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The Story ofTHE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS           S. C. EllY     THE NEW-CHURCH PRESS           NEW YORK
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PREFATORY    If 1 were to acknowledge specifically aU the sources ofhelp in the writing of "The Story of the Swedenborg Ma...
LIST         OF       ILLUSTRATIONSPORTRAIT      OF   SWEDENBORG • . • . • . . • • • • • . • . • • FrontispiceeCATHEDRAL O...
THE STORY OF       THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS    N THE latter part of the ye~r 1922 authorized  I  agents in America recei...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS   Bodleian Library, the Rylands Collection, and other   lïbraries   were-repre~en:...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS  study them, it will be recognized that the work of the  present distributers is s...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS    acter of his genius. For example, Ralph Waldo    Emerson declared: "1 have some...
CATHEDRAL OF UPSALA. CONTAINING SWEDENnORGS MAUSOLEUM                  FROM ETCHING BY HAIG         Courtcsy of Robert Dun...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSfacts they furnished a worse basis for his system thanthe more solid materials of m...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS   Swedenborg himself suggested improved methods in   mining and smelting i Linné o...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS    fair love of truth, to be partial or partisan. He could    not study thè-bodyWi...
THE SroRY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS       The titles of his smaller books, and the lateness of   the dates of their pu...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS                                Vast Range and Scope of                            ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS        in the class of rare and expensive books, seldom if ever        found for s...
~        ...:<        0        lI:        :.:        u        0        t­        rf)-<...:<   ui-<rf)        i:l        üI...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPfSgive briefiy an account of the nature, history, andpresent whereabouts of themanusc...
THE !TORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSare preserved with Bishop Benzeliuss papers in theDiocesan Library of Linkoping. Th...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS  manuscripts. Contained in the manuscript volumes  of this period are works with t...
THE SroRY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS            mathematical. He introduced Swedenborg to the            King, thus ini...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS    The years foilowing 1733-35, when the "Opera Phil­  osophica et Mineralia" had ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS    among his documentary remains were masses of ma­    teria1 drawn upon in the pr...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS                  scientific studies and of his speculations growing out           ...
THE STORY OF THE SWELENBORG MANUSCRIPTS   The Library of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sci­   ences possesses the unfinishe...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS  Swedenborgs matured theological works, which he  began publishing in 1749.       ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS     script indexes. One of these indexes is in a codex } in which is included also...
)     THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORC MANUSCRIPTS        )	 Mode in Which Marble Slabs Are Inlaid for Tables           and Oth...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS           On October 20 of the same year the official repre ­        sentatives of...
SWEDENBORGS HOUSE IN HORNSGATAN, STOCKHOLM. THE SUM ­ MER HOUSE SHOWN AMONG THE fREES IS NOW IN SKANSEN                   ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS                               lnterest of Swedenborg                              ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS                   scripts   w~_q!1ite g~nerouslili~t, and       numerous and      ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSthe manuscripts in their hands. The works were pub­lished in Latin and English, chi...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS     A fireman had found the desk too heavy to move, and     had opened it and thro...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS     noted for his efforts in behalf of the abolition of     African slavery in Bri...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS   resident in London, who had been active in translating   Swedenborgs works into ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS           to Sweden, however, the Swedenborg Society, with the           consent o...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSthis codex by Dr. Tafel, and forthwith the Senate ofUpsala University transmitted t...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS    hand. His index to the Memorabilia is characteristic    and notable.       Swed...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS The four manuscript volumes of the index were bor­ rowed from the Academy of Scien...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS   emy of Sciences ~opy of this work covering those   parts issued after the two vo...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTScould not be located. It was afterward found in theAcademys Library, having beèn ov...
THE MINING EXCHANGE. STOCKHOLMSWEDENBORG MEDAL, CAST BY THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEM Y                  OF SCIENCES IN 18;,2
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS             of 1733, and containing papers on science and phi­             losophy...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS      Royal Library; it is inscribed with notes in his hand­      writing on seeds ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS             fo~d   iIU!- safe, and in due course was returned to the             L...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSthe possession of his friends or in private librarieshave found their way into one ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS   A half-century from the days of the first borrowers                             ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSstimulating books along the lines of Swedenborgianthought, continuingaetive in his ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDFNBORG MANUSCRIPTS             London with the purpose of continuing the printing             of the ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS    altogether different from one he had published some    years before, is apprais...
:J    o    Cl-, ::J    ~
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS     the task. After accepting the commission to under­     take the work, he saile...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS     smaller manuscripts to the known treasures of     Swedenborgs literary remains...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS     would be $17,000 in gold. The committee immediately     launched the enterpriS...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS     (pp. 444) includes "Mathematica et Principia Rerum     Naturaliurn." We have h...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG .MANUSCRIPTS        two codices of the manuscript of "Apocalypsis Ex-         licata" that Swe...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS   Bridgewater, Mass., who had labored for many years   in the editing of Latin rep...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS  ,	 of _tYenty-fiv~ag~s, "Summaria Expositio Sensus      Interni Prophetieorum ae ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS( Convention ofthe New J~rusalem~d the A~w~_~f, thêNêW Church, both of North Americ...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS     and agent of both Academy and Comrention_~!!_theiren!~!prise 5l.!     p~t.Qtyp...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS      When Mr. S.!!:Qh took Up his work in Stockholm he   vas warmly supported by t...
THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS    ciency and enthusiasm seemed tO~II!.j!l~ovided    instrument for the realizatio...
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S c-eby-the-story-of-the-swedenborg-manuscripts-new-church-press-new-york-1926

  1. 1. g {Çg2) ./~ ~ ~0 ©b Q~ ~ [ ] ~~ W 00 ~ U ~ ~0 ~ {Çg2) (-c~ ri){ÇU2} ~ ~ ~ ;Jw~~ . W ~ ~ {Çg2) ~
  2. 2. The Story ofTHE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS S. C. EllY THE NEW-CHURCH PRESS NEW YORK
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  4. 4. PREFATORY If 1 were to acknowledge specifically aU the sources ofhelp in the writing of "The Story of the Swedenborg Manu­scripts," 1 should have to list the names of virtually aU whohave at any time written about those documents and theirreproduction. 1 cannot, nevertheless, let these pages go to press withoutacknowledging my particular indebtedness to the compila­tions of Miss Greta EkelOf, assistant librarian of the ---_._-,~- ..........--Library of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in Stock­holm; to the R!v. Alfred Acton, of Bryn Athyn, whoseability as a student of Swedenborg and proficient ac­quaintance with the manuscripts are well known, for verygenerously perusing two separate drafts of my Story andadding in important respects to its accuracy; and to thel!.ev.. ~_ Whitehead, of Arlington, Mass., who suppliedmany interesting data both in his published articles on thesubject and in letters to those concerned in the preservationof the Swedenborg Manuscripts. S. C. E.New York, May l, 1926.
  5. 5. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSPORTRAIT OF SWEDENBORG • . • . • . . • • • • • . • . • • FrontispiceeCATHEDRAL OF UPSALA . . • • . • • . • • • • . • • Opposite Page 5UNIVERSITY OF U PSALA. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • " "IlROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. • " "IlSWEDENBORGS HOUSE................ " "23HOUSE OF NOBLES. • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • " "23MINING EXCHANGE.................. " "35SWEDENBORG MEDAL......... . • • • • • • • " "35JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON. • • • • • • • " "43J. F. lM MANUEL T AFEL. • . • • • • • • • • • • • " "43RUDOLF L. TAFEL... • • • • • • • • • • . . • . . • • " "43ALFRED H. STROH. . • . . . • . • • • • • . • • • • • " "43GUSTAV RETZIUS . . • . • • • • • • . . • • • . • • . • " "43VOLUME XI OF PHOTOTYPED MANU­ SCRIPTS " " 55COAT OF ARMS •••••••••••••••••••••• " " 63 v
