John bigelow-THE-MYSTERY-OF-SLEEP-new-york-1905

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  • 1. 6 1972!-:.f8185MYSTERY Of%LEEPJVf^ G 1 979 BYJOHN BIGELOW, LLRTHIRD EDITION, REWRITTEN AND"MUCH ENLARGEDNEW YORK AND LONDONHARPER & BROTHERS PUBLISHERS1905
  • 2. Copyright, 1896, 1903, by HARPER & BUOTHKRS,AU rights f^tervtat*Published Febmary, ryoj,
  • 3. " I have remembered thy name, O Lord, in the night,And have observed thy law." Psalm cxix."The night-time of the body is the daytime of thesoul." IAMBLICHUS
  • 4. CONTENTSCHAPTER IPAGFWhy do we spend one-third of our lives in sleep?Prevalent notions fallacious ICHAPTER IIDreams imply imperfect sleep Jouffroy Extraor-dinary activities of body and mind during perfectsleep Dr. Hack Tukc on the exercise of thoughtduring sleep Professor Agassiz* dream Thera-peutics of sleep 10CHAPTER IIISleep interrupts all conscious relations with the phenom-enal world, and thus becomes one of the vital proc-esses of spiritual regeneration Nocturnal darknessan ally of sleep Our transformation in sleep Lu-cretius Bryants "Land of Dreams" VoltaireVenerable Bede Swedcnborg as a seer ..... 21CHAPTER IVMost conspicuous changes wrought during sleep psy-chical, not physical Seclusion from the world mostperfect in sleep Why the aged sleep less than othersMysterious effects of sleep upon the demands of ourV
  • 5. ContentsPAGEappetites Our greater endurance while sleepingthan when awake The need for sleep diminishes asthe organization of our lives becomes more com-plex Buffon -ZEsculapius Letter of lamblichusMohammed Ciceros dream ....... 40CHAPTER VThe most important events in human history initiatedduring sleep Altruism first taught in sleepEx-traordinary spiritual uses of sleep recorded in theBible 56CHAPTER VISpiritual influence of sleep illustrated by its privationDiseases resulting Toussaint I/Ouvcriures de-fence of Hayti Difference in sleeping habits ofdomestic and of predatory animals Low averageof longevity among savages explained Habits ofvenomous and non-venomous serpents contrastedProminence of sleep in the machinery of Shake-speares plays Dr. Wilkinson Marie ManacoincByrons English Bards and Scotch ReviewersAlexander von Humboldt . . .77CHAPTER VIIWhat is meant by Gods resting on the seventh dayof creation and enjoining the observance of the Sub-bath as a day of rest for his people . . . . .103CHAPTER VIIIProminence given to the morning hour in the Bible,and its spiritual significance ........ 113vi
  • 6. ContentsCHAPTER IXr% i tPAGEOur external and our internal memory Coleridges"body terrestrial"and body celestial "The opera-tions of our non-phenomenal life presumably as im-portant as those of our phenomenal life . .... 130CHAPTER XIn sleep we die daily God alone is life All causesare spiritual All phenomena are results Scipiosdream- Sleep and death twins Henry Vaughans"The Night" 143CHAPTER XI"Whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in dangerof the hell of fire 166CHAPTER XIIWhy we are not permitted to be conscious of the ex-periences of the soul in sleep How we should culti-vate sleep Drugs hostile to sleep Count Tolstoion alcoholic stimulants All virtues favor sleep;all vices discourage it . . . ,184APPENDIX ASwcdenborg as a witness 199APPENDIX BLuther, Melancthon, and Calvin in the spirit world .204INDEX . . . . . . 221
  • 7. TO MY READERSIN the year 1896 I gave to the public a mono-graph in which I endeavored to expose and un-settle, if not dispel, some popular delusions as Iregarded them about sleep. Of these is the no-tion that sleep is merely a state of rest, of practi-cal inertia of soul and body, or, at most, a periodi-cal provision for the reparation of physical wastein the sense that a well, exhausted during theday, fills up in the hours of the night. I alsotried to give some reasons for my conviction thatno part of our lives is consecrated to nobler ormore important uses than that usually spent insleep, or contributes more if so much to dif-ferentiate us from the beasts that perish. I alsoassigned what I regarded as substantial reasonsfor believing that we are developed psychically orspiritually during our sleeping hours as distinctlyand exclusively as we are developed physicallyand intellectually during our waking hours ; andthat it is, therefore, as much the part of wisdom toso order our lives as to avoid everything apt tointerfere with or impair the quality or quantity ofour sleep, as in our waking hours it is to respectix
  • 8. To My Readersthe laws of life essential to the growth, health,and perfection of our bodies.Since that monograph appeared I have devotedno inconsiderable portion of my thoughts andtime in trying either to further confirm or correctthese views, and especially to divine, as far as ispossible, the purposes of our Creator in requir-ing one-third of our lives to be spent in a state ofabsolute unconsciousness, as in death. The re-sults of such study and meditation have not onlystrengthened my convictions that the supposedexemption from customary toils and activitieswas not the final purpose of sleep, but have alsomade clearer to my mind the conviction that nopart of a mans life deserves to be considered moreindispensable to its symmetrical and perfect spir-itual development than the whiles he is separatedfrom the phenomenal world in sleep.I have also been profoundly impressed by theabundant evidence that many of the events whichoccur in the waking hours of our life are gov-erned by the same laws and are instituted toserve, in a degree, the same recondite spiritualpurposes as sleep. This has opened what hasseemed to me not only a very interesting butvastly important field of speculation. 1 havethought we might find in lunacy, in idiocy, asindeed in most of the chagrins, discomforts, andinfirmities to which, fill are more or less exposedwhile in the flesh, an explanation and a use, onthe lines of thought, which conduct to what seemsx
  • 9. To My Readersto be a satisfactory explanation of the divineeconomy of sleep ; and that all of them, like sleep,are providential interventions to relax the toostrong hold which the natural world may havebeen securing upon our affections.Adequately to present the results of these studies,and to illume the enlarged horizon which theyhave revealed, has rendered it necessary to re-write and to so greatly expand the work of 1896as practically to make a new book of it. I vent-ure to hope that my readers will find in its con-tents a proportionate increase of interest and im-portance.I should be sorry to incur the suspicion of havingsought to penetrate mysteries which are meantto be impenetrable, but I believe that the greatCreators works cease to be mysteries when theirrevelation will not expose them to profanation;nor do I doubt that the mysteries of sleep likethe mysteries of godliness, of charity, of the domes-tic affections will be revealed to us just so fastand so far as we prepare ourselves to receivethem and carry their lessons into our daily lives.Were they studied with like incentives and by thesame class of minds as the mysteries of naturalscience are now studied, the one would proba-bly seem to us no more mysterious than the other,though the results might prove far more sur-prising.It scarcely requires prophetic vision to foreseethe time when the art or science of sleeping willxi
  • 10. To My Readersbe studied as systematically as the physiologyof our nutritive and nervous systems, and thenmuch of the literature and pseudo-science nowin vogue, relating to both, will find their wayinto the wallet "wherein Time puts alms forOblivion."For the convenience of my readers I will herebriefly recapitulate the several propositions whichI have tried in the following pages to commendto their serious consideration.I. It is not consistent with any rational notionof a divine Providence that we should pass one-third of our lives under conditions in which wecould experience no spiritual growth or develop-ment, as would be the inevitable result of absoluterest.II. Sleep does not represent or imply rest inthe sense of inactivity or idleness, psychical orphysical.III. The suspension of our consciousness duringsleep simply interrupts our relations temporarilywith the phenomenal world and shelters us fromits distractions and fascinations, without whichspiritual growth and development the divinepurpose of our creation would be impossible.IV. Neither the physical nor psychical changeswhich we are conscious of having undergoneduring the hours devoted to sleep can be realizedor accounted for if the activity of those faculties,respectively, were suspended.V. The involuntary subjugation of the sensesxii
  • 11. To My Readersperiodically io sleep is one of the vital processesof spiritual regeneration, without which such re-generation would be impossible as is evidencedby the fact that the most important events in(he history of our race were initiated duringsleep.VI. The spiritual influence and vital importanceof sleep is further demonstrated by the conse-quences of its privation.VII. All virtues favor sleep and all vices dis-courage it.VIII. The difference between sleep and deathmay be more a difference in duration than con-dition. In sleep do we not die daily? Do we notcome for a time into the same presences and underthe same Influences as when we finally quit ourearthly body?IX. Should we not regard every wish thwarted,scheme frustrated, project brought to naught, asa Sabbath of rest, like sleep, to remind us thatwe are not sufficient unto ourselves, and provi-dentially designed "to withdraw man from hispurpose, to hide pride from man, and to keep backhis soul from the pit "? Is it not thus that we aretaught to regard all our disappointments in life asmanifestations of divine love and contributory tospiritual development?X. Lunatics, idiots, and all persons with moreor less unbalanced minds must be presumed tobe in their waking hours partially sheltered fromthe undue influence of the phenomenal worldxiii
  • 12. To My Readersupon them, just as the sane and whole are thussheltered in their sleep, and protected from evilswith which they may be unfitted to cope.XL How these views should modify the popularnotions of our duty towards the feeble-minded,the unfortunate, and unhappy.J. B.
  • 13. THE MYSTERY OF SLEEP
  • 14. THE OFCHAPTER IWhy do we spend one -third of our lives in sleep?Prevalent notions fallacious.WHY is it that the children of men are requiredby the inexorable laws of their existence to spend,,on an average, eight out of 4 every twenty-fourhours, or one-third of their entire lives, in sleep?Why is their consciousness periodically sus-pended, and so large a part of every day appar-ently wasted that might be devoted to the prosecu-tion of the duties which the Author of their beinghas imposed upon them, or in such innocent in-dulgences as He has qualified them to enjoy?Why is this apparent waste made one of theconditions of life, not only to those who are sup-posed to have been created in Gods image, butto the animal and vegetable kingdoms as well?These are questions which pass through theminds of most thoughtful people at some time intheir lives, and, to such as have grasped the greatand pregnant truth, that in the divine economythere can be no waste, they are very puzzling.I
  • 15. The Mystery of Sleep"Why try to prolong life if so many hours areto be spent in sleep?" asked Kant. He couldfind no better solution of the question than earlyrising and a decrease of the hours devoted tosleep a theory which assumed that all timespent in sleep was wasted.Most people are content with the theory thatwe get fatigued with the labors of the day, andneed rest for refreshment simply because we arefatigued, as the soil needs fertilizing to main-tain its productiveness.Even science has found no better use for sleepthan to repair the waste of tissue ;to thus"knitup the raveird sleave of care"; and still main-tains that one hour out of three, eight hours outof every twenty-four, four months out of everyyear, and twenty-three years out of every three-score-and-ten are only a fair allowance for thatpurpose. Such, in substance, would be prettyuniformly the answer that would be made tothese questions, and the theory that we rest, andfor that purpose only, would as uniformly gounchallenged. Yet such an answer assumesmany things as facts which are not facts; andany reasoning upon them, therefore, must be fal-lacious.When we say we sleep that we may rest, thequestion naturally arises, What rests in sleepthat does not rest equally in our waking hours?What faculty of the physical or the spiritual natureof man is in repose during sleep? What single2
  • 16. What Sleep Is Notfunction or energy of the body is then absolutelysuspended? Certainly not our hearts, which donot enjoy a moments rest from the hour of ourbirth to our decease. It is always in the effort tosend our blood laden with vital energy throughevery vein, artery, and tissue of our bodies. Thelungs, too, are equally restless in their endeavorto provide themselves with fresh air to purify thisblood and qualify it for its appointed use. Theprocess of inspiration and expiration by the aidof an elaborate and complex system of muscularcontraction and expansion goes on by night andby day with an unrelenting vigor. The sameis true of our stomach, our glands, our kidneys,and of all the other mysterious operations of ourdigestive apparatus; even our nails and our hairare as tireless as our heart and our lungs. Theskin acts more energetically during sleep than atany other time, as the quality of the atmospherein the room where we have slept, if not speciallyventilated meantime, will testify in the morning;and it is in consequence of the more active per-spiration going on during these hours that isto be attributed our greater liability to chills dur-ing sleep than, at other times. Both observationand experiment prove that food taken just beforesleeping is digested and assimilated much betterthan if the man or the animal is forced to walkor run or take active exercise immediately afterfeeding.A person in good health, while sleeping, will3
  • 17. The Mystery of Sleepexpel from his body, by perspiration and with-out resorting to any artificial means of promotingit, twice as much matter as in the same periodof time while awake; and nothing is excretedthrough the skin that has not been thoroughlydigested and deprived of every quality of useto the body it leaves.The kidneys, too, not infrequently act moreenergetically during sleep than in a waking con-dition.Young plants grow in the night-time, whichis also their time for sleep. The same is true ofyoung animals.Science now recognizes the fact also that everyimpression made upon the mind of the sleeper pro-duces a change in the volume of the brain. Thisproves that the various sensory nerves, as wellas the spinal cord, are practically incapable offatigue. The care that man and all animalstake when desiring sleep to shelter themselvesfrom light and noise, to close the doors and dropthe curtains, to exclude all disturbing impres-sions from the external world teaches us thatthe whole nervous system even that of our con-sciousness, which we are wont to speak of assuspended reserves its power of action duringsleep as completely as at any other time. Certainbirds sleep standing on one leg. Water-birdswhile asleep have a habit of gently paddlingwith one foot, showing that a group of volun-tary muscles are continually active. Soldiers4
  • 18. What Sleep Is Notfrequently fall asleep on horseback, and evenon foot, during a night march; nor is it veryuncommon for persons to answer questions in-telligibly without awaking or remembering thecircumstance. Statistics have been collectedshowing that out of two hundred college stu-dents, forty-one per cent, of males and thirty-sevenper cent, of females talk in their sleep. So in ourdreams we receive impressions showing that notonly the optic, auditory, olfactory, and gustatorynerves are active during sleep, but that the cor-responding cerebral nerve - centres are active.Eyes are closed, not because the faculty of open-ing them or seeing with them is suspended, butsimply because we do not will to open and seewith them, and this is just what happens withall of us frequently in our waking hours, as whenwe close our eyes to exclude the light, to favormeditation, or in prayer, and always at night tofavor sleep. There is no visual faculty suspend-ed in the one case more than in the other. Thatour hearing is generally less acute during sleepthan at other times is not the result of any sus-pension of the auditory functions, but, as in our.waking hours frequently, from the lack of at-tention. Any unusual sound, such as would belikely to arrest our attention in our waking hours,is apt to awaken us from sleep. No one can havetravelled much on our ocean steamers without re*marking the prompt effect upon the sleeping pas-senger of any unusual noise, though it be far less5
  • 19. The Mystery of Sleepconsiderable than the familiar noise of the ma-chinery. Very few will sleep through even apause in the operation of the machinery. Soa disagreeable or untimely odor or smoke willoften awaken a sleeper as soon as it would havebeen noticed by him if awake."Nature has no pause/ said Goethe, "andvisits with a curse all inaction/People whose brains are most severely exercisedare apt to find their most congenial recreationsin games of some kind which require a concen-trated activity of the mental powers, while no oneof them finds it in mental inactivity, not evenidiots.The student when he wearies of one subjectseeks his recreation in another. He drops hislaw or his theology or his astronomy and takesup, mayhap, poetry or music or history. I knewa clever architect who diverted his mind fromprofessional strain by the study of geometry,and always travelled with a copy of Legendre inhis satchel. He did not want rest; he wantedchange. Milton went to his organ for diversion.Dr. Franklins favorite recreation was chess, andJeffersons his violin. Whist and other gamesof chance, so called, are popular recreations forprofessional men.There is a very large number of both sexes,unfortunately, who do little or nothing from oneweeks end to the other to fatigue mind or body,who yet fall asleep just as punctually and sleep
  • 20. Matter and Spirit Never Tirequite as long as the average laboring man. Thiscould not be the case if rest cessation from vol-untary labor were the only or main purpose ofsleep.It is now pretty generally conceded, I believe,that all the constituents of a human being areeither spiritual or material ; that what of us isnot spiritual is material, and what is not mate-rial is spiritual. Fatigue, of course, cannot bepredicated of any spiritual quality. No one willpretend that virtue, veracity, patience, humility,brotherly love, are attributes or qualities of whichfatigue can be predicated, any more than thattwice two are or ever could have been or becomemore or less than four.This, of course, is equally true of the oppositespiritual qualities, such as viciousness, lying, in-humanity, pride, selfishness, hate, etc. No man,after feeling benevolent for a few hours, needsto rest his benevolence, and for that purpose be-come meanly selfish during his repose a neces-sary condition either of its absence or its sus-pension. On the other hand, if anything aboutus requires repose for reparation or restoration,then it must be the"souls dark cottage"whichthe spirit inhabits our material bodies. Butmatter has no faculty of initiating or of arrestingmotion. It is absolutely inert. If matter couldbe fatigued it could and would waste, shrink inbulk, and perish, if not allowed to rest and re-cuperate ; but no one pretends that the aggregate7
  • 21. The Mystery of Sleepof matter in the world is capable of being dimin-ished or increased, to whatever process it maybe subjected by man. If matter could experiencefatigue it might be annihilated a result which,scientifically speaking, is not supposable; and ifany particle of matter could experience fatigueand the need of rest, all the matter in the universe must have the like experience. How uponsuch an assumption can we explain the tirelessenergy of the countless planets, which have beendancing to the music of the spheres around theirrespective suns from the dawn of creation, withoutrelaxing their speed in the slightest degree orstopping a moment for repairs in all the myriadsof years? If any particle or fraction of our bodiesrequires rest, the planets must need it incalculablymore.We shall search in vain for any law, attribute,or property of matter or of spirit which prescribesrest as an end or subjective necessity under anyimaginable circumstances/5* "Throughout nature there is no example of absoluterest, all asserted rest being expressions of relations of bodiesto other parts of space. Atomical motion attends all thermalvariation ; this variation is incessant and universal. Chemi-cal and polar motion is unceasing; and the diurnal andthe annual motion of the earth perpetually change the posi-tion of every atom of its mass. The interconnected move-ments of the solar system, and the motion of that systemtowards a distant constellation, together with the motionof binary stars and of nebulae, are evidences of continualtransition, from which we reasonably infer a motion ofthe whole stellar world, the verification of which is prevented8
  • 22. No Absolute Rest in NatureWhen death comes and separates the soul fromthe body and this corruptible puts on incorruption,matter does not part with a single attribute orquality necessary to its perpetuity and integrity,any more than a house does when a tenant movesout of it; een then it does not rest, but, like thehouse, becomes as much as ever before the habita-tion of some other form of life.Yet every night of our lives sleep descendsupon us like an armed man; prostrates us withbarbarous indifference on beds of down or straw,and closes up all our communications with theworkaday world, as in death.by the absence of appreciable parallax and by the limitedperiod of our observation. The universe itself is relievedfrom a sullen sameness and is endowed with activity, whirl-ing life, and beauty, simply by virtue of the never-endingmotion of each and every atom/"... The balance of the chemist has also overturnedthe belief so long entertained of the destructibility of matter*Now the conception of its diminution, or expulsion fromexistence, is as impossible as that of its increase or appear-ance from nothing; and as the matrix of inherent energy,and representing by its never-ending motion a mechanicalforce, its augmentation, or annihilation, obliterates all ideaof laws of force. It is, therefore, concluded that the quantityof matter and of inherent energy in the universe is alwaysthe same." One Law in Nature, by Captain H. M. Lazelle,United States Army.
  • 23. CHAPTER IIDreams imply imperfect sleep Jouffroy Extraordinaryactivities of body and mind during perfect sleep DrHack Tuke on the exercise of thought during sleepProfessor Agassiz dream Therapeutics of sleep.SCIENCE is obliged to admit that in sleep neitherthe intellectual nor moral faculties are at rest allthe time. The voluminous history of dreams,somnambulism, hypnotism, quasi -supernaturalexhibitions of memory, of courage, and of moralsusceptibility, must all be accounted for beforethe dogma of sleep can be accepted as implyingat any moment a state of absolute rest for ourspiritual any more than for our material naturesfor our souls than for our bodies."I have never been able to comprehend/ saysJouffroy,"what people mean who say that themind sleeps. It is impossible to show that insleep there are moments when the mind does notdream. Having no recollection of these dreamsdoes not prove that we have not dreamed." ffIt will not be questioned that the mind is some-times awake while the senses sleep."The fact that the mind sometimes sleeps withthe senses is not established. All the analogies10
  • 24. The Mind Always Awakego to prove that the mind is always awake. Con-flicting facts are required to destroy this inference;but all facts, on the contrary, seem to confirmit. To me they Imply this conclusion that themind during sleep is not in a special mood orstate, but that it goes on and develops itself abso-lutely as in the waking hows." *A rustic visiting a large city for a night or twofinds it difficult to sleep. A person reading abook finds it difficult to fix Ms attention whileconversation is going on around him. Aftera while the novelty of these distractions wearsoff and fails to demand or receive any atten-tion. Evidently the distraction In either casewas not an affair of the senses, but purely ofthe mind.It is not the senses that first hear the noisesof the street or of the salon annoyingly, andgradually less, and finally not at all; it is theattention of the mind which is occupied with orneglects these sensations. The same sounds onlyrender the savage and the blind man more sen-sible of them; but, on the other hand, familiar-ity with the sounds renders the rustic in townconstantly more Insensible to them.Were the effect physical, and dependent onthe body and not on the mind, this action wouldbe contrary and logically impossible; for eitherthe habit weakens the physical organ or sharpens*Jouffroy, Melanges Philosophiques du SommeiLII
  • 25. The Mystery of Sleepit. It could not yield both these results at once,as it does in the case we have supposed of thesavage and the blind.The fact is that it neither weakens nor sharpensthe sensibility of the organ, which receives al-ways the same sensations; but when these sen-sations interest or concern us the mind takes anote of and analyzes them. When they ceaseto interest or concern us the mind gets accus-tomed gradually to neglect them and does notanalyze them.The phenomenon is purely psychical, not phys-ical. The noise being the same on the hun-dredth day of the rustics sojourn in the city asthe first, the difference in the effect can only bein the mind. Had the soul slept with the body itwould have been equally put to sleep in bothcases, and one would see no reason for eitherawakening rather than the other.These facts seem to amount to a demonstrationthat the mind does not sleep like the body, but,disquieted by unaccustomed sensations, it awak-ens, and when those sensations become familiar,they do not awaken it.There is an explanation of this difference whichonly confirms its correctness. If the mind be dis-quieted by unusual noises it has need of thesenses to inform it of the cause and to relieveit from its inquietude. It is that which obligesit to awake; hence we find ourselves disquietedby an extraordinary noise, which would not have12
  • 26. The Scotch Ploughboyhappened had not our minds been aroused bythis noise before we awoke.There is but one explanation of this. Thesoul or mind which watches knows whence comethe sensations,, and does not disquiet itself norawaken the sensations to report on them unlessthey are unfamiliar and involve some duty tobe performed or evil to be avoided. The unusualnoise of a maid sweeping the carpet in a roomadjoining your chamber, though comparativelyfeeble, will awaken the sleeper, while the whistleof a railway train which may be heard for miles,but to which he is inured, will not disturb him.So a nurse will sleep through all noises, whichdo not concern her patient, while he cannot turnin his bed, nor draw a sigh, or even exhibit an un-usual respiration, without-attracting her attention.So also we may be quite sure of awakeningat a fixed hour if on the previous evening we re-solve to do so ;,but if we rely upon others to awakenus we lose the faculty. .The mind is our alarm-clock, which, if properly set, rarely deceives us.The senses are merely the instruments whichobey the directions of the mind.The experience of the Scotch ploughboy whocomplained that he never enjoyed a nights restbecause as soon as he put his head on his pillowit was time to get up again, is an experience byno means rare, especially among the young wholive a good deal in the open air and indulge nohabits to interfere with sleep.13
  • 27. The Mystery of SleepThe readers attention will now be invited tosome other phenomena which are inconsistentwith the idea that sleep is a condition of absoluterepose, and which science neither attempts to gain-say nor explain.Dreams ordinarily imply more or less imper-fect sleep ; a partial interruption only of our rela-tions with external objects; the twilight or dawnof the phenomenal world as we are just enteringit In the morning or just leaving it at night.As Robert Herrick sings:" Here we are all by day ; by night were hurledBy dreams each one into a several world/They are to the sleeper what the shore Is tothe swimmer when, emerging from the sea, hisfeet get support from the earthly bottom. Of thedreams or, rather, of the mental or spiritual oper-ations which we experience between this twilightand dawn; that is, while our sleep is profoundour memory takes no note. We are only con-scious of dreams which occur when the phenom-enal world is only partially excluded from ourconsciousness; when we are, as it were, mountingthe shore from the deep waters in which our soulshave been immersed. Hence, perhaps, the con-fused, inconsequential, and fantastic characterof what we can recall of most of them. The pre-sumption, therefore, is that what takes placein our profound sleep, which is not in the leastdegree adulterated by direct influences from the
  • 28. All Dreaming Imperfect Sleepphenomenal world, is entirely free from whatseems often so improbable and fantastic in ourremembered dreams which are obviously a med-ley of emanations from two widely different worldsor states of being.*All dreaming, as distinguished from sleep, isimperfect sleep; it is a condition in which thephenomenal world has already begun to dawnupon us again. Our consciousness, of course,returns with it, pari passu. One never remembersa dream without waking, nor is one consciousof dreaming until partially awake. Jouffroy wasvery right in affirming that our minds were ac-tive in sleep as at other times ; but neither factsnor logic will support the contention"that wenever sleep without dreaming/The sleep-walker, or somnambulist, exhibitsat times even more vitality and energy than hewould be capable of exhibiting in a waking state.He not only walks, runs, rides, and does otherthings which he is accustomed to do, but withhis eyes entirely closed he seems to have percep-tions supernaturally acute. He walks with con-fidence and safety along the roofs of houses, onthe banks of rivers, and other perilous places,where nothing could have tempted him to go* In the citation above given from his writings Jouffroyconfounds the impressions made in dreams, of which weare more or less conscious, with impressions received inprofound sleep, of which we are rarely, if ever, consciousexcept through divine permission.15
  • 29. The Mystery of Sleepwhen awake. What is more marvellous, he willwrite with critical accuracy in prose and verse ;he will compose music ; he will choose from amongmany specimens those best adapted to the mostdelicate work, with a promptness and precisionof which, when awake, he would be wholly in-capable."That the exercise of thought and this on ahigh level is consistent with sleep can hardlybe doubted/ says Dr. Hack Tuke, an eminentEnglish authority. "Arguments are employedin debate which are not always illogical. Wedreamed one night, subsequent to a lively con-versation with a friend on spiritualism, that weinstituted a number of test experiments in ref-erence to it. The nature of these tests was re-tained vividly in the memory after waking. Theywere by no means wanting in ingenuity, andproved that the mental operations were in goodform."That the higher moral sentiments are calledinto action in some instances must be admittedby those who take the trouble to analyze the mo-tives by which they have been actuated duringsleep. The conscience may be as loud in itscalls and reproofs in the night as in the day."The memory, freed from distraction as it some-times is, is so vivid as to enable the sleeper torecall events which had happened years beforeand which had been entirely forgotten."The dreamer is free from the nervousness16
  • 30. High Thought in Sleepor lack of courage or dread of the opinion of othersfrom which he niay suffer during the wakingstate/*It deserves" to be noted here that neither mes-merism, animal magnetism, hypnotism, nor anyof the modern forms of super-normal or voluntarysleep can with propriety be attributed to whatare commonly regarded as the chief and normalprovocatives of sleep fatigue and exhaustion.It is also to be noted that all are used to a greateror less extent in the treatment of disease and asa part of the curriculum of the most importantmedical schools in the world.In artificial sleep there may be exhibited thesame evidences of languor and fatigue. Hypno-sis may be induced by presenting to the hypnoticany one idea or image either by speech or ex-ample, as by stimulating the organs of vision orof hearing or of touch, by the ticking of a watch,a monotonous song or lullaby, or by gently strok-ing the skin. In every one of these cases theattention of the hypnotic is concentrated to asingle object, and gradually detached from allelse of the phenomenal world. This is the oneuniform characteristic, 1 believe, of all hypnotic,mesmeric, and lethargic conditions whenever,wherever, and however induced.The reader will please to bear in mind thatabsolute detachment from the phenomenal world*Dr. Hack Tuke, Medical Physiology of Dreams.17
  • 31. The Mystery of Sleepis the uniform condition of sleep, however pro-voked or incited. I hope later to further illustratethe enormous importance of this principle.If, as it is no presumption to assume, there isnothing of divine ordinance that goes to waste,there must be a purpose in this periodical anduniversal change which we call sleep, conceivedin infinite wisdom, and of course, therefore, foran infinitely important purpose, and what wecall rest is only an incident, and certainly cannotbe that ultimate purpose.What, then, is that ultimate purpose?If we will reason from what we know, or easi-ly can know; if we will resist the propensity toconfound material phenomena with mental andspiritual operations, and keep distinctly beforeour minds, to the best of our comprehension, theends or final purpose of our birth and experiencesin this world, need we despair of obtaining a sat-isfactory solution of all these problems, withoutascribing to matter or to spirit attributes whichneither possesses, and without any wayward orpresumptuous interpretation of the ways of Godto men?May we not be permitted to extort some furtherinformation about the uses and results of so manyactivities as are going on within us while in astate of presumed entire inactivity; some ex-planation of the daily and extraordinary im-provement in our mental, our moral, and ourphysical condition, which no amount or kind of18
  • 32. The Dream of Agassizlabor by day, when all our faculties are assumedto be at their best, ever yields?The late Professor Agassiz, In one of his scien-tific works, relates a very curious dream, Interest-ing not only as a psychological fact, but as Illus-trating the indefatigable activity of the humanmind. I give it as it has been reported by hiswidow In her biography of her distinguished hus-band.*"He had "been for two weeks striving to decipherthe somewhat obscure impression of a fossil fish onthe stone slab in which it was preserved. Weary andperplexed, he put his work aside at last, and tried todismiss it from his mind. Shortly after, he wakedone night persuaded that while asleep he had seen hisfish with all the missing features perfectly restored.But when he tried to hold and make fast the Image Itescaped Mm. Nevertheless, he went early to the Jardindes Plantes, thinking that on looking anew at the im-pression he should see something which would put himon the track of his vision. In vain the blurred recordwas as blank as ever. The next night he saw the fishagain, but with no more satisfactory result. "Whenhe awoke it disappeared from Ms memory as before.Hoping that the same experience might be repeated,on the third night he placed a pencil and paper besidehis bed before going to sleep."Accordingly, towards morning the fish reappearedin his dream, confusedly at first, but at last with suchdistinctness that he had no longer any doubt as to Its* Rechercaes sur les Poissons Fossiks."CyclopomaSpinosum Agassiz." Vol. iv. tab. i. pp. 20, 21,19
  • 33. The Mystery of Sleepzoological characters. Still half dreaming, in perfectdarkness, he traced these characters on the sheet ofpaper at the bedside. In the morning he was surprisedto see in his nocturnal sketch features which he thoughtit impossible the fossil itself should reveal. He hastenedto the Jardin des Plantes, and, with his drawing as aguide, succeeded in chiselling away the surface of thestone under which portions of the fish proved to be hid-den. When wholly exposed it corresponded with hisdream and his drawing, and he succeeded in classifyingit with ease/
  • 34. CHAPTER IIISleep interrupts all conscious relations with the phenom-enal world, and thus becomes one of the vital proc-esses of spiritual regeneration Nocturnal darknessan ally of sleep Our transformation in sleep Lu-cretius Bryants "Land of Dreams" VoltaireVenerable Bede Swedenborg as a seer.THE first and most impressive fact of universalexperience that we note as an incident of sleepis our sudden and complete dissociation fromthe world in which we live; the interruption ofall conscious relations with matters which en-gross our attention during our waking hours.No matter how much we are absorbed by privateor public affairs, no matter how vast the worldlyinterests that seem to be depending upon everywaking hour, with what cares we are perplexed,what aspirations we indulge, they can postponebut a few hours at most the visit of this inexorablemaster, while they cannot diminish in the slightestdegree the lawful measure of his exactions. Sleep,like death, knocks at the doors of kings palacesas well as poor mens cottages. (It is no respecterof persons, and while it is levying its tribute weare unconscious of everything we have done in21
  • 35. The Mystery of Sleepthe past and of all we were planning to do inthe future.Here we have one of the universal conditionsof sleep which is coincident and in harmony withone of the supreme behests of a Christian life:utter deliverance from the domination of thephenomenal world; an entire emancipation, forthese few sleeping hours, from the cares andambitions of the life into which we were born,and to the indulgence of which we are inclinedby nature to surrender the service of all our vitalenergies. If it be a good thing to live above theworld, to regard our phenomenal life as transitory,as designed merely or mainly to educate us for amore elevated existence, to serve us as a means,not an end, then we have in sleep, apparently,an ally and coadjutor at least to the extent ofperiodically delivering us from a servile depend-ence upon what ought to be a good slave, butis always a bad master. We here recognize anincontestable analogy at least between the phe-nomena of sleep and the providential processby which the regeneration of the human soul isto be begun, and by which only such regenera-tion can be successfully prosecuted. The veryexistence of such an analogy is a fact of immeasu-rable interest and importance, for such analogiesin the scheme of divine government are not ac-cidental; are not without a purpose proportionedto the dignity of their august origin.There are certain provisions of nature which22
  • 36. Natures Provision for Sleepmay be justly regarded as auxiliaries to sleepand universal in their operation. At uniformintervals in every twenty-four hours of our lifethe sun withdraws its light and covers most ofthe habitable portions of our planet with a man-tle of darkness. This not only invites sleep bywithholding a stimulus which discourages it, butpractically interrupts or modifies all forms of in-dustrial activity; it interferes seriously with loco-motion; it suspends most of the plans and occu-pations which engage our attention during thesunlit hours of the day, and emancipates us fora few hours of every day from the dominion of ournatural propensities and passions, which engrossso much of our time and thought by day.Nor is it only by the setting of the sun thatwe are invited daily to give pause for a few hoursto our worldly strifes.In sleep all the sensorial and other functionsdependent31upon or under the government of thewill are relaxed. To secure this relaxation, weseek positions, places, and all other conditionsbest calculated to shelter us from light, noise,and all other awakening influences. Like man,the lower animals at such times choose a retiredplace, assume postures which demand no voluntaryeffort and which expose them least to the externalforces which may chance to environ them. Theserpent coils himself up so as to expose as littlesuperficial surface as possible to disturbance;the bird conceals his head under his wing; the23
  • 37. The Mystery of Sleepporcupine covers his eyes with his tail; the skunkrolls himself into a ball; the dog covers his facewith his paw.Why should the ploughman leave his ploughin its furrow when the sun ceases to light hisway? Can any other more satisfactory reasonbe suggested than that he may for a few hoursbe as one dead to the concerns of his farm andplough, and his soul for a time be freed from theirdistractions? Whatever else may be the finalpurpose of sleep, that purpose also obviouslymust be among the contributory purposes of noc-turnal darkness; for that is one of its inevitableand periodical consequences.The learned and pious Richard Baxter seemsto have satisfied himself some centuries ago thatsleep was anything but the state of repose whichscientists usually assume it to be. In his pro-found Inquiry into the Nature of the Soul, hesays:"The phenomenon of sleep and dreaming, whichhath been made use of to exalt the nature of matter,and depress the perfection of the soul ; rightly consideredshew the very contrary."The opposition of appearances observable in thisstate (of fatigue and activity, of insensibility and lifeat the same time) cannot fail to shew us the oppositenatures of the two constituent parts of our composition.If all had been a blank of thought and consciousnessin sleep, the soul would have seemed to be of the samenature with the body: if there had been no difference24
