes place when he sub­ mits the matter to the observation of his lower thought, and considers whether it is so or not. Into this thought there inflows light from the man or the world, whereas into g-eneral thoug-ht there inflows light out of heaven. This light inflows into mans intellectual continually, if only he does not let hltnself down into his own light; for, if he is that kind of man, he then extinguishes the light of 34
  46. 46. NOS. 121-126 heaven. Al1 men have a general perception of truth; but the love of what is lower casts a man down precipitately into perception from the pro- prium. This perception is a material one, communicating with the sight of the eye. It is phantasy or imagination.124 7. He loves the neighbour, who does so from the charity in himself. He conjoins himself with his neighbours good and not with his person; and therefore, if the person departs from good, he does not love him. This conjunction, however, is a spiritual conjunc- tion, because the neighbour, in a spiritual idea, is good.125 Consequently, for a man to love the neighbour, he must be a charity in form. [VI)136 A MAN IS BORN TO THE END THAT HE MAY BECOME A CHARITY; BUT HE CANNOT BECOME A CHARITY UNLESS HE CONSTANTLY D O ~ GOOD OF USI;;. TO THE NEIGHBOUR FROM AFFEC- TION AND DELIGHT. General explanation in this order: (I) The general good exists from the goods of use the individuals each perform; and the goods of use they each perform subsist from the general good. (2) Mitz-tsJri1ts..,..jJmctions, offices, and various emploY-f!1-enjs are the goods of use the individuals each perform, from which tht general good exists. (3) All the ofli.-ge~ and employments in a king- dom, commonwealth, or community, re- garded as to the goods of use, make a form which corresponds to the heavenly form. 35
  47. 47. CHARITY (4) They also make a form which corresponds to the human form. (5) In this form, each one is a good of use in accordance with the scope of his offlce or empl£yment. *127 I. The general good exists from the goods of use the individuals each perform; and the goods of use they each perform subsist from the general good. They are termed goods of use because all the goods which are of love towards the neighbour, or of charity, are uses, and all uses are goods, and therefore are named in one term, goods of use. They are also called fruits of use.128 It is well known that every man is born, to_per­ form uses, and that he does perform uses to others. He who aoes not is, indeed, called a useless _I!l~!l­ ber, and rejected: he who performs uses to himself alone is also a useless member, although not so called. In a well constituted commonwealth, there­ fore, provision is made that no one shall be us~­ less: if anyone is useless, he is driven to some Q.r~; even a beggar is, if he is healthy. ­12 9 Infants and children, so long as they are under nurses and masters, are not, indeed, performing goods of use, but yet they are learning to perform them, and should have them for an end. Then the good of ,use is in the end. For a house to be built, the materials must first be obtained, and the foun­ dation laid, and the walls erected; and so finally the house is inhabited. The good of a house is the dwelling in it. 13 0 The general good consists of these things: That in a society or kingdom there should be * Sections 4 and 5 represent in each case the Authors second version, as shown by crossed out passages in the MS. A sixth section, which has been scored out, is sub· stantially the same as the heading of chapter VII, page 42. 36
  48. 48. NOS. 127-133 I. What is Q.iYiII.e among them. 2. What is j~ among them. 3. What is moral among them. 4. Diligence, skill, and uprighTne~_s among them. S. The necessa.£.ies for life. 6. The necessaries for all kinds of ViQL.k. 7. The necessaries for P.!Q.~~I;..­ tJ9J1. 8. Sufficient wealth, because these three kinds of necessaries are procured with it.13 1 The general good is from these things, coming not from the things themselves, but from each of the individuals there, and through the goods of use which they each perJorm; as what is Divine is indeed there by means of ministers, and what is just by means of governors and juuges; as what is moral is there by means of what is Divine and what is just; and as necessaries are there by means of all kinds of work and commerce; and so on.132 It is well known that every g-eneral is constituted of particulars. That is why it is called a general. Such, therefore, as the parts are, such is the general. A garden in general is of such a quality as are its trees and their fruits; meadows in general are of such a quality as are their crops; fields in general are of such a quality as their seed and its herbs and flowers; a ship in general is of such a quality as all its parts, which are several. The order among the parts, and the quality of the parts, causes the general to be more perfect or more imperfect. 133 That the goods of use which individuals each perform subsist from the general good, is well known; for each one derives his_ own good of use from the general. All things necessary for life, industries, and protection, and the wealth by which these necessaries are obtained, are from this; for by a general is meant not only a com­ munity and its society, but a whole region, and also a kingdom. But as these subjects are very extensive, they will be more clearly set forth in 37
  49. 49. CHARITY what follows; for there are many varieties, which however always agree with this law.134 2. Ministries, functions, offices, and various occupations are the goods of use the individuals each perform, from which the general good exists. By ministries are meant the activities of the priesthood and the duties connected with them; by functions are meant various civil positions j and by employments are meant occupations like those of the several kinds of craftsmen; by offices are meant various professions, businesses, and positions of service. Of these four the commonwealth, or society, consists.135 Those who are in ministries are responsible for what is Divine being there j the functions of those in the various civil positions for what is just being there, and also what is moral, as well as diligence, skill, and uprightness; the various workmen for the necessaries for life, and business men for the necessaries for all kinds of work; soldiers, for pro­ tection; and this last especially to ensure sufficient wealth; also farmers.136 Everyone may know that the general good is in accordance with the goods of every kind, the industries, the pursuits.137 3. All the offices and employments, regarded as to the goods of use, make a form which corre­ sponds to the heavenly form. The heavenly form is such that everyone there is in some ministry, some function, in some office or employment, and in some work. All heavenly societies are such that no one there is useless. He who does no work, wanting to live in idleness, or only to talk, walk about, and sleep, is not tolerated there. All things there are so ordered that they are allotted a place nearer or further from the centre, in accordance with their use. The nearer to the centre, the more magnificent are the palaces; the further from the centre, the less magnificent 38
  50. 50. NOS. 134-142 are they. They are different in the east, the west, the south, and the north. Everyone, on coming into a society, is initiated into his occupation, and is allotted a house corresponding to his work. Every society is a series of affections, in the order of the heavens.138 Everyone there is delighted with his own pur- suit; it is the source of his delight. They shun idleness as one would a plague. The reason is this, that everyone there does his work as from the love of use, and so has heart-felt delights; the love of use inflows out ot the general body into him. From a heavenly society, in the first instance, it was given me to know that not only do the indi­ viduals, disposed in accordance with the varieties of their affections, make the general good, but that everyone derives his own good from the general good.139 So it is on earth; for in this way an earthly society corresponds to a heavenly society; and when it corresponds, then what is Divine is there, what is just is there, what is moral and upright is there, good sense is there, diligence is there. The general inspires these things into each of the parts, when the part, which is an angel, is in charity.140 The necessaries for life and for all kinds of work, and also riches, and especially enjoyment and happinest>, are given to him out of the general body, in the measure that he is a charity.141 .But people do not know this on earth, where everyone places delight and good fortune in honours and wealth. Those who do so on earth become mean and poor, and carry on an existence in the hells; while he who applies himself to some oce.-u.pation from an affection of charity, comes into a heavenly society.142 In a heavenly society there are functions, offices, and occupations innumerable, all spiritual, which 39

×