  6. 6. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS N THE latter part of the ye~r 1922 authorized I agents in America received a consignment of handsomely bound sheepskin tomes, consisting of phototyped reproductions of manuscripts written by E.r.nanuel_ê~e~enborg. The originals had Iain forone hundred and fifty years on the shelves of the Library of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stock- holm, a society of which Swedenborg was a member and to which bis heirs intrusted bis manuscript remams. 1n.tended ru Gifu to Reference Librariu. In the earlier part of the same year identical sets of these phototypes had been distributed at a notable gathering at the Suffolk Galleries in London, under the auspices of th~.J~oyal S.2ci~~y_of Literature and theÎ Sw_eden~o!"g S~~iety of LoIldQn, neither of w~i.1 tutions is of a sectarian or denominational character. Lord Chamwood presided and made the presentation in the name of the societies. Th_~ British Museum; the 1
  7. 7. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS Bodleian Library, the Rylands Collection, and other lïbraries were-repre~en:-t~d and fOflUlllly- accepted the memorable gift. In the announcement of the donors it is declared that "no retum is sought for the outlay involved, except the assurance that wherever the books are accepted they ;nI b-;- avail~t~ students-at an _. _ • _ _ __ _ . w •. _ _ reasonable times for purposes of literary research." The production of this series of phototypes was the fruit of the devoted labors of various enthusiastic students of Swedenborg; but it is only fair to say that the f_l!nds, sOIIl~ fi~!y._t!!.<?.~~anLg_911a!s, making tl!~ work possible were supplied by the subscriptions of a relatively smaH group in England and America of men, and womenof moderate means who feIt an intellectual ) respo~sibili~y to perpetuate in their original intactness1 the evidences of the literary method and working men- tal processes of this "mastodon of literature," who has been caHed with reason a modern Aristotle. It is proposed to follow the example of the Royal Society of Literature and the Swedenborg Society in England, and to donate the several sets of the Amer- ican quota to various leading libraries in our own country. Remembering that the original manuscripts are among the chief treasures in one of the great libraries of the world, the Library of the Royal Swedish Academy of Scie~ in StôêkÎ1olm, where they are guard~d with-pâr1lcüiar care, while every con- venience is afforded to those desiring to consult or 2
  8. 8. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS study them, it will be recognized that the work of the present distributers is strictly in the line of-libr~ry extension,-an effort to multiply the resources of one library for the benefit of a judiciously chosen number of other libraries. Why the Manu.scripts Should Be in the Chief Reference Librarie&. It goes without saying that these manuscripts will be held in high esteem by those scholars who are inter­ ested in the subject matter of Swedenborgs books, and this alone might be a sufficient reason for their accept­ ance by the libraries. As matter of fact, however, the) sjgn!fi~~n~~_ ~f ~~ed~?borgis ~~r. wider an<L-~~e) enduring than any denominational or partisan bias of successive generations of devotees or do~trinaires; " - -- . . " - .... _---_... ~_._~ His permanent place among the world s immortals, while undoubtedly assured, is by no means well or distinctly defined. Professor William James asserted: "In Swedenborg, as in other writers, much must count for slag, and the question, What is the!:~!!.lli.~~den­ borg7 will naturally be solved by different students in different ways." Every resear~h worke!-.~s the value of an authors unpublished writings as aids to the mastery of such works as he has presented to the world. Many angles of interest in Swedenborg have their significance in the peculiar aim and char­ s
  9. 9. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS acter of his genius. For example, Ralph Waldo Emerson declared: "1 have sometimes thought that he would render the greatest service to modern crit­ icism who shall draw the line of relation that subsists between Shakspeare and Swedenborg." This is but one of countless studies in criticism where free access , to·the penetr!l:lia_~ o~iginal and aut~ori!~tive ~o~ices would be a priceless privilege. vVhat would it not mean if the scholar of today could consult veracious 1 transcripts of the writings of Plato or Paul or Shak­ speare? Moreover, Swedenborg is startlingly anticipative of much that men since his day have discovered and are discovering. Future scholars with our new sense of fairness will not be contented to leave unacknowledged his profound conjectures in widely differing fields of the sciences; nor will they be satisfied until they under­ stand the intellectual quality that made him a master in processes of thought and modes of insight as yet very imperfectly apprehended. In the introduction to his English translation, published in 1843, of Sweden­ borgs "Regnum Animale," James .John GartLYil­( k~n made the interesting observation, which has gained added point and force by the lapse of eighty years:" The principles of Swedenborg have increas·i ing root and power. They are more true now to the rational inquirer than they could possibly be to the men of Swedenborgs day; wherever he adopted false t
  10. 10. CATHEDRAL OF UPSALA. CONTAINING SWEDENnORGS MAUSOLEUM FROM ETCHING BY HAIG Courtcsy of Robert Dunthornc and Son, London
  11. 11. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSfacts they furnished a worse basis for his system thanthe more solid materials of modern discovery." It is no part of my purpose either to commend ordiscommend the particular cont.~nts of Swedenborgsmanuscripts; but it may be proper to say that, in sofar as there has been affirmative or constructive prog­ress in religious and ethical achievement in the lastcentury and a half, the sanest and most virile thoughtof the world has tak~ -nnportantstrides in the dire;.tion of accord with the prinëiples of- Swedenborgssystem of spiritual psychology.--sicle byside withthat fact is the still moot question in many quartersas to whether what is unusual in these writings isprophetie or pathologie. When this problem is seri­ously worked out by the world s savants, the first­hand evidences of Swedenborgs method of work andproduction will be of prime value in the case. The Educative Setting Of Swedenborgs Times. Swedenborgs lot fell in a very important period ofthe intellectual development of his native country. Hisearly years of study followed the victory of a freerand more progressive Cartesianism over a dogmaticand reactionary ecclesiastical rule in educational cir­cles. His Alma Mater was the center of the new in­fluences. Contemporaneously with his active manhood,practical modern science was just planting itself. lS
  12. 12. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS Swedenborg himself suggested improved methods in mining and smelting i Linné organized the science of botanYi another contemporary introduced the use of the threshing-machine; still another established the first chemical laboratory in Sweden. On aU hands there was a willingness to accept the new. S~p­ borg~asjland in gloTILYiJh aU this effort at national .improvemept. - His intimate contact with the widening horizon in Sweden was the best preparatory school possible for the larger knowledge of the outside world. Sweden­ borgs mind first grasped aU his countrymen were working at and writing about, and then reached for what the best minds of aIl the world were striving to ac~inp.lish. By the time he was a man ~f middle-age he had become what was known as a universal scholar. It has been said that he was the~-fhe genus. Sinc~ his time-aU-the- sciences have heen specialized, and today a great and learned scholar may know thor­ oughly his special field and have only a general idea of the rest of the domains of knowledge. Sweden­ borgs facility in his amazing universal acquaintance with. t,he world of his t.@e ~a~ so naturaI~-s~y, so servlCeable that he was quahfied as no man III our classifying and specializing age could possibly be qual­ ( ified for giving an all-around view of life and its cosmic arena. "Plato was a gownsman beside him," admits Emerson. Ii was impos_êible for him, ~~~ l!!s 6
  13. 13. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS fair love of truth, to be partial or partisan. He could not study thè-bodyWithout taking cognizance of the mind; the world, without a spiritual counterpart; matter, without life; phenomena, without congenial and correspondent oversoul. . Hence one never thinks of his books as tasks, as the labored outcome of a theory. He m:.it~s as one inter­ ested consumedly in a fruitful world of tr~th in ~l:gch his_ mind finds itself. This quality becomes more in­ tense with the passing years. In his ripeness of seer­ ship he writes as one who has no concern for manner,j but is enamored -of the supremëvaiuéo( the matter he has to impart. He writes on chemistry and methods of arithmetic; on bones and the brain; on taxation and prohibition; on man and God; on heaven and hell,-and always with one paramount purpose, namely, that the reader shall obtain a rational apprehension of the subject; nay, more, that through.-Jh.e..~tlldy__2Lthi~--.êEbj~t, whatever it may be, the reader shall become rational. "Vhat shall l re~d to get -a knoWledgeof Swedenbo;g1 is frequently asked. Swedenborg would say, Do I!ot read me at aIl unless you wish to understand. Mere knowledge-meansnotiüng iD: itself:The great p1!!p.ose of the art of writing, the one use of the printing press, is the presentation of truths by which the sense-bound, time and space swaddled mind can learn to think sanely and rationally and comprehensively. 7
  14. 14. THE SroRY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS The titles of his smaller books, and the lateness of the dates of their publication, indicate rather clearly( the truths that Swedenborg regarded as paramount in1) human importance. In the years behind him he had treated elaborately of the body and the bodys -Würld, insisti:iIg on the· principles of influx, degree~,-se~s, and correspondences. Later, along similar lines, he had worked out at great length !lis doc~rine of r:.ey~n as spiritual and correspondential and his doctrine of) the Lord as the community of God with man ln [he( Divine Humanity of a reclaimed social order. Now it would seem that in his smaller books he Ts endeav­ oring to lay out paths by which men interested in Un4_ElT~j;andingmight easily walk into the larg-;;-truths ) of his Arcana and Explicata. His tireless pen ex­ patiates on conjugial love, on Providence, on creative love and wisdom, on heaven and hell, on the last and accomplished judgment, on the New J erusalem. He covers familiar ranges of speculation and terminology, as was necessary if he were to have any footing in the worlds intellectual commerce; but his visiQ.:f.l_ is Cfresh and original, his method and aim creative and l fec~il.d, p~tting ~v4lg ~ignificaI.!.~~ int o ev~ry W~~:9-Et î sym-lol, and thr.9~ng the. center E-f gravity for §piritu­ l alïty ~-Sl revela;tion, not in any past, but wholly in the future. Not what humanity was, but what it is to be, is what counts. 8