  • 38. Changes Wrought by Sleepof thought and consciousness then and at other times,the body would have appeared to be of the same naturewith the soul; nor could the thinking principle havebeen so distinguishable. Who that is rational wouldchoose to be without these informations of an after-existence? The body no sooner sinks down in weari-ness and slumber, than this thing within enters freshupon other scenes of action: and this without thesubserviency of its organs, which are then disabledfrom its functions. From which it appears, it can beotherwise applied to than by external objects throughthe senses. Now here is such a contrariety of naturesobviously discoverable, that it is a wonder men couldever find in their hearts to ascribe them to the samething/The marvellous changes wrought in our con-dition, as well morally as physically, that im-mediately follow a satisfactory nights restchanges in no respect less marvellous than thosewhich at shut of day temporarily interrupt ourcommunion with the phenomenal world requirean explanation which the popular notion of sleepdoes not give. "The morning hour/ says aGerman proverb, "has gold in its mouth/ Ifour sleep has been unimpaired by indiscreet in-dulgence of the appetites or passions, by unwontedanxieties or otherwise, we awake refreshed, withour strength renewed, our minds serene and clear,our passions calmed, our animosities soothed,with kindlier feelings towards our neighbors thanat any other hour of the day. It is the hour,25
  • 39. The Mystery of Sleeptoo, which from time immemorial has been con-secrated by saint and savage to devotional ex-ercises.Was it not wisely said by the Rev. Horace Bush-nell that "The night is the judgment-bar of theday. About all the reflection there is in the worldis due, if not directly to the night, to the habitsprepared and fashioned by it "?"Every one knows/ says one of the profound-est living interpreters of the phenomena of life/*"how sweet is the restoration derived from onespillow in health; more wonderful even yet is thatwhich we derive when sleep occurs at the crisisof severe disease. The nocturnal refreshment ofthe physical frame induces a similar restorationof the spiritual. Relaxed from the tension inwhich it is held towards the outer world whileawake, during sleep the mind sinks into a con-dition comparable to that in which it lay beforeconsciousness commenced ; all images and shapesit is cognizant of by day either vanish or appearonly as reflected pictures ; unexcited from without,it gathers itself up into new force, new compre-hension of its purpose; much that crossed thewaking thoughts, scattered and entangled, be-coming thereby sifted and arranged. Hence it isthat our waking thoughts are often our truest*Life$ Its Nature, Varieties, and Phenomena, by LeoH. Grindon, Lecturer on Botany at the Royal School ofMedicine, Manchester. Sixth American edition. J. B.Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1892, p. 349.26
  • 40. Brother of Death and Son of Nightand finest ; and that dreams are sometimes eminentand wise; phenomena incompatible with the ideathat we lie down like grass into our organic rootsat night and are merely resuscitated as from awinter when we wake. Man is captured in sleep,not by death, but by his better nature; to-day runsin through a deeper day to become the parentof to-morrow, and to Issue every morning, brightas the morning of life, and of life-size, from thepeaceful womb of the cerebellum/Why should our minds be so much more alertin the morning, and problems which puzzledand defied solution at night be solved without astruggle? Why should lessons we tried in vainto memorize in the evening come to us when weawake, with verbal accuracy? a common expe-rience with school-children. So things we searchfor in vain at even-tide we will often know ex-actly where to look for after a nights sleep.It is then, too, that we feel the charms of naturemost keenly; that we are most disposed to ex-tenuate the misconduct of friends and neigh-bors. In fact, there seems to be an extraordi-nary welling -up of charity in us during thehours consecrated to what Hesiod, the Greekpoet, describes as the Brother of Death and Sonof Night.If, on the other hand, we are suddenly arousedfrom profound sleep, we are apt for a time to havea dazed feeling, not knowing exactly where weare or the precise import of what is said to us.27
  • 41. The Mystery of SleepWe act as though suddenly brought from morecongenial and altogether different surroundings,from which we have been wrested reluctantly.Children are apt to cry; adults to scold. Weare made happy if permitted to close our eyesagain and return whence we came; to the com-pany we had left."A man must be next to a devil/ said the Rev.Horace Bushnell, "who wakes angry. After hisunconscious Sabbath he begins another day, andevery day is Monday. How beautifully thus weare drawn, by this kind economy of sleep, to theexercise of all good dispositions! The acrid andsour ingredients of evil, the grudges, the woundsof feeling, the hypochondriac suspicions, theblack torments of misanthropy, the morose fault-findings, are so far tempered and sweetened byGods gentle discipline of sleep that we probablydo not even conceive how demoniacally bitterthey would be if no such kind interruptions broketheir spell. . . .Sleep is the perfectly passiveside of our existence, and best prepares us to thesense of whatever is to be got by mere receptivity/Every parent is familiar with the smile thatat times comes over a sleeping infants face, be-traying as distinctly as ever when awake its ex-perience of pleasing emotions. The elder Plinytakes note of the occasional habit of infants suck-ing in their sleep; and also of their sometimesawaking suddenly with every symptom of terrorand distress. Lucretius, in the noblest epic poem28
  • 42. A Nights Sleep an Unconscious Sabbathof the Latin tongue, speaks of race-horses, whilesleeping, becoming suddenly bathed in perspira-tion, breathing heavily, and their muscles strainedas if starting in a race; also of the hunting-dogswhile fast asleep moving their limbs and yelpingas if in pursuit of the deer, until, awaking, theyare sadly disabused of their delusions :"Donee discussis redeant erroribus ad se."*Bryant concludes "The Land of Dreams/ of* "But more, what Studies please, what most delight,And fill Mens thoughts, they dream them ore at Night ;The Lawyers plead, make Laws, the Souldiers fight;The Merchants dream of storms, they hear them roar,And often shipwrecks leap, or swim to shore :I think of Naturs powers, my Mind pursuesHer Works, and een in Sleep invokes a Muse:And other Studies too, which entertainMens waking thoughts, they dream them ore again."And not in thoughtful Man alone, but Beast!For often, sleeping Racers pant and sweat,Breath short, as if they ran their second Heat;As if the Barrier down, with eager paceThey strecht, as when contending for the Race.And often Hounds, when Sleep hath closed their Eyes,They toss, and tumble, and attempt to rise:They open often, often snuff the Air,As if they presst the footsteps of the Deer;And sometimes wakt pursue their fancyd prey,The fancyd Deer, that seems to run away,Till quite awakt, the followed Shapes decay.And softer Curs, that lie and sleep at home,Do often rouse, and walk about the Room,And bark, as if they saw some Strangers come."De Rerum Natura, book iv,29
  • 43. The Mystery of Sleepwhich his sleeping daughter Julia is the heroine,with these striking lines:"Dear maid, in thy girlhoods opening flower,Scarce weaned from the love of childish play!The tears on whose cheeks are but the showerThat freshens the blooms of early May!"Thine eyes are closed, and over thy browPass thoughtful shadows and joyous gleams,And I know, by thy moving lips, that nowThy spirit strays in the Land of Dreams."Light-hearted maiden, oh, heed thy feet!Oh, keep where that beam of Paradise falls:And only wander where thou mayst meetThe blessed ones from its shining walls!"So shalt thou come from the Land of Dreams,With love and peace to this world of strife:And the light which over that border streamsShall lie on the path of thy daily life."Another poet of promise, Mr. Watson, has morerecently given expression to the same thoughtin some classical lines, "To the Unknown God":"When, overarched by gorgeous Night,I wave my trivial self away;When all I was to all mens sightShares the erasure of the day;Then do I cast my cumbering load,Then do I gain a sense of God."Voltaire tells us that in one of his dreams he
  • 44. Voltaires Dreamssupped with M. Touron, who made the words andmusic for some verses which he sang. Voltaire inhis dream also made some rhymes which he gives :"Mon cher Touron, que tu menchantesPar la douceur de tes accents.Que tes vers sont doux et coulants.Tu les fais comme tu les chantes/"In another dream/ he adds, "I recited thefirst canto of the Henriade/ but differently fromthe text. Yesterday I dreamed that verses wererecited at supper. Some one remarked that theywere too clever quil y avait trop desprit. I re-plied that the verses were a fSte given to the soul,and ornaments were required for ffetes. Thus Ihave in my dreams said things that I would hard-ly have said when awake ; I have had reflectionsin spite of myself, in which I had no part. I hadneither will nor freedom, and yet I combined ideaswith sagacity, and even with some genius. Whatthen am I if not a machine?"*In the same paper Voltaire made this importantstatement :"Whatever theory you adopt, what-ever vain efforts you make to prove that yourmemory moves your brain, and that your brainmoves your soul, you are obliged to admit thatall your ideas come to you, in sleep, independentlyof you and in spite of you your will has no part* Dictionnaire Philosophique, tit."Somnambuler etSonger."31
  • 45. The Mystery of Sleepin them whatever. It is certain, then, that youmay think seven or eight hours consecutively, with-out having the least desire to think, without evenbeing aware that you think.3JWe read of a monk who had been appointed towrite an epitaph for the tomb of the VenerableBede. Being much puzzled for an adjective ap-plicable to Bede, he fell asleep, and in a dream, itis said, was supplied by an angel with the follow-ing lines :"Hacce jacent ossBedse venerabilis ossa."It was to this communication from the landof dreams it is owing that, since Bedes death,"venerabilis" has been uniformly treated as apart of his name. This is the only explanationever given of its selection.By far the most voluminous and, after theBible, the most instructive repository of facts re-lating to the mysteries of sleep in any literaturewill be found in the writings of Emanuel Sweden-borg, the most illustrious of the Swedish race,especially in the records which he made sub-sequent to the year 1747, when, as he claimed,his spiritual vision was opened. Of the natureof this illumination it will be sufficient to citethe following passage from a letter which hewrote to the King of Sweden in consequence ofthe seizure and suppression of some copies of atreatise he had written on Conjugial Love:32
  • 46. Swedenborgs Visions"I have already informed your Majesty, and beseechyou to recall it to mind, that the Lord our Saviour mani-fested Himself to me in a sensible personal appearance ;that He has commanded me to write what has beenalready done, and what I have still to do : that He wasafterwards graciously pleased to endow me with theprivilege of conversing with Angels and Spirits, andto be in fellowship with them. I have already declaredthis more than once to your Majesties in the presenceof all the Royal Family when they were graciouslypleased to invite me to their table with five Senators,and several other persons; this was the only subjectdiscoursed of during the repast. Of this I also spokeafterwards to several other Senators ; and more openlyto their Excellencies Count de Teffein, Count Bonde,and Count Hopken, who are still alive, and who weresatisfied with the truth of it. I have declared the samein England, Holland, Germany, Denmark, Spain, andat Paris, to Kings, Princes, and other particular per-sons, as well as to those in this kingdom. If the com-mon report is believed, the Chancellor has declared,that what I have been reciting are untruths, althoughthe very truth. To say that they cannot believe andgive credit to such things, therein will I excuse them,for it is not in my power to place others in the samestate that God has placed me, so as to be able to con-vince them by their own eyes and ears of the truth ofthose deeds and things I have made publicly known.I have no ability to capacitate them to converse withAngels and Spirits, neither to work miracles to disposeor force their understandings, to comprehend what Isay. When my writings are read with attention andcool reflection (in which many things are to be metwith as hitherto unknown), it is easy enough to con-3 33
  • 47. The Mystery of Sleepelude, that I could not come by such knowledge, butby a real vision, and converse with those who are inthe Spiritual World. As a further proof, I beseechtheir Excellencies to peruse what is contained in myTreatise on Conjugial Love, page 314 to 316. Thisbook is in the hands of Count DEkleblad, and Countde Bjelke. If any doubt shall still remain, I am readyto testify with the most solemn oath that can beoffered in this matter, that I have said nothing butessential and real Truth, without any mixture of decep-tion. This knowledge is given to me from our Saviour,not for any particular merit of mine, but for the greatconcern of all Christians Salvation and Happiness;and as such, how can any venture to assert it as false?That these things may appear such as many have hadno Conception of, and of consequence, that they can-not from thence credit, has nothing remarkable in it,for scarce any thing is known respecting them."In a letter to Mr. Ostinger, Swedenborg saysfurther :<fTo your Interrogation, if there is occasion for anySigns of an Extraordinary Kind to confirm Mankindthat I am sent from the Lord to do what I do? I havein reply to observe, that at this day no Signs or Miracleswill be given, because they operate only to an outwarddead belief, and do not avail so as to convince the In-ward State of the mind agreeable to the State of Free-Will given to Man by the Lord, as the proper means ofhis Regeneration. That miracles only operate to anExterior Faith or Belief, may be seen from the littleeffect they had on the people in Egypt, and the Childrenof Israel in the Desert, when the Lord Jehovah descend*34
  • 48. Swedenborg as a Seered on Mount Sinai in their presence: and from whateffect they had on the Jewish Nation, when they sawall the miracles our Saviour performed before them;for after all, did they not crucify him at last? So if theLord was to appear now in the sky, attended with Angelsand Trumpets, it would have no other effect than ithad then. See Luke xvi. 29, 30, 31. The Signs thatwill be given at this day, will be an Illumination of themind from the flowing Graces -and Knowledge of theLord, together with the reception of the Truths of theNew Church, which will form the mind to a just per-ception of Heavenly Truth, that will work more ef-fectually than any Miracles."You ask me, if I have spoke with the Apostles?To which I reply, I have. I have spoken at times, dur-ing the space of one whole year with Paul, and partic-ularly of what is mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans,chap. iii. 28. I have moreover spoken three times withJohn ; once with Moses ; and I suppose a hundred timeswith Luther, who owned to me that, contrary to theadvice and warning of an Angel, he had received theDoctrine of Salvation by Faith alone, merely by itself,and that with the intent that he might make an entireseparation from Popery. But with the Angelic OrderI have spoke and conversed for these twenty-two yearspast, and daily continue to converse with them, theybeing sent of the Lord as Associates, There was nooccasion to mention this in my Writings ; for had I doneit, who would have believed it? Would they not alsohave said, Do Miracles first, and then we will believe?*We have English translations of thirty-threesubstantial octavo volumes, consisting pretty35
  • 49. The Mystery of Sleepexclusively of what Swedenborg saw or heard inthe spiritual world while either asleep or in astate of practically suspended consciousness ofthe phenomenal world. Irrespective of the theo-logical doctrines developed in most of these vol-umes, it is impossible to overrate their impor-tance in enlightening us in regard to what goeson in our states of suspended consciousness, andabove all, its conclusiveness against any theoryof mental or spiritual inactivity while in that con-dition.That Swedenborg was as credible a witnessof what he believed he heard and saw in thespiritual world as either of the prophets of theold dispensation or apostles of the new, no onefamiliar with his life and occupations can seriouslydoubt. For the edification of such of my readersas may not have the advantage of such familiarity,I take the liberty of referring them to some au-thorities, to which they will hardly hesitate todefer, so far at least as to recognize the extraor-dinary activity of Swedenborgs psychical natureduring the twenty-eight later years of his life,for the larger part of which time he claimed to bein pretty constant communication with the spir-itual world."The records of these revelations are so accessiblethat I will not distend this volume by any analysisof them. To most persons I think I shall convey*Appendix A.36
  • 50. Calvin In Hadesa sufficiently definite general idea of them formy purpose in referring to them here, by settingforth, as 1 propose to do in the appendix, Sweden-borgs account of interviews in the spiritual worldwith Luther, Melancthon, and Calvin, which Iventure to commend to the attention of my readers.*In connection with Swedenborgs post-obit viewof Calvin it may be instructive to read a few ex-tracts from one of the most recent biographies ofthe great solifidian theologian :f"While a boy at school, intensely devoted to study,he cared little for the pastimes in which his fellow-scholarsindulged, he shunned society and was more disposedto censure the frivolities of those around him than tosecure the solace of their companionship; severe toothers, he was still more so to himself, and his paleface and attenuated frame bore witness at once to therigor of his abstinence and the ardor with which heprosecuted his studies/While pursuing the study of law at Orleansthe same writer says of him :"At all times, indeed, a diligent student, he seemsat this time to have been impelled by Ms zeal beyondthose bounds which a wise regard to health would im-pose. It was his wont, after a frugal supper, to labortill midnight, and in the morning when he awoke hewould, before he arose, recall and digest what he hadread the previous day, so as to make it thoroughly his*Appendix B.t W. Lindsay Alexander, D.D., one of the Bible revisers37
  • 51. The Mystery of Sleepown. By these protracted vigils/ says Beza, "hesecured indeed a solid erudition and an excellent mem-ory ;but it is probable he at the same time sowed theseeds of that disease which occasioned him variousillnesses in after life and at last brought upon him pre-mature death/ (He died in his fifty-fourth year.)"While settled over a parish in Geneva, where,"besides preaching every day in each alternateweek, he taught theology three times in the week,attended weekly meetings of his consistory, readthe Scriptures once a week in the congregation,carried on an extensive correspondence upon amultiplicity of subjects, and was engaged re-peatedly in controversy with the opponents ofhis opinions/ he writes to a friend:"I have not time to look out of my house at the blessedsun; and if things continue thus I shall forget whatsort of appearance it has. When I have settled myusual business I have so many letters to write, so manyquestions to answer, that many a night is spent withoutany offering of sleep being brought to nature, . . ."The incessant and exhausting labors to whichCalvin gave himself could not but tell on the strongestconstitution : how much more on one so fragile as his.Amid many sufferings, however, and frequent attacksof sickness, he manfully pursued his course for twenty-eight years ;nor was it till his frail body, torn by manyand painful diseases fever, asthma, stone, and goutthe fruits, for the most part, of his sedentary habitsand unceasing activity had, as it were, fallen to piecesaround him that his indomitable spirit relinquished38
  • 52. Calvin in Hadesthe conflict. . . . After he had retired from publiclabors he lingered for some months enduring the sever-est agony without a murmur and cheerfully attendingto all the duties of a private kind which Ms disease lefthim strength to discharge."How different might have been the history ofProtestantism in the world had Calvin given asmany hours to sleep as he did to professionalwork, is a problem upon which some reflectionwould not be wasted by any of us.
  • 53. CHAPTER IVMost conspicuous changes wrought during sleep psy-chical, not physical Seclusion from the world most per-fect in sleep Why the aged sleep less than othersMysterious effects of sleep upon the demands of ourappetites Our greater endurance while sleeping thanwhen awake The need for sleep diminishes as theorganization of our lives becomes more complexBuffon JEsculapius Letter of larnblichus Moham-med Ciceros dream.OF the changes which distinguish our con-dition in the morning from our condition in theevening, the most conspicuous are not physical,but psychical. The moral side of our being seemsfor the time to have been in the ascendant. Hav-ing ceased for some hours to be preoccupied withwhat is purely personal, narrow, and narrowing,the worlds hold upon our thoughts and affectionshaving been temporarily broken, we seem to havebeen at liberty for a time to realize that we are asubstantive part of the universal life; to feel thespirit of the ages of wrhich we are a product; tolook up from nature to natures God, its author,and to his great world as a manifestation of Himrather than a product of human ingenuity and40
  • 54. How the World is Overcomepretension; all this undisturbed by the calcula-tions and ambitions of our day-lit life.It was thus "to overcome the world/ or atleast to assist us in it, that the Mosaic law setapart one day in seven for our spiritual refection,,and enjoined upon us to do no manner of work.It was for the like purpose we were directed, whenwe pray, to enter into our inner chamber andshut our door, that we be not distracted by whatthe world may think or say or be to us while wecommune with our Father in heaven. May wenot do we not have a more perfect seclusion fromthe world in our sleep, to help us to such a direct,prolonged, and undisturbed communion than ispossible at any other time? Is it not necessaryfor all of us, or at least for much the larger pro-portion of the world who otherwise might neverseek this closer communion with God, to be sub-jected to the operation of a law which for a portionof every day reduces them to a condition in whichnothing operates to prevent their giving their at-tention to the divine messengers that are contin-ually struggling for an opportunity to be heard?This idea appears to have been the happy in-spiration of one of our as yet unpublished poetsin the following sonnet :11If thou wouldst look lifes problem in the face,And comprehend her mystic countenance,Seek, in the early morn, ere yet the graceOf dewdrops has been withered by the sun,41
  • 55. The Mystery of SleepSome solitary glen or truant brook,And scan, freed from results of yesterday,The ill-deciphered pages of lifes book;And ere to-days vicissitudes have castTheir shadows oer the judgment, thou shalt seeThy blessings will confront thee then, and askA recognizing smile. The world shall seemA higher fact, the heart of man more wise,The very universe on larger plan,The glamour of day-dawn within thine eyes."*The changes wrought in us while sleeping, asa rule, vary according to the amount of sleep werequire, and that varies with our age. In ourchildhood we require far more sleep than at laterperiods of life, and the younger we are, the morewe need. Infants, in whom we are able to discernfew, if any, traces of a moral sense, sleep mostof the time. It is during this period, before theirrationality is developed, and before they comeunder the influence of the world and its tempta-tions, which are so necessary to our spiritualgrowth later in life in other words, before themoral sense can be successfully appealed to, thatthe seed is planted by parental love, which isdestined to grow and shelter them from thosetemptations when they shall assail. The longerhours which infancy requires for sleep are pro-portioned to their greater spiritual needs. Aninfant would perish in a few hours if allowed nomore sleep than would suffice for an adult.* Maria Kennedy Tod.42
  • 56. Needs of Sleep as Affected by AgeOld people, whose ties to the world not alreadysevered are dally weakening, spend fewer hoursin sleep, as a rule, than the younger of any age.Why these discriminations of nature betweenthe old, the middle-aged, and the infant? It isnot casual, but uniform and universal. Didfatigue create a need for repose, why should theoctogenarian, trembling with weakness, sleepleast? Why should the infant, who does nothingto induce fatigue, and doubles its weight out ofits overflowing abundance of life, in a few months,sleep many times as much as its grandparents?Obviously because we tend to become less activeand more contemplative in our declining years.The world has been gradually losing Its charm,Its former allurements cease to distract; the mindfeeds upon the spiritual experiences of a longlife, less disturbed than during our earlier yearsby the temptations of the world, the flesh, andthe devil. They therefore may be presumed toneed less sleep or to be in a spiritual condition toprofit less for any moral purpose by sleep thaneither the stalwart adult or the puling infant.In the inspired language of the poet Waller,"The souls dark cottage, battered and decayed,Lets in the light through chinks that Time has made/Following this line of thought, we should pauseto take note of the fact that one by one the severalsenses by which we hold communion with thevisible world cease to render their wonted service43
  • 57. The Mystery of Sleepas we advance into the autumn of life. Theeyes, to use Milton}s expression, "their seeinghave forgot/ the ears their hearing, the skin itssensibility, and so on. Why, except that themessages which it is the function of the sensesto bring to us from the external world are be-coming less needful to us or more hurtful, or thatthe interruption of those messages is requiredto supplement the educational offices for whichthe hours of sleep, usual at that age, were in-adequate? With some the senses are dulledearlier than with others. May not this impair-ment of sensibility reflect a corresponding spirit-ual or moral condition? Of course, this impair-ment is a result, not a final cause or purpose. Ofwhat is it so likely to be the result as of a divinepurpose, similar to that we are ascribing to sleep,of diminishing or checking the interference of thephenomenal world with our spiritual growth, andan aid to us in overcoming the world, or, rather,our sense of our personal importance to the world?Rest implies inactivity, a suspension of effortand exertion, the substitution of idleness forlabor. If, therefore, all our nobler faculties havebeen resting during the night, have been doingnothing, by the operation of what force or bywhat necromancy are we so transfigured in themorning?The effect of sleep upon the demands of ourstomach is also mysterious. Few people takeless than three meals daily, if they can help it,AA
  • 58. Nature an Inexorable Creditoryet a man may sleep from twelve to fifteen hourscases are recorded of persons sleeping muchlonger without waking, and of course withouttaking any nourishment whatsoever.Wraxall, in his Memoirs, tells us that WilliamPitt, the most eminent minister of George III.of England, having been much disturbed by avariety of painful political occurrences, "droveout to pass the night with Dundas at Wimbledon.After supper the minister withdrew to his cham-ber, having given his servant directions to callhim at seven on the ensuing morning. No soonerhad Pitt retired than Dundas, conscious how muchthe minister stood in need of repose, repaired to hisapartment, locked the door, and put the key inhis pocket, at the same time enjoining the valeton no consideration to disturb his master, butto allow him to sleep as long as nature required.It is a truth that Pitt neither awoke nor calledany person till half-past four in the afternoonof the following day, when Dundas, entering hisroom together with his servant, found him stillin so deep a sleep that it became necessary toshake in order to awaken him. He had sleptuninterruptedly during more than sixteen hours."Such long naps, we fancy, are by no meansuncommon, but are not heard of like the heroesbefore Agamemnon carent quia vate sacro.It is reported of Lord Brougham that whenhe returned home after his brilliant and exhaust-ing defence of Queen Caroline he went at once to45
  • 59. The Mystery of Sleepbed, with orders not to be disturbed, however longhe might sleep orders which his householdobeyed, though with astonishment deepening intosomething like terror as the young lawyers napprolonged itself for nearly eight-and-forty hours.His physician afterwards declared that this sleephad saved him from brain fever, though prob-ably only the marvellously recuperative powerswhich he possessed enabled him to take naturesremedy in one such mighty dose.Yet all this time the digestion and other func-tions of the body have been going on very muchas they are wont during the waking hours. Itthus appears that we require nourishment threeor four times more frequently while awake thanwhile sleeping. Yet and here is another sur-prise we usually awake in the morning withouteither hunger or faintness, one or the other ofwhich always accompanies an unusually longfast when awake. The first and morning mealis ordinarily the lightest of the day among peoplewho are free to consult their tastes about theirhours for eating. How shall we explain thisstrange discrepancy in the actions of the stomachin the daytime and at night? It is no answerto say that we work in the daytime, hence wasteand hunger; for the same necessity for frequentnourishment during the day is as surely experi-enced by a person taking little or no physicalexercise as by the bricklayer or the wood-sawyer.Obviously a condition of things has been super-46
  • 60. Sleepers Insensibility to Paininduced by sleep which involves not only a dis-continuance of intercourse with the phenomenalworld, but a suspension of some of its sternestexactions.There is another extraordinary result of sleepwhich, so far as I know, has never been remarkedupon, but which accredits, if it does not explain,some of the stories related in the Bible whichput our faith in the divine origin of that recordto the severest test.When one lays himself down upon his bed orcouch, however tired, if awake, he rarely remainslong in any one position. At frequent intervalshe feels an impulse to turn over or move someof his limbs, or otherwise relieve himself fromwhat has become an uncomfortable position.If he falls asleep, however, though he has theground for a bed and a log or even a stone for apillow, he may lie quietly for many hours with-out the slightest motion of any kind save thatincident to involuntary respiration. Nor, whenhe awakes, will he experience any discomfortin any part of his body, not even in that whichhas sustained the most pressure a pressurewhich while awake he would not contentedlyhave quietly endured for five minutes.Whence this difference? There is no changein the physical condition of the sleeper that willaccount for it. His body weighs no less, theblood circulates as freely in the veins, and whenhe awakes, as a rule, he not only may have no47
  • 61. The Mystery of Sleepsense of pain or discomfort anywhere, but, on thecontrary, feel refreshed at every point. Whathas occasioned this mysterious change in therelations of causes and effects on a sleeping fromthose operations on a waking man?We are told that Jacob, the son of Isaac andgrandson of Abraham, on his journey towardsPadan Aram in quest of a wife,"lighted upon acertain place and tarried there all night, becausethe sun was set/ (We are not told that he waseven tired.) "And he took one of the stonesof the place and put it under his head and laydown in that place to sleep/ In his sleep theyoung man had dreams of an inconceivably glo-rious future. When he awoke he exclaimed:"Surely the Lord is in this place and I knew itnot; this is none other than the house of Godand the gate of heaven/ He rose, took the stonethat he had put under his head and set it up fora pillar and poured oil upon it. And he calledthe name of that place Bethel.What change did sleep work in Jacob duringthat night, with a stone for his pillow, that heshould set that stone up for a monument andpour oil upon the top of it and finally make of itthe dwelling-place of his God?The reason assigned in the sacred record isthat during his sleep he"beheld a ladder set uponthe earth and the top of it reached to heaven,and he beheld angels, the messengers from God,ascending and descending on it, and the Lord
  • 62. Jacobs Pillowstanding above it, who, besides promising thatJacobs seed should be as the dust of the earthfor multitude, and that in his seed should allthe families of the earth be blessed, added, "Be-hold 1 am with thee and will keep thee whither-soever thou goest, and will bring thee again untothis land; for I will not leave thee until I havedone that which I have spoken to thee of."No one will pretend that a communication ofsuch incalculable importance would ever be madeby any one, least of all by the God of gods, toone whose mind was, like his body, in a deepsleep. Is it not equally clear that the peculiartime for making it was selected because. in hiswaking hours Jacob would not have been in acondition to receive it?Who shall say that such ladders are or haveever been uncommon means of communicationbetween the inhabitants of the heavens and theearth, and that angels are not frequently ascend-ing and descending them with heavenly messagesto unconscious sleepers?As we descend in the scale of organized life,the proportion of time spent in sleep seems toincrease until we reach a point where life is ap-parently a continuous sleep, "An oyster/ saysBuffon,"which does not seem to have any sensi-ble exterior movement nor external sense, is acreature formed to sleep always. A vegetableis in this sense but an animal that sleeps, and,in general, the functions of every organized being4 49
  • 63. The Mystery of Sleeplacking power of movement and the senses maybe compared to the functions of an animal whoshould be constrained by nature to sleep con-tinually."In the animal the state of sleep is not an ac-cidental one, occasioned by the greater or lessexercise of its faculties while awake; it Is, on thecontrary, an essential mode of being, which servesas the base of all animal economy. Our exist-ence begins in sleep; the fcetus sleeps almostcontinually, and the infant sleeps more hoursthan it is awake."Sleep, which appears to be a purely passivestate, a species of death, is, on the contrary, thefirst state of the living animal and the foundationof life. It is not a privation, an annihilation;it is a mode of being, a style of existence as realand more general than any other. We exist inthis state before existing in any other; all or-ganized beings which have not the senses existin this state only, while none exist in a state ofcontinual movement, and all existences partici-pate more or less in this state of repose/"*As we rise in the scale of organized life, onthe other hand, we find that the time required forsleep diminishes, and the quality of life exhibitsa corresponding increase of complexity, and a cor-responding enlargement of function, until we reachthe highest of organizations, our own species.* " Discours stir la Nature des Animaux." CEuvresde Buffon. Edition Flourens, vol. ii. p. 331.5
  • 64. Sleep only Known by its Coming and LeavingAt the close of a laborious day we invariably,if in health, feel a languor which prompts us totake a position in which the weight of our bodieswill be so distributed as to invite sleep for which,if in health, we do not have to wait long. Theinterval between its arrival and our laying our-selves in a recumbent position is usually one ofexquisite pleasure.All our impressions of sleep are formed beforeit arrives and after it begins to leave. We en-joy what we call going to sleep, and we enjoythe feelings we experience after we have slept,but during sleep we have no consciousness ofany sensation which we have any right to at-tribute directly and exclusively to it, or of whichour senses can take cognizance. While it isthus made pleasant for us to close our eyes andrelax our hold upon the world for a portion ofevery twenty-four hours, we have no more rightto infer that it is merely that we may remain in apleasing state of inactivity and insensibility thanwe have to infer that the final purpose of hunger isto secure us the gratifications of the palate, or thefinal purpose of sexual attraction is merely togratify our sensuality. As in both these cases,the ends to be reached are of the most far-reachingcharacter, and the desires are given that the meansfor the accomplishment of those ends should notbe neglected, so our diurnal desire for sleep ismanifestly designed to promote in us the growthand development of spiritual graces in some way,51
  • 65. The Mystery of Sleepfor which the waking hours are less propitious.Our Maker could have had no other design inour creation; He can have 110 other design inthe perpetuation of our race. Why should In-finite Wisdom have assigned a less importantfunction for the very considerable portion of ourlives during which our consciousness is suspendedin sleep than to the function of hunger or lust?Why should we resist the obvious implicationthat in falling asleep we are being graduallyseparated from the world of the senses, and, asthey seem to recede, that something flows intous which yields a pleasure that grows more un-mixed and absolute until consciousness of ourexternal and natural life altogether ceases?"As angels in some brighter dreamsCall to the soul when man doth sleep;So some strange thoughts transcend our wonted themesAnd into glory peep/Pausanias, in his historic tour in Greece, de-scribes a temple ejected ia honor of JJsculapius,i,n the court of which he found the figure of Oneiros,the god of dreams, and beside it another of Hypnos,or Sleep, putting a lion to sleep. To this latterfigure, says Pausanias, they had given the nameof Epidotes, or the Giver.""So He giveth his beloved in their sleep/* From the Greek word lm&&t)f, to increase, to fatten, togive freely, to give as a benevolence.52
  • 66. lamblichusFrom the writings of lamblichus, at one timethe head of the school of Neo-Platonists, it ap-pears that the view here taken of sleep, as havinga higher function than simply the reparation ofwaste, was shared some fifteen centuries ago bythoughtful men, who did not claim to speak bydivine inspiration. In a letter compiled from hiswritings, and quoted by R. A. Vaughan in hisHours with the Mystics, he says:"There is nothing unworthy of belief in what youhave been told concerning the sacred sleep and divina-tion by dreams. I explain it thus :"The soul has a twofold life, a lower and a higher.In sleep the soul is freed from the constraint of the body,and enters, as one emancipated, on its divine life ofintelligence. Then, as the noble faculty which beholdsthe objects that truly are the objects in the world of in-telligence stirs within and awakens to its power, whocan be surprised that the mind, which contains in itselfthe principles of all that happens, should, in this, thestate of liberation, discern the future in those antece-dent principles which will make that future what it isto be? The nobler part of tJie soul is thus united by oh-straclion to higher natures, and becomes a participantin the wisdom and foreknowledge of the gods."Recorded examples of this are numerous and wellauthenticated; instances occur, too, every day. Num-bers of sick, by sleeping in the temple of JEsculapius,have had their cure revealed to them in dreams vouch-safed by the god. Would not Alexanders army haveperished but for a dream, in which Dionysius pointedout the means of safety? Was not the siege of Aphritis53
  • 67. The Mystery of Sleepraised through a dream sent by Jupiter Ammon toLysander? The night-time of the body is the daytimeof the soul"Tradition accounts for Mohammeds beingamong the prophets in this wise: While in-dulging in spiritual meditations and repeatingpious exercises on Mount Hira in the month ofRamedan, the Angel Gabriel came to him bynight, as he was sleeping, held a silken scroll be-fore him, and required him, though not knowinghow to read, to recite what was written on thescroll. The words thus communicated remainedgraven on his memory, and ran as follows :"Read! In the name of the Lord who created manfrom a drop. Read! For the Lord is the Most High,who hath taught by the pen to man what he knew not,Nay truly, man "walketh in delusion when he deemsthat he suffices for himself. To thy Lord they mustall return."This brief announcement of the Angel Gabrielto Mohammed in his sleep deserves to be regardedas the corner-stone of the religion of the mostnumerous of the monotheistic sects in the worldto this day a religion which Napoleon I. char-acteristically pronounced superior to Christianityin that it conquered half the world in ten years,while Christianity took three hundred years toestablish itself.Cicero tells us of a dream he had of a singular-ly prophetic character which occurred to him in54
  • 68. Ciceros Dreamone of the stages of Ms flight after his banish-ment from Rome. He is certainly a good witness,and his dream cannot easily be reconciled withthe popular notion of mental and moral inactivityduring sleep.Being lodged in the villa of a friend, after hehad lain restless and wakeful a great part of thenight, he fell into a sound sleep near break ofday, and when he waked, about eight in the mom-ing, told his dream to those round him : That ashe seemed to be wandering disconsolate in a lone-ly place, Caius Marius, with his fasces wreathedwith laurel, accosted him, and demanded whyhe was so melancholy; and when he answeredthat he was driven out of his country by violence,Marius took him by the hand, and, bidding himbe of courage, ordered the next lictor to conducthim into his monument, telling him that therehe should find safety. Upon this the companypresently cried out that he would have a quickand glorious return. All of which was exactlyfulfilled; for his restoration was decreed in a cer-tain temple built by Marius, and, for that reason,called Mariuss Monument, where the Senate hap-pened to be assembled on that occasion.
  • 69. CHAPTER VThe most important events in human history initiatedduring sleep Altruism first taught in sleep Ex-traordinary spiritual uses of sleep recorded in theBible.THE most considerable and imposing repositoryof facts from which we are authorized to inferanything of what may be going on 111 us whilewe sleep may be found where, ordinarily, onewould be least likely to look for it, and if sleepbe, as most people suppose, simply an interruptionof activities for the purpose of repose and refresh-ment, where it would be most out of place thatis, in the sacred Scriptures. If these writingsare what they purport to be an inspired guideto assist man in leading a holy life it. is im-possible to reconcile the prominence they giveto the phenomena of sleep with the idea of itsbeing merely a mode of rest from fatigue.Even a hasty reference to its pages will satis-fy the reader that sleep is rarely referred to inthe Bible except with reference to some of themost vital processes of spiritual growth or de-generation. In reading the illustrations of thisstatement, to some of which I will now refer, the56
  • 70. Sleep in the Biblereader is requested to note the incalculably im-portant consequences of which, in each case.sleep is the prelude.In the Bible the very first allusion to sleepassociates it with an event second in importance,perhaps, to no other in the history of our race :"And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall uponthe Man, and he slept ; and he took one of his ribs, andclosed up the flesh instead thereof : and the rib, whichthe Lord God had taken from the man, made he awoman, and brought her unto the man. And the mansaid, This is now bone of my bone, and flesh of myflesh: she shall be called Woman, because she wastaken out of man. Therefore shall a man leave hisfather and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife:and they shall be one flesh."*Thus it was during his sleep that man wasfirst qualified to love something outside of him-self, that our race received its first lesson inaltruism; experienced its first triumph over thetyranny of its selfhood, and that the institutionof matrimony was established. His Eve is mansfirst unselfish love his first genuine charity.Whether regarded as literal or symbolical, thepassage quoted is no less impressive and signif-icant.It was when the sun was going down and adeep sleep fell upon Abram, that the Lord madehim the founder of nations; commissioned him* Genesis iL 21.57
  • 71. The Mystery of Sleepto teach to a pagan world the unity oi the God-head and the errors of polytheism.*It was when Jacob was sent to his grandfatherto seek a wife among the daughters of his uncleLaban that he had the dream already referred to,when he beheld a ladder set up on the earth andreaching to heaven, on which the angels of Godwere ascending and descending, and when hewas promised that his seed should be as the dustof the earth and in it all the families of the earthshould be blessed.One of the most pathetic and dramatic storiesin all literature is that of Jacobs son, Joseph,and his brethren, the machinery of which con-sists mainly of dreams. It was the recital ofone of his dreams that provoked his brethren tosell him into Egypt. While in prison, in con-sequence of a malicious accusation of his masterswife, he interprets correctly the dreams of thekings chief butler and chief baker, who were hisfellow-prisoners. The fame of this achievementspread through the land, and when Pharaoh,the king, was himself perplexed 63; a dream, hesent for Joseph, and was so impressed with hisskill in interpreting it that he at once gave himpower second only to his own in the kingdom;made him lord of all his house,, and ruler overall the land of Egypt. It was thus through dreamsthat he was enabled to save his brethren"alive* Genesis xv. 12.58
  • 72. Sleep in the Bibleby a great deliverance/ to prepare the way forthe escape of the children of Israel from the bond-age of spiritual darkness in Egypt, to wanderforty years in the wilderness, that they mightbe fitted for a home in a land flowing with milkand honey, and symbolize for all future time theseveral stages of mans spiritual regeneration.When Miriam and Aaron railed against Mosesfor marrying a Cushite woman and said, "Haththe Lord spoken only with Moses; hath he notspoken also with us?" the Lord came down ina pillar of cloud, called Miriam and Aaron beforeHim, and said: "If there be a prophet amongyou, I, the Lord, will make myself known untohim in a vision; I will speak with him in a dream,My servant Moses is not such; he is faithful inall mine house; with him will I speak, mouth tomouth, even manifestly and not in dark speeches ;and the form of the Lord shall he behold; where-fore then were ye not afraid to speak against myservant, against Moses?"*Samuel was laid down to sleep in the templeof the Lord where the ark of God was when theLord called him by name. "Now Samuel didnot yet know the Lord, neither was the word ofthe Lord yet revealed to him/ The Lord calledhim three times before he knew who it was thatcalled, and then only at the suggestion of thehigh-priest he answered,"Speak, for thy servant* Numbers xii. 2-8.59
  • 73. The Mystery of Sleepheareth. The Lord then said to Samuel, BeholdI will do a thing in Israel at which both the earsof every one that heareth it shall tingle/ At theclose of the Lords statement of what He proposedto do, it is recorded that "Samuel grew, and theLord was with him, and did let none of his wordsfall to the ground/* "And all Israel from Daneven to Beersheba knew that Samuel was estab-lished to be a prophet of the Lord/fSaul was asleep in his camp when Abishaisaid to David, whom Saul was pursuing: "Godhath delivered up thine enemy into thine handthis day: now therefore let me smite him, I praythee, with the spear to the earth at one stroke,and I will not smite him the second time." Davidreplied,"The Lord forbid that I should put forthmine hand against the Lords anointed."When Saul awoke on hearing the voice of Davidfrom a neighboring hill, whither he had takenrefuge, reproaching Abner for not having keptbetter watch over the Lords anointed, he said:"I have sinned: return, my son David: for I willno more do thee harm, because my life wasprecious in thine eyes this day: behold, I haveplayed the fool, and have erred exceedingly. . . .Blessed be thou, my son David: thou shalt bothdo mightily, and shalt surely prevail/!To King Solomon is attributed the memorableI27th Psalm, in which occur the following lines:* I Samuel iii. 19. f 16. iiL 20. t ^ xxvi. 21, 25.60
  • 74. Sleep in the Bible"Except the Lord build the house,They labor in vain that build it:Except the Lord keep the city,The watchman waketh but in vain.It is vain for you that ye rise up early, and so latetake rest,And eat the bread of toil:For so he giveth unto his beloved in their sleep.33Among the proverbs of the same king, themost famous of all earthly kings for his wisdom,"sweet sleep"is held forth as one of the privilegesof him who despiseth not"the chastenings ofthe Lord/ nor is "weary of his reproof/*While Daniel and his three comrades wereliving at the court of Nebuchadnezzar,"God gavethem knowledge and skill in all learning andwisdom: and Daniel had understanding in allvisions and dreams/When two years later Nebuchadnezzar had adream which he had forgotten, he issued a decreefor the slaughter of all his wise men and magi-cians, because they could not make known tohim the dream and its interpretation. Danielsaved their lives and his own by revealing to theking "the visions of his head upon his bed,"and their interpretation. One of the memorableresults of this dream was that Nebuchadnezzarat last confessed to Daniel that his God was theGod of gods and the Lord of kings, and he made* Proverbs iii. II.61
  • 75. The Mystery of SleepDaniel himself to rule over the whole provinceof Babylon and to be chief governor over all thewise men of Babylon.*Nebuchadnezzar in due time had another dream,which Daniel was called upon to interpret. Itwas of painful import. The king was to be drivenfrom men ; his dwelling was to be with the beastsof the field; he was to be made to eat grass asoxen and to be wet with the dew of heaven, andseven times were to pass over him until he shouldknow "the Most High rtileth in the kingdomof men and givetfa it to whomsoever he will/"At the end of the days/ said Nebuchadnezzarin his official proclamation of this experience,"I lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and ... atthe same time mine understanding returned untome; and for the glory of my kingdom, my majestyand brightness returned unto me; ... and Iwas established in my kingdom, and excellentgreatness was added unto me. Now I Nebuchad-nezzar praise and extol and honor the King ofheaven ; for all his works are truth, and his waysjudgment: and those that walk in pride he isable to abase/ fThe prophet Joel, speaking in the name ofthe Lord God, gives us very distinctly to under-stand that it is in the visions of the night thatGod pours out his spirit upon us :"It shall cometo pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit* Daniel il. 47. T & iv. 562
  • 76. Sleep in the Bibleupon all flesh ; and your sons and your daughtersshall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams,your young men shall see visions : and also uponthe servants and upon the handmaids in thosedays will I pour out my spirit/*The angel of God spake unto Jacob in a dream,saying :"Lift up now thine eyes, and see that allthe rams which leap upon the cattle are speckled,ringstreaked, and grizzled: for I have seen allthat Laban doeth unto thee." "Now arise, getthee out from this land, and return unto the landof thy kindred/Thereupon Jacob, with Rachel his wife, andLeah, stole away with their children, their cattle,and their goods, unawares to Laban the Syrian.The third day after Jacobs flight Laban firstheard of it, and after a seven days journey over-took him in the Mount Gilead.Meantime, God came to Laban the Syrian ina dream by night, and said unto him,"Take heedthat thou speak not to Jacob either good or bad."When Laban met Jacob he chided him for goingaway secretly, and said: "It is in the powerof my hand to do you hurt : but the God of yourfather spake unto me yesternight, saying, Takethou heed that thou speak not to Jacob, eithergood or bad."It was then and after these three communica-tions from on high that the covenant between*Joel ii. 28.63
  • 77. The Mystery of SleepLaban and Jacob was entered into at Mispahand they separated in peace.When Gideons faith in the Lords promiseto aid him in a war against the Midianites hadbeen miraculously confirmed, we are told that"it came to pass the same night that the Lordsaid unto him, Take thy fathers bullock, eventhe second bullock of seven years old, and throwdown the altar of Baal that thy father hath, andcut down the Asherah goddess that is by it, andbuild an altar unto the Lord thy God upon thetop of this stronghold, in the orderly manner,and take the second bullock and offer a burntoffering with the wood of the Asherah whichthou shalt cut down/The same night the Lord directed Gideon to gowith his servants and visit the camp of the Midian-ites, "and when Gideon was come behold therewas a man that told a dream unto his fellow andsaid, Behold I dreamed a dream, and, lo, a cakeof barley bread tumbled into the camp of Midianand came unto the tent and smote it that it fell,and turned it upside down that the tent lay along.And his fellow answered and said, This is nothingelse save the sword of Gideon, the son of Joash,a man of Israel ; into his hand God hath deliveredMidian and all the host/And the same night Gideon and his hundred menattacked the Midianites and put them to flight.It will be observed that each of the three miracu-lous processes by which the enemies of the true64
  • 78. Sleep in the BibleChurch were overcome and dispersed were allperformed in the night; and one of them ap-parently the most important was the result ofa dream.When Elijah was a refugee from the persecu-tions of Jezebel, and, faint with hunger, hadfallen asleep under a juniper-tree, an angel touchedhim and told him to "arise and eat/* "Hearose, and did eat and drink, and went in thestrength of that meat forty days and forty nightsunto Horeb, the mount of God/We read in Job that:"By reason of the multitude of oppressions they cryout;They cry for help by reason of the arm of the mighty.But none saith, Where is God my Maker,Who giveth songs in the night;Who teacheth us more than the beasts of the earth,And maketh us wiser than the fowls of the air?""I will bless the Lord, who hath given me coun-sel/ says the Royal Psalmist; "my reins alsoinstruct me in the night seasons/f"Thou hast proved my heart ;thou hast visitedme in the night; thou hast tried me and findestnothing; I am purposed that my mouth shallnot transgress/ J"Where there is no vision," said Solomon,"the people cast off restraint."* I Bangs xix. 5. f Psalm xvi. 7.{ Psalm xvii. 3. Proverbs xxix. 18.
  • 79. The Mystery of Sleep"For the Lord will command Ms loving kind-ness in the daytime, and in the night his songshall tie with me." *The exclusive use of the hours usually con-secrated to sleep to herald the birth of our Saviouris so remarkable that it is impossible for an en-lightened Christian to read the story as reportedby Matthew without feeling that as He was herald-ed to his parents and the wise men of the Eastwho were sent to search for Him, He is heraldedto all of us in the visions of the night"when Godpours out his spirit upon all flesh."His birth was foretold by an angel of the Lordwho appeared unto Joseph in a dream, saying,"Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take untothee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceivedin her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall bringforth a Son ;and thou shalt call his name Jesus ;for it is he that shall save his people from theirsins/fThe same event wras announced by an angeldirectly to Mary, though not in her sleep, andthat she was to be the mother of our Saviour.The Magnificat which she pronounced when shevisited Elizabeth, immediately after the concep-tion, shows how conscious she was of the "daystar" that had risen in her heart. Joseph, onthe other hand, was minded to put her awayprivily because he had no comprehension of the* Psalm xliL 8. f Matthew i. 20.66
  • 80. Sleep in the Biblesignificance and import of this new birth. Anangel, therefore, was sent to him in his sleep"totell him not to iear to take Mary for his wife/and so Joseph arose from his sleep and did asthe angel of the Lord commanded him.Mary was spiritually prepared for this newbirth. Joseph was not, He judged as the worldjudged; as the Apostles were judged by theirhearers, and as Paul was judged by Festus. Hehad to be taught in his sleep what he might neverhave received while awake and under worldlyinfluences. The world may be presumed to havehad no ;mch hold, then, upon Mary.The wise men who were sent by Herod to Bethle-hem to search out carefully the young child Jesus,and, when found, report the place to him, werewarned in a dream that they should not returnto Herod, so they departed into their own countryanother way.When they were departed, an angel of the Lordappeared to Joseph again in a dream, saying:"Arise and take the young child and his motherand flee into Egypt/After the death of Herod an angel of the Lordappeared once more in a dream to Joseph in Egypt,saying: "Arise and take the young child andhis mother, and go into the land of Israel: forthey are dead that sought the young childs life."Hearing, however, that Herods son was reigningover Judea, he feared to go thither, and in con-sequence of being warned of God in a dreamshe
  • 81. The Mystery of Sleepwithdrew into the parts of Galilee, to a city calledNazareth.It is to be observed here that everything doneto bring about the birth and protection of theinfant Jesus was done in obedience to angelicpromptings received in visions of the night; butno such promptings were received by Herod orby the magi, whose interests in the birth of Jesus,great as they were, were of a worldly character.When Jesus took with Him Peter and Jamesand John and went up into the mountain to pray,there talked with Him two men, Moses and Elias,who appeared in glory.Peter, and they that were with him, were heavywith sleep, but when they were fully awake they sawhis glory. Peter then said :"Master, it is good for us to be here : and let us makethree tabernacles ; one for thee, and one for Moses, andone for Elijah: not knowing what he said."And while he said these things, there came a cloud,and overshadowed them: . . . and a voice came outof the cloud, saying, This is my Son, my chosen : hearye him. And when the voice came, Jesus was foundalone."*Till then Jesus, Moses, and Elijah, in Petersmind, were of equal dignity and equally entitledto tabernacles. After receiving the message fromthe clouds his spiritual eyes were opened to see*Luke ix. 33.68
  • 82. The Message of Pilates Wifethe difference between Jesus and his companions,and then he saw no one but Jesus.The last hours of our Saviour on earth weresignalized by an incident no less pertinent to thisinquiry and no less remarkable than any of thosewhich heralded his birth.While Pilate was sitting on the judgment-seatat the trial of Jesus he received the followingmessage from his wife:"Have thou nothing to do with that righteous man :for I have suffered many things this day in a dreambecause of him."*How interesting beyond expression it wouldbe to know the tenor of this noble ladys dreamabout "that righteous man/ an outcast fromhis own people, whom she had probably neverseen, of whom she could have known nothingexcept from the priests and pharisees who wereclamoring for his life; who belonged to a raceheld in abhorrence by the Roman aristocracy,and about whom she had been warned of things ofso grave a nature as to impel her to interruptthe deliberations of the tribunal over which herhusband presided, to warn him to assume no re-sponsibility for whatever the Jews under theirlaws might do with their prisoner. Of thatwoman the last of her sex from whom any ex-* Matthew xxvii. 19.69
  • 83. The Mystery of Sleeppression of sympathy for Jesus in Ms lifetimeemanated that has survived Him we know noteven the name ; nothing but the memorable mes~sage which she sent to her husband.History for more than twenty centuries hastreated Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi, as theideal Roman matron, but a greater than Corneliasent that message to Pilate.Nor does the significance of that extraordinarydream end here. As we pursue the story of thismost famous and important of all judicial pro-ceedings, and when the Jews clamored that Barab-bas rather than Jesus should be pardoned, Pilateasks: "What then shall I do with Jesus whichis called Christ?" they all said, "Let him be cruci-fied/ Finding that a tumult would be the con-sequence of resisting any longer the passionsof the crowd, Pilate "took water and washed hishands before the multitude, saying, I am in-nocent of the blood of this righteous man : seeye to it."The character of Jesus which Pilates wife hadlearned in her dream and communicated in hermessage, her husband not only accepts but pro-claims from his judgment-seat. This is the firsttime the righteousness of Jesus was ever pro-claimed by any officer of any government ofRome.While Peter was waiting for his dinner in Joppahe fell into a trance, when he dreamed the heaven70
  • 84. Peters Dream in Joppaopened and a vessel descended wherein were allmanner of four-footed beasts and creeping thingsof the earth and fowls of the heaven. "Andthere came a voice to him, Rise, Peter, kill andeat. But Peter said, Not so, Lord; for I havenever eaten anything that is common and un-clean. And a voice came unto him again a sec-ond time, What God hath cleansed, make thounot unclean/ * While Peter, much perplexed,thought on the vision, the messengers sent bythe Lord to bring him to Cornelius, a devout manand one who feared God, arrived. Peter ac-companied them to Cornelius, who had calledhis friends together in the sight of God to hearfrom Peter all things that the Lord had com-manded him.Why was Peter put in a trance except the betterto qualify him to receive the instructions whichhe afterwards executed, and which he could nothave executed without such instructions?Cornelius was of the Italian band, not a Jew ;hence the lesson Peter taught him in the trance,which was First, to teach, what the Jews didnot believe as a rule, or even suspect, that Godis no respecter of persons, but that "in everynation he that feareth him and worketh righteous-ness is acceptable to him/ Secondly, to teachthat Jesus was ordained of God to be the Judgeof the quick and the dead, and that"through his*Acts x. 9-16.71
  • 85. The Mystery of Sleepname every one that believeth on him shall re-ceive remission of sins/As a result of these teachings we are told thatthe Holy Ghost fell upon all them that heardPeter, and they were amazed because that onthe Gentiles also was poured out the gift of theHoly Ghost, and when Peter returned to Jerusalem,and was called to account for what he had doneby them of the circumcision, he explained whathe had done and how he came to do it. There-upon they "held their peace and glorified God,saying, Then to the Gentiles also hath God grant-ed repentance unto life/No one can fail to see that the character andscope of these lessons were worthy of their divineorigin and could have had no other. It is equallyapparent that, to impress these lessons upon thechildren of men, it was necessary that Petersconsciousness and this - worldliness should firstbe suspended by sleep.The Apostle Peter was sleeping between twosoldiers and bound with two chains, when "anangel of the Lord stood by Mm, and a light shinedin the cell: and he smote Peter on the side, andawoke him, saying, Rise up quickly. And hischains fell off from his hands/The most definite and explicit statement ofwhat doubtless deserves to be regarded as theultimate the vital purposes of sleep that is72
  • 86. Eithus Rebuke of jobgiven in the Bible will be found in the rebukeadministered to Job by Elihu, the youngest ofhis comforters, for presuming to question thejustice of the trials he was enduring."Surely," said Elihu, "thou hast spoken inmy hearing, and I have heard the voice of thywords, saying, I am clean, without transgression ;I am innocent, neither is there iniquity in me:behold, he findeth occasions against me, he count-eth me for his enemy; he putteth my feet inthe stocks, he marketh all my paths. Behold, Iwill answer thee; in this thou art not just; forGod is greater than man. Why dost thou striveagainst him? For he giveth not account of any ofhis matters. For God speaketh once, yea twice,though man regardeth it not. In a dream, ina vision of night, when deep sleep falleth upon men,in slumberings upon the bed, THEN HE OPENETHTHE EARS OF MEN, AND SEALETH THEIRINSTRUCTION, THAT HE MAY WITHDRAW MANFROM HIS PURPOSE AND HIDE PRIDE FROMMAN; HE KEEPETH BACK HIS SOUL FROMTHE PIT, AND HIS LIFE FROM PERISHING BYTHE SWORD/*Have we not here a plain and unequivocal state-mentFirst, That the processes of spiritual growthand development are not only not interrupted,but are more than ordinarily active during sleep.*Job xxxiil. 8-18.73
  • 87. The Mystery of SleepSecondly. That while in that state man iswithdrawn from his own purposes for much higherpurposes than animate him during his wakinghours.Thirdly. That it is while sleeping God openeththe ears of men and sealeth their instruction, andthat, like the children of Israel in their journeythrough the wilderness, we are guided in thedaytime by Gods cloud, in the night by his light.Doth not his cloud limit our horizon even whilerevealing the path we are to take, to hide usfrom our enemies, while his light by night en-larges our horizon: so that we can see why, aswell as where, we are to prosecute our journey?How could the purposes of sleep be more ex-plicitly stated, assuming the competence of theauthority stating them? How could their im-portance be made more impressive?What events are recorded in the whole rangeof secular history, I will not say of graver, butof equal, import to any one of these I have cited,to which sleep is treated as a necessary incident?There are some who affect to make light ofthe Bible story. Conceding for a moment thatit is a work of the imagination, a tradition, amyth> a literature merely why is the machineryof sleep so constantly introduced on occasionsof such incomparable importance? Why werenot these several communications, or revelations,made directly to the parties interested in theirwaking hours? Why were the hours of sleep74
  • 88. Why Angels Come at Nightchosen when only the Divinity could know whetherthe communications were received and whetherthe effect intended was to be realized?Are we not compelled to suppose it was becausea divine truth was more sure of receiving atten-tion; was less liable to encounter worldly ob-structions and distractions during the sleepingthan during the waking hours?When the Master wishes to address us we maybe sure that He will select the moment most favor-able to secure our attention. It is not conceivablethat He should select any other than the mostfavorable. And if, not only in these two or threecases, but, I may say, so uniformly throughoutthe whole history of the Church, He selected thehours when our consciousness was suspended, toinfluence our will, are we not logically bound topresume that the suspension of our conscious-ness for certain hours of every day is mainly,if not exclusively, a part of his plan to secureaccess to our souls without interfering with thefreedom of our wills? Is it not in those hours ofsuspended consciousness that, in his unfailinglove and mercy, He adjusts the balance betweenthe forces of good and evil which are always strug-gling with each other in our souls, during ourwaking hours at least, like the "two mannerof people" in Rebekahs womb; and that, in thatway, He defends and protects our power to choosebetween good and evil, between right and wrong,between righteousness and sin, without which75
  • 89. The Mystery of Sleepprotection no spiritual growth would be possible?For it is only by his providential maintenanceof the equilibrium between the forces of goodand evil operating upon us in this life that weare enabled, through every stage of spiritual andmoral degeneration, to retain the power to pursuethe right and eschew the wrong.Every enlightened Christian understands thatwe are created and placed in the world for a pur-pose which contemplates an eternity of existence,during which we are expected to be constantlygrowing more into the image of our Creator. Isit reasonable or even credible to suppose thatone-third, or indeed any minutest portion, of ourterrestrial lives would necessarily have to bespent in a state or under conditions in whichno progress whatever can be made in spiritualgrowth in regenerate life? To entertain sucha belief is to question the essential attributesof Divinity. He who grows not in his sleep, saysan old Gaelic proverb, will not grow when awake.Men of science are notoriously agnostics andmaterialists, and yet they pass their lives tryingto learn the laws of the universe, which are theperfect expression of divine order. The more ofthose laws we know, the more we ought to be-lieve in the Maker of those laws, while the effectupon the scientist seems to be exactly the re-verse. "I recognize no distinction between mat-ter and spirit; I know nothing but force/ oncewrote the late President Walker to me.76
  • 90. CHAPTER VISpiritual influence of sleep illustrated by its privationDiseases resulting Toussaint LOuvertures defenceof Hayti Difference in sleeping habits of domesticand of predatory animals Low average of longevityamong savages explained Habits of venomous andnon-venomous serpents contrasted Prominence ofsleep in the machinery of Shakespeares plays Dr.Wilkinson Marie Manaceine Byrons English Bardsand Scotch Reviewers Alexander von Humboldt.THUS far we have studied the function of sleepfrom its effects,, and some of its uses. Now let uslook a little further into the effect of its privation.The sick in a high fever get little sleep. Intime they are apt to become delirious. If theyrecover it is almost uniformly after an unusuallyprolonged and quiet sleep. In their fever anddelirium their thought and speech are almostinvariably of the world in which they live, itsinterests and concerns. Wise physicians insistthat a patient under treatment should never beawakened even to take medicine. There is nosymptom they welcome so cordially in a patientas a natural sleep, and no change from whichthey expect more favorable results.77
  • 91. The Mystery of SleepThe effect of being awakened from a soundsleep is always unpleasant. It is apt to makeone unsocial and irritable. Any such abruptrecall to worldly cares induces a feeling of dis-content, such as usually accompanies all unwel-come changes of condition or unpleasant interrup-tions. Nor is it without significance that grownpeople pretty universally prefer to be left alonefor some time after waking, while we rarely findany who have been much immersed in woiidl3Tcares whose friends are not content to leave themalone for a time after waking.It is the struggle we experience in exchangingabruptly the society we may have left in the landof dreams for that which we meet in the forumor on the exchange that has brought some stimulat-ing beverages, such as coffee or tea or beer, intosuch general use early in the day throughoutthe world. On waking, and before we experienceany appetite for food, we are prone to welcomean exhilarant of some sort to overcome our re-luctance to return to the disciplinary life intowhich we were born to be trained.The most compact and instructive statementof the physical evils that follow the privationof sleep that has fallen under my eyes will befound in a work entitled Diseases of Modern Life.The author, Benjamin Ward Richardson, wasfor many years, and until his comparativelyrecent death, one of the leading members of theRoyal College of Physicians in London. In the
  • 92. The Pathology of Insomniaeighteenth chapter of this work, treating of diseasefrom late hours and broken sleep, he says:"Although it is impossible to define in one term anyone disease originating from irregular sleep and latehours of retiring to rest, there axe certain impairmentsresulting from these habits which influence the courseof the health and help materially to shorten life. . . ."If, in the period of his early life, a man breaks therule against nature and by a strong and persistenteffort of the will accustoms himself to short and dis-turbed rest, the signs of distress which the unrefreshedbody first feels are modified, and extremely short hoursof sleep may become the rule of life. . . ."In time, sleeplessness acquired by habit becomesa practice which, when the body has arrived at fullmaturity and more rest from sleep is absolutely de-manded, is not easily thrown aside. At such stagethe bad habit tells on the life, and the physician findsno class of patients so difficult to treat successfully, evenfor mere functional derangements, as the habitually sleep-less* There is about the patient a restless anxiety,an irritability, and a nervous feebleness which no arti-ficial aid can, entirely, subdue. . . ."In adolescents, even if they be, naturally, of soundconstitution and firm build, deficient sleep is a persistentsource of mental and bodily exhaustion. It inducespallor, muscular debility, restlessness, and irritability.It interferes with that natural growth and nutrition ofthe body to which sound sleep so beneficently ministers,and it makes the work and the pleasure of the wakefulday unduly heavy and laborious."These remarks apply to members of both the sexes,but they especially apply to girls. The anaemia, blood-79
  • 93. The Mystery of Sleeplessness, weakness, and hysterical excitability thatcharacterize the young lady of modern life, who is neitherwell nor ill, are due, mainly, to her bad habit of takingtoo limited a supply of sleep at irregular hours."The feebleness which falls to the lot of the robustwho deprive themselves in youth, or who are deprived,of the due amount of sleep, taken in due season, is great-ly increased, and is of much more serious moment, whenit falls to those who by hereditary taint are disposedto an acute wasting disease to pulmonary consump-tion, to name the most familiar example. . . ."From adolescence on towards the close of that periodof age where the body reaches the period when the ma-turity is attained and the downward course of life isnot yet on hand, the strong man can resist sleep oftenfor long periods. He is apt, in consequence, to trespasson the liberty he ventures to take with nature; andwhen from any cause he chooses to take the liberty,he congratulates himself, perchance, on the impunitywith which he is able to violate the natural law. Thedelusion is not of very long duration. As the middle ofthe second stage of his career approaches the demandfor more sleep becomes more urgent, and happy is hewho at this crisis can recall to his service the friendhe has deserted."If in middle age the habit of taking deficient andirregular sleep be still maintained, every source of de-pression, every latent form of disease, is quickenedand intensified. The sleepless exhaustion allies itselfwith all other processes of exhaustion, or it kills im-perceptibly by a rapid introduction of premature oldage, which leads directly to premature dissolution. . . ."The effect of irregular hours and of deficiency of sleepis developed sometimes in another way.80
  • 94. The Pathology of Insomnia"When the exhaustion from prolonged sleeplessnessis felt it is demonstrated through the heart. Inter-mittent action of the heart is established, and all theevils belonging to that broken movement are set intrain. This state of things is most readily inducedin those persons who, while losing their natural rest,are engaged in working against time. Newspaper re-porters and night pressmen are very quickly influencedin this manner, and become disabled before they arefully alive to their disablement. They fee! at timesa strange sensation of faintness or coldness comingover them, as if they were suddenly enveloped in ahaziness or obscurity ; but, by applying more desperatelyto their work, they dash the sensation aside until itreturns too often to be disposed of so readily. Thenthey are discovered to be suffering from exhaustedbrain and irregular circulation.tsAnother effect is sometimes witnessed, and is themost distressing of all. It is that the sleeplessnessacquired by habit begets sleeplessness. The mostextreme insomnia is herewith induced, and the mind,knowing no rest by night or by day, is quickly off itsbalance. The very idea that sleep will not come underany circumstances, unless it be enticed by powerfulnarcotics, is itself preventive of all natural repose, andas the dread of the sleeplessness increases other morbidtrains of thought arise in rapid succession. Somehypochondriacal monomania seizes the sufferer; heimagines the most improbable accidents are about tohappen to him ; he is constantly restless ; he bites hisnails to the quick, or keeps up some peculiar motionof his limbs, a rat-tat on the table or a gesticulatoryaction of an exaggerated character. A man circum-6 8l
  • 95. The Mystery of Sleepstanced in this manner passes, usually, with steadyadvance, into insanity too often into suicide. . . ."I have said that those who sleep differently andirregularly are more easily affected by direct causes ofdisease and are less amenable to means of cure. Tothis should be added the equally important fact thatthose who are habituated to full and regular sleep arethose who recover most readily from sickness. Theobservation of this truth led Menander to teach thatsleep is the natural cure of alt diseases. It is so. Sleepreduces fever, quickens nutrition, increases elimination,soothes pain, and encourages the healing of woundedsurfaces. Whoever is first to discover the still secretcause of natural sleep and the mode in which it maybe commanded by art, for the service of mankind, willbe the greatest healer who has, up to this age, helped tomake medicine immortal."The length of time a man can preserve hismental faculties without sleep varies more orless with the constitution, but the inevitable re-sult is delirium before many days. The Chinesepunish a certain class of flagrant crimes by con-stantly teasing the criminal to prevent his sleep-ing, and it is among the punishments regardedby them with most horror. Historians reportthat Perseus, the last king of ancient Macedonia,while a prisoner of the Romans, was "done todeath" in this way by his guards. They wouldnot permit him to sleep.When the first Napoleon attempted the con-quest of Hayti, Toussaint L/Ouverture, who had82
  • 96. Napoleons Army In Haytibecome commander-In-chief of the Haytians, couldnot venture a pitched battle with the battalionsof Napoleonic veterans, but had recourse to aless risky though more effective method of war-fare. As soon as the French troops got to sleepat night, Toussaint made a feint of attackingthem, thus getting them all up and under arms.This was repeated so frequently as effectually toprevent their getting any rest, and in a few weeksan army of thirty thousand veterans, without asingle engagement in the field, was reduced toabout five thousand effectives, through diseaseinduced mainly, if not entirely, by want of sleep.It is reported that the policy of the Haytian patriotwas prosecuted by the insurgents in Cuba in theirlate war of independence.Is it not obvious that something goes on duringsleep which is a preventative of mania; somechange is wrought that could not be wrroughtuntil the patient was liberated from the bond-age of his worldly environment, and made ac-cessible to influences of some kind which couldnot approach him while under such bondage,and that those influences are soothing, civilizing,harmonizing, fraternizing, elevating.The predatory animals, as a rule, seek theirprey at night and their repose by day. Theydiffer in this respect from all tamed or domesticatedanimals. It is also to be observed that they sub-sist chiefly upon the food of other animals, andare, therefore, ever at war with the whole animal