  15. 15. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS Vast Range and Scope of Swedenborgs Literary Production. As might have been expected, considering his avidity for learning, his intimate participation in his coun­ trys scientific aspirations, his world knowledge of the achievements of other nations, his~rdent _desire !o use the printing pres~ for the common enligh!~!1ment, Swedenborg became a prolific writer of books.-· IDs literary legacy is immense. How voluminous his original output was, and how numerous the reproduc­ tions of that output, may be inferred from a moment s examination of Hydes "Bibliography of the Works of Emanuel Swedenborg," publGhed in --London -in .- -.-.~-. 1906, which in 690 pages treats of 3,500 items of pub­ lished :works, taking no account of the literature grow­ ing out of the study of Swedenborg and his philosophy. The researcher endeavoring to appraise the wealth of Swedenborgs literary remains as found in the li­ braries of the world would note four distinct divisions of publishing activity and productivity.1{ In the first place there are the original works issued - - - ----- ·by Swedenborg in Sweden, Germany, Holland, and England, in the Swedish and Latin languages. These works, treating of mathematics and chemistry in the beginning, and of God and spiritual psychology at the ending, are a library by themselves. Of course, aIl the copies extant of any volume of these originals are 9
  16. 16. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS in the class of rare and expensive books, seldom if ever found for sale. The second class of publications of Swedenborgs2 authorship covers the reprint..~jJL~atin and in trans­ lations into other languages of theworks orIgllïa1iy seen through the press by Swedenborg. Swedenborg has been translated almost fully into the principal Eun>pean l~ngu~ges ~-d partly i~tom~ny-others. Hence by far the largest number of items in any list or catalogue would come under this head of repub­ lications. The third form in which Swedenborg is found in the libraries is in the editions, in Latin or in transla­ tions, of works left unfinished or at least unpublished by their author at the time of his death. A fourth mode of perpetuating Swedenborgs writ­ ings is the ~xact reproduction by lithographing or phototyping, and recently by the photostat process,Ir­ - o( the IIll1J~.l!.scripts in Swedenborgs·ha;dwrlting found after his death among his possessions or in other custody. Each of these currents of publication, running with more or less persistency through many decades of endeavor, has its own interesting story of devotion, sacrifice, co-operation, and casualty. l shaH have little to say about the first three lines of publication except incidentally when treating of the preservation of Swedenborgs writings. l shall endeavor, rather, to 10
  17. 17. ~ ...:< 0 lI: :.: u 0 t­ rf)-<...:< ui-<rf) i:l üIl­ Z::J i:lc", U rf)0 ~>< 0t­üi ><~ ~i:l i:l:::z Cl -< u::> -< lI: ;l Cl i:l ~ rf) ...:< -< >< 0 ~
  18. 18. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPfSgive briefiy an account of the nature, history, andpresent whereabouts of themanuscripts known to bestill in existence. - < . --------- - EMIy Training and The Formation of The W riting Habit. Emanuel Swedenborg was born in the City of Stock-holm in 1688. His father was Dr. Jesper Swedberg,Bishop of Skara in Westrogothia, and his mother wasSarah Behm, daughter of Albrecht Behm, Assessorof the Royal Board of Mines. His father was Rectorof the University at Upsala during Swedenborgsearliest years, when his studies were conducted underthe paternal guidance. After his fathers accessionto the bishopric and removal to Skara, Swedenborgsyouthful years passed pleasantly in Upsala under the -_.care of his sister and her husband, Ericus Benzelius.This brother-in-Iaw of Swedenborgs was a distin- _.---._~--~guished scholar and was finally appointed Archbishopof Sweden. He seems to have taken an uncommonpersonal interest in the intellectual welfare of theboy and no doubt contributed greatly to his progress.The friendship of mind between the two continuedlong after the student days. Most of Swedenborgsknown letters from abroad and from other parts ofSweden were addressed to him, and many smaU scien-tific works written in Swedenborgs younger manhood 11
  19. 19. THE !TORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSare preserved with Bishop Benzeliuss papers in theDiocesan Library of Linkoping. These treatises ofthe young SWëdenborg-hav; distinctive value, andsome of them have recently been published for thefirst time in a new but still uncompleted edition oftheir authors scientific works. In 1709 Swedenborg ended his studies at Upsala,and from 1710 to 1715 he was traveling and studyingin various foreign countries. His first published writ­ings were in the nature of poetry, of a conventionaland moralistic type, but characterized by brilliancy ofexpression and a classic taste. In 1716, the year inwhich Charles XII appointed him Assessor in theCollege of Mines, he was one of the projectors andthe chief editor of the first scientific magazine pub­lished in Sweden, Daedalus Hyperboreus. In 1721he went again to Rolland for a considerable stay, andpublished several scientific works in that country. In 1773 he made his third journey abroad, spending most of the time in GermanYi and in Leipzig in 1734 he pub­ lished the first- ofthe three volumes of his "Opera Philosophica et Mineralia." First AccumulatioM of Scientific Manuscripts. From all these years of travel, of publishing, andof work as Assessor of Mines, there remain greatquantities of papers, memoranda, letters, and larger 12
  20. 20. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS manuscripts. Contained in the manuscript volumes of this period are works with these titles: "Geomet­ rica et Aigebraica," "The Magnet," "The Extrac­ tion of Silver and Copper," "Sulphur and Pyrites," "Vitriol," and "The First Principles of Natural Things. " These are aIl in the Royal Swedish Acad­. emy of Sciel?-~~s in Stockho1ID~-the Siat~Aréhlves in the same city is an important work growing out of Swedenborgs practical labors as Assessor of Mines. This is a folio codex containing a description of Swedish iron furnaces and the process of smelting iron, which Swedenborg presented in 1719 to the Royal College of Mines, in whose library it was p;;;~ved ~til a- few yêars ago, when it was taken to the State Archives. It has been published in Swedish, and is obtainable from the booksellers. Among sorne quite recently discovered manuscripts in Swedenborgs handwriting is one called "Dialogue Between Mechanica and Chymica." This was found among the writings of C~ph~!~olhem in the Royal Library. It is not probable that Swedenborg was the responsible author of this work, and it has been supposed that he may have written it in collab­ oration with Polhem. Polhem was in sorne sort a benefactor and patron of the young Swedenborg, culti­ vated his intimate friendship, and loved him like a son. He was in the royal service and was a close counselor of Charles XII in aIl things mechanical and 18
  21. 21. THE SroRY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS mathematical. He introduced Swedenborg to the King, thus initiating the friendship between Charles and Swedenborg, and paving the way for the young man s appointment, on the Kings personal knowledge of his merits, as an Assessor in the College of Mines. Swedenborg worked over sorne of Polhems papers as a sort of secretarial critic, and possibly as amanu­ ensis. Moreover, it was also to Polhem~_~econd dllt_,,:!gl!!~r that Swedenborg gave an unrequited love, the only afÏair of the heart his biographers describe. Life in Stockholm A.s a Man of AfJair.s. In 1719, on the ennoblement of his family by Queen ffirica Eleonora and the change of the family name from Swedberg to Swedenborg, he became entitled to (aseat in the National Diet of Sweden. He was active in the business of the Diet in 1723, and was regular : in his attendance for the next ten years both at the sessions of the Diet and the daily meetings of the . College of Mines. His memorials and memoranda are among the manuscripts preserved from this period. A large quarto volume, begun in 1733, contains various papers on philosophy and science, together with his journals of travel. Many of the contents were _ ~ written at a later date, and parts of the codex have,r 1 l.--- ) been torn out, among them eight pages containing (,) Swedenborgs dreams recorded from 1736 to 1740. 1~
  22. 22. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS The years foilowing 1733-35, when the "Opera Phil­ osophica et Mineralia" had been printed, were the summit period of Swedenborgs career as a student of natural things. He had for years been going deeply into the sciences of the human body, and now devoted himself almost exclusively to the study of these sub­ jects. In the Library of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences are six large manuscript volumes on anat­ o~my aE.d p!lysiologY.. Sorne of these had not- ~venbêén examined with care until recent years. As usual, these manuscripts never published by the author were preparatory and tentative efforts that gave way to more fini shed works which were published to the world. Although his mind was markedly practi­ cal, and his strongest early bias was for mathematics and mechanics, he was scholarly and punctilious in his habits as a writer. He was indefatigable in the use of his pen, copying or digesting tJ1e ~uthoriti~ in each branch of science on w~ic~ he w~ote, and then ~~­ pounding with lucidity and originality his own con-f c~usi~n~ based on the known facts thus cited~-·Through­ out his long career as a writer, both on scientific and theological subjects, he had a habit of making copious plans and drafts of a contemplated work, and would go back to these preliminary manuscripts for material in preparing his books for the press. So that, while the manuscripts used by his printers were ail lost in the usual way of "dead" copy in printshops, yet 15
  23. 23. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS among his documentary remains were masses of ma­ teria1 drawn upon in the preparation of the books published by himself. From the time of his appointment to the royal ser­ vice in the College of Mines Swedenborg resided in Stockholm, purchasing a small estate, where he made bis home for the rest of his life. -This domicile was, situated in Hornsgatan, in the southern part of the Swedish capital, and consisted of his dwelling, a S!!!!1­ mer-house, where he kept his library and wrote inl pl~asant weather, several other buildings, and his gar­ den. The house itself was a plain structure with smal1 rooms, and was the habituaI workshop of the constant ) writer, in Yhich he kept his manuscripts so arranged as to be of easy reference. . -- Search for the Soul; "The Worship and Love of God:" In 1740 Swedenborg published at Amsterdam bis "Œconomia Regni Animalis," a profound attempt to solve the problem; ~f ps~hology through astudy of physiology and its analogies. This was scarcely off the press when his method seemed to him inadequate, and in 1744 he brought out at The Hague the first two volumes of his "R_egnuII!~A_~ÎI~le," the third vol~me fol1owing in 1745, printed in London. This seems to have marked the ending of Swedenborgs distinctly 16