  • 97. The Mystery of Sleepkingdom, not always sparing their own progeny.Like the dangerous classes of human society,they take advantage of the darkness to belterconceal their purposes, and for the greater chanceof finding their prey asleep or off its guard.To domesticate or tame a wild animal, it isnecessary to win its confidence by protecting itfrom its predatory fellows and accustoming itto sleep without fear. On the other hand, thedomesticated animal soon becomes wild anddangerous if its sleep is disturbed; cows fall offin their yield of milk; hens will not lay; sheepwill not fatten.Wild beasts are always lean, or, rather, neverfat, partly, no doubt, if not entirely, because of theirprecarious livelihood, which compels them to beconstantly on the alert by night as well as by day.The savage tribes, who for the most part leadpredatory lives, are so much exposed to surprisesthat they rarely get regular or sufficient sleep,and take their rest as they take their food, whenthey can get it, but without periodicity or reg-ularity. This goes far to explain not only whythey are savage, but why their average longevityis much less than that of civilized peoples. Asthey emerge from the savage state they begin toorganize into societies for mutual protection, toshare one anothers burdens, and to secure socialprivileges, of which regular and abundant sleepis one to which all the others are secondary. Thatis the"pillar of fire by night"which guides them
  • 98. The Sleep of Serpentsfrom a life of barbaric selfishness towards a higherlife of mutual forbearance and fraternity. Thepolicemans rattle is the official symbol of civiliza-tion, for upon the forces it rallies to the defenceof order we depend for our undisturbed reposeduring the hours when darkness offers a partialimmunity to crime.The venomous snake, which is the symbolof all which is most detested and detestable inthe animal kingdom, never closes its eyes. Theyare covered with a sort of scale, transparent, likeglass, which allows perfect vision, and yet isstrong enough to protect the eyes from the or-dinary accidents of snake life. While warm-blooded animals shut their eyelids to excludethe light when they sleep and the pupils relaxor open, in the serpent this action is reversedthe pupil contracts like a cats in the sunlight.It is a curiously suggestive and, I believe, a well-authenticated fact, that the most deadly ser-pents, the Viperidae and Boidae, are cat-eyedand night-prowlers. Except when thirsty, theywill rarely be seen moving about in the daytime.The Colubridae, or common, harmless snakes,on the other hand, have round pupils, sleep atnight, and are active chiefly during sunlighthours.Professor W. E. Leonard, of Minneapolis, hasgiven a most interesting account of the patho-genetic effects of what is known in medical litera-ture as lachesis. The late Dr. Herring, of Phila-85
  • 99. The Mystery of Sleepdelphia, and his brave wife are its hero and heroine.Lachesis is the common name of a deadly poison-ous serpent named by Linnaeus Trigonocephaluslachesis, partly from its lance-shaped head, andpartly from one of the Greek Fates, and becauseof the swift and fatal effects of its bite.Herring, in his Condensed Materia Medica,enumerates persistent sleeplessness among thepathogenetic symptoms for which lachesis is aspecific, on the homoeopathic principle that thehair of the dog that bites will cure, or similia simil-ibus curantur. Also, "children toss about, moan-ing during sleep."I refer to the venom of the lachesis as a remedialagent, because it is, I believe, a rare, if not theonly instance of any deadly serpents venomhaving been tested, and its effects upon the humansystem carefully noted in minute detail, andclassified by a professional man eminently quali-fied for such a task. It will be observed thatthe most conspicuous effect of this poison ishostility to sleep, and when sleep does interveneit aggravates all other symptoms, as if it andsleep were the deadliest and wholly unreconcilableenemies. It achieves its victories over its victimsmore swiftly than mere privation of sleep inducedby most other causes is supposed to, but in bothcases privation of sleep seems to be the one symp-tom without the concurrence of which none ofthe others would necessarily be fatal.When we reflect that the serpent in all ages86
  • 100. Symbolism of Serpenthas been the symbol of what was most fatal tomans peace; that it was the serpent that firstbrought temptation and disobedience into theworld ; that with the Greeks the head of Medusa,with its snaky hair, was the symbol of the para-lyzing influence of vice; that Mercurys wandwas composed of the figures of two fighting ser-pents, and that he himself commenced his careeras a divinity by stealing the oxen of Apollo ; whenwe reflect that serpent-worship prevails almostuniversally among savages, who fear the powerand cunning of serpents, and try to propitiatethem by paying them divine honors; and more-over, if it be true, as there is ample warrant forpresuming, "a reason more perfect than reason,and influenced by its partialities, is at work inus when we sleep"; if, as the pagan philosopheraffirmed,"the night-time of the body is the day-time of the soul"; if our Father which is in heaven"giveth his beloved in their sleep/ how naturallyand instinctively we associate the serpents deadlybite, so fatal to sleep and life, with the fearfulcurse denounced against the first of the reptilesof whom we have any record, through whosesubtlety, temptation and sin first came into theworld. Hence perhaps it is that the serpent inthe Bible symbolizes every form of temptation toevil or sin, and hence, only in our sleep are theweapons forged with which we can successfullycontend with them.Shakespeare, who was no less unapproachable
  • 101. The Mystery of Sleepfor his philosophic insight than as a poet, makesCaesar say:"Let me have men about me that are fat ;Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o nights;Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look;. . . but I fear him not;Yet if my name were liable to fear,I do not know the man 1 should avoidSo soon as that spare Cassius.Seldom he smiles, and smiles in such a sort,As if he mockd himself, and scornd his spirit,That could be movd to smile at anything.Such men as he be never at hearts easeWhiles they behold a greater than themselves;And therefore are they very dangerous/Brutus was selected by the partisans hostile toCaesar to be the leader in the conspiracy againsthim, because, as Cassius expressed it :"He sits high in all the peoples hearts :And that which would appear offence in us,His countenance, like richest alchemy,Will change to virtue and to worthiness."After calling his servant Lucius several timeswithout receiving any reply it is after midnightand the man is asleep Brutus exclaims:"I would it were my fault to sleep so soundly."In the same scene Lucius is again caught nap-ping. Brutus calls:88
  • 102. Shakespeares Notions of Sleep"Boy! Lucius! Fast asleep? It is no matter;Enjoy the heavy honey-dew of slumber:Thou hast no figures nor no fantasies,Which busy care draws in the brains of men;Therefore thou sleepst so sound/When Lucius is gone and leaves Brutus alone,he says:"Since Cassius first did whet me against Caesar,I have not slept.Between the acting of a dreadful thingAnd the first motion, all the Interim isLike a phantasma or a hideous dream:The Genius and the mortal instrumentsAre then in council; and the state of man,Like to a little kingdom, suffers thenThe nature of an insurrection."The pertinacity with which Shakespeare dwellsupon the sleeplessness of Brutus from the timehe began to entertain the suspicion that the liber-ties of Rome depended upon the immediate deathof Caesar, is one of the marvels of this marvellousplay. A little later in the piece, when Cassius apol-ogizes for entering and disturbing Brutuss rest,Brutus replies that he has been awake all night.In the same scene Portia, his wife, enters to re-monstrate with him:Brutus. Portia, what mean you . . . now?It is not for your health thus to commitYour weak condition to the raw-cold morning.89
  • 103. The Mystery of SleepPortia. Nor for yours neither. Youve ungently,Brutus,Stole from my bed: and yesternight, at supper,You suddenly arose, and walkd about,Musing and sighing, with your arms across;And when I askd you what the matter was,You stard upon me with ungentle looks : .But with an angry wafture of your hand,Gave sign for me to leave you: so I did;Fearing to strengthen that impatienceWhich seemd too much enkindled. . . . Dear my lord,Make me acquainted with your cause of grief.Brutus. I am not well in health, and that is all.Portia. Brutus is wise, and, were he not in health,He would embrace the means to come by it.Brutus. Why, so I do. Good Portia, go to bed.Portia. Is Brutus sick? . . .And will he steal out of his wholesome bed, . . .And tempt the rheumy and unpurged airTo add unto his sickness? No, my Brutus;You have some sick offence within your mind,Which, by the right and virtue of my place,I ought to know of: and, upon my knees,I charm you, by my once-commended beauty,By all your vows of love, and that one great vowWhich did incorporate and make us one,That you unfold to me, yourself, your half,Why you are heavy; and what men to-nightHave had resort to you, for here have beenSome six or seven, who did hide their facesEven from darkness,I am still far from having exhausted all thatShakespeare has to teach us on the subject of90
  • 104. Shakespeares Notions of Sleepsleep or its privation. Whatever takes a deephold upon a mind like Shakespeares can alwaysbe studied with profit, and the prominence he gaveto both in his plays warrants the belief that fewof the phenomena of sleep or of sleeplessnessescaped his incomparable powers of observation.No one familiar with his plays will often thinkof sleep as a condition of existence without beingreminded of that thrilling soliloquy of HenryIV.:"How many thousand of my poorest subjectsAre at this hour asleep! Sleep, O gentle Sleep,Natures soft nurse, how have I frighted thee,That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids down,Nor steep my senses in forgetfulness?Why rather, Sleep, liest thou in smoky cribs,Upon uneasy pallets stretching thee,And hushd with buzzing night-flies to thy slumber,Than in the perfumed chambers of the great,Under the canopies of costly state,And lulTd with sounds of sweetest melody?thou dull god, why liest thou with the vileIn loathsome beds, and leavst the kingly couchA watch case or a common Alarum bell?Wilt thou upon the high and giddy mastSeal up the ship-boys eyes, and rock Ms brainsIn cradle of the rude imperious surge,And in the visitation of the winds,Who take the ruffian billows by the top,Curling their monstrous heads, and hanging themWith deafening clamor in the slippery shrouds,That, with the hurly, death itself awakes?91
  • 105. The Mystery of SleepCanst thou, partial Sleep, give thy reposeTo the wet sea-boy in an hour so rude;And in the calmest and most stillest night,With all appliances and means to boot,Deny it to a king? Then, happy low, lie down!Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown,"Queen Margaret thus brings her curse of thevillanous Gloster to a climax:"No sleep close up that deadly eye of thine,Unless it be while some tormenting dreamAffrights thee with a hell of ugly devils!"Lady Percy says to Hotspur:"Why hast thou lost the fresh blood in thy cheeksAnd given my treasures and my rights of theeTo thick-eyed musing and cursd melancholyTell me, sweet lord, what ist that takes from theeThy stomach, pleasure, and thy golden sleep?"The Abbess in" The Comedy of Errors"says toAdriana :"The venom-clamors of a jealous womanPoison more deadly than a mad-dogs tooth.It seems his sleeps were hindered by thy railing:In food, in sport, in life-preserving restTo be disturbed, would mad or man or beast/*With exquisite art Shakspeare makes Macbethexpatiate upon the blessedness of "innocentsleep" after his murder of Duncan, and after92
  • 106. Shakespeares Notions of Sleeplie had forfeited forever the capacity of enjoyingit himself:"Methought I heard a voice crySleep no more!Macbeth does murder sleep3the innocent sleep,Sleep that knits up the ravelFd sleave of care,The death of each days life, sore labors bath,Balm of hurt minds, great natures second course,Chief nourisher in lifes feast."Later on in the same play we read:"With Him aboveTo ratify the work we may againGive to our tables meat, sleep to our nights."In the first scene of the second act oft(The Tem-pest/ when Alonzo notes that several of his com-panions who escaped from the wreck had suddenlygone to sleep, he says :What, all so soon asleep! I wish mine eyesWould, with themselves, shut up my thoughts: I findThey are inclined to do so.Seb, Please you, sir,Do not omit the heavy offer of it:It seldom visits sorrow; when it doth,It is a comforter.lago, after poisoning the jealous nature ofOthello, says:"Not poppy, nor mandragora,Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleepWhich thou owdst yesterday."93
  • 107. The Mystery of SleepThe Witch, in enumerating the calamities instore for the Sailor in "Macbeth/ says;"Sleep shall neither night nor dayHang upon his pent-house lid;He shall live a man forbid/To fall asleep in a house of worship I fancyto be much less of a reproach than is common-ly supposed. To the devout worshipper the ten-dency of everything in the house of God is, orshould be, as in sleep to separate him from theworld. In the degree in which our devotions areunmixed, undiluted with selfish, worldly, andpersonal considerations, our will is also quiescentas in sleep. "Rousing sermons/ stirring pulpitoratory, may stimulate the intellect and keepeven the devoutest people wakeful, but it doesnot follow that they make the exercises of theSabbath more profitable, at least, to all. Themost wide-awake people in church may be in acloser relation with the world than with theirCreator, who, in the language of the prophet,may be "near in their mouth and far from theirreins/It is not uncommon for those who have no habitor inclination to sleep during the morning hoursof secular days, to be overcome with somnolencyin church soon after the devotional exercisesare begun, and who find it impossible to deriveany edification from them until they have lostthemselves for a moment or two in absolute un-94
  • 108. Sleeping In Templesconsciousness. Then they have no difficulty,sometimes a lively pleasure, in attending to theexercises which follow. The worshipper is thenwithdrawn from the familiar excitement of cus-tomary avocations. It is idle to suppose that inthese few moments of repose, upright in his pew,he has rested enough, in the common acceptationof that word, to repair any waste of tissue thatwould explain the new sense of refreshment thatensues. He has received, in that brief retirementfrom the world, some reinforcements which mani-festly are not dependent upon time or space fortheir efficacy spiritual reinforcements, and spirit-ual reinforcements only. He has removed him-self, or been removed, further away, out of sight orhearing or thinking, so to speak, of his phenome-nal life, and nearer to the Source of all life.It was quite a common impression among theancients that sleepers in temples of religion weremore apt to receive divine communications therethan elsewhere. Strabo is perhaps our mostimportant pagan authority on this subject. Hesays:"In fact, Moses, an Egyptian priest, who possesseda part of the country called (Delta?), left there to gointo Judea, having taken a disgust for the institutionsof his country. With him parted a great number ofmen who honored the divinity. He said and taughtthat the Egyptians and the Libyans were fools to pre-tend to represent the divinity in the figures of ferociousor domestic animals; that the Greeks were no wiser95
  • 109. The Mystery of Sleepwhen they gave Him the human figure. Accordingto him, divinity was nothing else than that which en-velops us the earth and the sea to wit, what we callheaven, the world, or nature. Now what sensible manwould dare to represent this divinity by an image madeon the model of one of us? He required them, therefore,to renounce all manufacture of idols, to limit their honorsto divinity by dedicating to it a place and a sanctuaryworthy of it without any image. It was necessaryalso that those who were subjects for happy dreamsshould come to this sanctuary to sleep, in order to ac-quire their inspirations for them and for others, forthe wise and the "just had always to expect from thedivinity goods, favors, signs; but this expectation isinterdicted to other mortals."By this discourse Moses persuaded a large numberof men of sense, and led them into the country whereis rising to-day the city of Jerusalem."Pomponius Mela is another pagan writer whospeaks of the practice in Italia-Grseca of sleepingin temples for the purpose of securing revelationsby dreams.We have already quoted the statement of lam-blichus,"that numbers of sick, by sleeping in thetemple of JEsculapius, have had their cure revealedto them in dreams vouchsafed by the god/Samuel, while a child, slept in the temple ofthe Lord where the ark of God was. It was therethat the Lord called him by name and preparedhim to become one of his prophets.** I Samuel iii. 19.
  • 110. Visions of Sleepers In TemplesAmong the Hebrews the practice seems to havebeen quite common. We are told in Luke xi. 36,that Anna the Prophetess, who had been a widowfourscore - and - four years, "departed not fromthe temple, worshipping with fastings and sup-plications night and day/Solomon went to Gibeon to sacrifice ;"the peo-ple sacrificed only in high places, because therewas no house built for the name of the Lorduntil those days/ Gibeon was tfce great highplace, which meant the place where there was ahouse built for the name of the Lord. It waswhile there, we are told, that fibe Lord appearedto Solomon in a dream by night ;and because heasked the Lord to give him an understandingheart to judge his people that he might discernbetween good and evil, and did not ask for richesand long life, the Lord gave him not only forwhat he asked, but riches and honor as well,"so that there should be no kings like him inall his days/" and a contingent promise to lengthenhis days.So in Hosea it Is said:"The Lord hath also a controversy with. Judah,and will punish Jacob according to his ways ; accordingto his doings will he recompense him. In the wombhe took his brother by the heel; and in his manhoodhe had power with God: yea, he had power over theangel, and prevailed: he wept, and made supplicationunto him: he found him at Beth-el, and there he spakewith us; even the Lord, the God of hosts."97
  • 111. The Mystery of SleepIt does not seem to have occurred to any ofthese authorities that this greater accessibility tospiritual influence might have been due only tothe more complete abstraction from the worldwhich such a retreat encourages.Dean Swift, in a letter to Pope, August 30,1716, says: "I know it was anciently the customto sleep in temples for those who would consult theoracles.Who dictates to me slumbering/"etc.*I am indebted to Dr. Carl Abel, a learned Germanphilologist, for a clipping from the Berlin Woche,one of the most prominent of German illustratedweeklies, which he accompanies with the follow-ing remarks:"It [the clipping] actually alleges the continuanceto this day in a Roman Catholic village near Viennaof the ancient Jewish practice of sleeping in hallowedprecincts with a view to being favored with inspireddreams. At Jerusalem it was the temple that promisedinspiration; at Vienna, or, rather, at Salmannsdorf,it is a sacred wood. In the ancient dispensation thecommunication expected was to enable the recipientto discern the tendency of the divine will in a matterof serious import. At present the oracle sought afterseems generally to refer to the choice of lottery tickets/7The following is a translation of the clippingfrom the Woche, August 2, 1902:"HOLY FOREST. A quite unusual picture may beseen within five minutes distance of the great city of* Milton.98
  • 112. Visions of Sleepers in TemplesVienna, in the forest of Salmannsdorf, The trees atthe entrance of the forest are hung with oil paintings andengravings, etchings, bronzes, marbles, etc. a real art-gallery created by religious people, among which con-noisseurs will recognize many valuable pieces, sufferingfrom exposure to the weather. This place, about whichthere are many stories current, is considered holy andis calledForest Prayer/ Crowds of the superstitioussleep there in the hope of dreaming the lucky numbersto be played for in the Austrian lotteries."To this it is pleasant to add some wise observa-tions of a Russian lady who has recently pub-lished a work of substantial value on the pathologyof sleep:"All the complicated conditions of social existence towhich during waking life we are all obliged to conformor to resist, are eliminated during sleep and the psychiclife of dreams unrolls freely without the impeding fet-ters of social laws. It cannot be denied that these sociallaws, which surround every human existence, some-times become a heavy burden, and that they developat the same time a certain hypocrisy in feeling andthought and action, and thus give rise to endless false-hood and deceit In sleep all this changes. We aredelivered from the heavy burden imposed by those vitalconditions which by virtue of historical developmenthave gained a certain empire in a given nation or society,but which are very often at the same time not merelyopposed to the desires and impulses of men, but eveninjurious to the development and well-being of individualswho live in the midst of the nation or society. Fromall these conventional chains we are liberated during99
  • 113. The Mystery of Sleepsleep and brought, as it were, face to face with nature.During sleep as the philosophic physiologist, Burdach,remarked aE social differences disappear; and menattain that perfect equality which in the waking statethey can only dream of/*Lord Byron told George Ticknor that he wrotethe English Bards and Scotch Revieicers at hispaternal estate in the country the winter beforehe set forth on his travels, while a heavy fallof snow was on the ground, and he kept house fora month, during which time lie never saw thelight of day, rising in the evening after dark andgoing to bed in the morning before dawn.What better, what other explanation could begiven of the tone, spirit, and purpose of this bru-tal satire than this systematic and persistent vio-lation of the laws of nature for a whole month,during which time noxious stimulants were to alarge extent a substitute for wholesome sleep?The medical profession throughout the worldhas generally accepted Hufelands division of aday of time as incontestably the most rationalthat is: eight hours for work, eight hours forsleep, eight hours for nourishment, corporal exer-cise, and recreation.Humboldt, of delicate health in his youth, likeNapoleon and Leibnitz, is reported to have allowedhimself but three hours sleep in every twenty-*Sleepr: Its Physiology, Pathology, Hygiene, and Psy-chology. By Marie Manaceine, p. 112.TOO
  • 114. Humboldtfour, and that, despite the enormous activity ofhis mind, he attained a very advanced age. Lestone should attach undue importance to suchan eminent example, I will quote one or two ex-tracts which deserve, I think, to be carefullyweighed in the balance against Humboldts prac-tice, if that practice is correctly reported.Schmettau, in his Life of Frederick Williamthe Fourth, says, in speaking of HumboldtsCosmos,tfin which, without any thought of the Creator, hefaithfully describes nature and everything which manhas been able to prize there, regardless of the Bible,which only exalts the acts of the Creator without oc-cupying itself with the achievements of men. Theman who, in combining the results of an, existence ofeighteen lustres has only succeeded in blaseing him-self with his own self-sufficiency and in proudly leavingGod on one side, living without thought of Him, cannotyet have penetrated to the sources of wisdom the fruitof which is peace to the soul. The influence whichHumboldt has exerted on his age will probably profitno one except the powers which wish to destroy thatpeace."G. Menzel, in his History of Modern Times,speaking of the Cosmos, says ;"It was in express conflict with the Bible as the Bookof Books. In his expose of the totality of nature thereis no veneration nor mention of the Creator. Natureappears there as an indifferent substance which onlyacquires importance as it is recognized and employed101
  • 115. The Mystery of Sleepby man. Humboldt takes no account of the Creatorand the essence of things, only of the man who dis-covers, explains, and invents. He only exalts thehuman intellect as an explorer, and works entirelyin the sense of the Hegelian philosophy, in which Godexists only so far as he is the object of the thought ofman. Under Humboldts influence the natural sciencesin Germany, with scarcely an exception, were turnedagainst Christianity/Would Humboldt have left such a deplorablerecord among his most enlightened contempora-ries had he divided his day as recommended byHufeland?Referring here once more to the ancient practiceof sleeping in temples for the sake of securing im-portant visions or revelations, it is related of Ion,the daughter of Cadmus, that she had temples inGreece and Rome. The Romans identified herwith Albune or Albula or Albuiia, a nymphclaimed by her worshippers to be endowed withprophetic powers. It was the custom of those whoconsulted her to sleep in the temples, and whatthey wished to know was expected to be revealedto them in a dream or vision during sleep.
  • 116. CHAPTER VIIWhat is meant by Gods resting on the seventh dayof creation and enjoining the observance of the Sab-bath as a day of rest for his people.THE faithful student of the Bible may ask,How can one reconcile this theory of sleep withthe second of the commandments delivered toMoses, in which we are told that on the expirationof the six days in which God created the heavensand the earth, He rested the seventh day? If Godrested, why should not man rest?This question might be best answered, per-haps, by another. How can a being of infinitepower be conceived of experiencing fatigue, orneeding rest in the sense implied in this ques-tion? Such a notion of God is not only incon-sistent with fy$ necessary and indisputable attri-butes of the Supreme Being the Causa cansans;but, worse than that, it imports either polytheismor atheism.It was one of the reproaches which the pagansmade against the early Christians that they passedevery seventh day in effeminate idleness, in imi-tation of their wearied God a reproach which103
  • 117. The Mystery of SleepIs not without point, if the God they worshippedwas subject to fatigue.Claudius Rutilius Namatianus, author of anelegiac poem in two books, describing his tripfrom Rome to Gaul, 416 A.D., speaks of a charm-ing country place he visited on leaving Falerie,the manager in charge of which was a querulousJew :"Namque loci queralus curamJudseus agebat,"who scolds him for disturbing the shrubbery andwasting the water."We rebuked him" [he says] "as his ignoble racedeserved a shameless people whose practice of cir-cumcision is the root of all absurdities of this ignoblerace, who celebrate with all their soul their stupid Sab-bath, but with a soul more stupid than their religion,and pass in shameful idleness every seventh day ineffeminate imitation of their wearied God."*Another answer to the question may be foundin the second and third verses of the second chapterof Genesis, where we are told that"God finishedhis work which he had made; and he rested 011the seventh day from all his work which he hadmade. And God blessed the seventh day and*" Reddimus obscense convicia debita gentiQuse genitale caput propudiosa metit,Radix stultltise, cui frigida sabbata cordi,Sed cor frigidius religione sua :Septima quasque dies turpi damnata veterno,Tanquam lassati mollis imago dei."104
  • 118. Rest of the Sabbathhallowed It, because that in it he rested from allhis work which God had created and made."Rest in its ordinary acceptance implies ex-haustion of force; a feebleness which if not re-inforced must result in death a condition notthinkable of our Creator. In the case underconsideration it could mean nothing of that kindbecause another and very different reason wasdistinctly assigned; it was because God had dis-tinguished that from other days of creation byblessing and sanctifying it.In blessing and sanctifying rest, God certainlydid not bless and sanctify idleness, an interruptionof growth, a suspension of all productive activities,a temporary death. These are not qualities thatmerit or invite sanctification, any more than om-nipotence is susceptible of fatigue. It is clearthat this discrimination of the Sabbath from otherdays was not to secure physical repose and re-cuperation, the antithesis and commonly receivedantidote to fatigue. It was, as we are assuredby the divine record, because the people of Israelhad been slaves in Egypt that is, in bondageto sinful habits, propensities, and passions, aninordinate and debasing selfhood from whichthe Lord had emancipated them. The Sabbathwas to be kept to remind them of their great de-liverance and of the duties and obligations whichthat deliverance imposed. It was a new provi-sion for the new spiritual condition to which theyhad been advanced.105
  • 119. The Mystery of SleepIf mere physical repose and functional recuper-ation is not meant and such it certainly couldnot have been we must look elsewhere for thetrue significance of a practice or ceremonial ofwhich our Father in heaven set the first exampleand which He requires all his children to follow.Happily, Paul the Apostle has thrown somelight upon this question, though it was not pre-cisely the subject of which he was treating at thetime. In his Epistle to the Hebrews, third andfourth chapters, he says:While it is said, To-day if ye will hear his voice, hardennot your hearts, as in the provocation.For some, when they had heard, did provoke : howbeitnot all that came out of Egypt by Moses.But with whom was he grieved forty years? was itnot with them that had sinned, whose carcasses fellin the wilderness?And to whom sware he that they should not enterinto his rest, but to them that believed not?So we see that they could not enter in because of un-belief.Let us therefore fear, lest, a promise being left us of en-tering into his rest, any of you should seem to comeshort of it.For unto us was the gospel preached, as well as untothem: but the word preached did not profit them, notbeing mixed with faith in them that heard it.For we which have believed do enter into rest, as hesaid, As I have sworn in my wrath, if they shall enterinto my rest: although the works were finished fromthe foundation of the world.106
  • 120. Rest of the SabbathFor he spake in a certain place of the seventh dayon this wise, And God did rest the seventh day fromall his works.And in this place again, If they shall enter into myrest.Seeing therefore it remaineth that some must entertherein, and they to whom it was first preached enterednot in because of unbelief:Again, he limiteth a certain day, saying in David,To-day, after so long a time; as it is said, To-day ifye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts.For if Jesus had given them rest, then would he notafterward have spoken of another day.There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God.For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceasedfrom his men works, as God did from his.Let us labor therefore to enter into that rest, lest anyman fall after the same example of unbelief.*Here it is distinctly stated that the generationwhich Moses led out of bondage in Egypt wasnot permitted to enter into Gods rest First, be-cause they do always err in their hearts ; secondly,because they have not known Gods ways ; thirdly,because they had sinned; fourthly, because ofunbelief.Then Paul adds that he and his followers whichhave believed do enter into rest, and that thereremaineth a rest to the people of God "for he thatis entered into his rest, he also hath ceased fromhis own works as God did from his/"* Paul to the Hebrews iii. 14.107
  • 121. The Mystery of SleepWhen Paul here speaks of himself and hisfollowers entering into rest he says that "theyceased from their own works/ not as a plough-man does at shut of day, but "as God did fromhis/ Paul was never more active, never morezealous in the calling wherewith he was called,than at that period of his life when he was inditingthese lines in commendation of the rest into whichhe and his followers had entered.When we regard as enlightened theologiansusually do the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt,referred to in Pauls exposition, as a bondage tosin, and their deliverance from it as the beginningof the process of regeneration, we then begin tocomprehend the necessity for the prosecution ofthe work of regeneration represented by the fortyyears struggle with trials and temptations inthe wilderness, and for a periodical withdrawalfrom worldly cares and from exposure to worldlytemptations, and for the consecration of a portionof our time and thoughts to the entire exclusionof those distractions.The Lord, in excusing Himself for what He haddone to and for the children of Israel in leadingthem out of Egypt and giving them his statutesand judgments,"which if a man do he shall liveby them/ added:"Moreover, also, I gave them my Sabbath to be asign between me and them that they might know thatI am the Lord that sanctify them."108
  • 122. Rest of the SabbathSanctification, not idleness, was the great andthe exclusive purpose of the Sabbath and its rest.Is not sanctification the purpose of all rest, andis not all rest a detachment from the world, whichis only complete in sleep and in death?Again, in the twenty-eighth verse of the fortiethchapter of the same prophet, he says :"The everlasting God, the Lord, the Creator of theends of the earth, fainteth not, neither is weary. Thereis no searching of his understanding. He giveth powerto the faint, and to him that hath no might he increasethstrength."In the fifteenth verse of the thirtieth chapterof Isaiah, the Lord God, the Holy One of Israel,is reported as saying : In returning and rest shall ye be saved ; in quietnessand in confidence shall be your strength : and ye wouldnot"The most compact definition of the rest whichthe Sabbath was intended to secure perhaps isgiven in the fifty-eighth chapter of Isaiah, thespirit of which will be found in the following verses :"If thou turn away thy foot from doing thy pleasureon my holy day, and call the sabbath a delight, theholy of Jehovah honorable; and shalt honor him, notdoing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure,nor speaking thine own words: then shalt thou be de-lightful to Jehovah the Lord, and I will cause thee toride upon the high places of the earth, and feed theewith the heritage of Jacob."109
  • 123. The Mystery of SleepAnd here we are confronted by a serious andpregnant inquiry. Is not every incident of ourlives which detaches our affections from thisworld or diminishes the value of all selfish pleas-ures in our eyes part of that rest which the Sab-bath was intended to secure us?Nothing happens by chance. Nothing is ac-cidental. Neither can we conceive of any wasteof divine energy. Everything that occurs wemust presume is working the purposes of divinelove and wisdom. What, then, is the sanctifyingpurpose of the innumerable interruptions, dis-appointments, and defeats of which the earthlylives of the wisest and best, as well as the weakestand basest, experience? What is the compensa-tion we are to expect for our ever-recurring hun-ger and fatigue, for the pains, the illnesses, disas-ters in business, involuntary idleness, unwelcomeand inconvenient claims upon our time, and un-profitable distractions which we can neither avoidnor enjoy? What else but what our Father inheaven meant when He said of the Israelites tothe prophet:"Moreover I gave them my sabbaths, to be a signbetween me and them, that they might know tliat Iam the Lord; that I sanctify them."*What are they but sabbaths designed to weakenor break the hold of the world upon us ;to impair*Ezekiel xx. 12.110
  • 124. The Allies of Sleepour natural confidence in our self-sufficiency;to give us his rest from labors that are too en-grossing and which prevent our knowing theLord who is sanctifying it? All trials and tribula-tions are messengers from heaven sent in loveand mercy. All of them, from the least unto thegreatest, tend to weaken this worlds hold uponus. Do they not all, then, perform, in a degreeand more or less frequently,, what is manifestlythe one great function of sleep?The Lord has assured us that He is alwaysknocking at every ones door and waiting to beasked to come in and sup with him. What areany of our tribulations but his knocks at ourdoor; his sabbaths that He wishes to sanctify tous? We are prostrated by disease, with alarminguncertainties as to its final result. How rapidlyall our worldly interests sink in value as thoseuncertainties increase; how soon all our worldlyambitions pass from our thoughts like a visionof the night; how readily would we exchangeall our wealth or honors for the robust health ofthe coal-heaver or the hod-carrier. The worldspomps and vanities shrink under trials only lessthan in sleep, when they entirely disappear fora season; or in death, when they disappear al-together.May it not be fairly questioned whether theperusal of a fine poem or romance, or the con-templation of a masterpiece of art of any kind,has ever a loftier mission than to release us forin
  • 125. The Mystery of Sleepa time from this thraldom of our daily cares;to supply us with new and captivating ideals, andmake us realize our capacity for the enjoymentof higher modes of existence and nobler pleasures?In other words, are they not handmaidens of sleep?But more on this subject presently.Before leaving this subject I ought to add acitation from the Bible, that makes still more clearthe distinction I have attempted to trace between"rest/* in the Scriptural sense, and idleness.We read in the 40th chapter of Isaiah, 28 to 31 ;"Hast thou not known? hast thou not heard? Theeverlasting God, the Lord, the Creator of the ends ofthe earth, fainteth not, neither is weary; there is nosearching of his understanding. He giveth power tothe faint, and to him who hath no might he givethstrength ; they shall mount up with wings as eagles ;they shall run and not be weary, they shall walk and notfaint."