  24. 24. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS scientific studies and of his speculations growing out of natural philosophy. ------~. Before he had finished his "Regnum Animale" he was deep in another work, of quite a different char­ acter, which divides in rather a striking way the earlier Swedenborg mind from that of his later years. This is his "vVorship and Love ~. God." Throughout the ten years before the publication of his "Regnum Animale, " which is really an attempt to solve the questions of the nature and kingdom of uses of the human soul, Swedenborgs mind had been the arena of mighty confiicts and surprising transformations. His intellectual experiences had become complex and his lines of speculation widely separated in their ob­ jectives. He had already, as far back as 1734, pub­ lished his "Outlines of a Philosophical Argument on the Infinite, and the Final Causé of érêation.;aïïcI(;n the Intercourse Between the Soul and the Body." In ) 1741 he wrote a work entitled "A Hieroglyphic Key to Natural and Spiritual Mysteries by vVay of Repre­ sentations and Correspondences." There is a]so a ) book consisting of his dreams in 1743 and 1741=. These r two works Swedenborg never published.1-.----­ The manuscripts written after the publication in London of the first two parts of "The Worship and Love of God" in 1745 are, with very limited excep­ tions, devoted to theological and spiritual subjects. Swedenborg never issued the third part of this work.1 l7
  25. 25. THE STORY OF THE SWELENBORG MANUSCRIPTS The Library of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sci­ ences possesses the unfinished third voh~e, consisting partly of printed proofsheets and partly of manu­ script. This library also contains his own coPy oL!~e first two volumes, in~cribed with his marginl!l notes. It was at tÏÏis time, after returning to Swedenand} re-entering on his duties as Assessor, that he resumed~I the study of Hebrew, reading through many times the entire Old Testament in that language. Meanwhile he meditated on these ancient Scriptures with his pen in hand, producing his "Ady_~§aria," -3 commentary on the Old Testament from Genesis to J eremiah. The last entry is dated the 9th of February, 1747, and the work was doubtless regarded by its author as propre· deutic and preliminary. It consists of three large manuscript codices, making nine volumes octavo in Dr. Î~anuel Tafel s printed edition. In this year 1749 Swedenborg began the writing of his "Memorabilia," ordinarily described as "The Spiritual Diary," to which he continued to make addi­ tions for many years, the last entry being dated De­ cember 30, 1764. This work consists of nine volumes of manu§cripts preserved in the Library of thê:Ràyal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the first volume being incomplete. The contents of the "Diary" are inci­ dental in subject and fragmentary in treatment, but like the" Adversaria" they are preliminary and ex­ perimental excursions along the lines followed in 18
  26. 26. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS Swedenborgs matured theological works, which he began publishing in 1749. Publication of Swedenborgs Theological Works. The first of the theological works published was "Arc~~a Coelestia," issued in London in eight large . qua~t?s from 1749 to 1756. A first draft of the greater part of this elaborate work, consisting of sixte~!l_~~_n­ 1 uscript volumes, is contained in the Library of the) Àcademy of -Sciences. With it is an ind~x ~ three {vol~_~s. The" Arcana" was soon followed by sev­ eral shorter works, among them "Heaven and Hell," in which is compressed the philosophy illustrated or hinted at in the "Diary." The next large manuscript produced by Sweden­ borg, and which he left unpublished, was the" 4poc.?-­ lypsis Explicata," nearly fini shed in 1759. Of this work the Library of the Royal Swedish Academy of( Sciences possesses ~ manus~ipt_~op~s. The first< was Swedenborg) original Qraft, in nine oblong folio (VOlUE!es. T~e ~econd copy}~ in thre_e quarto volumes, written in a fair hand for printing. However, Sweden­ borg never placed it in the liands of the printer, but covered the same general theme in his work "~poca­ lyp~Revelata," published in 1766. Of this work the Library of the Academy of Sciences has two manu­ 1~
  27. 27. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS script indexes. One of these indexes is in a codex } in which is included also a.!! in~~~gelic Wisdomî Concerning Marriage," a work that has never been 1 discover~d. A.:!.1ôth~r i!1d~x ~f considerabi~ length-!~, the same lost work is also in existence. These manu­ scripts were used by Swedenborg in his preparation) of the published work, "De Amore Conjugiale, " printed in Rolland in 1768. Other manuscripts belong to the years when Swedenborg was engaged in writing the" Apocalypsis . Explicata." Among these are" A Summary Exposi­ tion of the InternaI Sense of the Prophetical Books and the Psalms of the Old Testament," "The Lord," l "The Athanasian Creed," "The Canons, " "Five Memorable Relations, " "The Sacred Scripture," j "The Spiritual World," "The Precepts of the Deca­ logue,,, together with "The Divine Love" and "The Divine Wisdom," tWQ works :published posthumously/ 1 and not to be confused with S~edeEbo_rg~s ~_ p~­ lication, "The Divine Love and Wisdom," of which they were the draft preparatio~ These manuscripts are aIl in the Library of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. An interesting variation in his manuscript produc­ tions is a paper, not found until as late as 1907, which is the draft or copy for j!n artick-by Swedenborg at ) the age of 75, published in 1763 in the Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences on "A Description of the ) 20
  28. 28. ) THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORC MANUSCRIPTS ) Mode in Which Marble Slabs Are Inlaid for Tables and Other Ornaments."-------- In 1771 Swedenborg published his "True Christian Religion. " Before and after that event --h-;-producêd a nu~bér of small works which remained only in man­ ( uscript at the time of his death,-short treatises on "Marriage," ,,Justification and Good Works," "Con ­ ) versations with Calvin," "The Faith of the Reformed ( Derived from the Roman Catholic Church," "Sum ­ mary Doctrine of the New Church," "The Consum­ mation of the Age," "Invitation to the New Church," ) and the" Coronis, or Appendix to the True Christian Religion, " written the year before his death.- Manuscripts Are Donated ta Royal Swedish Aca.demy of Sciences. Swedenborg died in London in 1772. His habit had been to write in his lodgings in foreign lands with the same regularity and diligence as when at home in Stockholm. In due course t~IIl~~~iP.t~J.9-.!1!.1~~n . ) his lodgings in the home of Richard Shearsmith, in C;;idb~th Fields, London, were collected.- a;2l sent to ) Stockholm. These manuscripts, together with all those stored at the house in Hornsgatan, naturally passed into the hands of the Swedenborg family, who, si;:}ce Swedenborg left no will, had become-heirs to ms estate. 21
  29. 29. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS On October 20 of the same year the official repre ­ sentatives of the heirs conveyed to the ROYal Swedi;h Academy of scieIïëes aU the manuscripts in Sweden­ borgs handwriting that had come into their posses­ sion, toget~er with a carefuUy. prep.ared catalogu.e ac­ cording to their general subjects, with the !equ~~t that~th~_same mighLb~ p:t~serYEld in the Library of the Academy with that care which was expected from the contents of the Documents, and with the respect due to the deceased and the honor of his family th.~.n and at aU future ~ime r~quiri.ng." In later years two attempts were made by repre ­ sentatives of the heirs to reclaim the gift made to the11 Academy of Sciences. In 1778 the offer of a consid­ erable sum of money from England led to an e_ff~!t to dispossess the Library of the Swedenborg manu­ scripis, but without result.FHty years later, in1828,2 one Abraham Berg, a citizen of Stockholm, brought a lawsuit against the Academy of Sciences to obtain the manuscripts as the rightful owner py ~cquisition of title from th~h~irs. He lost his suit in aU the courts; and the King ~~~n, acting as a final tribunal, l after personaUy examining aIl the evidence in the case, f~er ~~t the whole-Elatter at rest by adjudicating î bYJQYal decree that the Royal SWëdish Academy- of ( Sciences was the sole owner of the Swedenborg manu­ scripts in its custody. 22
  30. 30. SWEDENBORGS HOUSE IN HORNSGATAN, STOCKHOLM. THE SUM ­ MER HOUSE SHOWN AMONG THE fREES IS NOW IN SKANSEN NATIONAL PARK HOUSE OF NOBLES, STOCKHOLM
  31. 31. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS lnterest of Swedenborg Students in the Manuscripts. Swedenborg had done a little of his earliest work of publication in co-operation with friends, his ex­ cuse to Charles XII for the cessation of Daedalus was lack of funds, and his "Opera Philosophica et Miner­ alia" seems to have had some princely patronage in Germany. Otherwise the writing and p~b~sJ:1.!!,g of , his works w~re ~rried on by_ hims~lf without any col­~ laboration or outside supp~rt. His amazing industry~ SUfficed for the writing, and an inheritance ~ro~ his ...( step-mother supplemented his salary in enabling him . to achieve the printing and publishing. After his death, however, others displayed note­ worthy zeal in efforts to give to the world such works of Swedenborgs as were still lying in manuscript form. At first the motive of those interested in these documentary remains was perhaps more propagandist than scholarly, and their aim was directed to the re­ production of the posthumous works of Swedenborg by publication and translation and not to the preserva­ tiop. in their completeness and intactness oLt.h.Et ~a~u­ script~ themselves. In co-operating with these ad­ mirers and students of Swedenborg, the custodians of the manuscripts seem to have interpreted with great latitude the injunction of the donors to preserve their gift with proper and adequate care. The manu­ 28