  • 126. CHAPTER VIIIProminence given to the morning hour in the Bible,and its spiritual significance.I HAVE already referred to the great changes,physical, mental, and moral, which we appear toundergo during the intervals of sleep."A man/ says Dr. Bushnell,"must be next toa devil who wakes angry. After his unconsciousSabbath he begins another day, and every dayis Monday. How beautifully thus we are drawn,by this kind economy of sleep, to the exerciseof all good dispositions! The acrid and souringredients of evil, the grudges, the wounds offeeling, the hypochondriac suspicions, the blacktorments of misanthropy, the morose fault-find-ings, are so far tempered and sweetened by God*sgentle discipline of sleep that we do not even con-ceive how demoniacally bitter they would be ifno such kind interruptions broke their spell/All these experiences are doubtless more orless familiar to everybody ; and they give a peculiarsignificance and importance to many of the mostmomentous spiritual epochs in the history of ourrace.
  • 127. The Mystery of SleepIt will be a careless reader of the Bible whowill not be struck by the frequency with whichepochal events are there reported to have occurredin the morning, and, in many instances, whento all human appearances there could be no reasonfor naming any time at all for their occurrence,and still less for their occurrence at the time named.The reader will do well to note the extreme im-portance of the communication in every instancehere cited.We are told that Jacob awoke out of his sleepand said: "Surely the Lord is in this place; andI knew it not. And he was afraid, and said,How dreadful is this place. This is none otherthan the house of God and this is the gate ofheaven."*tcThe Lord said unto Moses, Rise up early in themorning, and stand before Pharaoh; io, he comethforth to the water; and say unto him, Thus saith theLord, Let my people go/fIt was at midnight that the Lord smote all thefirst-born in the land of Egypt, but the housesof the children of Israel were passed over."Thereshall no plague be upon you to destroy you, whenI smite the land of Egypt, and this day shall beunto you for a memorial and ye shall keep it afeast to the Lord"%On this fateful night it was ordered that none* Genesis xxvili. 16-18. t Exodus viii 20.t Exodus 33*1. 14.114
  • 128. Morning Hours in the Bibleof the Israelites were to go out of the door of hishouse until the morning*The same night Pharaoh rose and all his ser-vants and all the Egyptians, and he called upMoses and Aaron by night, and said :"Rise up,get you forth from among nay people, both yeand the children of Israel : and go serve the Lordas ye have said/f So "it came to pass at theend of four hundred and thirty years, even theself-same day it came to pass that all the hosts ofthe Lord went out from the land of Egypt. Itis a night of watching unto the Lord for bringingthem out of the land of Egypt : this same night isa night of watching unto the Lord for all the chil-dren of Israel throughout their generations."As nothing in the divine economy is accidental,nor anything in Gods word which has not a mes-sage for us, we are forced to assume that it wasnot by accident that the hour of midnight waschosen to smite the first-bom of the Egyptiansfor their obduracy; that the Israelites were for-bidden to leave their houses that night; and thatPharaoh called upon Moses and Aaron at nightto rise up, take his people, and go and serve theLord as he wished. Regarded as an ordinaryconcession from a sovereign to a refractory classof his subjects, the wonder is why this judgmentupon the Egyptians and this deliverance of theIsraelites should have been wrought in the night,* Exodus xiL 22. T Exodus xIL 31.
  • 129. The Mystery of Sleepwhen to the natural eye there appears no reasonwhy it might not have been conducted more con-veniently for all parties by da3TlightWhen Pharaoh and his host pursued the childrenof Israel and went in after them into the midst ofthe sea, "it came to pass in the morning watchthat the Lord looked forth upon the host of theEgyptians through the pillar of fire and of cloudand discomfited the host of the Eg3rptians. . . .And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea,and the sea returned in its strength when themorning appeared. . . . And the vatus returnedand covered the chariots and the horsemen, evenall the host of Pharaoh that went after them intothe sea. There remained not so much as oneof them. . . . And Israel saw the great workwhich the Lord did upon the Egyptians, and thepeople feared the Lord; and they believed in theLord and in his servant Moses/When the children of Israel were being led outof their bondage to the Egyptians "The Lordwent before them by day in a pillar of cloud, tolead them the way; and by night in a pillar offire, to give them light; to go by day and night."He took not away the pillar of cloud by day,nor the pillar of fire by night, from before thepeople/*The night was no more to be wasted than the* Exodus xiii. 22,116
  • 130. Morning Hours in the Bibleday. But how was it to be improved ? Not merelyby fleeing from Egyptians, but from their bond-age to sins they were leaving behind them.In what way, then, did they prosecute theirjourney by night? Of course they could notmarch day and night. That was physically im-possible. Besides, we read continually of theircamping in different places. They camped atElim ; they were a long time camped at Rephidim.Then they were camped before Mount Sinai, wherethey received through Moses the Commandmentsand a code of laws. There they tarried a longtime. After many years they abode in Kadish,where Miriam died and was buried. Later atMount Hor they mourned thirty days for Aaron,who died and was buried there.But the Lord went before them all this time.His work with them was not suspended by nightany more than by day.Who can read these citations, thus groupedtogether, without wondering that the time whenthe events to which they refer occurred is so uni-formly given, when, to all appearance, it is ofno earthly importance? The thoughtful readerwill be forced to the conclusion that the data inquestion were either idle and superfluous or thatthe events referred to had some essential andinevitable relation to the particular time of theiroccurrence.The first theory can only be accepted by thosewho dispute the supernatural origin of the Word,117
  • 131. The Mystery of SleepThose who accept the other theory and have readthese verses, will have no difficulty in diviningwhat in the eyes of the writer, that essential andinevitable relation is.When the children of Israel murmured againstMoses and Aaron and pined in the wildernessfor the flesh-pots of Egypt the Lord promisedMoses to rain bread from heaven for them."And Moses and Aaron said unto all the childrenof Israel, At even, then ye shall know that the Lordhath brought you out from the land of Egypt.(CAnd in the morning, then ye shall see the glory ofGod.1 *The Israelites, we are told, subsisted for thenext forty years of their wanderings in the wilder-ness upon this manna sent from heaven. Theywere instructed to gather it, every man accordingto his eating, but said Moses,"Let 110 man leaveof it until the morning/ This bread sent themfrom heaven was to be eaten at night; "And inthe morning/ adds Moses,"ye shall see the gloryof God/The Lords bread is the bread of life breadfor the soul as well as the body.No circumstance connected with the proclama-tion of the Ten Commandments can be treatedwith indifference or as of secondary importance.Here is the account of that event as recorded in* Exodus xvi. 6, 7.118
  • 132. Morning Hours in the Biblethe twenty - fourth chapter of Exodus, and thereader will please note the time selected for themost important message perhaps that was evergiven to our race:"The Lord said unto Moses, Hew thee two tablesof stone like unto the first: and I will write upon thetables the words that were on the first tables, whichthou breakest And be ready by the morning, andconie up in the morning unto Mount Sinai and presentthyself there to me on the top of the Mount. . . . Andhe hewed two tables of stone like unto the first; andMoses rose up early in the morning and went up untoMount Sinai, as the Lord had commanded him, andtook in his hand two tables of stone. And the Lorddescended in the cloud, and stood with him there, andproclaimed the name of the Lord."When the Lord gave Moses the tables of stoneand the law and the commandment that he mightteach them,"Moses wrote all the words of the Lord,and rose up early in tJie morning, and builded analtar under the mount, and twelve pillars, accord-ing to the twelve tribes of Israel. . . . And he tookthe book of the covenant, and read in the audienceof the people: and they said, All that the Lordhath spoken will we do, and be obedient."*When Hannah, and Elkanah her husband,went to the high-priest Eli, and obtained his bless-ing upon their petition that she might become amother," her countenance was no more sad. And* Exodus xxiv, 4-7,119
  • 133. The Mystery of Sleepthey rose up in the morning early, and worshippedbefore the Lord, and returned to their house toRamah."*When the Philistines insisted that David shouldnot go down with them to the battle, Achish toldDavid :"I know that thou art good in my sight,as an angel of God; notwithstanding the princesof the Philistines have said, He shall not go upwith us to the battle. Wherefore now rise upearly in the morning with the servants of thylord that are come with me: and as soon as yebe up early in the morning, and have light, depart.So David rose up early, he and his men, to de-part in the morning, to return into the land of thePhilistines.tWe are told that "Davids heart smote himafter that he had numbered the people. Andwhen David rose up in the morning, the wordof the Lord canie unto the prophet Gad, Da-vids seer, saying, Go and speak unto David,Thus saith the Lord: I offer thee three things;choose thee one of them, that I may do it untothee."tWhen the Philistines captured the ark of Godfrom the Hebrews, they brought it into the houseof Dagon and set it by Dagon. Early the follow-ing morning, Dagon was fallen upon his faceto the ground before the ark of the Lord, ThePhilistines then sat Dagon again in his place* I Samuel i. 19. T * Samuel xxix. 9.1 2 Samuel xxiv. 10.120
  • 134. Morning Hours In the Biblebeside the ark of God, "and when they aroseearly on the morrow morning, behold Dagon wasfallen upon his face to the ground before the arkof the Lord, and the head of Dagon and both thepalms of his hands lay cut off upon the threshold,only the stump of Dagon was left him/"*In both these instances,, the prostration of Dagon,and finally his mutilation, occurred in the night-time, and when the Hebrews, to whose advan-tage the idols overthrow inured, were presumablyasleep.One of the most important and pathetic colloquieswith a sovereign ever reported was that whichSamuel the Prophet had with Saul, the King ofIsrael, because of his disobedience, finally result-ing in Sauls downfall and the establishment ofthe dynasty of David, from which Jesus the Christwas begotten.Saul had offended the Lord"for having turnedback from following and performing his com-mandments." His offence was reported in thenight to Samuel, who rose early to meet Saulin the morning."Saul said to Mm, Blessed be them of the Lord : Ihave performed the commandment of the Lord. AndSamuel said, What meaneth then this bleating of thesheep in mine ears, and the lowing of the oxen whichI hear? And Saul said, They have "brought them fromthe Amalekites: for the people spared the best of the* I Samuel v. 5.121
  • 135. The Mystery of Sleepsheep and of the oxen, to sacrifice unto the Lord thyGod ; and the rest we have utterly destroyed.*Then Samuel said unto Saul, Stay, and I will tellthee what the Lord hath said to me this night. Andhe said unto him, Say on. And Samuel said, Thoughthou wast little in thine own sight, wast thou not madethe head of the tribes of Israel? And the Lord anointedthee king over Israel ;and the Lord sent thee on a journey,and said, Go and utterly destroy the sinners the Amale-kites, and fight against them until they be consumed.Wherefore then didst thou not obey the voice of theLord, but didst fly upon the spoil, and didst that whichwas evil in the sight of the Lord? And Saul said untoSamuel, Yea, I have obeyed the voice of the Lord, andhave gone the way which the Lord sent me, and havebrought Agag the king of Amalek, and have utterlydestroyed the Amalekites. But the people took of thespoil, sheep and oxen, the chief of the devoted things,to sacrifice unto the Lord thy God in GilgaL AndSamuel said, Hath the Lord as great delight in burntofferings and sacrifices as in obeying the voice of theLord? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, andto hearken than the fat of rams. For rebellion is asthe sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as idolatryand teraphim. Because thou hast rejected the wordof the Lord, he hath also rejected thee from being king.And Saul said unto Samuel, I have sinned : for I havetransgressed the commandment of the Lord, and thywords: because I feared the people, and obeyed theirvoice. Now therefore, I pray thee, pardon my sin,and turn again with me, that I may worship the Lord.And Samuel said unto Saul, I will not return with thee :for thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, and theLord hath rejected thee from being king over Israel/122
  • 136. Morning Hours in the BibleThe prophet Ezeklel tells us that "It came topass in the twelfth year of captivity, that onethat had escaped out of Jerusalem came unto mesaying, The city is smitten. Now the hand ofthe Lord had been upon me in the evening, beforehe that was escaped came; and he had opemdmy mouth, until he came to me in the morning;and my mouth was opened, and I was no moredumb/ *This was the beginning of the most impressivemessage ever delivered by Ezekiel It was to showhow and by what tribulations men who with theirmouth show much love but their heart goeth aftertheir gain, are sometimes made to know that theauthor of such messages was the Lord.It is important to notice that Ezekiels mouthwas opened, and he was no more dumb in themorning because the hand of the Lord had beenupon him in the evening."It is of the Lords mercies/ says the prophet,"that we are not consumed, because his com-passions fail not. They are new every morning;great is thy faithfulness/1fKing David sings:"My voice shalt thou hear in the morning, Lord,in the morning will I direct my prayers unto thee andwill keep watch."}* Ezekiel xxxiv. 21. t Lamentations iii. 22, 23*| Psalm v.123
  • 137. The Mystery of Sleep*My soul fleeth unto the Lord before the morningwatch; I say, before the morning watch.3 *"Thou hast proved and visited my heart in the nightseason; thou hast tried me and shalt find no weaknessIn me: for I am utterly purposed that my mouth shallnot offend/ f"Sing praises unto the Lord, ye saints of his, andgive thanks to his holy name. For his anger is butfor a moment ; In his favor is life :Weeping may tarryfor the night, But joy cometh in the morning." %11As for me, let me behold thy face in righteousness :Let me be satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness."John, the child of Elizabeth, was proclaimedby his father Zacharias as "the prophet of theHighest/ who was to go "before the face of theLord to prepare his ways and give knowledge ofsalvation unto his people/ "whereby/7he adds,"the Day Spring from on high hath visited us,to shine upon them that sit in darkness and theshadow of death; to guide our feet in the wayof peace/ ||So in Job :"Hast thou commanded the morningsince thy days began, and caused the day springto know its place ; that it might take hold of theends of the earth, and the wicked be shaken outof it." fWhy on both of these most important occasionsis such importance given to the dawn or spring-time of the day?* Psalm cxxx. T Psalm xvii. 3. % Psalm xxx. 4, 5.Psalm xvii. 15. ||Luke i. 79. T Job xxxviii. 12.124
  • 138. Morning Hours in the BibleDoes It mean, anything more to us than anyother part of the day would have meant to us?It was in reference to precisely this event thatthe Angel Gabriel said to Mary,"No word fromGod shall be void of power."*The Lord Jesus was buried in the evening andwas raised on the third day in the morning.It was on the first day of the week that MaryMagdalen came early ichile it was yet dark to thesepulchre and saw the stone had been taken awayfrom the sepulchre. This led to her being thefirst to see Jesus and to receive the first communica-tion that was made by Him to the human raceafter his crucifixion, fIt was early in the morning that Jesus cameinto the temple, and all the people came to Him,and He sat down and taught them.JTo the angel of the church at Pergamum"Tohim that overcometh, to him will I give of thehidden manna and I will give him a white stone,and upon the stone a new name written whichno one knoweth but he that receiveth it. AndI will give him the morning star/7By the Morning Star, the Lord himself, of course,is meant. |* Luke i. 37. f Mark xvi. 2. J John viii. 2. Rev. il. 12.11"I am the root and offspring of David, the bright andMorning Star." Apoc. xxii. 16."The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me :one that raleth over men righteously, that ruleth in the fearof God. He shall be as the light of the morning when thesun riseth, a morning without clouds." 2 Samuel xxiii. 3, 4.125
  • 139. The Mystery of SleepNicodemus, a man of the Pharisees and aruler of the Jews, came to Jesus fry night toask how a man could be born again when he isold.*Subsequently at the Crucifixion, and whenJoseph of Arimathea had obtained permission ofPilate to take away the body of Jesus, "therecame also Nicodemus (he who at the first cameto him by night), bringing a mixture of myrrhand aloes/It is significant that the seemingly unimpor-tant fact that the first visit of Nicodemus to Je-sus was by night should be here recalled, whenNicodemus appears to assist at our Savioursburial.When the Lord promised Solomon long life andriches because, instead of asking for them, hehad asked for an understanding heart to judgethe people and discern between good and evil,which prayer also was gratified, Solomon awoke,and behold it was a dream in the night,1[t(I will praise the Lord, who hath given me counsel ;yea, my reins instruct me in the night seasons." }"Weeping may tarry for the night, but joy comethin the morning/Though upon a mystery of this character theWord is the highest authority that can be appealed*John iii. 4, "fI Kings iii, 15.J Psalm xvi. 7. Psalm xxx. 5.126
  • 140. Morning Dreamsto, yet, unless confirmed to some extent by theexperience and judgment of men making no claimto supernatural inspiration, it might fail to pro-duce conviction even in minds professing themost absolute faith in revelation.Of such confirmation there is a great abundance,but here it will be necessary to refer only to threeor four, but such as will make up in weight fornumbers.Dante speaks of"... the hour when her sad lay begins,The little swallow, near unto the morning,Perchance in memory of her former woes,And when the mind of man a wanderer isMore from the flesh and less by thought imprisonedAlmost prophetic in its vision is.3 *This theory of morning dreams is in accordwith, and no doubt an aEusion to, what somecall a superstition, but which would be more re-spectfully described as a conviction among theancients that somnium post somnum efficax estatque eveniet sive bonum sit sive malum; a con-viction which Ovid perpetuated in the followinglines:"Namque sub Aurora dormitante luceraaSomnia quo cerni tempore vera solent." tThe truth of morning dreams, as affirmed in thelines above cited from Dante, was the happy in-*Purgatorio ix. il. t Heroides Epist. xix. 195.127
  • 141. The Mystery of Sleepspiration of the following lines of the late T. W.Parsons, written on the death of his wifes cousin :"PRESSO AL MATTIXO DEL VOR SI SOGNA.- DanteS{Love, lets be thankful we are past the timeWhen griefs are comfortless ; and, though we mourn,Feel In our sorrow something now sublime,And In each tear the sweetness of a kiss.Weep on and smile then: for we know In this,Oitr immortality, that nothing diesWithin our hearts, but something new Is born;And what Is roughly taken from our eyesGently comes back in visions of the mornWhen dreams are truest.1 Milton, invoking his heavenly muse, Qurania,says :"On evil days though fallen and evil tongues,In darkness and with darkness compassed rotind,And solitude; yet not alone while thouVisit*st my slumbers nightly or when mornPurples the east/Pope, in his Temple of Fame, founded uponChaucers House of Fame, says:tA balmy sleep had charmed my cares to rest,And love itself was banished from my breast(What time the morn mysterious visions bringsWhile purer slumbers spread their golden wings);A train of phantoms In wild order rose,And joined, this intellectual scene compose/128
  • 142. ,/Eneas and the River GodDryden, in his version of The Tale of the NunsPriest, says :"Believe me, madam, morning dreams foreshowTh event of things, and future weal and woe."Virgil tells us that when his hero J3neas waslaying the foundations of the Roman Empire inLatium and was much disturbed by the anxietieswhich beset him, having laid down his wearylimbs to give them some long-needed rest* Tiber,the river god, appeared to him, encouraged himnot to flinch from his purpose, not to be dismayedby threats of hostility, but with, the first settingstars to offer prayers to Juno and by suppliantvows vanquish her resentment and threats, assur-ing him finally of his success. When the rivergod had finished he hid himself in the deep lake,while J3iieas at the dawn of day awoke and pro-ceeded to put up to him a prayer of thanks, withpromises to rely upon his aid and to sacrifice uponhis altars.It is a very curious fact, and very proper to benoted in this place, that morning prayers andadorations among the early Romans were put upto the celestial gods, and those of the evening tothe infernal.
  • 143. CHAPTER IXOur external and our internal memory Coleridges"bodyterrestrial"and "body celestial"The operations ofour non-phenomenal life presumably as important asthose of our phenomenal life.WHENEVER we seriously exercise our reason-ing facilities we abstract ourselves from the phe-nomenal world, and just in proportion to theprofundity of our thought, or the degree of ourinterest in the subject of our meditations, will bethe completeness of our abstraction. Few realizethat the mind while in that state has nothingmore to do with the external world than a millHas toUo with producing, shelling, or transportingthe grain that is thrown into its hopper. Themill only grinds what is put into it. The rapidityof the minds action is so great that we have nofaculties capable of perceiving when the severaloperations of the mind, memory, and will beginand end in reaching any conclusion. The fingersof the musician seem to run over the keys of thepiano with the rapidity of lightning, but the will,mind, and memory act independently at everynote. The will indicates the note to be produced,the memory reports the key that produces that130
  • 144. Greek Temples of the Musesnote, the mind selects the proper finger and directsthat note to be struck. There the mind wouldrest if the will and the memory did not suggestanother note. This process is repeated through-out the score, until the tune is finished. Themind is a servant of the will, of which the memoryis a messenger. Through them the mind is oc-cupied with phenomenal life. Suspend the actionof the external memory, however, and then themind works independently of the external or phe-nomenal world, and that we suppose to be its con-dition in sleep."Near the Temple of the Muses, built by Arda-tus, son of Vulcan/ Pausanias tells us, "there isan ancient altar which Ardatus is reported to havededicated. Upon this altar they sacrifice to theMuses and to Sleep, asserting that Sleep, aboveall the deifies, is friendly to the Muses."Some modem metaphysicians insist that weare endowed with a subjective and objective mindand corresponding memories. The difference be-tween the two memories would be that we shouldemploy the word "memory" when we wish todesignate the subjective intelligence^ and theword "recollection" to designate the objectiveintelligence. Memory in this sense is the activeretention and distinct recognition of past ideasin the mind, while recollection is the power ofrecalling of re-collecting ideas which have oncebeen in the mind but are for the time being for-gotten.131
  • 145. The Mystery of SleepSubjective memory Is regarded as retaining allideas, however superficially they may have beenimpressed on the objective mind, and it admits ofno variation of power in individuals.*This notion of a subjective memory correspondsin the main with what Sir William Hamilton des-ignated as "mental latency/7holding that allrecollection consisted in rescuing from the store-house of latent memory some part of its treasure.He assumed latent memory to be perfect, butwhile he considered it a normal mental processto elevate a part of the latent treasures of themind above the plane of consciousness, he rec-ognizes the fact that it is only under the mostabnormal conditions that the whole content ofthe magazine of latent intelligence can be broughtto light. He says :ffThe second degree of latency exists when the mindcontains certain systems of knowledge or certain habitsof action which it is wholly unconscious of possessingin its ordinary state, but which are revealed to con-sciousness in certain extraordinary exaltations of itspowers. The evidence on this point shows that themind frequently contains whole systems of knowledgewhich, though in our normal state they may have fadedinto absolute oblivion, may, in certain abnormal statesas madness, febrile delirium, somnambulism, cata-lepsy, etc. flash into luminous consciousness, andeven throw into the shade of unconsciousness those* A Scientific Demonstration of the Future Life, byThomas J. Hudson, p. 212.132
  • 146. The Dual Memoryotfier systems by which they had for a long period beeneclipsed, and even extinguished. For example, thereare cases in which the extinct memory of whole lan-guages was suddenly restored, and what is even stillmore remarkable in which the faculty was exhibitedof accurately repeating, in known or unknown tongues,passages which were never within the grasp of con-scious memory in the normal state. This degree, thisphenomenon of latency, is one of the most marvellousin the whole compass of philosophy."He then cites some most remarkable Instancesdemonstrative of the perfection of subjectivememory.Both of these philosophers were, consciouslyor unconsciously, indebted, no doubt, for what-ever Is true and there is much in both that Istrue to Swedenborg. His theory of a dual mem-ory Is more profound, more philosophical, andmore comprehensive than either. He says:efIt Is scarce known to any one at this day, that everyman has two memories one exterior, the other Interior ;and that the exterior Is proper to his body, but the In-terior proper to his spirit. . . ."These two memories are altogether distinct fromeach other; to the exterior memory, which is properto man during his life In the world, appertain all ex-pressions by language, also all objects of which thesenses take cognizance, and likewise the sciences whichrelate to the world : to the Interior memory appertain theIdeas of spirit, which are of the Interior sight, and allrational things, from the Ideas whereof thought itself133
  • 147. The Mystery of Sleepexists. That these things are distinct from each otheris unknown to man, as well because he does not reflectthereupon, as because he is incorporate, and cannotso easily withdraw his mind from corporeal things."Hence it is that men, during their life in the body,cannot discourse with each other but by languagesdistinguished into articulate sounds, and cannot un-derstand each other unless they are acquainted withthose languages; the reason is, because this is donefrom the exterior memory ; whereas, spirits*conversewith each other by a universal language distinguishedinto ideas, of their thought, and thus can converse withevery spirit, of whatsoever language or nation he mayhave been ;because this is done from the interior mem-ory; every man, immediately after death* comes intothe comprehension of this universal language, becausehe comes into this interior memory, which is adaptedto his spirit."The speech of words, as just intimated, is the speechproper to man; and indeed, to his corporeal memory;but a speech consisting of ideas of thought is the speechproper to spirits; and, indeed, to the Interior memory,which is the memory of spirits. It is not known tomen that they possess this interior memory, becausethe memory of particular or material things, which iscorporeal, is accounted every thing, and darkens thatwhich is interior ; when, nevertheless, without interiormemory, which is proper to the spirit,, man would notbe able to think at all.* "Spiritus inter se loquantur per Mngmam universalem,in ideas, qtiales simt ipsitis cogitationis, distinctam et sicquod conversari possint cum unoquovis spiritu cujuscumqueiragtiffi et nationis in mnndo fuerat/ ^Arcana Coelestia,
  • 148. The Dual Memory"Whatsoever things a man hears and sees, and isaffected with, these are insinuated, as to ideas and finalmotives or ends, into his interior memory, without hisbeing aware of it, and there they remain, so that nota single impression is lost, although the same thingsare obliterated in the exterior memory; the interiormemory, therefore, is such, that there are inscribed init all the particular things, yea, the most particular,which man has at any time thought, spoken, and done,yea, which have appeared to him only shadowy, withthe most minute circumstances, from his earliest in-fancy to extreme old age : man has with him the mem-ory of all these things when he comes into another life,and is successively brought into all recollection of them ;this is the Book of his Life (Liber ejus Vitae), which isopened in another life, and according to which he isjudged ; all final motives or ends of his life, which wereto him obscure ;all that he had thought, and likewiseall that he had spoken and done, as derived from thoseends, are recorded, to the most minute circumstances,in that Book, that is, in the interior memory, and aremade manifest before the angels, in a light as clear asday, whensoever the Lord sees good to permit it: thishas at times been shown me, and evidenced by so muchand various experience, that there does not remain thesmallest doubt concerning it.**Referring to a singular experience which fell underhis own observation while a student at Gottingen, S. T.Coleridge makes a comment which warrants us in sup-posing that he was, consciously or unconsciously, indebtedto Swedenborg for it. He says :" This fact it would not be difficult to adduce severalof a similar Mnd contributes to make it even probablethat all thoughts are in themselves imperishable ; and thatif the intelligent faculty should be rendered more compre-135
  • 149. The Mystery of Sleep"Men, during their abode In the world, who are prin-cipled in love to the Lord, and in charity toward theirneighbor, have with themselves, and in themselves,angelic intelligence and wisdom, but hidden in the in-most of their interior memory; which intelligence andwisdom can by no means appear to them, before theyput off things corporeal; then the memory of particularsspoken of above is kid asleep, and they are awakenedto the interior memory, and afterward to the angelicmemory itself.*" A certain spirit, recently deceased, was indignantat not being able to remember more of the things whichhe had knowledge of during his life in the body, sorrow-hensive it would require only a differently apportionedorganization the body celestial instead of the body ter-restrial to bring before every human soul the collectiveexperience of its whole past. And this, perchance, is theBook of Judgment, in the dread hieroglyphics of whichevery idle word is recorded. Yea, in the very nature of aliving spirit, it may be more possible that heaven and earthshould pass away than that a single act, a single thought,should be loosened or lost from that living chain of causeswith all the links of which, conscious or unconscious, thefree-will, our only absolute self, is co-extensive and co-present." BiograpMa Literaria, Coleridges Works, Har-per & Brothers, 1853, Vf>1 * & P- 229-* " The French army at this time," says Count La Vallette,who was serving with it in Egypt, under the first Napoleon,"was remarkably free from any feeling of religion." TheCount tells a curious anecdote of a French officer who waswith him on a boat which was nearly wrecked. The officersaid the"Lords Prayer"from beginning to end. Whenthe danger was over he was much ashamed, and apologizedthus : "I am thirty-eight years old, and I have neveruttered a prayer since I was six. I cannot understandhow it came into my head just then, for I declare that atthis moment it would be impossible for me to remembera word of it.*136
  • 150. The Dual Memorying on account of the delight which he had lost, andwith which he had formerly been particularly gratified ;but he was informed, that in reality he had lost nothing,and that he then knew all and every thing which hehad ever known, but that in another life it was not allow-able for him to call forth such things to observation;and that he should be satisfied to reflect, that it wasnow in his power to think and speak much better andmore perfectly, without immersing his rational principle,as before, in the gross, obscure, material, and corporealthings which were of no use in the kingdom to which hewas now come; and that those things which were in the king-dom of the world, were left behind, and he had now what-ever conduced to the use of eternal life, whereby he mightbe blessed and happy ; thus that it was a proof of igno-rance to believe, that in another life there is any lossof intelligence in consequence of not using the corporealmemory, when the real case is, that in proportion as themind is capable of being withdrawn from things sensualand corporeal, in the same proportion it is elevated intothings celestial and spiritual."*Speaking of the punishments o some of theevil spirits in hell, Swedenborg says :"Wondering that they were so severely punished,I perceived that it was because their crime was of so enor-mous a kind, arising from the necessity there is that manshould sleep in safety, since otJierwise the human racemust necessarily perish, I was also made aware thatthe same thing occurs, although man is ignorant of thefact, in reference to others, whom these spirits endeavorby their artifices to assault during sleep; for unless* Arcana Coelestia, vol. i. 2469-2479,137
  • 151. The Mystery of SleepIt be given to converse with spirits, being with, themby internal sense, it is impossible to hear, and muchmore to see, such things, notwithstanding they happenalike to all. The Lord is particularly watchful overman during sleep. Dominus quam maxime custodithominem cum dormit." *"Some, by a peculiar mercy, are prepared for heavenby deep sleep and by dreams which infest them insleep/ ttcOthers have loved the world ; but they are kept ina state of sleep until the delight of the world has beenlulled."*"When corporal and voluntary things are quiescentthe Lord operates/"There is no separation of evil but through its quies-cence, nor does it quiesce except from the Lord, andwhen it thus qtiiesces goods inflow from the Lord," |jWe find in the passages here cited:First. A recognition of the existence in manof two mnemonical functions, each quite distinctfrom the other; one which takes note of all ourthoughts and acts having an apparent bearingupon our external or phenomenal life in this world ;the other, which not only takes note of those events,but which takes note also of the moral quality,of the ultimate end in which such thoughts oracts originated.Secondly. That while some of the impres-sions which are recorded in what Swedenborg* Arcana Coelestia, vol. i. 959. t Spiritual Diary, 427.I Spiritual Diary, 4199. Arcana Coelestia, 933.8 Arcana Coelestia, 1581,138
  • 152. The Dual Memorycalls the external memory are -ultimately obliter-ated, all which are recorded in what he calls theinternal memory remain, to the most minute par-ticular and shade, from the earliest infancy, andare absolutely imperishable.Thirdly. That as in the spiritual world thereare no limitations of time, space, or sense, allcommunication is, not by the language of words,as in the phenomenal world, but by the ideaswhich phenomena express or represent, and asideas are not subject to any of the limitations oftime, space, or sense, the end or final purpose ofour thoughts or acts are all that leave a perma-nent impression, just as the story or the thought isall that is left on the readers mind by the printedpage. In the words of Swedenborg,"Actions havetheir quality from the thoughts, as thoughts havetheir quality from the ends purposed/Fourthly. That in proportion as man puts off"things corporeal/" as he is emancipated fromhis material, sensual, worldly thrall, he is awak-ened to a perception of the intelligence and wis-dom stirred up in his interior memory.There is nothing in our sacred writings, nor, Ibelieve, in any mans experience, which can besaid to conflict with or render improbable eitherof these propositions. Be that as it may, fromwhat we may fairly claim to know from our ownexperience and observation of the phenomenaof sleep, and from what we are bound to inferfrom the teachings of the sacred writings of all139
  • 153. The Mystery of Sleepsects and nations of most considerable acceptancethroughout the world, and especially from theChristians Bible, it seems impossible to resistthe conclusion that the final purposes of our crea-tion and existence, of our esse and our existere,are not only as operative during our sleeping asduring our waking hours, and that a work isbeing wrought in us, a process is going on inus, during those hours, which is not and cannotbe wrought so effectually, if at all, at any othertime ; that we are spiritually growing, developing,ripening more continuously, while thus shieldedfrom the distracting influences of the phenomenalworld, than during the hours in which we areabsorbed by them; that, in the language of thepagan philosopher, "the night-time of the bodyis the daytime of the soul." Our phenomenallife has its specific lessons for us. Why shouldnot our non-phenomenal life also have its specificlessons for us? Why should we doubt that it isin sleep that God "openeth the ears of men andsealeth their instruction, that he may withdrawman from his purpose and hide pride from man/and "that he may keep back his soul from thepit"? Does not all that we know of sleep, andof its effects upon character, tend to confirm ev-ery line and every word of this definite and un-conditional and authoritative statement of Jobssympathizing friend? If there is a single preceptof our faith more frequently urged and insistedupon by the Christian Church than any other it140
  • 154. Overcoming the WorldIs the necessity of "overcoming the world/ Thedevil is called the prince of this world. He boastedof the fact to Jesus. The "world"is a synonymfor all sorts of sensual lusts and pleasures, andfor all undue greed for wealth, dignities, andhonors. To overcome the world, to rise superiorto its temptations, so that they shall not corruptour life or blind our judgment, is uniformly present-ed to us by the Christian Church, as it has beenby the most enlightened pagan sects, as the su-preme end and purpose of our life in the flesh.Is it not precisely the function of sleep to giveus for a portion of every day in our lives a res-pite from, worldly influences which, uninterrupted,would deprive us of the instruction, of the spiritualreinforcements necessary to qualify us to turnour waking experience of the world to the bestaccount without being overcome by them? Itis in these hours that the plans and ambitionsof our external, worldly life cease to interferewith or obstruct the flow of the divine life intothe will. And in these hours may we not be,is it not more than probable that we are, in thesociety of those"ministering spirits"referred toby Paul"who are sent forth to do service for thesake of them that shall inherit salvation"?The moral distinction between lower animalsand man is curiously illustrated in the characterof their sleep. A man ordinarily awrakens slowlyfrom a deep sleep; he does not for a time realizewhere he is ; he seems to be more or less dazed and141
  • 155. The Mystery of Sleepnot entirely satisfied with the change which seemsto him to have taken place. He is apt to act fora few moments as though he had been in a placeor society which he was reluctant to leave. AsCharles Lamb expressed it, he wishes to lie alittle longer to digest his dreams.A sleeping dog, however, will hear a noisewhich his master, though by his side, awake, willnot hear, and in an instant is in as full possessionof all his faculties as if he had not been sleeping.He betrays no evidence of having reluctantlyparted with pleasant company or pleasant occu-pations. And why should he? He has no af-fections for his kind when awake for which hewould sacrifice a bone, though he did not wishit himself.Is not this precisely what we should expectfrom the psychical difference of the dog from theman? And does it not warrant the conclusionthat when a man is sleeping his condition andassociations are as different from a dogs as theyare while awake?