  32. 32. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS scripts w~_q!1ite g~nerouslili~t, and numerous and impo!-i~gt PQ~~~9_~S "~ere tel!!P~!:..argy lo_st. The first borrower of the manuscripts seems to haver;,, ,(1,-....., ­ , .. , been Augtlstus - "_. ~- .. - Nordenskjold, an inspector of mines --". and a member of the Academy. Swedenborg had left part of bis writings in 100se sheets, and it was Augustus Nordenskjold who had the manuscripts bound in the va­ rious codices in which they have been preserved. The ~r~i~:ri1ry~ivision 9f sorne _?"Ltl!.e_.~o!,ks into "Parts" was due to the incident of binding and not to any pur­ pose of their author. Nordenskjold in 1780 had pub­ lished in London at his own expense the Latin edition of Swedenborgs "Coronis," and writes in a letter in 1782, "1 continue to have copied out fairly each day sorne interesting manuscript of Swedenborgs which l borrow from Wargentin,"-this Wargentin then be­ ing librarian for the Academy of Sciences. Augustus had a brother, c. F. Nor~nskj~ld, who was aiso inter­ ested in Swedenborgs writings. In 1783 this brother was going to England, and, having learned that there was in that country a society devoted to the publica­ tion and dissemination of Swedenborgs doctrines, he carried with him copies of such works as had been transcribed and was also responsible for the transfer to England of certain origln?:l manuscripts, with"1h-e purpose ofhaVlng them printed by thi;"sà~iety. He placed himself in connection with the group of Swedenborg students in England and eventually left 24
  33. 33. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSthe manuscripts in their hands. The works were pub­lished in Latin and English, chiefly through the gen­erosity and efforts of J ohn._ ~_ug~-g.s Tulk, M. P., and -"Robert Hindmarsh. They were "The Apocalypse Ex­ ._. - .. --­ ---plained," "The Hieroglyphic Key," "The Prophetsand Psalms," "The Divine Love" and "The DivineWisdom." The Lost "Apocalypse Explainetl· A Treasure House of New Teaching. Of these, the first, "Apocalypsis Explicata," is one -~.. > "~--_., .----_.of the most important of Swedenborgs entire list ofworks. The manuscript borrowed by Nordenskjoldwas the one copied by Swedenborg in fair hand forthe printer. In England Nordenskjold placed thismanuscript in the hands of Henry Peckitt, the presi­dent of the publishing society then existing in London.The work of editing the manuscript was divided amongseveral members of the society, Mr. Peckitt taking tohis house one volume as his share of the task and de­positing it in his desk. ~_ ~!:.L12rok~-.?~t in his house,and the roof and walls fell in while firemen were seek­ing to remove the contents. Mr. Peckitt believed thathis treasured volume was lost irreparably; but ~neighbor informed hirn that he had picked up sornebooks on the street at the time orthe fir;-;nd carrre-dthern to his -home for safekeeping. Àmong thern wasthe volume on which Mr. Peckitt had been working. 25
  34. 34. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS A fireman had found the desk too heavy to move, and had opened it and thrown its contents out of window. In 1785 Volume l was printed in Latin, the fourth and last volume- appearing in -1790~ the joint private expense of four members of the society. After the work was published the manuscript was returned to Mr. Peckitt, who held it only in trust for the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and with the purpose of returning it at the first favorable oppor­ tunity to the Library in Stockholm; but no such oppor­) tunity occurred in his lif~ime, the French Revolution breaking out and the disturbed state of Europe mak­ ing international relations too unreliable to risk the sending of the manuscript. It remained in the hands of Mr. Peckitt s friends or family uI!~8,}Yh~t1 wa§. pre.-sent~<i.-t~ t~~~wedenborg S9gie_ty i J1_L..QE:don, which preserved it until 1842, when with other manu­) scripts it was restored to its rightful owner, the Acad­ emy of Sciences. In 1859 the manuscript was bor­ rowed and taken to Germany by Dr. Immanuel Tafel, who republished the work in Latin at Stuttgart. In 187Q the manuscript was photolithographed under the direction of Dr. Rudolf L. Tafel at Stockholm. Swedenborgs Memorabilia, Known as "The Spiritual Diary." The second borrower of manuscripts was C~~!~s - Berns fu.g.strom, a man of considerable parts and - 26
  35. 35. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS noted for his efforts in behalf of the abolition of African slavery in British Dominions. As early as 1790 a librarian s memorandum is recorded in the Library of the Academy of Sciences that Sweden­ borgs "Memorabilia" had been lent to Director C. B. Wadstrom, a member of the Academy. Previous to the date of this memorandum Mr. Wadstrom had left - -- Sweden for England with some of the Academys Swedenborg manusc!,ipts and with transcripts of a number of other of Swedenborgs works in the 1Academys Library. The originals were the manu­ scripts of the Memorabilia, otherwise known as the Greater and Lesser Diaries, and a portion of thel "Index Biblicus." The copies were "The Canons," "The Lord," "The Athanasian Creed," "The Doc­ trine of Charity," "The Last Judgment and the Spiritual vVorld," "Conversation with Angels," "In­ vitation to the New Church," and "The Coronis." In the inventory made in 1841 by the Librarian of ( - - --­ 1 the Royal Swedish Acad.emy of S~~.nces for t~e P~E- pose of learning the status of the Swedenborg manu­ scripts, the Memorabilia~;e-descnbedas l~st. Aii~r 1 Mr. Vvadstrom had reached England in 1788 he asso­ ciated himself with his friend, c. F. Nordenskjold, who1 1 still had in his possession certain Swedenborg manu­ scripts which he desired to have published, and t~e two - Swedish gentlemen had an interview with Bene­ . - ~ - - .. _-------­ dict Chast!lnier, a French physician and apothecary 27
  36. 36. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS resident in London, who had been active in translating Swedenborgs works into French. Chastanier accepted the manuscripts and undertook by means of printed prospectuses to interest Swedenborgs admirers and students in their publication. His efforts met with no immediate success, although the works were aU issued later in Latin and translated editions. Chas­ tanier himself, besides translating considerable por ­ tions of them, made a faithful copy of extended sec­ tions of the Memorabilia, which many years Iater proved of great value to Dr. Irnrnanuel Tafel when he published the Latin text. ChastaIl~r in his Iater~ ­ years became greatly impoverished, - _.. and in his ex­ tremity parted with sorne of the Swedenborg manu­, scripts as pa~~_ t~ creditors. He finally perished-at nearly eighty years of age in a snowstorm in Scotland. By devious ways the manuscripts that had been in his( custody carne eventually into the hands of the Sweden­ borg Society of London. This Society, desiring to ( understand its right to the possession of these manu­ , scripts, in 1842 cornrnunicated with the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for information concerning the ownership of the documents as governed by the original gift. The Academy__ produced indisputable1 proo.!s o(o~er~hip and the Swedenboig SocietYim­ mediately passed resolutions restoring the manu­ scripts to the Swedish Library. Before shipping the manuscript of the Memorabilia 28
  37. 37. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS to Sweden, however, the Swedenborg Society, with the consent of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, dispatched it to Dr. Immanuel Tafel, in Germany, for purposes of transcription and publication. The work was printed by him in 1843 and 1844 with the title, "Eman. Swedenborgii Diarium Spirituale, Partes II et III." Dr. Tafel returned the manuscript to the Swedenborg Society of London, and, after rebinding the document in two elegant morocco volumes, tÈ-~ Society in 1845 restored it to the Swedenborg archives in the Library of the RoyaCSwedishÂc~demy of Sci­ _ - - __ 0 •• _ _._ • ., _ _ •• _ _ _ _ ences after an absence of more than half a century.-...--~ In 1843 Dr. A. Kahl, a student of Swedenborg and a friend of Dr. Tafel s, became aware of the circum­ stance that an original codex of Swedenborg s ~en:!­ or~bilia was in possession of the University Library of Upsala. This proved to be the portion of the Memora­ bilia that preceded in dates and numbering the original manuscript sent by the London Society to Dr. TafeI. This Upsala manuscript was one of those that Augus­ tus NQ.@en~kj~~ had had transcribed, and copies of which had been taken by his brother, C. F. Norden­ skjold, to England. Then ir;- some-~ay -th~-d~~nt had-been deposited in the University Library at Up­ sala instead of being returned to the Library of the Academy of Sciences, where it had been left by the Swedenborg heirs. Through Dr. Kahls exertions con­ sent of the authorities was obtained for the use of 29
  38. 38. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSthis codex by Dr. Tafel, and forthwith the Senate ofUpsala University transmitted the manuscript toTübingen, where it was published by Dr. Tafel, in 1844and 1845, "j!lL thtj;itle, "Emanuelis SwedenborgiiDiarium Spirituale, Pars I, Vols. 1 et 2." The manu­script was replaced in the Library of the Universityof Upsala, where it remained unti11870, when through ----- --the efforts of Dr. Rudolf L. Tafel it was restored tothe Library of the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm. Another portiollof the Mem;r;bÜia, written in theyears 1750 and 1751, was in a small octavo volume,also borrowed by Wadstrom and taken to England.After having been for years in the possession of oneD. R. McNab, it was restored to the Academy of Sci­ences in 1842. Before its return to Stockholm theAcademy of Sciences lent it to Dr. Immanuel Tafel,who published it in that same year with the title,"Emanuelis Swedenborgii Diarii Spiritualis Pars IV,sive Diarium Minus." Swedenborg systematically constructed copious in­dexes of his works while he was writing them. Henumbered his writing by paragraphs instead of bypages, and consequently the numeration was equallyserviceable in the manuscript and in the printed copy.He made constant use of his indexes in the composi­tion of later books, both for his own convenience inrewriting or amplification and for referring hisreaders to elaborations elsèwhere of the subject in 80
  39. 39. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS hand. His index to the Memorabilia is characteristic and notable. Swedenborgs Memorab.ilia were written in the pe- riod running from 1747 to 1756, and he made an ex- tended index in four codices covering the whole series. The Memorabilia are a sort of journal of his spiritual experiences after he feIt himself established in a knowl- edge of the spiritual world. Before he had decided to write these muItiplying experiences in separate vol- umes, they had been interspersed from time to time in his "Adver..§!!E.ia," the chief work engaging his attention in those years. The index, in addition to covering several parts of the "Diarium Spirituale," as contained in the manuscripts restored to the Acad- emy of Sciences, includes these scattered experiences - recorded in the" Adversaria" and also what is de- ~_._--. scribed as Part l of the manuscript of the" Spiritual Diary." This first part has never been found. Thef original manuscripts and their printed copies begin1 at No. 149, and the missing part consg;ts of the first . 14~ numbers, giving an account of Swedenborgs spiritual experiences from the early months of 1747. T~anuscript seems to have been located as origi- nally belonging in one of the codices of the "Index Biblicus," and to have been extracted befor_e the ma.n- u§~Js were ëfon~ted bythe heirs to the Library. ~-- - -- This index to the Memorabilia appears to reveal quite completely the contents of. the missing manuscript. 81