  • 156. CHAPTER XIn sleep we die daily God alone is life All causesare spiritual All phenomena are results Scipiosdream Sleep and death twins Henry Vaughans-The Night"HAVING, as I think, established at least aviolent presumption that something of supremeimportance is being operated within us duringour sleeping hours ; that that something concernsour spiritual training and development ; and thatthis view is countenanced, not only by some of themost eminent thinkers of all time, but by whatChristians call the Word of God ; may we not pen-etrate a little further into the mysteries of thoseconsecrated hours?We are warranted in saying that the constit-uents of every human being are either materialor spiritual, either body or soul. No one hasany attributes or qualities that do not come underone or the other of these rubrics. Neither can itbe successfully disputed that all matter is inert,is incapable of initiating or of arresting motion ;that it can neither be increased nor diminishedin volume. Its arrangement or form may bechanged, but not its quantity. It has, therefore,no life in itself, though, like a house or a garment,143
  • 157. The Mystery of SleepIt may be the habitation of life of what we callthe soul, or spirit.It is true that the tree drops its fruit and itsleaves in their season, but neither tree, leaf, norfruit dies; they merely pass into a new form oflife, as man is presumed to do when his heartceases to beat. This habitation returns to itselements, or some other form, neither increasednor impaired in quantity by the change. In thelanguage of Juvenal :"Mors sola fateturQuantula sint homirmm corpuscula."But what becomes of the tenant? We neitherknow nor can conceive of anything having oc-curred to the soul more certain than, or beyond thefact, that it has been emancipated from the re-strictions of its prison-house and set free to do,be, or become whatever it has been prepared forbecoming during its earthly confinement.This spirit was all of the man that was or couldhave been substantial to him. It possessed andrepresented all he had or knew of life. It wasall there was or is of any ones I am."Theres not the smallest orb which them beholdstBut in his motion like an angel sings,Still quiring to the young-eyd cherubins:Such harmony is in immortal souls;Butr whilst this muddy vesture of decayDoth grossly dose it in, we cannot hear it,"** "Merchant of Venice/* act v. scene I.144
  • 158. God Alone is LifeMilton describes the death of Jesus as"a death like sleep ;A gentle drifting to immortal life."*So when Adam communicated to Eve the con-ditions upon which they were to leave Paradise,the poet adds:"For God is also in sleep, and dreams advise."All life emanates from our Creator, who is lifeitself, and necessarily the source of all life adoctrine I was gratified to find dogmatically andmost impressively stated quite recently by thehead of the most numerous division of the ChristianChurch. Pope Leo XIII., in an encyclical issuedfrom the Vatican in November, 1901 A.D., said :"God alone is Hfe. All other things partake of life,but are not life. Christ, from all eternity and by hisvery nature, isthe Life/ just as He is the Truth, be-cause He is God of God. From Him, as from its mostsacred source, all life pervades and ever will pervadecreation. Whatever is, is by Him; whatever lives,lives by Him. Forby the Word all things were made ;and without Him was made nothing that was made/ "The same view of the origin of life and the greatdistinction between divine and natural, or sec-ondary, causes was proclaimed in Rome nearlytwenty centuries before this encyclical from ourcontemporary Pontifex Maximus, and under cir-* Paradise Lost, xii. 430.145
  • 159. The Mystery of Sleepcumstances which lend a peculiar interest to it.The world is indebted to Cicero for the recordof it, and to Macrobius for finding it after it hadbeen supposed, for some fifteen centuries, to beirrevocably lost. I refer to the extraordinaryvision attributed to Publius Cornelius Scipio,the second Scipio Africanus, while he was themilitary tribune in Africa and the guest of PrinceMassanissa.The night after his arrival, and after muchtalk about politics and government, but mostlyof his ancestor, known as the first Africanus,Scipio retired to rest, and, as he said, "A sleepsounder than ordinary came over me/ In hissleep he represents Africanus the elder to havepresented himself, and to have predicted manythings, favorable and menacing, to his descendant."Upon your single person/7said Africanus,"the preservation of 3^our country will depend;and, in short, it is your part, as dictator, to settlethe government, if you can but escape the im-pious hands of your kinsmen. . . ."But that you may be more earnest in thedefence of your country, know from me that acertain place in heaven, where they are to enjoyan endless duration of happiness, is assigned toall who have preserved, or assisted, or improvedtheir country. For there is nothing which takesplace on earth more acceptable to that SupremeDeit5Twho governs all this world than thosecouncils and assemblies of men bound together146
  • 160. Sciplos Dreamby law which are termed states; the governorsand preservers of these go hence, and hither dothey return/"Here/ says Scipio, "frightened as I was,not so much from the dread of death as of thetreachery of my friends, I asked him whethermy father Paulus and others whom we thoughtto be dead were yet alive. To be sure they arealive/ replied Africanus,for they have escapedfrom the fetters of the body as from a prison. Thatwhich you call your life is really death. Butbehold your father Paulus approaching you/No sooner did I see him/ says Scipio, "than Ipoured forth a flood of tears; but he, embracingand kissing me, forbade me to weep. And when,having suppressed my tears, I began first tospeak, Why/ said I, thou most sacred and ex-cellent father, since this is life, as I hear Africanusaffirm, why do I tarry on earth, and not hastento come to you?7"Not so, my son/ he replied. Unless thatGod whose temple is all this which you beholdshall free you from this imprisonment in the bodyyou can have no admission to this place ; for menhave been created under this condition, that theyshould keep that globe which you see in the middleof this temple, and which is called the earth. Anda soul has been supplied to them from those eternalfires which you call constellations and stars, andwhich, being globular and round, are animatedwith divine spirit, and complete their cycles and147
  • 161. The Mystery of Sleeprevolutions with amazing rapidity. Thereforeyou, my Publius, and all good men, must pre-serve your souls in the keeping of your bodies;nor without the order of that Being who bestowedthem upon you, are you to depart from mundanelife, lest you seem to desert the duty of a man,which has been assigned you by God. There-fore, Scipio, like your grandfather here, and me,who begot you, cultivate justice and piety, which,while it should be great towards your parents andrelations, should be greatest towards your coun-try. Such a life is the path to heaven and theassembly of those who have lived before, andwho, having been released from their bodies, In-habit that place which thou beholdest.""Truly, Africanus/* said the junior Scipio,"since the path to heaven lies open to those whohave deserved well of their country, though frommy childhood I have ever trod In your and myfathers footsteps without disgracing your glory^yet now, with so noble a prize set before me, Ishall strive with much more diligence."Do so strive/ replied he, and do not consideryourself, but your body, to be mortal. For youare not the being which this corporeal figure evinces;but the soul of every man is the man, and not thatform which may be pointed at with a finger. Know,therefore, that you are a divine person. Since it isdimnity that has consciousness, sensation, memory,and foresight that governs, regulates, and movesthat body over which it has been appointed, just148
  • 162. Sclpios Dreamas the Supreme Deity rules this icorld; and inlike manner, as an eternal God guides this world,which in some respects is perishablef so an eternalspirit animates your frail body."For that which is ever moving is eternal.Now, that which communicates to another objecta motion which it received elsewhere must neces-sarily cease to live as soon as its motion is at anend. Thus the being which is self-motive is theonly being that is eternal, because it never isabandoned by its own properties, neither is thisself-motion ever at an end ; nay, this is the foun-tain, this is the beginning of motion to all thingsthat are thus subjects of motion.f(tSince, therefore, it is plain that whatever isself-motive must be eternal, who can deny thatthis natural property is bestowed upon our minds?For everything that is moved by a foreign im-pulse is inanimate, but that which is animateis impelled by an inward and peculiar principleof motion; and in that consists the nature andproperty of the soul. Now, if it alone of allthings is self -motive, assuredly it never wasoriginated, and is eternal. Do thou, therefore,employ it in the noblest of pursuits, and thenoblest of cares are those for the safety of thycountry/"He vanished, and I awoke from my sleep/"This story comes to us as a dream. Whethera dream, a vision, or a meditation, science knows149
  • 163. The Mystery of Sleepnothing and can presume nothing in conflict withthis pagans view either of life or death.We absolutely know nothing of life whichwarrants us in attributing to it perishability;nor have we any reason to presume that with thechange called death anything perishes, or thatanything more has really occurred than a separa-tion of the tenant from his habitation of the soulfrom its material prison. Neither have we morereason to suppose that the spirit, or soul, hasbecome less a soul, less an individual life, thanthat the matter with which it was clothed hasbeen diminished in quantity by the separation.The destractibility of matter was, until com-paratively recent times, just as popular a belief,and even more universally prevalent than is nowthat of the extinction of life when the soul leavesthe body. Nor can science produce any evidencethat the one belief was any more fallacious thanthe other. We are sent into this world and in-vested with material garments in order that wemay be qualified to study and comprehend divinelaws. The phenomenal world into which we arebom is a kind of kindergarten where those di-vine laws are illustrated and made intelligible toour undeveloped and limited intelligence, throughthe operations of what we call Nature. It isa stage in our education when the phenomenalworld is a necessity to us, as the hornbook andblack-board are to school -children. When wehave learned all the lessons in this kindergartenISO
  • 164. How Far Sleep is Deathby which we are likely to profit we leave thatschool ; and in leaving it, we assume the largerliberty of that higher life where time and spaceonly signify differences in moral conditions;where, as in this life, we will seek the associa-tion and companionship of those with whom weshall then have most affinity.All these, I say, are presumptions; and theburden of proof lies upon those who would un-dertake to maintain the contrary in any of theseparticulars.Now, after we have shaken off this mortal coiland entered the world of spirits, in what respectdoes our condition differ from that of sleep? Inboth, our consciousness of this phenomenal worldof the kindergarten has been entirely suspend-ed. It is true that from sleep we awaken, sooneror later, to a consciousness of our incorporatelimitations, while from death we do not awake.But is the difference any more than this that inone case our carriage is left standing at the doorto take us back again, while in the other we haveno animus revertendi? Having reached home,we have no further use for our carriage and itis dismissed.Nay, what reason have we for doubting thatduring our sleep we are in substantially the samesociety and surrounded by similar, if not the same,influences as we should be were we never againto awake? We cannot conceive that the aban-donment of our earthly habitation, the laying
  • 165. The Mystery of Sleepaside of our garments, the deliverance from ourprison, has deprived us of any of the qualities orattributes which constituted our being, except uponthe theory of utter extinction by the separation.The spirit, or soul, inhabits the body, but is nomore a part of it than the he?*t generated in afurnace is a part of the furnace or the light in ourchamber is a part of the chamber. The inhabitantsof the spiritual world are presumed to know noth-ing of the limitations of time or space. Thereis no manifest reason, therefore, why we shouldnot always be accessible to and in intercoursewith them, unless when too preoccupied by the dis-tractions of our environment in the phenomenalworld; nor for presuming that our post-mortemlife will differ from our condition while sleeping,except that one is for a time and the other foreternity. As the spirit during sleep is presump-tively as free as it ever will be from all the re-strictions of sense, what reason is there for doubt-ing that we enter at once into a life and a societysubstantially the same as that awaiting us whenwe enter into "the sleep that knows no waking "tThis presumption is strengthened by the factthat we can bring back no more information ofwhat occurs to us in our temporary sleeps thanwe can from the spiritual world when wre shallsleep with our fathers.During our sleep we have no more power overanything in this phenomenal world than, whilewe are awake, we have over the spiritual world;152
  • 166. How Far Sleep is Deathand yet, while asleep, we retain, in full activity,all the powers to act upon the world about us,save only the power or inclination to exert them.While this condition continues, what other orgreater change could be wrought in us by death?When we reflect upon the extraordinary change,psychological and physical, which we experienceafter a nights sound sleep, by what theory canthat change be so satisfactorily and so rationallyexplained as to suppose that we have been tem-porarily in association with those who have pre-ceded us to the spirit land? What is there im-probable in this? What more entirely consistentwith divine goodness? What so admirably, whatso exclusively adapted to work the change whichin the morning we realize has been worked inus during our slumbering? How very much moreprobable this, than that one-third of each day ofour lives is permitted to go to waste, for whichthere is no imaginable explanation better thanthat a Creator, of infinite wisdom, could not fash-ion us in his image in any way that did not in-volve that waste an absurd presumption.While in a swoon or in immediate peril of drown-ing, as in some other cases of temporarily sus-pended action of the heart and lungs, personshave remained for hours, and even weeks, withoutany consciousness of the phenomenal life. Dur-ing this suspended consciousness it is difficultto imagine any psychological difference betweentheir condition and death.153
  • 167. The Mystery of SleepThe evidence Is practically unanimous thatwhile in a swoon or while near drowning, onesexperience, instead of being painful, is altogetheragreeable, even blissful, and entirely free fromthe concern and anxiety with which the prospectof death is ordinarily contemplated when awake.An impressive illustration of what the deathof the natural body means comes to us throughthe following Persian story, abridged from SirEdwin Arnolds Light of Asia:"DEATH OF ABDALLAH"Faithful friends, it lies, I know,Pale and white, and cold as snow;And ye say,Abdallahs dead/Weeping at the feet and head.I can see your falling tears,I can hear your sighs and prayers;Yet I smile and whisper this:*I am not the thing you kiss!Cease your tears and let it lie;It was mine it is not I/"Sweet friends, what the women laveFor the last sleep of the graveIs the hut that I am quitting,Is the garment no more fitting,Is the cage from which at last,Like a bird, my soul has passed.Love the inmate, not the room;The wearer, not the garb the plumeOf the eagle, not the barsThat keep him from the splendid stars.154
  • 168. How Far Sleep is DeathuLoving friends, oh, rise and dryStraightway every weeping eye;What ye lift upon the bierIs not worth one single tear.JTis an empty sea-shell oneOut of which the pearl is gone.The shell is broken, it Hes there;The pearl, the all, the soul is here."If this resemblance of sleep to death shouldseem chimerical to 3.ny, I have only to say thatthe teachings of the Bible on that subject mustseem equally so. In that sacred record death andsleep are frequently I might almost say con-stantly used as equivalents.Among the many marvels by which the deathof Jesus on the cross was signalized,"the tombswere opened and many bodies of the saints thathad fallen asleep were raised/ *In the first letter of Paul to the Corinthians hesays :"For I delivered unto you first of all that which alsoI received, how that Christ died for our sins accordingto the scriptures ; and that he was buried ; and that hehath been raised on the third day according to the script-ures; and that he appeared to Cephas; then to thetwelve; then he appeared to five hundred brethren atonce, of whom the greater part remain until now, butsome are fallen asleep.31In the same letter Paul says:* I Corinthians 15-20. f I Corinthians xv. 3-7.155
  • 169. The Mystery of Sleep"For if the dead are not raised, neither hath Christbeen raised : and if Christ hath not been raised, yourfaith is vain ; you are yet in your sins. Then theywhich are fallen asleep in Christ have perished. Ifin this life only we have hoped In Christ, we are of allmost pitiable. But now hath Christ been raised fromthe dead, the first-fruits of them that are asleep."When Stephen was stoned to death for hisloyalty to Jesus, he is reported to have kneeleddown and cried with a loud voice, "Lord, laynot this to their charge. And when he had saidthis he fell asleep."* We have no other authorityfor saying that he died.Paul, in the thirteenth verse of the fourth chap-ter of his letter to the Thessalonlans, says :"But we would not have you ignorant, brethren,concerning them that fall asleep; that ye sorrow not,even as the rest, which have no hope. For If we believethat Jesus died and rose again, even so them also thatare fallen asleep In Jesus will God bring with him/Also, In the ninth verse of the fifth chapterof his letter to the Thessalomans, he says:"For God appointed us not unto wrath, but unto theobtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ,who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we shouldlive together with him.""Knowing this first that there shall come in thelast days scoffers walking after their own lusts, and* Acts vii. 60.156
  • 170. How Far Sleep is Deathsaying, Where is the promise of his coming? for sincethe fathers fell asleep, all things continue as from thebeginning of the creation."*"David, after he had in his own generation servedthe counsel of God, fell on sleep and was laid unto hisfathers."?When the sisters of Lazarus sought Jesus, totell Him that their brother was dead, He repliedto them :"Our friend Lazarus sleepeth ; but Igo that I may awake him out of sleep/" Thensaid his disciples :"If he sleep he shall do well";howbeit Jesus spoke of his death. But theythought He had spoken of taking rest in sleep.Then said Jesus unto them, "Lazarus is dead."Here we find Jesus calling the separation ofthe soul from the material body, which the dis-ciples termed death, sleep ; and it was not till thedisciples showed that they misunderstood Himthat He said, "Lazarus is dead/The brethren of Lazarus said he was dead;Jesus said he slept. Did not both tell the truth?When the prophet Elisha learned that the childof the Shunammite woman was dead he gavehis servant Gehazi his staff and directed him togo and lay it upon the child. He did so, but wasobliged to report to Elisha that" there was neithervoice nor hearing. The child is not awaked.**Elisha then came and foundffthe child was deadand laid upon his bed/ He went in, shut to the* 2 Peter ili. 3* t Acts xiii. 36.157
  • 171. The Mystery of Sleepdoor, excluding all but the boy and himself andprayed unto the Lord. Then, after embracinghim, "the flesh of the child waxed warm/ Pres-ently he sent for the mother and said to her,"Take up thy son/Here the child had been dead. But all lifecomes from the Lord, and, in answer to theprophets prayer, his body was warmed intolife again; or, to use Gehazis expression, was"awaked/*The daughter of Jairas was given up for deadby her family. "Why make ye a tumult, andweep?" said Jesus, when He arrived, in responseto a message from the father."The child is notdead, but sleepeth. And they laughed him toscorn. But he, having put them all forth, takeththe father of the child and her mother and themthat were with him, and goeth in where thechild was. And taking the child by the hand, hesaith unto her, Talitha cumi; which is, beinginterpreted, Damsel, I say unto thee, Arise. Andstraightway the damsel rose up, and walked ; forshe was twelve years old." fAgain in I Kings i. 21 :"Otherwise it shall come to pass, when my lord theking shall sleep with his fathers, that I and my son Sol-omon shall be counted offenders."* 2 Kings Iv. 30-37.f Mark v. 39 ; see also Acts ix. 10 ; xii. 6 ; Canticles v. 2 ;Hosea xii. 10; Jeremiah xxxi. 26; John xi. II.158
  • 172. How Far Sleep Is DeathIn the thirty-ninth verse of the fifty-first chap-ter of Jeremiah we read:isWhen they are heated, I will make their feast; andI will make them drunken, that they may rejoice, andsleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake, saith the Lord."Secular and profane authority help to showhow universally the conditions of sleep and deathwere assimilated in the popular mind throughoutthe ages.It was the common belief of the ancient philos-ophers of Greece and Rome that the causes ofsleep and death were the same. A place wasassigned them in their Pantheon as brothers.Sleep was regarded both by the Epicureans andthe Stoics, as well as by Plato, as death, follow-ed by a resurrection."Latet meus oppressasomno/7says Lactantius, "tanquam ignis ob-ducto cinere sopitus, quern si paulatim commo-veris, rursus ardescit et quasi evigilabat."Lucretius illustrates the same idea by the samemetaphor :*"cinere ut multa ktet obratus ignis,Unde reconflari sensus per membra repentePossit, ut ex igni Caeco consurgere flamma."Pausanias, describing the inscriptions on achest, or cypsela, says:"On the other side of the chest, beginning from the* De Rerum Natura, liber iv,159
  • 173. The Mystery of Sleepleft band, you will see a woman holding a white boywho is asleep, in her right hand, But in her left handa black boy, who is likewise asleep and whose feet aredistorted. The inscriptions signify though you mightinfer without them that these boys are Death andSleep and that the Woman who is their nurse is Night."*So when in the Iliad the large-eyed Juno re-monstrated with the "dread Son of Saturn" forwishing to deliver Sarpedon"from the common lotOf death, a mortal doomed long since by fate/she finally suggested an alternative which wasembraced :"Yet if he beSo dear to thee and thou dost pity him,Let him in mortal combat be oercomeBy Menaetiades, and when the breathOf life has left his frame, give thou commandTo Death and Gentle Sleep to bear him henceTo the broad realm of Lycia. There his friendsAnd brethren shall perform the funeral rites;There shall they build him up a tomb and rearA column honors that become the dead/ fAfter Sarpedon had been slain by Patroclus,the Cloud-Compeller spake to Phoebus thus:"Go now beloved Phoebus, and withdrawSarpedon from the weapons of his foes;*Pausanias, book v. ch. 18.f Homers Iliad, Bryants translation, book xvi. 565-575.160
  • 174. How Far Sleep is DeathCleanse him from the dark blood and "bear him thence,And lave him in the river-stream, and shedAmbrosia oer him. Clothe him then in robesOf heaven, consigning him to Sleep and Death,Twin brothers, and swift bearers of the dead;And they shall lay him in Lycias fields,That broad and opulent realm"etc.Apollo instantly obeyed his father, sought thefield of battle, bore off Sarpedon,elAnd laved him in the river-stream and shedAmbrosia oer him. Then in robes of heavenHe clothed him, giving him to Sleep and Death,Twin brothers and swift bearers of the dead,And they, with speed conveying it, laid downThe corpse in Lycias broad and opulent realm.**Here Death and Sleep are twice designated asbrothers and a third time are sent together onthe same errand, implying functional equality.Of the Golden Age, or Edenic period, Hesiod,the father of Greek poetry, said:"As gods they lived, void of care, apart from laborsand trouble; nor was wretched old age impending, andthey died as if overcome by sleep."Xenophon, as quoted by Cicero, representsCyrus, King of Persia, saying to his children onhis death-bed:"Do not believe, my dear children, that when I shall* Homers Iliad, Bryants translation, book xvi. 833-853.161
  • 175. The Mystery of Sleephave quitted you I shall be nowhere and no more (nun-quam aut nullum fore). While I was with you you didnot see my soul ; you only comprehended by my actionsthat this body was animated by one. I have neverbeen able to persuade myself that souls that live whilein mortal bodies, when they leave them die. I cannotbelieve that they lose all intelligence in quitting bodiesthat are essentially destitute of intelligence. Whendeath disunites the human frame, we clearly see whatbecomes of its material parts; they apparently returnto the several elements out of which they were com-posed ; but the soul continues to remain invisible, bothwhile present in the body and when it leaves it."You know, my children, that nothing more resem-bles death than sleep; and the sleep of souls chiefly pro-claims their divinity, for many of them foresee the futureand show what they will become when they shall befreed from the prison of the body/*Sir Thomas Brown saw so little difference be-tween sleep and death that he dared not lie downin his bed at night without saying his prayersand having a colloquy with God. He says:tfWe are somewhat more than ourselves in our sleep,and the slumber of the body seems to be but the wakingof the soul It is the litigation of sense, but the libertyof reason, and our waking conceptions do not matchthe fancies of our sleeps. I am no way facetious nordisposed for the mirth and galliardize of company.Yet in one dream I can compose a whole comedy, be-hold the action, apprehend the jests, and laugh myself*Cicero, De Senectute, ch. xxiL162
  • 176. Sir Thomas Brownawake at the conceits thereof. Were my memory asfaithful as my reason is then fruitful, I would neverstudy but in my dreams, and this time also would Ichoose for my devotions; but our grosser memorieshave then so little hold of our abstracted understandingsthat they forget the story, and can only relate to ourawaked souls a confused and broken tale of that thathath passed."Thus it is sometimes observed that men some-times upon the hour of their departure do speak andreason above themselves; for then the soul, beginningto be freed from the ligaments of the body, begins toreason like herself and to discourse in a strain abovemortality."We term sleep a death, and yet it is waking thatkills us and destroys those spirits that are the house oflife. It is indeed a part of life that best expresses death,"It is that death by which we may be said literallyto die daily a death which Adam died before his mor-tality ;a death whereby we live a middle and moderatingpoint between life and death; in fine, so like death, Idare not trust it without my prayers and a half adieuunto the world, and take my farewell in a colloquy withGod/ *We have from the same distinguished physicianthe following lines, in which the identity of thestates of sleep and death Is, if possible, more dis-tinctly asserted :f*Sir Thomas Brown, b. 1605, d. 1682. Religio Medici,p. 131-t Evening Hymn, by Sir Thomas Brown.163
  • 177. The Mystery of SleepSleep is a death; make me try,By sleeping, what it is to die;And as gently lay my headOn my grave, as now my bed.Howeer I rest, great God, let meAwake again at least with Thee.And thus assured, behold I lie,Securely, or to wake or die.These are my drowsy days; in vainI do now wake to sleep again:O come that hour, when I shall neverSleep again, but wake forever/When these verses were written, Sir Thomasmight have had in his mind the following linesof Heinrich Meibon, an Austrian poet-laureate,who died when Brown was but twenty years old :"Alma quies optata veni ; nam sic sine vitaVivere quam suave est, sic sine morte mori/ *Henry Vaughan, the precursor of Wordsworthas the interpreter of the mystical and symbolicalaspects of nature, in his verses entitled "TheMorning Watch/ has the following lines, quotedin the Life and Times of Thomas Kettlewell, byFrancis Lee:"Prayer isThe world in tune,A Spirit VoiceAnd Vocall joyes,*Come, refreshing sleep, we pray ;For without life how sweet to live;Thus without death to die.164
  • 178. The Morning WatchWhose Echo Is heavens blisse.O let me cliiribeWhen I lye down. The pious soul by nighteIs like a clouded starre, whose beames, though saidTo shed their lightUnder some cloud,Yet are above.And shine and moveBeyond that mystic shroud.So in my bed,That curtained grave, though sleep like ashes hideMy lamp and life, both shall in Thee abide.Vaughan also, in the following notable linevS,has more emphatically anticipated all I have at-tempted to demonstrate in these pages, of theprovidential purpose of sleep.-THE NIGHTJohn iii. 2"Through that pure virgin-shrine,That sacred veil drawn oer thy glorious noon,That men might look and live, as glowworms shine,And face the moon,Wise Nicodemus saw such lightAs made him know his God by night."Most blessed believer he!Who in that land of darkness and blind eyesThy long-expected healing wings could seeWhen thou didst rise;And, what can never more be done,Did at midnight speak with the SunI165
  • 179. The Mystery of Sleep"Oh, who will tell me whereHe found thee at that dead and silent hour?What hallow3d, solitary ground did bearSo rare a flower;Within whose sacred leafs did lieThe fulness of the Deity?"No mercy-seat of gold,No dead and dusty cherub, nor carved stone,But his own living1works, did my Lord holdAnd lodge alone;Where trees and herbs did watch and peepAnd wonder, while the Jews did sleep."Dear Night! this worlds defeat;The stop to busie fools; cares check and curb:The day of spirits; my souls calm retreatWhich none disturb!*Christs progressf and his prayer-time ;The hours to which high heaven doth chime." Gods silent, searching flight :When my Lords head is filled with dew, -and allHis locks are wet with the clear drops of night;His still, soft call;His knocking time; the souls dumb watch,When spirits their fair kindred catch.Were all my loud, evil daysCairn and tinhaunted as is thy dark tent,Whose peace but by some angels wing or voiceIs seldom rent;Then I in heaven all the long yearWould keep, and never wander here.*Mark i. 3$. Luke xxL 37.166
  • 180. The Night"But living where the SunDoth all things wake, and where all mix and tyreThemselves and others, I consent and runTo evry myre;And by this worlds ill-guiding light,Erre more than I can do by night." There is in God, some say,A deep, but dazzling darkness ;as men hereSay it is late and dusky, because theySee not all clear.Oh, for that night! where I in himMight live invisible and dim!"In trying to reconcile one of his heroes to thedeath to which he has been condemned, one ofShakespeares heroes says :"Thy best of rest is sleep,And that thou oft provokest, yet grossly fearest thydeath,Which is no more."** "Measure for Measure," act iii. scene i.