  40. 40. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS The four manuscript volumes of the index were bor­ rowed from the Academy of Sciences in 1845 by the Swedenborg Society of London and sent to Dr. Tafel, who published them in 1846 and 1847 in his Latin edi­ tion as, "Diarium Spirituale, Pars V, Volumina 1 et 2." First Manuscript of The "Arcana Coelestia." The largest and in a sense the most important of the theological works writt~n by Swedenborg is the "Arcana Coelestia." He started its composition in Holland about the beginning of 1748. In England he arranged for its publication and distribution with John Lewis, printer and bookseller. The first two - ._~-1 volumes were printed while the author was living) either in Amsterdam or London, and the ..!!1an~~ipt) ~edi.!! prepa~ation of the fair copy for the _priIlter w~apparently destroyed together w:ith the one the , printer used; but after the second volume most of the work was written at Swedenborgs home in Stock­ holm. From time to time he sent the manuscript to his printer in London for publication, and as Sweden­ borg had no opportunity to read the proofsheets the ( work contains many minor errors. As with ~~~~.~f the other works, the manuscript used as printers copy for the "Arcana Coelestia" was destroyed; b}!t there exists in the Library of the Royal Swedish Acad­ 82
  41. 41. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS emy of Sciences ~opy of this work covering those parts issued after the two volumes published or placed in the hands of the printer while Swedenborg was abroad. Intended exclusively for the ~ite~~s o~ .!!se, i~ i~ the lglJ!.~_~:t"-~t draft from which the author made his copy for the printer. This manu­ script was aU in loose sheets when first deposited at the Library by the heirs. They were bound for the first time along with other codices by Augustus N01­ denskjold. They consist of fift~en volume..s oblong f91li> and one volume quarto. In places the writingi is difficult to decipher. The text is frequently crossed out and rewritten, exhibiting the authors mode of re­ vision. For the most part, the !ll~nuscript is identical wijh the work as printed, and Dr. Rudolf L. Tafel in his studies in the Library from 1868 to 1870 was able, by comparison with this document, to verify and jus­ tify the corrections of errata noted by Dr. Immanuel Tafel in his reprint of the "Arcana Coelestia" in Germany in 1833 and 1834. The manuscript of the "Arcana Coelestia" itself never left the Library of the Academy of Sciences, but it had an index in three vol~es, which ~ ..~t one time "lost." The librarian in the Catalogue of 1790 states that C. F. Nordenskjold had borrowed a complete index to the ":A.fëaiill êoelestia" in three volumes. In 1875 Dr. Rudolf L. Tafel affirms in his "Documents" that the second volume of this index 33
  42. 42. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTScould not be located. It was afterward found in theAcademys Library, having beèn overlooked in Dr.Tafel s investigations. The other two volumes hadbeen discovered quite unexpectedly in the UniversityLibrary at Upsala and restored to their prope:;:­custody. The History of VariOU$ Other Manuscripts. Closely identified with Swedenborgs transition froma philosopher of the natural sciences to a writer onspiritual subjects are two works known as the" Adver­saria" and the "Index Biblicus." The manuscript ofthe "Adversaria" consists of four folio cadiees con­taIning explanations of various historical and prophet­ical books of the Old Testament, interspersed withrecords of personal spiritual experience. The "Index~~blic.Es" is bound in si~~~es, and presents theauthors codifications of the contents of the ancientScripturesdesigned for his own u~e in drawing out theinternaI sense. These manuscripts seem to have re­mained on the shelves of the Academys Library with­out mishap and without adventure, except that theywere bonowed by Dr,Immanuel Tafel, who publishedLatin reprints of them at Tübingen in 1847 and the fol­lowing years. Occasionally a manuscript suffered serious misad­venture. From a most valuable and interesting codex 341
  43. 43. THE MINING EXCHANGE. STOCKHOLMSWEDENBORG MEDAL, CAST BY THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEM Y OF SCIENCES IN 18;,2
  44. 44. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS of 1733, and containing papers on science and phi­ losophy, together with Swedenborgs Journal of --1 Travel, portions have been t~rn _~t, including a ~~d ~ ,./1­ of dreams from 1736 to 1740, which seems to he irre­ (j eç­..--­ _ coverably lost. .. ~.- .--­ Among manuscripts that never were owned by the Academy of Sciences is a small octavo volume usually known as "Swedenborgs Dreams," being his p~_~~~t.e di3:EY for 1743 and 1744. This is in the Royal Library in Stockholm. The book had been in the possession of R. She.!:.~ng~n, Professor and Lector at Vester:îs in Sweden. He was an old man of ninety when he died in 1849, and the volume lay for sorne years ~mong 111:.s literary effects, until in 1858 it was brought to the Royal Library by its librarian, G. E. Klemming. This gentleman afterward published the work in Swedish with the title, "Swedenborgs Dr8mmar." Of the work, "The Worship and Love of God," the first twoparts of which had been published by Sweden­ borg, the unfinished third p~!:t is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences, partly in proof­ sheets and partly in manuscript. ~ Swedenborg made many notes on the margins of his copy of Schmidius s Latin text of the Bible, which is in the Library of the Academy and has been reproduced in photolithograph. Many of the notes are missing, the p_age~ on which they were written hl}.Y.i~g b~~I!-lost. Swedenborgs Al~a.!!ac for 1752 is preserved in the 85
  45. 45. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS Royal Library; it is inscribed with notes in his hand­ writing on seeds and gardening, and on the progress in the printing of the" Arcana Coelestia.".---- Four small manuscripts written by Swedenborg in 1759, and taken to England in 1788 with other works to be printed, were never returned to Sweden and 3:E.e accounted irreco~erab~y lo_~t. They were formerly in­ cluded in a codex with a manuscript called "On Charity," now in the Library of the Academy of Sci­ ences. These little works are known as "The Lord," "The Athanasian Creed," "The Canons," and "Five Memorable Relations." Fortunately, copies of them h~"d been made before they were taken from the Library. The original manuscript of "A Summary Exposi­ tion" was lost for many years. It was among the manuscripts taken to England by Mr. Nordenskjold and Mr. Wadstrom, and after that nothing was heard of it. A copy, however, was sent to England and it was priiit;d"in that côuntry as earlyas 178"4, among the first of the Swedenborg posthumous publications. In 1859 Dr. Immanuel Tafel was in possession of the original manuscript when he was printing a new edi­ tion, issued in Tübingen in 1860. After Dr. Tafel 8 death this manuscript _""as sent to the Swedenborg Society ~ L~~~îon, where the document se~ms-tohave bëen fo~gotten for- sôme years, :until in 18/4, i~ was 86
  46. 46. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS fo~d iIU!- safe, and in due course was returned to the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. From a manuscript volume made up of short trea.­ tises on theological subjects, written by Swedenborg f~om 1768 _t~ 1771, two little works consisting of a summary or first draft of the "Coronis" and a trac­ ( tate on "The R~mis_sion of Sins" _Y.~~e t~~ ou!~d , lost. The codex in its original entirety had, however, been copied, so that the contents of thes;-smaIIW"orks are preserved.------ A manuscript of first drafts of sundry memorabilia in Swedenborgs last large work, "The True Chris­ tian Religion," was left by th~ ~uthor on board ship on his last voyage from Stockholm to Amsterdam. The shipmaster gave the document to a ~d, and _~vent­ ually it found its way to the Royal Library in Stock· h~lm, in whose custody it remains. A manuscript work called, "Index to the Concordia Pia, " has been lost ; bu~~. coP.y is p_~~erv~d in posses­ sion of the Swedenborg Society in London. Swedenborg wrote the "Coronis," as an appendix to "The True Christian Religion," alm().§.t .. i~4i­ ately before his death, and the wo!:k was printed "in ) Londori-~!!..!780~-but the o~iginal manuscript was lost, one-half of it before printing commenced.._--- For the most part the great number of letters and fragments in Swedenborgs handwriting discovered in 37
  47. 47. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSthe possession of his friends or in private librarieshave found their way into one or other of the maincollections of Swedenborgiana. Mg;s y-reia ~!JJJi~lof, Assistant Librarian of the RoyalSwedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, in heradmirable account of the Swedenborg rnanuscripts,makes this note: "With one exception, aIl the vol­umes which were consigned to the Royal SwedishAcademy of Sciences by SwedenboFg~_heirs are still - IIin existence, and are preserved in the Library of thatbody. The only volume left in the care of the Academywhich has completely disappeared is the Inde..;...io theConcordia _~.i-a. No other codex is lost; but seve!..alsmaller works and treatises have been torn out from -._-- - .the voluE!.es in which they were included, and havenever been found." Revival of Interest In Swedenborgs Unpublished Manuscripts. After the activities of the last quarter of theeighteenth century, interest in the reproduction ofSwedenborgs unpublished manuscripts appears tohave been eclipsed for a long terrn of years. The stu­dents of the theological writings became absorbed intheir propagation, which was carried on by the trans­lation and dissemination of the books published bySwedenborg hirnself and of such manuscript works ashad already been put in print. 38