  • 181. CHAPTER XIWhosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be In dangerof the hell of fire."IF I have been so fortunate as to carry anyof my readers with me thus far, I hope they willbe prepared to concede that any, even a partial,suspension of our consciousness weakens to acorresponding extent our bondage to the phenom-enal or material world; and, on the other hand,that the man who allows himself to be too longand too much interested in any worldly subject oremploy sooner or later is liable to unbalance hismind and become at first a crank, and ultimatelya lunatic.And this invites a consideration of some ofthe effects of the occasional interruptions of anycurrent of thought or diversion of our mind fromworldly interests that are becoming so absorbingas to threaten our spiritual freedom.It rarely occurs to any of us to consider hownumerous and providential these interruptions are,and how felicitously they supplement the divinelyappointed offices of sleep.How many of our household and family cares,how many of the exactions of children, of society,168
  • 182. Supplementary Sabbathsand of the countless interruptions which constitutethe woof in the warp of every mans life,, are provi-dentially thrust upon us like sleep, weakeningthe undue hold of the world upon our affections.We treat many of them as trifles ;at more of themwe murmur and often rudely complain, frequentlynot shrinking from suicide, never thinking thatthey not only may be, but are, messengers ofmercy supplementary Sabbaths of divine ap-pointment.It is a prevailing impression, intrenched behindnumerous proverbs, that all our time during ourwaking hours not employed in the prosecutionof what may be generically called business iswasted, that a man who is not working for someworldly purpose to some worldly end is an idleman, and that an idle man is a drone, of no useto society, and, if our race were as wise as thebee, we would expel him from it.This, as a rule, is a great delusion. The manwho "sits silent"to use a phrase of the Societyof Friends may certainly have one great ad-vantage of the busy man, for if not making thebest possible use of his time, he is less likely tobe the slave of this-worldliness than the busyman. His mind is more open and accessible tospiritual impressions, or, if you please, less liableto be preoccupied with worldly and selfish matters,than the more worldly man.It strikes most of us as a very original andsurprising conceit of Milton, though it ought169
  • 183. The Mystery of Sleepto be with all of us the perfection of common-place, that"He also serves who only stands and waits."But how few there are in this driving age whoreally take any time to "wait/ to listen to thestill, small voices, to reflect, to dream. Insteadof thinking themselves, they get the people of thepress, the forum, or the market-place, to thinkfor them.Nothing is spiritually more impoverishing fora man than to allow himself no time for dreaming ;to feed habitually, if not exclusively, upon otherpeoples thoughts, and rarely or never upon hisown. In that respect children ordinarily havethe advantage of adults, the world not havingyet reduced their imaginations to its stupefyingbondage. In the language of the greatest of Ro-man satirists, in his quest of the means of livingman forgets the ends of life. He fancies himselfthe source and proprietor of the power he wields,and that the"kingdom, power, and glory"is nothis Creators but his own.Joseph was called by his brethren a dreamer.These brethren were no mean types of modernsociety, which Is constantly laying violent handsupon our faculties for dreaming, for waiting,and "for thinking. Of the sisters of Lazarus, themodern world sympathizes most with Martha,who was careful and troubled about her house-170
  • 184. Supplementary Sabbathskeeping; but it was not without a good reasonthat Jesus commended Mary.We never know why it rains just as we aresetting out on a picnic; why a child falls sickas we are about to embark on a journey; whythe news of a death in the family prevents ourgoing to a dinner or a ball on which we had setour heart; why the bank failed in which we hadleft our money. Still less do we know from whatevils they may have shielded us. We shouldnever forget that none of our disappointmentsare fortuitous, nor that one of the most obviousand constant advantages we derive from themis the same as that for which we are in a largerdegree indebted to sleep.Even sickness, the most familiar and universalderanger of the plans of men, is in most casesthe result of too much this-worldliness, and alsothe most effective cure of it.In taking leave of his pupils at the College ofCharlemagne in 1841, in consequence of failinghealth, Jouffroy said: "Disease is certainly agrace with which God favors us a sort of spirit-ual retreat which He provides us, that we mayrecognize ourselves, find ourselves, and restoreto our sight the true view of things/One of the greatest problems with which psy-chologists have been puzzled has been to ascertainthe moral condition of an insane person thatis, of a person who attaches undue and dispro-portionate value to privileges and distinctions171
  • 185. The Mystery of Sleepof this world; whether it is, morally, a progres-sive, a passive, or a retrogressive state; and, ifnot progressive, how such a state is to be recon-ciled with that love of God which is supposed to bealways .operative over all his works.When Jesus was told that his father and motherwere without, waiting for Him,, He replied :"Knowye not that I must be about my fathers business?"Jesus is always about his Fathers business;always knocking at every mans door, trying toarrest his attention, and waiting for an invita-tion to come in and sup with him. He cannot bepresumed ever to leave one of his children in acondition by night or by day when the processof their regeneration, which is the end and finalpurpose of their creation, cannot progress.When we cease to be susceptible of spiritualgrowth in this world our life in it necessarilyceases,God cannot be suspected of providing life anda terrestrial environment in this world for an}?except to educate them for a higher life. A con-trary supposition must assume that the Omnipo-tent and the Omniscient could permit any waste ofhis energy. That is not supposable. Hence weare forced to the conclusion that if lunatics andidiots have reached their spiritual growth, andare capable of no more spiritual improvement,it is as idle to suppose that their Creator wouldcontinue to supply them with his breath of lifeas that He should continue to supply sap to a172
  • 186. Divine Energy Never Wasteddead tree. No ones days can be presumed tocontinue an hour longer than he possesses theability to choose between good and evil and iscapable of being fashioned into a less imperfectimage of his Creator. It is for that, and thatonly, we are put into this world; and there is nopower willing and competent to keep us here amoment after that ability fails us. We are forced,therefore at least, every Christian is forced bya logical necessity to the conclusion that divinegrace is just as operative with the wildest demo-niac and the most helpless idiot as it ever waswith the apostles Paul and John.The most conspicuous feature of insanity is themore or less complete obscuration of the victimsmental appreciation of one or more of the mostfamiliar laws which govern the phenomenal world.He seems to live a part of the time, at leastin quite a different world from that in which sanepeople about him are living. He even becomesto himself an entirely different person or objectfrom what he appears to be to others.Charles Lamb has told us that during the earlypart of his life he was constrained to retire to alunatic asylum, where he was detained for sev-eral months. In a letter to his friend Coleridge,written a few years after his recovery, he said;"At some future time I will amuse you with an ac-count, as full as my memory will permit, of the strangeturn my frenzy took. I look back upon it at times with173
  • 187. The Mystery of Sleepa gloomy kind of envy ; for while it lasted I had many,many hours of pure happiness. Dream not, Coleridge,of having tasted all the grandeur and wildness of fancytill you have gone mad."Is not a lunatic in much the same conditionas a person dreaming, partially sensible of thephenomenal world and partially insensible of it?He will talk coherently for a time about somethings, incoherently about others at other times,but in a way that shows his mind is only partiallyalive to the relations of this world; so that whathe says or does may be as inconsequential aswhat we ordinarily remember of a dream. Yethis mind is obviously quite as active when histalk is incoherent as when it is coherent. Mayhe not be as sane as any other man appears tobe in a dream? May not his attention be dividedbetween the two worlds which, like the dreamer,he seems to inhabit? May not the society inwhich he finds himself at times when to othershe seems insane be as real as any other? andmay not agencies be at work as constantly for hisregeneration as for any other of Gods children?Insanity has many causes, but the kind ofinsanity with which we are most familiar resultsfrom a disproportionate activity of some psychicqualities: ambition,, avarice, vanity, an undueestimate of our importance in the regulation ofthe world, which, whether inherited or acquired,induce a disproportionate activity of certain emo-174
  • 188. Lunacy is Disproportiontions, which gradually, like all our appetites,grow by what they feed on, until they overmasterthe reason and disqualify one for taking the pre-cautions and avoiding the practices and habitsfor which they lust.One of the ferst evidences of this loss of balanceis usually insomnia. Most suicides are, direct-ly or indirectly, attributable to the same cause.But where, I may be asked, are the evidences ofdivine love in such dispensations? That ques-tion may be most conveniently answered by ask-ing another: What would be the consequencesof allowing a person whose vanity or ambition,or other inordinate appetite, led him to the in-dulgence of such excesses for its gratification,if its progress were not arrested by the impair-ment of other faculties that go to make up thebalance of a healthy character, but over whichhis reason, without being seriously impaired,had ceased to have control? He would evidentlybecome by degrees a monster such a monsteras to be capable of any crime, and entirely in-accessible to any rectifying spiritual influences.We are all of us more or less familiar with theperils we have providentially escaped throughour disappointments and reverses in life. Are wenot all in a certain sense like lunatics victimsof a more or less unbalanced mind? And is notthe work of spiritual regeneration simply theeffort, through divine aid, to restore that balance?And in the proportion that a lunatic is disquali-175
  • 189. The Mystery of Sleepfied to take a sensible and rational interest inthe phenomenal world, may he not to that extentbe made accessible to regenerating influences ofa similar character with those we have supposedto be operative during the suspension of our con-sciousness in sleep?No one has ever ventured to sneer at Drydens re-mark that"Great wits are sure to madness nearallied/ One can easily be persuaded by a ref-erence to the biographies of men of genius thatthis poets words deserve to be taken quite seri-ously.Lucretius,, the greatest poet of ancient Italy,and Tasso, the greatest poet of modern Italy,both wrote the works to which they owe theirfame with posterity during the interruptions offrequent attacks of lunacy. The former is saidby St. Jerome to have died by his own hand atthe comparatively early age of forty-four, leavingunfinished that greatest monument of Romanliterary genius, the De Rermn Natura.Tasso, like Socrates, believed he had a familiarspirit, or genius, that was pleased to talk withhim, and from whom he learned things never be-fore heard of.Caesar was an epileptic and subject to cerebraldisorder. Charles V. was an epileptic; he tookrefuge from his throne in a monastery, where hehad his own funeral rites celebrated in his pres-ence two of the many evidences he gave of anunbalanced mind. His mother was insane, and176
  • 190. Lunacy is DisproportionIlls grandfather, Ferdinand of Aragon, died, atthe comparatively early age of sixty-two, in astate of profound melancholia.Linnaeus died in a state of senile dementia.Raphael had more or less of the suicidalmania.Pascal could not bear to see his father andmother together, though pleased to see eitherseparately; neither could he see water withouttransports of vexation.Walter Scott, during the latter portion of hislife, had visions betokening an unbalanced mind.Michael Artgelo attempted to starve himself todeath, and was only saved by the interference ofhis physician.Richelieu had attacks of insanity. His elderbrother committed suicide, and his sister alsowas insane.Descartes imagined himself followed by an in-visible person urging him to pursue his investi-gations in search of the Absolute.Goethe fancied he saw the image of himselfcoming to meet him.Cromwell had violent attacks of melancholia,and a sickly, neuropathic constitution from hisbirth.Jean Jacques Rousseau suffered all his lifefrom an unbalanced mind, and not infrequentlyfrom attacks of acute delirium and maniacal ex-citation. He died from an apoplectic attack.Mohammed was epileptic, and claimed to be177
  • 191. The Mystery of Sleepa messenger from God and to have had inter-views with the Angel Gabriel.Moliere was a neuropath, and any delay orderangement of his plans would throw him intoconvulsions.Mozart was subject to fainting fits before andduring the composition of his famous"Requiem/He imagined messengers were sent to him toannounce his end. He died at the early age ofthirty-six of cerebral hydropsy.Cuvier is said to have died of a disease of thenervous centres. He lost all his children bycerebral fever.Condillac was a somnambulist.Bossuet is known occasionally to have lost thefaculty of speech, and even of understanding.Madame de Stael died in a delirium said tohave lasted several months. She had a nervoushabit of rolling between her fingers small stripsof paper, an ample supply of which was kepton her mantel-piece. She had a nervous fear ofbeing cold in the tomb, and desired to be envelopedin furs before burial.Swift from an early period of his life was queer,and"died at the top," a violent maniac. He wascalled the "Mad Parson."Shelley suffered from somnambulism, disturbingdreams, and an excitable and impetuous temper-ament, which increased with age. He was called11Mad Shelley."Samuel Johnson was a hypochondriac, had
  • 192. Lunacy is Disproportionhallucinations and convulsions, and was con-stantly apprehensive of insanity.Southey wrote verses before he was eight yearsof age, and died an imbecile.Cowper was attacked with melancholia at theage of twenty, from which he suffered for a year.It subsequently returned. He tells of attempts atsuicide, and he would have hanged himself hadnot the rope broken from which he suspendedhimself.Keats was subject to fits of despondency, andwas so nervous that the glitter of the sun or thesight of a flower made him tremble.Coleridge was a precocious child and had amorbid imagination. When thirty years of agehe took to the use of opium.Burns tells us that his constitution from thebeginning "was blasted with a deep, incurabletaint of melancholia which poisons my existence/George Eliot was extremely sensitive to terrorin the night, and remained "a quivering fear"throughout her whole life.De Quincey, in consequence of general nervousirritability, took opium to excess.Alfred de Musset had attacks which GeorgeSand described as manifesting a nervous con-dition approaching delirium. He had a suicidalinclination. He had hallucinations which com-pelled him to ask his brother to assist him in dis-tinguishing it from real things.Carlyle showed extreme irritability, and spoke179
  • 193. The Mystery of Sleepof himself in his diary:"Nerves all inflamedand torn up, body and mind in a hag-riddencondition/Bach and Handel were both very irritable,great sufferers from nervous troubles, and bothdied of apoplexy.Newton in his latter years was subject to amelancholia which deprived him of all power ofthought. In a letter to Locke he says that he"passed some months without having a consist-ency of mind/JAlexander the Great had from infancy neurosisof the muscles of the neck, and died at the age ofthirty-two, exhibiting all the symptoms of acutedelirium tremens. Both his parents were disso-lute, and his brother was an idiot.Lamartine was a crank, like his father beforehim.William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, was descendedfrom a family exhibiting many peculiarities andmental disproportions approaching alienation.Pope was rickety and subject to hallucina-tions.Lord Byron was scrofulous, rachitic, imaginedhe was visited by a ghost, which he attributedto the over-excitability of his brain. Lord Dudleydid not disguise his conviction that Byron wasinsane.Napoleon I. feared apoplexy and was subjectto hallucinations.There is no occasion to enlarge this list., as it180
  • 194. Lunacy Providentialmight be indefinitely. In the instances we haveselected there is sufficient evidence that insanityprobably is, and certainly may be, a providentialinterruption of degenerating and pernicious ten-dencies. Even with our short sight, these ten-dencies may be traced to an unequal and dispro-portioned interest in some of our worldly affairsand the consequent enfeeblement of others in-tended to be regulating or compensating facul-ties. But it is blasphemous to suppose that theclass of men so conspicuous for their usefulnessin the world, to whose unbalanced minds attentionhas just been called, were not to the last, asmuch as ever, the objects of Gods uninterrupt-ed and inexhaustible love and mercy. Thereis really no more reason for supposing there issuch an interruption in the case of lunatics thanthere is for a like supposition in the case of thosewhose consciousness is suspended by sleep. Theimpairment of some of their faculties may havebeen rendered necessary to prevent their confir-mation in evils to which they may have beenprone, just as all of us are more or less withheldin our slumbers, and thus made amenable tospiritual influences to which otherwise they wouldhave been inaccessible.Let it not be supposed that the changes herereferred to are physical or the results of morbidcerebration, as was so flippantly taught not manyyears ago by many eminent French physicians;for we have abundant medical authority to the181 -
  • 195. The Mystery of Sleepcontrary."Frequent autopsies/ says Chauvet,*"reveal no appreciable difference between thebrain of a lunatic and a man of unimpaired men-tal integrity. Such is the affirmation of all con-scientious physicians who have made a specialstudy of mental maladies."It is a medical aphorism as old at least as Hip-pocrates that a sufferer from a painful diseasegenerally loses all consciousness of it on becomingderanged. A disorder of the mind replaces thedisorder of the body. In illustration of this, DeBonnenhausen, on the authority of the chron-icler Bulan, Hist. Seer. I 12, quotes the followingexperience of the grandmother of Mirabeau:"This femme bigote," as he calls her, "eightyyears of age and emaciated to a skeleton, wasattacked, in consequence of a wrong treatmentfor the gout, with a furious nymphomania. Fromthat moment she seemed to renew her youth;her monthly courses reappeared. This healthyperiod lasted for four years, but she rapidly sankand expired with the return of reason/Here is a case of a person experiencing for aseries of years an extraordinary rejuvenescenceof strength and respite from pain by being to aconsiderable extent cut off from prdinary relationsand communication with the phenomenal world.She was bigote, says De Bonnenhausen. Was*Nouveaux Principes de Philosophic Mtdicale, par le Dr. N.M. Chauvet.182
  • 196. Unclean Spiritsnot Providence clearly dealing with this infirmityas it had once dealt with St. Pauls, by cuttingoff her relations with an environment which haddeveloped that mental disease,, and reducing herto a condition which protected her from its in-fluence., substituting a love for others, though onthe natural plane, in the place, perhaps, of a mor-bid self-righteousness?When Jesus and his disciples came down fromthe Mount of Transfiguration there came a manwho, kneeling down to Him, said, "Lord, havemercy on my son: for he is a lunatic and sorevexed: and oft-times he falleth into the fire, andoft into the water. And I brought him to thydisciples, and they could not cure him/7Weare told that "Jesus rebuked the devil, and hedeparted out of him ; and the child was cured fromthat very hour/While Jesus was in the borders of Tyre andSidon, a Syrophcenician woman whose youngdaughter had an unclean spirit"besought himthat he would cast forth the devil out of her daugh-ter/ For the faith exhibited by this mother, Hesaid :"Go thy way ; the devil is gone out of thydaughter. And when she was come to her house,she found the devil gone out and her daughterlaid upon the bed/ *The man with an unclean spirit, who couldnot be bound even with a chain, and whom no*Mark vii. 26-30.183
  • 197. The Mystery of Sleepman could tame, when he saw Jesus, ran andworshipped Him. Jesus bade the evil spirit comeout of him, and the demoniac was left clothedand in his right mind. He then begged to remainwith Jesus, but Jesus made a missionary of him,,as later he did of Paul of Tarsus. *Jesus may be seen by the feeble-minded to-dayjust as distinctly as when seen by this demoniacin Syria.While we are permitted to assume that the in-sane and the idiotic, so far as they are detachedfrom the phenomenal world, may be, to the samelimited extent, in the condition of the sleeper andin a degree sharing the advantages which thecondition of sleep is supposed to provide, it mustnot be inferred that any form or degree of in-sanity is in itself desirable, otherwise than as ittends to arrest spiritual tendencies of a more peril-ous character.Insanity may be presumed to be in most casesthe fruit of either deliberate or hereditary ten-dencies which conflict with divine order. Thecases with which we are all of us most familiarare of persons who have become insane by over-work or by resorting to artificial means for super-seding the demands of their constitution for sleep.As these excesses are commonly the results ofinordinate ambition or vanity or greed, and whenthese spiritual infirmities reach a stage where*Mark v. 2-20.184
  • 198. Lunacy Arrests Spiritual Degenerationany voluntary arrest of them is hopeless, a merci-ful Providence may be presumed so to modifytheir relations with the phenomenal world as toprevent further spiritual degeneration. In somecases the ministrations of Jesus warrant us inthinking that the work of regeneration is allowedto progress. All that can be said with confidenceof the influence of insanity is that in detachingits victim from habitual this-worldliness it so farresembles the operation of sleep, and is a real andusually an unappreciated evidence of divinemercy. A French investigator has reached theconclusion that the brains of military men giveout most quickly; that out of every 100,000 menof the army or naval profession, 199 are hope-less lunatics. Of the liberal professions, artistsare the first to succumb to the brain-strain. Isthere nothing in the inspirations and aspirationsof these pursuits to explain these results?I do not think that I can with greater fit-ness close this chapter than by introducing herethe words of one who professes to have hadopportunities of knowing more of the ultimatedestiny of these unfortunate classes than I orany one else that I am aware of have ever en-joyed. Swedenborg, in a letter written to hisfriend Dr. Beyer, says :"As there are no natural diseases among spirits inthe spiritual world, neither are there any hospitals,I&5
  • 199. The Mystery of Sleepbut instead of them there are spiritual mad-houses,in some of which are those who have theoreticallydenied God, and in others such as have practicallydone the same. They who in the world were idiots,at their arrival in the other world are also foolishand idiotic; but being divested of their externals,and their internals opened, as is the case with themall, they acquire an understanding agreeable to theirformer quality and life; for actual foolish and mad-nesses dwell in the external man and not in the internalspiritual."It is permitted to all to doubt this diagnosis ofthe condition of the lunatics and idiots, in theworld of spirits, but it must be remembered thatno one is competent to disprove it. To myreading, at least, it seems to confirm all that Ihave endeavored to say about the rationale andprovidential purpose of the disorders with whichthese demented classes are afflicted. It findsalso much weightier confirmation in the follow-ing verses which I have taken from the loythPsalm:17. Fools, because of the way of their transgression,And because of their iniquities, are afflicted,18. Their soul abhorreth all manner of meat,And they draw near unto the gates of death.186
  • 200. Lunacy in the World of Spirits19. Then they cry unto the Lord in their trouble,And he saveth them out of their distresses.20. He sendeth his word, and healeth them,And delivereth them from their destructions.
  • 201. CHAPTER XIIWhy we are not permitted to be conscious of the ex-periences of the soul in sleep How we should culti-vate sleep Drugs hostile to sleep Count Tolstoi onalcoholic stimulants AH virtues favor sleep ; all vicesdiscourage it.IF by the immutable laws of our being thehours consecrated to sleep are, as I have attemptedto show, of such vital importance to our spiritualdevelopment, the ordering of our life, so far asit may affect our sleep, assumes a correspondingimportance. No argument is needed to provethat we should make it our study to avoid as faras possible everything calculated to interfere inthe slightest degree with its completeness. Allsuch disturbances may be presumed to comefrom our phenomenal life, and so far, at anyrate, as they do, they impair the completenessof our isolation from the world and its works,and violate the sacred mysteries to which it is thepresumptive purpose of sleep to admit the soulour real self for the reception of such spiritualinstruction as we may be qualified to assimilate,without bringing away with us any knowledgethat can interfere with the freedom of our will188
  • 202. Why Unconscious of What Occurs in Sleepor with our personal responsibility for what wemay do in our waking hours.I say without bringing away anything thatwould interfere with the freedom of our will, be-cause what goes on within us in our sleep is assacred a mystery as any of the mysteries of oureternal sleep; nor is it difficult to divine a sufficientpurpose for that mystery. If we were as consciousof our sleeping as of our waking life, and if ourexternal memory, as Swedenborg calls it, couldbring away our experiences while in that state;could reveal to us the treasures of our interiormemory, it would interfere with our freedom inprecisely the same way and degree as if we couldforesee the influence of our acts and plans of yes-terday upon all the future stages of our existence.Such knowledge would be fatal to our spiritualgrowth and to the freedom of our will, throughwhich only righteousness thrives; would giveplace to a blind, senseless fatalism*We may speculate about the purposes of Provi-dence as revealed in the sequence of the events ofour daily life, but we know nothing, and thinklittle, if anything, of them when they occur. Itis only long after their occurrence that we beginto realize how much more profoundly they af-fected the tenor of our lives than we had suspectedthey would; from what perils we had been pro-tected by what we regarded as grievous disap-pointments; from what temptations, which wecould never have resisted, we had been shielded189
  • 203. The Mystery of Sleepby our ignorance, by our weaknesses,, by dis-couragements, by poverty, by sickness, etc. IfGod in his providence makes us so blind to theconsequence of what we do in our waking hours,the wisdom of which experience ultimately compelsus not only to admit but to be thankful for, thereis no reason to question the divine wisdom in con-cealing from us what it is trying to do for us inour sleep when the god of this world is disarmedand powerless.It would be tedious to enumerate all the thingsdone in what is called civilized society that, con-sciously and unconsciously, interfere with thequality and quantity of our sleep. A volumewould not suffice for such a record. I may onlyspeak of them by classes.First in importance among these I would placewhat we take into our mouths under the nameor disguise of nourishment. There is scarcelya table laid in all our broad land on which willnot be found more or less of the enemies of whole-some sleep: condiments selected primarily tostimulate the appetite, but provoking to gluttonyand animal indulgence, regardless of the divinepurposes for which we were endowed with theseappetites, and with power both to guide and con-trol them. It is a fact worthy of the profoundestconsideration that about everything we take intoour mouths, not simply for our nourishment, butto provoke our appetites and for the sole pleasureof gratifying them, discourages sleep.190
  • 204. Popular Enemies of Sleep"If one wishes to make others do wrong/says Count Tolstoi,"uhe alcoholizes them. Theymake soldiers drunk before sending them intobattle. At the time of the assault of Sebasto-pol all the French soldiers were drunk. It iswell known that robbers, brigands, and pros-titutes cannot dispense with alcohol. All theworld agrees that the consumption of these nar-cotics has for its object stifling the remorse ofconscience; and yet, in cases where the useof these exhilarants does not result in assassi-nation, theft, and violence., they are not con-demned/To the defence that a light exhilaration thatis to say, initial drunkenness, which is but apartial eclipse of the judgment cannot producevery important consequences, the Count makesthis clever reply:"A famous Russian painter one day correcteda picture made by one of his pupils. He gave afew touches of his pencil here and there, but theresult was such, nevertheless, that the pupil criedout, You made but two or three marks on mypicture, and I find it completely changed/ Thepainter replied, Art does not begin but wheremarks scarcely perceptible produce great changes/These remarks/ he adds, "are remarkably just,not only in relation to art, but all the conditionsof human life."* Translated from an article published some years agoin the Revue Rose.191
  • 205. The Mystery of SleepDr. Franklin, in a letter written to a Miss onthe art of procuring pleasant dreams, said:"In general, mankind, since the improvement ofcookery, eat about twice as nnich as nature requires.Suppers are not bad, if we have not dined; but rest-less nights naturally follow hearty suppers after fulldinners. Indeed, as there is a difference in constitu-tions, some rest well after these meals ; it costs themonly a frightful dream, and an apoplexy, after whichthey sleep till doomsday."Among the antisoporifics, next in importancecome the apothecaries drug -poisons. Of thesethere are very few I fear none the direct orsecondary action of which is not hostile to sleep.The uncorrupted tastes and instincts of the beastsof the field reject them all, as well in sickness asin health.It is a curious illustration of the limitationsof what we call civilization that the one art orscience which we hedge about with the most ar-bitrary laws for the protection of its priesthoodand ministrants, and which is relied upon toprevent or cure our diseases, should be the oneorganized professional body which practicallyemploys few, if any, therapeutic agencies thatdo not impair, discourage, or prevent sleep, andto the same extent shorten life. If in the wholepharmacopoeia of those who claim to be "theregular medical faculty" there is a single drugwhich is not a poison and which is not more or192
  • 206. Drugs Enemies of Sleepless actively hostile to sleep, it is one which isscarcely, if ever, used, except to impress the im-agination rather than the disorder of the pa-tient. Should any of my readers think thisstatement an exaggeration they will find littledifficulty In ascertaining that it Is not. Thehomoeopathists are compelled by the fundamentallaw of their therapeutics to ascertain the effectsof every drug by testing them upon persons insound health. In that way they have storedup in their literature most of all that is knownof the direct effects of all the drugs that haveproved to be sufficiently reactionary for therapeu-tical purposes, which means all drugs in gen-eral use. The reader has only to turn to JahrsManual of Medicine or Herrings Condensed Ma-teria Medica to satisfy himself of the insomniacinfluences which radiate from every apothecarysshop.** Here are a few drugs recorded by Jahr under a. singleinitial letter, with the symptoms relating to sleep for whichthey are responsible :Aconitum napellus Sleeplessness from anxiety, withconstant agitation and tossing ; startings in sleep ; anxiousdreams with nightmare.Agnus costus Disturbed sleep, waking with a start.Alumina Nocturnal sleep too light; frequent wakingin the night; nightmare; during the night anxiety, agita-tion, and tossing about.Ambergris Agitated sleep with anxious dreams; start-ings with fright.Ammoniac Sleep unquiet during the night; numerousand painful dreams.Ammonia, carbonate of Nightmare when falling.3J 93
  • 207. The Mystery of SleepWith drug -poisons should be classed nearly,if not quite, all fermented drinks the most costlypart of most peoples diet who indulge in themat all coffee, tea, tobacco, spices, and most ofthe constantly multiplying tonics and condimentsof the table. All of them have a tendency, directlyor indirectly, to discourage or impair sleep, and,as such, are hostes humani generis. Their inter-ference with sleep, though perhaps the most seri-ous, is very far from being their only pathoge-netic influence.The late Dr. Alonzo Clark,, who for years stoodquite at the head of his profession as a consult-ing physician in New York City, is quoted as au-asleep ; dreams of spectres, death, of vermin, and of quar-rels.Ammonium causticum Disturbed sleep.Ammonium muriaticum Restlessness before midnight;many dreams, anxious, terrific, or lascivious; nocturnalsweat after midnight.Anacardium orientale (Malacca bean) Disturbed sleepin the night ; anxious dreams, disgusting or horrible, withcries ; lively dreams of projects, of fire, of diseases, of deaths,and of dangers.Angustura bark Sleep disturbed by frequent dreams.Antimonium crudum Waking with fright during thenight; dreams, anxious, horrible, voluptuous, or painful,and full of quarrelling.Arnica Sleep full of anxious and terrible dreams andwaking with starts and fright ; dreams of death, of mutilatedbodies; giddiness on waking.Arsenicum During sleep, startings with fright, groans ;frequent dreams full of fears, threats, apprehensions.Assafoetida Sleep unrefreshing, with tossing and fre-quent waking.Auruna Restless sleep with anxious dreams,194
  • 208. All Drugs Poisonsihority for saying :"All curative agents,, so called,are poisons, and, as a consequence, every dose di-minishes the patients vitality/ I doubt whetherthis view of drugs would be seriously contested byany of his professional brethren of good standing.The late venerable Professor Joseph M. Smith,M.D., said :"All medicines which enter the circula-tion poison the blood in the same manner as do thepoisons that produce the disease. Drugs do notcure disease. Digitalis has hurried thousands tothe grave. Prussic acid was once extensively usedin the treatment of consumption, both in Europeand America, but its reputation is lost. Thou-sands of patients were treated with it, but not acase was benefited. On the contrary, hundredswere hurried to the grave/Digitalis is regarded by old-school physiciansas a specific for heart-failure. Here are its symp-toms as recorded in Jahrs manual :Sleep Drowsiness in the day and somnolency in-terrupted by convulsive vomiting; at night, half sleepwith agitation; nocturnal sleep, interrupted by anxiousdreams, with starts,R. Clarke Newton, in his treatise on Opium andAlcohol, says :"Sleeplessness means not merely unrest, but starva-tion of the cerebrum. The only cause for regret inthese cases is that the blunder should ever be commit-ted of supposing that a stupefying drug which throwsthe brain into a condition that mimics and burlesques195
  • 209. The Mystery of Sleepsleep can do good. It is deceptive to give narcoticsin a case of this type. The stupor simply masks thedanger. Better far let the sleepless patient exhausthimself than stupefy him. Chloral bromide and therest of the poisons that produce a semblance of sleepare so many snares in such cases. Sleeplessness isa malady of the most formidable character, but it isnot to be treated by intoxicating the organ upon whichthe stress of the trouble falls. Suicide, which occursat the very outset of derangement, and is apt to appeara sane act, is the logical issue of failure of nutrition thatresults from want of sleep/It is a fact now recognized by the medical pro-fession that the use of narcotics, fermented liquors,and other intoxicants by which the people of allnations seek pleasure simple oblivion of thetroubles of life or of its sorrows, of its chagrinsor of destitution produce temporarily preciselythe condition in which a man finds himself in adream. The faculty explain it by lesions, ob-structions, disorganizations of tissues, cells, nervecentres, liver and kidneys, etc. These are phys-ical changes incident to the use of these dis-organizing agencies. In point of fact, it is thesedisorganizing agencies that produce the partial,sometimes temporary, sometimes chronic, in-sensibility to mental or physical troubles by im-pairing* our consciousness of them, just as ourconsciousness of them is totally suspended insleep and partially suspended in dreams whenwe have begun to awake. These dreams are196
  • 210. Alcoholic Dreamssometimes prolonged, and result in what is com-monly termed dementia.Lasegue tells us that the alcoholic deliriumis not a delirium, but a dream." Max - Simonsays: "The alcoholic patient commences his de-lirium in his dream during sleep and continuesit on awaking, while other lunatics, melancholies,paralytics, maniacs, find in sleep a truce to theirdelirium/ fAt first the dream of the alcoholic appears as apassing trouble and ceases on awakening. It isonly a nightmare. After a while the dream isprolonged beyond the awakening, and it exte-riorizes itself in a sort of tranquillized delirium.Finally, auto - intoxication reaches its maximumin that peculiar mental state described first by aneminent French physician as mental confusion.The recollection of the dream may survive thedream itself for some time, and become a sort ofsubacute delirium, to which Baillarger has giventhe name of fixed ideas.%While this similarity between dreams and a per-son intoxicated by narcotics, alcoholics, hashish,or any of the thousand drugs to which peoplehave recourse for temporary alleviation of painor sorrow, distress or depression of any kind, is*Lasagne, Archives Generates de Mdecine. 1881.f Max-Simon, Le Monde des Rve$. ^ Paris, 1882.% Baillarger," De 1 Influence de 1Etat Interme*diaire a laVeille et au Sommeil sur la Production des Hallucinations."Annales Medico-Psychologiques. 1845.197
  • 211. The Mystery of Sleepso universally recognized by the medical faculty, itseems to have occurred to none of them that theremedy for relief in every case is precisely thesame as that which is sought through sleep tomake us insensible to our troubles and forget theworld in which they originate. Their similarityto dreams consists in the insensibility producedby these drugs that is, the partial suspension ofconsciousness. What a deplorable fact it is that,instead of sleep, so large a proportion of the hu-man race resort to these noxious substitutes forit ! What a mercy that where the will is too weakto resist the temptation to resort to these substi-tutes, "the wisdom of their wise men shall per-ish, and the understanding of their prudent menshall be hid "I*Then comes the strife for wealth, and power,and position among men ; the undue accumulationof cares and responsibilities, the result in mostcases of unbridled ambition, vanity, or greed.It is the middle-aged and old who suffer mostfrom this infirmity."Care keeps Ms watch in every old mans eye,And where he lodges sleep can never lie;But where unbruised youth, with unstuffed brain,Doth crouch his limbs, there sleep doth reign/*Whenever a man has reached threescore -and -ten, and, in railway parlance, is started on the* Isaiah xxix. 14.198
  • 212. Nature an Inexorable Creditordown grade, he should study to simplify his lifeso as never to be required to draw upon his reserves,nor work under pressure, or with a consciousoverdraft of nervous force. A neglect of this pre-caution is pretty certain to interfere with both thequantity and quality of our sleep, and sooner orlater to compel a resort to stimulants of one kindor another, by which we borrow for the day thestrength of to-morrow, thus speedily to becomehopelessly indebted to nature., the most inexorableof creditors.Speaking of reports, which but too frequentlymeet our eyes in the public prints, of men promi-nent in religious movements who have disgracedthemselves and discredited the faith they professedby ignominious peculations, embezzlements, andfrauds, the late Dr. A. P. Peabody, of HarvardUniversity, said:"We are not surprised that these instances havebeen placed and kept prominently before the community ;for such cases are so rare as justly to arrest grave at-tention and excite emphatic comment. So far as weknow, they are, all of them, cases in which there hadbeen for a long period such an engrossment in mttltifari~ous, crowding, and perplexing business operations thatthe religious life was physically impossible, the quiet-ness essential to devotion unattainable, supersensualthemes of thought excluded by a necessity, self-imposedindeed, but imposed there is reason to believe beforethe first steps in the direction of overt guilt and shame.No Christian of sane mind will pretend or imagine that
  • 213. The Mystery of Sleepchurch-going with the inward ear closed and deafened,the form of Christian communion without the spirit ofthe cross, Sunday overlaid by the cares of the preced-ing and the forecast shadows of the coming week, are amoral specific ;and many who call, and perhaps think,themselves Christians are in intense need of preciselythe lessons which these disasters among their own brother-hood may teach."All the appetites, propensities, lusts, and pas-sions which we cannot control are incidental to,and evidences of, our unregenerate nature; arethe weaknesses of the flesh which it is the endand purpose of our probationary life on earthto subdue. It is a fact most important, early tolearn and never to lose sight of, that all theseappetites, propensities, and passions are unre-lenting enemies of sleep. It is the most impres-sive illustration of the inflexible logic of Provi-dence that as they all, if allowed free rein, tend toimpair the health, blunt the senses one by one,diminish, and finally extinguish, the enjoymentthey were designed to yield; they, in that way,like old age, are permitted to serve in a measurethe purposes of sleep, in detaching man from theworld by depriving him of the means of enjoyingwhat he persists in abusing, and thus of "with-drawing him from his purpose, and in keepinghim from the pit."It would be well for every one to realize that allthe virtues favor sleep and all the vices discour-age it. In the gratification of our appetites it is200
  • 214. Natures Rebuke of Intemperanceour highest duty to respect the laws of our beingwhich impose self-control. Whether we eat toomuch, or drink too much, or devote too large aportion of our time and strength to any employ-ment or amusement, the first rebuke which natureadministers for such intemperance is a change inthe quantity or quality of our sleep; conscience,attended by the dragons of remorse, follows us toour chamber and tells us that sleep shall not re-fresh us until we repent of our excesses. In thedegree in which we respect the laws of our being,which are the ordinances of our Creator, will bethe sufficiency of our rest. In the degree that wedisregard them will be its insufficiency.The desire nay, the necessity for sleep shouldbe regarded as a providential arrangement toinduce us to cultivate the virtues most favorableto its enjoyment, just as hunger and thirst arethe agents of Providence for teaching us to befrugal, industrious, and temperate, that they maybe reasonably gratified.If these things be true about sleep, they obviouslyimpose duties upon the pulpit, upon the press,and upon all human society which are sadly neg-lected.