  48. 48. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS A half-century from the days of the first borrowers ------of the manuscripts, however, James John Garth Wil­kin.§Qn, of London, is found engaged in the study ofSwedenborgs original manuscripts or manuscriptcopies of the originals and in the publication of certainnotable works selected from them. Dr. Wilkinson wasprofoundly concerned in the study of Swedenborgsscientific writings, and with a few others formed the -_._- ---­"Swedenborg Association," a society in London de­voted to the publishing of Swedenborgs scientific andphilosophical works, this association being later .. _--_. ._-_. ~--" -.­merged in __the Swedenborg Society, a group organizedmany years before, and continuing to the present clay.In 1843 Dr. Wilkinson published his English transla­tion of Swedenborgs "Regnum Animale," with a mag­nificent introduction defining the relation of Sweden­borgs system to modern scientific needs. He publishedin 1846 a number of Swedenborgs smaller manuscriptsin a volume called "Opuscula Quaedam ArgumentiPhilosophici," and in 1847 he issued the same volumein an English translation u~.cL~U~~E1eL~~f~.thu­m~us Tracts." In this same year he edited the Latinof the manuscript called "Œconomia Regni Animalis-Transactio III." In 1852 he published an Englishtranslation of certain portions of Swedenborgs manu­script with the title, "The Generative Organs." . Dr.Wilkinson collaborated in the translation of otherworks of Swedenborg and wrote many original and 89
  49. 49. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTSstimulating books along the lines of Swedenborgianthought, continuingaetive in his output until his deathin London in 1899 at the ripe age of eighty-seven years. Dr. JJ~I~~.!!l1el Tafel (1796-1863) was for sorneyears librarian at the University of Tübingen, whenon the publication of his "Fundamentalphilosophie" ------the King of Württemberg appointed him in 1848 Pro- ----f~~so.r oJJ~1.ü1.()~ophy il!. that Univer.sity. He was in­defatigable in th_~!~!-2.f publishing Latin editions ofSwedenborgs works and of translating them into Ger­man, besides being author in his own right of a largenumber of theological, philosophical, and other books.The works that Dr. Tafel published from Sweden­borgs manuscripts were "Diarium Spirituale,""Adversaria in Libros Veteris Testamenti," "Dicta Probantia," "Itinerarium," a posthumous "Regnum Animale," " Apocalypsis Explicata," and "Index Biblicus. " Three years after Dr. Tafel s death we find the American General Convention of the New Church ei~ hibiting interest in a continuation or enlargement of the work that he had been carrying on from bis own initiative and largely at bis own expense. An effort was made tojoin forces with the Swedenborg S~ty of London to accomplish the complete preservation by transcription and multiplication of an Sweden­ borgs manuscripts. In 1866 a committee was ap­ pointed to confer with the Swedenborg Society in 40
  50. 50. THE STORY OF THE SWEDFNBORG MANUSCRIPTS London with the purpose of continuing the printing of the Latin edition. The English supporters of Swedenborgs doctrines did not seem for the moment willing to co-operate. Few, they asserted, would use these Latin books, and Dr. J onathan BaYl~Yd?ne -.9-f 1 their most popular preachers, had made a visit to l S1ockhol~ ;nd after-~-;uperficial examination of the ~ • manuscripts had reported that there was little that it would be valuable to publish. This opinion was not concurred in at the time by the American Convention, nor a Iittle Iater by the Swedenborg Society or the General Conference in England. In 1867 an American ~ committee was created to. study the situation and pro­ pose plans of procedure. The report of this committee in 1868 w~s_ not encouraging SJ,.S !~ the _probability of 1 securing- - . _ necessary - ­ but a short time after -_. the funds; the meeting of the Convention in that year the admin­ istrators of the estate of Mrs. Lydia Rotch, who had left large funds for the propagation of the doctrines of 1 Swedenborg, placed a considerable sum of money at the disposaI of the committee. A contributing stimulus ta general interest in the whole subject of Swedenborg and his literary remains had been supplied in 1867 by the publication of ~ m ­..... Y!illes "Emanuel Swedenborg: His Life and Writ­ ings. " White had been for years the agent of the Swedenborg Society and for sufficient reasons had been "1 ejected by a distressing lawsuit. His 1867 "Lue," -- - - --- 411
  51. 51. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS altogether different from one he had published some years before, is appraised at this distance of view as inaccurate~ant, and splenetic; but at the time of its appearance it was very disturbing to the f~ds ( of Swedenborg. White had been a diligent collector of Swedenborgiana, and his book contained references to documents not at that time familiar to even the best - - - ,iE-formed. The desire was awakened to have ~de once for aIl a thorough-going survey of the manuscripts written by Swedenborg and of the documents concern­11 ü;-g hiIn written by others. Wit~Li~~nds_~2ntri~1!t.~d b~1J?e l9ich trustees an(Lth~ otherwise co!kcted, the 1 American committee felt justified in employing a qual­ ified representative to make the investigations neces­ f sary for the adequate knowledge of the faets con­ cerning Swedenborg and his unpublished works. Dr. R. L. Tafels Investigatio11$; Collection of Swedenborg Documents: [P-~~o~pl.!.ing of Manuscripts. Precisely the man for the work was found in Dr. R~~ Leonard Tafel, then engaged as a professor at( Washington University in St. Louis. He was a.E:ephew / of Dr. J. F. Immanuel Tafel., of Tübingen University, and from his childhood had been trained in a knowl­ edge of Swedenborg. A man of considerable natural ] ability, he was possessed by education and eXj)erience of the learning and the scholarly ha~ts requisituor 42
  52. 52. :J o Cl-, ::J ~
  53. 53. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS the task. After accepting the commission to under­ take the work, he sailed at the end of July, 1868, for London, and soon after proceeded to Stockholm. He forthwith made a "most minute and careful" examina­ tion of the SwedenlJorg manuscripts preserved in the Library of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Then, to quote his own words: While engaged one day in the Royal Library in turning over some of its literary treasures, he laid his hand upon some docu­ ments respecting Swedenborg which had never heen published in the English language. l t was then that the idea occurred to him 01 not -only making an exhaustive examination of the authors unpublished writings, but also of coIlecting such documents re­ specting him as might still he in existence, scattered over· the various parts of his native country. The Roy!!l 1ibrari~ in Stockholm, Mr. C. E. Klemming, kindly entered into the editors plans, and, at his request, at once issued a circular which was inserted in most of the Swedish journals, soIiciting aIl who were in possession of letters addressed to, or written by, Swedenborg, or other documents respecting him, to send them ta the Royal Library in Stockholm, where certified copie~ould be taken. At the same time direct appeals were made by the Royal Librarian and Mr. J. A. Ahlstrand, Librarian of the Royal Academy of Sciences, to aIl antiquarians and col- ) lectors in furtherance of this obj ecCr~J -="The r~sult was the accumulation, in a short time, of a~st ) mass of information respecting Swedenborg the very existence of which had not previously been suspected. The fruit of these labors was "~ume.nts. COllc~n­1ing Swedenborg(~igtlifee large vOlumes, pUblisiied inlLondon in 1875 and 1877, by which were added m~ny 48
  54. 54. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS smaller manuscripts to the known treasures of Swedenborgs literary remains. The primary intention on the part of the committee and of the Convention was apparently only to continue p.!1blishing ~--.1.-atin transcriptio,!1 of Swedenborgs works, including the manuscripts of the theological treatises; but very soon the suggestion was made that ~ the manuscripts should be photographed fo~preserva­ tion outside of Stockholm in case of fire. Even a.§.hr œck as 1868 the committee is reportë"d to be plaïiiii.llg Cc;preserve andmüït~ly_cop~es of the_manuscrlpts by photolithograE.~i.,ng. The suggestion seems to have been made by the Rev. William H. Benade, of Phila­ delphia, who was for sorne years chairman of the Con­ vention s committee and was credited with doing the greater part of the work assigned to the committee. The suggestion~f photolithograEhing the manuscripts was made as a new idea after Dr. Tafel s departure for Sweden, nothing having been expected from his labor but the copying of the documents. In this con­ nection it is interesting to recall that the employment lof photolithographmg fw the reproduction of theD Swedenborg manuscripts was the first time the process~ 1waS tried out o~ a large scaie. ~ -- After a thorough investigation and calculation, Dr. Tafel reporteà that if photolithographed the manu­ scripts would make foIgr.,volumes of five hundred pages 1each, and that th~ of photolithogra~hing them 441
  55. 55. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS would be $17,000 in gold. The committee immediately launched the enterpriSé, and in 1869 and 1870 ten large J folio volumes were produced, more than haif of the contents consisting of scientific documents. It is said that when they were distributed in the great liorari;s of the world astonishmentWas produced in the rnrnds of the Iibrariansatthe magmtUde ûIThe achievement. It may have been the first suggestion of the generÏiÏ u~e of pllOtolïthographing of manuscripts for the use of . scholars ID differéi"It parts of th~ world engaged in collaboration. With the publication of the tw,tli vol­ 1!,.me the work of photolithogr.aphîng"-came_to:ân eEd, solely, it wouid seem, because of a lack of funds. In addition to the ten volumes of manuscripts, Dr. Taiel had superintended the photo!!thographing of the copy ( of Schmidius s Latin Bible, which Swedenborg had ex­ tensively annotated with marginal notes. -nr.-Tafei accepted the pastorate of a church mLondon, where he remained until his death. The manuscripts included in the Tafel photolithographs were: ~IJ.l~ I)(pp. 206) contains "Miscellanea Physica et Mineralogica, ex Annis 1715 ad 1722." This collec­ tion consists of about forty of the papers from Sweden­ borgs pen found with the writings of Ericus Benzelius in the Library of the Cathedral_ at Linkop~g, where the original manuscripts here copied are still pre­ served. Like many of Swedenborgs scientific papers, these are interspersed with drawings. rv olume if) 45
  56. 56. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS (pp. 444) includes "Mathematica et Principia Rerum Naturaliurn." We have here two distinct works, the first hundred pages being devoted to mathernatical dis­ cussion. Both tre!!-tis~ were written between the years 1714 and 1720. (yolurne @(pp. 196) contains "Itin­ eraria et Philosophica." Besides the travel notes of 1733 and 1734 there ::lIe fourteen papers on widely di­ vergent subjects. (Volume IV) (pp. 458) is called "Transactionurn de Cerebro Fragmenta." CY olurne V (pp. 627) has the title "Regnurn Animale." It is the fifth part of his great work with this title, and treats of the brain, the rnedulla oblongata, etc. (Y~e W (pp. 358) contains "Miscellanea Anatornica et Phil­ osophica, " together with indices of sorne scientific writings. CY~I~~VIÎ)(pp. 114) is "Opusculurn de Cultu et Amore Dei." This contains photolithographs of the proofsheets as weIl as the unset rnanuscript pages of the third part of the work on "The Worship and Love of God," the volume swede~e.fi un;)0 published although partly }>rinted. olurne VIII (pp. 313) contains "Miscellanea TheologICa;-llnd {; the first of the volumes photolithographed belonging to the distinctly theological series of Swedenborgs writ­ ings. Among others, it includes such important works as "The Doctrine of Charity," the posthumous "Divine_Love" and "Divine vVisdorn," and indiëëSto his prepaIatorYJ!l~U~riPLf.O~ is work on "ConjugraI h Love." W olurne l (pp. 580) contains the firs! of the 46
  57. 57. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG .MANUSCRIPTS two codices of the manuscript of "Apocalypsis Ex- licata" that Swedenborg copied for the pnnter,but @ which was never sent to press in !!,is lifetime, being _ in 1785 in London by Robert Hindmarsh. Vol-A ~(PP.164) is th1Lflecond codex of the same manu- SCript. It was printed in London by Robert Hind- marsh in 1786. The ten volumes aIl give the information on the tiUe- pages that the_York was jon~ by_or<!~r of a committee of the New Church in North America and England. They carry the imprint: "Holmiae: Ex Officina Soci- etatis Photolithographicae." Volumes l, V, an<LTI are dated l8,69, and aIl the others 1§.1D. One hundred l and ten copies of eacli volume_wereprinte<Ï, the"proof- sheets bein~preserved in the Library of the Sweden- ~ borg Society in London. The set in the ~York Reference Library bears the dedicatory inscription: "Presented b): Hon. John Bigelow to the New York Public Ljbrary, 10 _Y:9l,mnes, Jan. 26, 1898." Beginmng of the IPho~typed.-.J Series of the Marùiiéripts. Monument to Dr. Tafel s industry though these ten volumes were, three-fourths-- the Swedenborg manu- .., of ----~-- ._- scripts were still unreproduced. Twenty years of in- effe~tual disc~sslon, if not of-inaction, foIlowed, when in September, 1890, the Rev. Samuel Worcester, of 47
  58. 58. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS Bridgewater, Mass., who had labored for many years in the editing of Latin republications of Swedenborgs works, addressed a strong memorial to the General Conventions commfUee on the -Swedëiiliorg manu­ scr!I>!s, in which he made a very accurate statement of the problems confronting the committee and urged a ~~rg~nization of the fo~s interested in th; p~;;J) ervation of the manuscripts in order to carry the work of reproduction to a conclusion. The letters exchanged by the members of this com­ mittee in this and the immediately following years re­ veal the multiplicity of details and difficulties, the cross currents and hitches in getting different factors to agree on the course to be pursued and the men and methods to be employed in the actual work. Moreover, Dr. Tafels editorial energy had carried him to certain lengths in retouching and even supplying verbal gaps . . in the manuscripts in process ~f_JlhotolithograpJu~~. All the co-operators in the new venture concur in the determination that the remaining work should be done 1 lwithout any atteII!pt to resfOrelegibiÎity. Blots and erasures were to be left as they were found.~ 1 In the meantime the.. . Ji.rLof . - reproduction of manu­ ~._--- ... scripts had undergone a ch.@ge; g~atine plates had re- placed the cumbersome and expensive stone slabs of the photolithographie method and the labor had been / greatly lightened. In 1893 the Academy of the New Church in America pu?lish~È .!!...phototyped manuscript 48
  59. 59. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS , of _tYenty-fiv~ag~s, "Summaria Expositio Sensus Interni Prophetieorum ae Psalmorum," the original text of a little work by Swedenborg, posthumously published and known to English readers as " The Prophets and Psalms." This. specimen of phototyping was exhibited in various assemblies of those interested as a mooeapplicable to the preservation of the ~weden­ borg manuscripts, and no doubt ha.d sorne edueative ) and stimulative effect in paving the way to a serious ( re~umption of the work of preserving the manuseripts as a whûle. In fairness, however, it ought to be said that the apparent lapses of energy in eontinuing the work on the manuscripts were not eaused by any real indifference, but the active supporters of this proposed ( achievement were also the main participants in other ) forms of publication. There w~r.e newJ,;atin and Eng­ lish editions issuing, a vo~~~e to t~ l ~gs of Swedenbo~g in pro~ss of composition, and other projects demanding zeal, energy, and funds.r---- In 1901 announceple-nt is II.Lade that the reproduction is eompleted of th~ first volupe)of the edition of photo­ types, and the bound and title-paged book is distributed to subscribers in 1902. This was the first of the three volumes of "The Spiritual Diary." The general title ( is: "Emanuelis Swedenborgii Memorabilia seu Dia­ rium Spirituale"-ab Anno 1747 ad 1765. It has two title-pages, one in Latin, the other in English, advising that the work was dOI;le by direction of the _Ge.~l 49
  60. 60. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS( Convention ofthe New J~rusalem~d the A~w~_~f, thêNêW Church, both of North America, witlithe co­ OP~I~~i()E._~fjh~ ~_w_e_d~I!..~org So~iety_î__L_o_~_d_o; The n title-pages carry the imprint: "Holmiae: Ex Officinaj Lithographiae vVarner Silfversparre. 1901." The vol­ ume contains 5~ -gaB.-es. Sorne years be ore a number of students in America formed the Swedenborg Scientific Association, and this society seems"to have been very active from the first in fostering interest in the preservation and distribu­ tion of the Swedenborg manuscripts. Report was cur­ f rent that in places the legibility of the documents was diminishing through the fading of the ink, and the con­ 1 viction grew that it was high time to carry to comple­ tion the work of their reproduction. One of the mem­ bers of the Scientific Association, Alfred H. Stroh, had( developed great facility in reading and construing Swedenborgs text in the original documents, and knowing the urgent need of the right kind of man for( the~ork, theAssociation formed the plan of sending~ Mr. Stroh to Sweden to copy certain manuscripts of scientific and philosophical value. He was also ~­ ga~ to superintend_ th~ pQQt.Qtyping of the uncom­ pleted parts of "The Spiritual Diary." His original mission to Stockholm is thus described by Mr. Stroh himself in 1906: In June, 1902, Mr. C. Hj. Asplundh, then Treasurer of the Academy, Treasurer of the Swedenborg Scientific Association, _-00
  61. 61. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS and agent of both Academy and Comrention_~!!_theiren!~!prise 5l.! p~t.Qtyping the "Diarium Spirituale," sent me to Europe to attend to various matters in- cannection with the phototyping, the copying of various scientific manuscripts by Swedenborg for the Association, and to make iDquiries concerning books for the Academy. Mr. Strohs mission proved so interesting and fruit ­ fuI that his first visit was prolonged to the August of the next year. It seems that it was in this period that ) he ~quired his remarkable collection of origina~cu­ ments, disc.Qv~re.<l a Jlumber of interesting pictures, 8.!!thered much valuaRl~ p.ew information, and made purchases of various objects of souvenir value subse­ quently turned over to the Library of the Academy of the New Church and to the archives of the Swedenborg • Scientific Association in Bryn Athyn. He was mainly employed, however, on the phototyping of the "Dia­ rium Spirituale," the~ volum~of which, con ­ sisting of 55~es, and th~ïrdVOï1i"m3,)of69!. pages, were both completed and puolished in 1905. The im ­ print on the title-page had been changed to : "Holmiae: Ex Officina Lithographiae Lagrelius & Westphal." These volumes of the "Diar~m ~pirituale," makingl). ~rsÛhr!e volunl~ of the projected edition of, )0 Swedenborgs "Autographa," were distr!!>uj;edjn ~! 1 amon",g.-a-..sclecle.d-m:u:uber of universitj: and public braries in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Russia, Ger- 1 li-II many, Austria, Ital~, E~glanJ1 S-yotland,.lr_eland, Hol- . land, France, and the United States. -=---51
  62. 62. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS When Mr. S.!!:Qh took Up his work in Stockholm he vas warmly supported by the counsel and friendship of Professor Gustav Retzius, who was at that time President of the Royal Swedish Academy Qi Sciences. Many years earlier Dr. Retzi~ss father had called the at~ention of the scientific world to the present-day value of Swedenborgs scientific works, and the so~s interest was also lively in aU that pedained to Sweden­ borgs literary legacy. While Mr. Stroh was carrying on in the Library of the Academy his work of transcrip­ - tion of Swedenborgs manuscripts, Dr. Retzius re· ceived, as President of the Academy of Sciences, a communication from Dr. Max Neuburger of Vienna, expressing profound regret that Swedenborgs work qn the Brain still remained u~published. Perhaps directly stimulated by this communication, certainly shortly after ME: Stroh began his work in Stockholm, ~e Royal Swedish Academy of S~~nces, in December, 1902, appointed a committee of its own, containing several able men of science and known as the Sweden­ borg Co~mittee, for the purp()se oJ ma~ing a frèsh and thorough, study and investigation of Swedenborgs scientific writings and of miscellaneous Swedenbor­ 1 glana. Professor Retzius was a man of sorne means, and he and his wife formed the idea oLpublishing an1 edition of Swedenborgs scientific works, includini aU ­ those remaining in manuscript. Mr. Strohs profi. 52
  63. 63. THE STORY OF THE SWEDENBORG MANUSCRIPTS ciency and enthusiasm seemed tO~II!.j!l~ovided instrument for the realization of this desire as weIl as - -- adequate qualification for carrying out any other plans the newly appointed committee might have in mind. Mr. Stroh writes of his engagement: "1 ~m also editing the scientific works of Swedenborg by appointment ofr the SwedeIiborg Committee of the Royal Swedish Acad- emy of Sciences in 1903." He became editor of the proposed edition, and@ëënOble volumes were 1SSUë" ~ in due course under his drnctionand care. This activ- ity in startingo the publi~ation of t~e sci~ntific~rks had wide influence in focusing attention on the Ull- finished task of reproducing Swedenborgs manuscripts{ in tlieir totality. Another incident of world-wide notice accentuated the advisability of perpetuating aIl the products that remained of Swedenborgs inteIlectual labors. When ( Swedenborg died, in 1772,. his. body was embalmed and ) interred in the Swedish Church in the Minories, Lon- )Id~.·- In i907 it was decided· th;t th;" ch~r~ should ~jb~Jorn down, and at the suggestion of the Royal Swe- dish Academy of Sciences the Swedish Government, ~th the concurrence of the British Government, sent the Swedish cruiser Fylgia to London to carry aIl the - -- material remains of Swedenborg to Sweden, where ~e - ashes were received with royal pomp and ceremony and --( -- interred in the Cathedral at U!!..sala. Subsequently by sa - ~

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