  • 215. APPENDIX ARalph Waldo Emersons estimate of Sweden-borg:". . . Emanuel Swedenborg, . . . who appears tohis contemporaries a visionary, ... no doubt led themost real life of any man then in the world ; and now,when the royal and ducal Frederics ... of that dayhave slid into oblivion, he begins to spread himselfinto the minds of thousands. As happens in greatmen, he seemed, by the variety and amount of his powers,to be a composition of several persons, like the giantfruits which are matured in gardens by the union offour or five single blossoms. . . He was a scholarfrom a child. . . . The genius which was to penetratethe science of the age with a far more subtile science,to pass the bounds of space and time, venture into thedim spirit-realm, to attempt to establish a new religionin the world, began its letters in quarries and forges, inthe srnelting-pot and crucible, in ship-yards and dissect-ing-rooms. No one man is, perhaps, able to judge of themerits of his works on so many subjects. . . * It seemsthat he anticipated much science of the nineteenth cen-tury. . . . His superb speculation, as from a tower,over nature and arts, without ever losing sight of thetexture and sequence of things, almost realizes hisown picture in the Principia of the original integrityof man. . . . One of the missouriums and mastodonsof literature, he is not to be measured by whole colleges203
  • 216. Appendix Aof ordinary scholars. His stalwart presence wouldflutter the gowns of a university. Our books are falseby being fragmentary. . . . But Swedenborg is sys-tematic, and respective of the world in every sentence ;all the means are orderly given; his faculties workwith astronomic punctuality, and his admirable writingis pure from all pertness and egotism. He named hisfavorite views, the Doctrine of Forms, the Doctrine ofSeries and Degrees, the Doctrine of Influx, the Doctrineof Correspondence. His statement of these doctrinesdeserves to be studied in his books. Not every mancan read them, but they will reward him who can. . . .His writings would be a sufficient library to a lonelyand athletic student; and the Economy of the AnimalKingdom is one of those books which, by the sustaineddignity of thinking, is an honor to the human race. . . .The Animal Kingdom is a book of wonderful merits.It was written with the highest end to put science andthe soul, long estranged from each other, at one againHis religion thinks for him and is of universal applica-tion. He turns it on every side; it fits every part oflife, interprets and dignifies every circumstance, . . .a teaching which accompanied him all day, . . . intohis thinking, . . . into society, . . . into natural ob-jects, . . . and opened the future world by indicatingthe continuity of the same laws. . . . That slow butcommanding influence which he has acquired . . .must be excessive, . . . and have its tides before itsubsides into a permanent amount/*Rev. Edwin Paxton Hoods estimate of Swe-denborg :"Swedenborg was one of the profoundest mathema-ticians of his age, a deep and acute thinker, a subtle204
  • 217. Appendix Alogician, a various and versatile scholar above all, acalm and most quiet bookman and penman, indisposedfor any company, and never seen to court the companyof the ignorant and the vulgar ever the resort of thefanatic; a man of few words, until compelled to talk,or talking for a purpose ; cool in temperament ;neverrocked by passion or impulse ; always, as far as human-ity can be, in equilibrium, weighing all his thoughtsand all his actions; perpetually bent upon giving rea-sons for things ; a man of strong inductive habits andpowers, and consistent ; a whole life of invariable rec-titude. He was a Titan, and must take his place amongthe very highest and widest minds of our world."Thomas Carlyles estimate of Swedenborg :"A man of great and indisputable cultivation, strong,mathematical intellect, and the most pious, seraphicturn of mind; a man beautiful, lovable, and tragicalto me, with many thoughts in him which, when I in-terpret them for myself, I find to belong to the highand perennial in human thoiight. Whatever I mayconjecture in my own defence about the strange im-pediments and unconquerable imprisoning conditionsunder which jie had to live and to meditate, surely Iam very far, indeed, from ranking him, or those thathonestly follow him, under any dishonorable category."Samuel Taylor Coleridges estimate of Sweden-borg:"I can venture to assert that as a moralist Sweden-borg is above all praise ; and that as a naturalist, psy-chologist, and theologian he has strong and varied205
  • 218. Appendix Aclaims on the gratitude and admiration of the profes-sional and philosophical student/Henry Jamess estimate of Swedenborg :"I fully concede to Swedenborg an extreme sobrietyof mind displayed under all the exceptional circum-stances of his career, and which ends by making usfeel at last his every word to be almost insipid withveracity, I cordially appreciate, moreover, the raredestitution of wilfulness which characterizes all hisresearches; or, rather, the childlike docility of spiritwhich leads him to seek and to recognize, under allthe most contradictory aspects of nature, the footstepsof the Highest."His books are a dry, unimpassioned, unexaggeratedexposition of the things he daily saw and heard in theworld of spirits, and of the spiritual laws which thesethings illustrate; with scarcely any effort whateverto blink the obvious outrage his experiences offer tosensuous prejudice, or to conciliate any interest in hisreader which is not prompted by the latters own originaland unaffected relish of the truth. Such sincere books,it seems to me, were never before written/An estimate of Swedenborg by the late Hon.Theophilus Parsons, for twenty-two years profess-or in the Cambridge Law School :"I regard him as a man of remarkable ability andgreat and varied culture, taught, as no other man everwas taught, truths which no other man ever learned;and thus instructed that he might introduce amongmen a new system of truth or doctrine, excelling in206
  • 219. Appendix Acharacter and exceeding in value any system of truthbefore known ; a new gift, demanding, as the instru-ment by which it could be communicated, a man notonly possessing extraordinary capacity and cultivation,but in both capacity and cultivation definitely adaptedto the peculiar work he had to do."
  • 220. APPENDIX BLuther, Melancthon, and Calvin."<eI have frequently conversed with thevse three lead-ing Reformers of the Christian Church, and in thatway have learned what the state of their life has been,from their first entrance into the spiritual world up tothe present time."LUTHER." As for Luther, from the time when he first went tothe spiritual world he was a most vehement propagatorand defender of his dogmas, and his zeal for themincreased as the number of those from the earth whoagreed with and favored him increased. A housewas given him there like the one he had in the lifeof the body at Eisleben. In the centre of this househe erected a sort of throne, somewhat elevated, wherehe sat ; he admitted hearers through the open door, andarranged them in order; nearest to himself he invitedthose who were the more favorable to him ; behind themhe placed those less favorable, and then he made speechesto them, occasionally permitting questions in orderthat he might obtain a kind of clew whereby to recom-mence the web of his discourse. Owing to this generalfavor, he at length imbibed a power of persuasion, whichis so efficacious in the spiritual world that no one can*Swedenbdrgs True Christian Religion, nos, 796-799.208
  • 221. Appendix Bresist it or speak against what is said. But as thiswas a kind of incantation used by the ancients, he wasforbidden to speak from that power of persuasion anymore ;and after this, as before, he taught from the mem-ory and understanding together. This power of per-suasion, which is a kind of incantation, springs fromself-love, owing to which it finally becomes of such anature that when any one contradicts he not only at-tacks the subject in question, but also the person him-self. This was the state of Luthers life up to the timeof the last judgment, which took place in the spiritualworld in the year 1757 ; but a year after that he wasremoved from his first house to another, and at thesame time underwent a change of state. And in thisstate, having heard that I, who was in the natural world,spoke with those in the spiritual world, he, amongothers, came to me; and after some questions and an-swers he perceived that there is at this day an end ofthe former church and the beginning of a new church,of which Daniel prophesied, and which the Lord himselfforetold in the evangelists; he also perceived that thisnew church was meant by the New Jerusalem in Revela-tion, and by the everlasting gospel which the angelflying in the midst of heaven preached to the inhabitantsof the earth (xiv. 6). At this he became very angryand railed. But as he perceived that the new heaven(which was formed, and is still forming, of those whoacknowledge the Lord alone as the God of heaven andearth, according to his words in Matt, xxviii. 18) [in-creased], and as he observed the number of his owncongregations daily diminishing, he ceased his railingand came nearer to me, and began to talk with me morefamiliarly. And after he had been convinced that hehad not derived his principal dogma of justification byI4 209
  • 222. Appendix Bfaith alone from the Word, but from his own intelligence,he suffered himself to be instructed respecting the Lord,charity, true faith, free-will, and redemption also, andthis exclusively from the Word. At length, after beingconvinced, he began to favor more and more those truthsof which the new church is formed, and finally to con-firm himself in them. At this time he was with medaily; and then, as often as he called those truths tomind, he began to laugh at his former dogmas as thingsdiametrically opposed to the Word. I heard him say:Do not be surprised at my seizing upon justificationby faith alone, excluding charity from its spiritualessence, also taking away from men all free-will inthings spiritual, and affirming other things that dependon faith alone once accepted, as links on a chain, in-asmuch as my object was to break away from the RomanCatholics, and this object I could not otherwise compassand attain. I, therefore, do not wonder at my ownerrors, but I do wonder that one crazy man could makeso many others crazy. As he said this he looked atsome dogmatic writers beside him, men of celebrityin his time, faithful followers of his doctrine, who sawnothing contradictory to those dogmas in the sacredScripture, although it does contradict them plainly.It was told me by the examining angels that this leaderwas in a state of conversion before many others whohad confirmed themselves in the doctrine of justificationby faith alone, because in his childhood, before he un-dertook the Reformation, he had imbibed the dogma ofthe pre-eminence of charity; and for this reason also,both in his writings and in his discourses, he taughtcharity so notably ; and as a consequence, justifying faithwith him was implanted in his external-natural man,but had not taken root in his internal-spiritual man.210
  • 223. Appendix BIt is otherwise; however, with those who in their child-hood have confirmed themselves against the spiritualityof charity, which also takes place of itself while justi-fication by faith alone is being established by confirma-tions. I have conversed with the Prince of Saxony,with whom Luther had been associated in the world,and he told me that he had often upbraided Luther,especially for separating charity from faith, and de-claring the latter to be saving and the former not, when,nevertheless, not only does the sacred Scripture unitethose two universal means of salvation, but Paul alsoplaces charity before faith, when he says, And nowabideth faith, hope, charity, these three ; but the greatestof these is charity (l Cor. xiii. 13). But he said thatLuther as often replied that he could not do otherwise,because of the Roman Catholics. This prince is amongthe happy."MELANCTHON."As to what the lot of Melancthon was when he firstentered the spiritual world, and what it was afterwards,I have been permitted to learn many things, not onlyfrom the angels, but also from himself, for I have con-versed with him repeatedly yet not so frequently aswith Luther, nor so near to him. I have not conversedwith him so frequently nor so near, because he couldnot approach me as Luther did, for the reason that hehad given his exclusive attention to justification byfaith alone, but not to charity; and I was surroundedby angelic spirits who were principled in charity, andthey interfered with his approach to me. I heard thatwhen he first entered the spiritual world a house wasprepared for him like that in which he had dwelt inthe world. This also takes place with the most of new-211
  • 224. Appendix Bcomers, owing to which they do not know but they arestill in the natural world, and the time elapsed sincetheir death seems to them merely as a sleep. Everythingin his room was also like what he formerly had : he hadthe same kind of a table, the same kind of a secretarywith drawers, and also the same kind of a library; sothat as soon as he came there, as if he had just awakenedfrom a sleep, he seated himself at the table and con-tinued his writing, and that, too, on the subject of justi-fication by faith alone, and so on for several days, say-ing nothing whatever about charity. The angels, per-ceiving this, asked him through messengers why hedid not write about charity also. He replied that therewas nothing belonging to the church in charity, for ifit were to be received as in any way an essential prin-ciple of the church, man would also attribute to him-self the merit of justification, and consequently of sal-vation, and thus he would also rob faith of its spiritualessence. When the angels who were over his headperceived this, and when the angels who were associatedwith him when he was outside of his house heard it,they all withdrew; for angels are associated with everynew-comer at the beginning. A few weeks after this oc-currence the things that he used in his room began tobe obscured and at length to disappear, until at lastthere was nothing left there but the table, paper, andinkstand ; and, moreover, the walls of his room seemedto be plastered with lime, and the floor to be coveredwith yellow bricks, and his clothing to become coarser.Wondering at this, he inquired of those about him whyit was so; and he was told that it was because he hadremoved charity from the church, which was, never-theless, its heart. But as he often denied this, andagain commenced to write about faith as the one only212
  • 225. Appendix Bessential of the church, and the means of salvation,and to remove charity more and more, he suddenlyseemed to himself to be under ground in a certain prison,where there were others like him. And when he wishedto go out he was detained, and it was announced tohim that no other lot awaited those who thrust charityand good works outside of the doors of the church.But inasmuch as he had been one of the Reformersof the church, he was released from that prison by theLords command, and sent back to his former room,where there was nothing but the table, paper, and ink-stand. But still, owing to his confirmed ideas, he be-daubed the paper with the same error, so that he couldnot be kept from being alternately sent down to hiscaptive fellows and sent back again. When sent back,he appeared in a garment made of a hairy skin, becausefaith without charity is cold. He told me himself thatthere was another room adjoining his own in the rear,in which there were three tables, at which sa* men likehimself, who had also exiled charity, and that a fourthtable also sometimes appeared there, on which wereseen monstrous things In various forms, by which,however, they were not frightened from their work.He said that he conversed with these others, and wasconfirmed by them daily. After some time, however,incited by fear, he began to write something aboutcharity; but what he wrote on the paper one day hedid not see the next ;for this happens to every one therewhen he commits anything to paper from the externalman only, and not at the same time from the internal,thus from compulsion and not from freedom. It isobliterated of itself. But after the establishment bythe Lord of the new heaven was begun, by the lightfrom this heaven he began to think that perhaps he213
  • 226. Appendix Bmight be in error ; so that, owing to anxiety about Mslot, he felt impressed upon him some interior ideas re-specting charity. In this state he consulted the Word,and then his eyes were opened, and he saw that it wasall filled with love to God and love to the neighbor, sothat it was as the Lord says: on these two command-ments hang the law and the prophets, that is, the wholeWord. From this time he was transferred more in-teriorly to the southwest, and so to another house, fromwhich he conversed with me, saying that his writingson charity did not then disappear as formerly, but ap-peared obscurely the next day. One thing I wonderedat, that when he walked his steps had a striking sound,like those of a man walking with iron heels on a stonepavement. To this must be added that when any novi-tiate from the world entered his room to talk with himor see him, he would summon one from among spiritsgiven to magic, who by fantasy could call up variousbeautiful shapes, and who then adorned his chamberwith ornaments and flowered tapestry, and also withthe appearance of a library in the centre. As soon asthe visitors were gone, however, these shapes vanished,and the former plastering and emptiness returned.But this was when he was in his former state."CALVIN"Of Calvin I have heard the following : I. When hefirst went to the spiritual world he would not believebut that he was still in the world where he was born ;and although he heard from the angels associated withhim first in order that he was then in their world, andnot in his former one, he said,I have the same body,the same hands, and similar senses/ But the angels214
  • 227. Appendix Binstructed him to the effect that he was then in a sub-stantial body, and that he was formerly not only inthat same body, but also in a material one, which in-vested the substantial ; and that the material body hadbeen cast off, the substantial body, from which a manis a man, remaining. This he at first understood;but the day afterwards he returned to his former be-lief, that he was still in the world where he was born.This was because he was a sensual man, having nobelief but what he could draw from the objects of thebodily senses ; from this arose the fact that all the dog-mas of his faith were conclusions drawn from his self-derived intelligence, and not from the Word. His quotingthe Word was in order to win the assent of the commonpeople. 2. After this first period, the angels havingleft him, he wandered about inquiring for those whoin ancient times believed in predestination ; and he wastold that they had been removed from that place, andshut up and covered over, and there was no way opento them except in a backward direction under the earth ;but that the disciples of Godeschalk still went aboutfreely, and sometimes assembled in a place called, inspiritual language, Pyris. And as he longed for theircompany, he was conducted to an assembly where someof them were standing ; and when he came among themhe was in his hearts delight, and bound himself tothem by interior friendship. 3. But after the followersof Godeschalk were led away to their brethren in thecavern Calvin became tired; he, therefore, sought hereand there for an asylum, and was finally received intoa certain society, composed wholly of simple-mindedpersons, some of whom were also religious; and whenhe saw that they knew nothing about predestination,and could not understand anything about it, he betook215
  • 228. Appendix Bhimself to one corner of the society, and there hid him-self for a long time ; nor did he open his mouth on anyecclesiastical subject. This was providential, in orderthat he might withdraw from his error respecting pre-destination, and that the ranks of those who after theSynod of Dort adhered to that detestable heresy mightbe filled up ; they were all gradually sent away to theirfellows in the cavern. 4. At length it was asked bythe modern Predestinarians, Where is Calvin? Andafter a search he was found on the confines of a certainsociety consisting exclusively of simple-minded persons.He was, therefore, called away from there, and conductedto a certain governor who was filled with similar dregs.This governor, therefore, took him into his house andguarded him, and this until the new heaven began tobe established by the Lord ; and then, as his gtfardiangovernor was cast out together with his troop, Calvinbetook himself to a certain house of harlotry, and re-mained there for some time. 5. And as he then en-joyed the liberty of wandering about, and also of comingnear to the place where I was stopping, I was permittedto converse with him. At first I spoke of the new heavenwhich at this day is being formed by those who ac-knowledge the Lord alone as the God of heaven andearth, according to his words in Matt, xxviii. 1 8. Itold him that they believe that He and the Father areone (John x. 30), that He is in the Father and the Fatherin Him, that whosoever sees and knows Him sees andknows the Father also (John xiv. 6-11), and that thusthere is one God in the church as in heaven. At first,when I said this, he was as usual silent ; but after halfan hour he broke the silence and said :Was not Christa man, the son of Mary, the wife of Joseph? Howcan a man be worshipped as God?JI answered,Is216
  • 229. Appendix Bnot Jesus Christ, our Redeemer and Saviour, both Godand man? He replied,He is both God and man ;nevertheless the divinity is not his, but the Fathers/1 asked,Where, then, is Christ? He answered,Inthe lowest parts of heaven, as He proved by his humilia-tion before the Father and by suffering himself to becrucified/ To this he added some witty remarks aboutthe worship of Him, which then broke forth from theworld into his memory, the sum of which was, thatthe worship of Christ was nothing but idolatry, and hewanted to add something horrible about that worship;but the angels who were with me shut his lips. ButI, being zealous to convert him, said,The Lord ourSaviour is not only both God and Man, but in Him,moreover, God is Man and Man is God/ And this Iconfirmed by Pauls saying,That in Him dwellethall the fulness of divinity bodily*(Col. ii. 9) ; and byJohns,That He is the true God and eternal life*(lEpistle v. 20); as also from the words of the Lord him-self,*That it is the will of the Father that whosoeverbelieves on the Son hath eternal life, and that he whobelieves not shall not see life, but the wrath of God abid-eth on him (John iii. 36 ; vi. 40) ; and, finally, by whatis called the Athanasian Creed, which declares that inChrist, God and Man are not two but one, and are inone Person, like the soul and body in man. Hearingthis, he replied :What are all those things whichyou have presented from the Word but empty sounds?Is not the Word the book of all heresies, and so likethe weathercocks on housetops and ships masts, whichturn every way according to the wind? It is predes-tination alone that determines all things pertaining toreligion; this is the habitation and tabernacle wherethey all meet ; and faith, through which come justifica-217
  • 230. Appendix Btion and salvation, is there the innermost place andsanctuary. Has any man free-will in spiritual things?Is not the whole of salvation gratuitous? Any argu-ments, therefore, against these principles, and so againstpredestination, I listen to and value as much as I doeructations from the stomach or the rumbling of thebowels. Hence I have thought that a temple whereinthey teach anything else from the Word, and the crowdthere congregated, are like a pen of beasts containingboth sheep and wolves, the latter being muzzled, how-ever, by the laws of civil justice, lest they should attackthe sheep (by the sheep I mean the predestined); andI regard the preaching and praying there like so muchhiccoughing. But I will give you my confession offaith ;it is this : There is a God, and He is omnipotent ;and there is no salvation for any but those who areelected and predestined to heaven by God the Father;and all others are condemned to their lot, that is, to theirfate/ Hearing this, I retorted, with much warmth,What you say is impious. Begone, wicked spirit!Since you are in the spiritual world, do you not knowthere is a heaven and a hell, and that predestinationinvolves that some are enrolled for heaven and somefor hell? Can you, then, form to yourself any otheridea of God than as of a tyrant, who admits His favoritesinto the city and sends the rest to the rack? You oughtto be ashamed of yourself/ I then read to him whatis written in the dogmatic book of the evangelical Prot-estants, called Formula Concordiae, about the erroneousdoctrine of the Calvinists respecting the worship ofthe Lord and predestination. Respecting the worshipof the Lord, as follows :fIt is damnable idolatry, ifthe confidence and faith of the heart are placed in Christ,not only according to his divine, but also according to218
  • 231. Appendix BIlls human, nature, and the honor of worship is directedto both/ And respecting predestination, as follows:1Christ did not die for all men, but only for the elect.God has created the greater part of men for eternal dam-nation, and does not wish that this part should be con-verted and live. The elect and born again cannot losefaith and the Holy Spirit, although they should commitall kinds of great sins and crimes. But those whoare not elected are necessarily damned, nor can theyattain to salvation even if they were to be baptized athousand times, to partake of the sacrament daily, and,moreover, to lead as holy and blameless a life as it isever possible to live(from the Leipsic edition of 1756,pp. 837, 838). After reading this, I asked him whetherthis which was written in that book was from his doc-trine or not. He said that it was, but that he did notremember whether or not those very words had flowedfrom his pen, although they might have flowed fromhis lips. All the servants of the Lord hearing this,withdrew from him, and he betook himself hastily toa way that led to a cave which is occupied by thosewho have confirmed in themselves the execrable dogmaof predestination. I afterwards conversed with someof those imprisoned in that cave and asked about theirlot. They said that they were compelled to labor forfood, that all were enemies of each other, that eachsought an occasion to do evil to the other, and also did itwhenever he found the slightest opportunity, and thatthis was the delight of their lives. On predestinationand1the predestinarians, see also what is said above,n. 485-488."I have also conversed with many others, both withfollowers of these three men and with heretics [or othersects] ; and respecting all of them I was enabled to form219
  • 232. Appendix Bthis conclusion: that whoever among them have liveda life of charity, and still more those who have lovedtruth because it is truth, in the spiritual world sufferthemselves to be instructed, and accept the doctrines ofthe new church; while, on the other hand, those whohave confirmed themselves in falsities of religion, andalso those who have lived an evil life, do not suffer them-selves to be instructed. These latter remove step bystep from the new heaven, and associate themselveswith their like who are in hell, where they confirm them-selves more and more obstinately against the worshipof the Lord, even to such an extent that they cannotbear to hear the name of Jesus. But it is the reversein heaven, where all unanimously acknowledge theLord as the God of heaven/
  • 233. INDEXABDALLAH, Death of, 154.Abel, Carl, the Holy For-est, 98../Eneas at dawn puts up aprayer of thanks to Tiber,the river god, 129.Agassiz, Professor, his curi-ous dream, 19.Animals :Predatory differ fromdomesticated animalsby seeking their preyby night and sleep-ing by day, 83.Moral distinctions be-tween lower animalsand man when awak-ened from sleep, 84.Domestic become wildif not protected fromtheir enemies whilethey sleep, 84.Wild animals tamed byaccustoming them tosleep without fear, 84.Venomous snakes donot close their eyes,85-Ardatus dedicated a templefor sacrifices to the Musesand to Sleep, 131.Arnold, Sir Edwin,"Deathof Abdallah," 154.BAXTER, RICHARD, Inquiryinto the Nature of the Soul,24.Bede, Venerable, aided byan angel in his sleep, 32.Bible the most importantrepository of facts aboutsleep, 56.Bonnenhausen, De, story ofa femme bigote, 182.Brown, Sir Thomas, likenessof sleep to death, 162.Bryant, Julia, verses of herfather on, 30.Bryant, William C., "TheLand of Dreams," 29.Buffon, sleep as we descendin organized life, 49.Bushnell, Rev. Horace,"Theman is next to a devil whowakes angry," 113."Night, the judgment-bar of the day," 26.Byron, Lord, story told toGeorge Ticknor, 100,CAIUS MARIUS accosts Ciceroin a dream, 55.Calvin, while a boy, criticalnot social, 37.While a student atOrleans, by neglectof sleep, provokedpremature death, 38.Swedenborgs report ofhis state of life inthe spiritual world,214.Carlyle, Thomas, his esti-mate of Swedenborg, 205.221
  • 234. IndexChance, Nothing happensby, no.Chinese punish flagrantcrimes by preventingcriminals from sleeping,82.Ciceros dream, 54, 55.Clark, Dr. Alonzo, all cura-tive agents poisons, 194.Coleridge, S. T., estimate ofSwedenborg, 205.DANTE, the morning hour,127.Death, a sleep, 145.Dream, Ciceros, 54, 55.Dreamers always awakeif they remember theirdreams, 15.Dreaming, Impoverishingmorally not to allow timefor, 170.Dreams imply imperfectsleep, 14.Drugs are all poisons, 192.Dryden, morning dreamsforeshow future weal orwoe, 129.EMERSON, RALPH WALDO,his estimate of Sweden-borg, 203.FRANKLIN, DR., his recrea-tions, 6.Cost of procuring pleas-ant dreams, 192.GAELIC proverb, 76.Goethes proverb, 6Grindon, Leo H., Life: tltsNature, Varieties, andPhenomena, 26.HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM,"mental latency," 132. ,Hayti defeats Napoleon, 82, iHerrick, Robert, 14. iHerring, D discovers thedrug lachesis, 86.Homer, kinship of sleep anddeath, 160.Hood, Rev. Edwin Paxton,estimate of Swedenborg,204.Humboldt allowed onlythreehours for sleep, 100.His Cosmos criticised,lor.Hypnos putting a lion tosleep, 52.Hypnotism, 17.IAMBLICHUS, 53.Idiots and lunatics, howtreated in the spiritualworld, 185.Insanity and idiocy, a par-tial suspension of con-sciousness as in sleep, andthus spiritually sheltered,172.JACOB, grandson of Abra-ham, with a stone for hispillow, had marvellousdreams, 48.James, Henry, estimate ofSwedenborg, 206.Jardin des Plantes, curiousdream of Professor Agas-siz, 20.Joseph called by his breth-ren a dreamer, 170.Jouffroy, the mind contin-ues to develop in sleep asin waking hours, 1 1 .His farewell to his pu-pils, 171.LACHESIS, most venomous ofserpents, 85.Therapeutic effect ofits poison, persistentsleeplessness, 86.Lactantius and Lucretius222
  • 235. Indexrepresent persons risingfrom sleep as from death,like flame from disturbedashes, 159.Lamb, Charles, account ofthe delight of insanity,173.Lasegue, alcohol deliriumnot a delirium but adream, 197.Lazelle, Captain H. M.,quoted, 9.Leo XIII., God alone is life,145.Leonard, W. S., account ofthe discovery of lachesisas a drug by Dr. Herring,85-Life emanates from ourCreator, who is life, 145.We know nothing of itthat warrants us toimpute to it perish-ability, 150.Lunatics and idiots, howtreated of in the Bible,183.Some who have placedthe world under in-calculable obligations176-180.Their condition in thespiritual world, 185.No difference betweenthe brain of, and of asane man, 182.Luther, how treated in thespiritual world, 208.MACROBIUS recovered thetext of Scipios dream, 146.Magnetism, 17.Man, his constituents, spir-itual and material, 7.A spiritual tenant of amaterial body, 143.Manaceine, Marie, sleep phe-nomena, 100.Martha the world sympa-thizes with, but Jesuspraised Mary, 171.Matter has no faculty oforiginating or arrestingmotion, 7.Meibon, Heinrich, likenessof sleep and death, 164.Melancthon, his state of lifein the spiritual world, 211.Memory, an external and aninternal one, 130.Menander, sleep the naturalcure of all diseases, 82.Menzel denounces Hum-boldt, 101.Mesmerism, 17.Milton, sleep a gentle drift-ing to immortal life, 145."When morn purplesthe east," 128.Mohammed receives a visitfrom the Angel Gabriel,54-Morning, Epochal eventswhich have occurred inthe, 1 1 8.Muses, Temple of, and Sleep,built by Ardatus, becausesleep alone, of all thedeities, was friendly to theMuses, 131.NAMATIANUS, CLAUDIUS Ru-TILIUS, rebukes a Jew forhis idleness every seventhday in imitation of hiswearied God, 104.Napoleon I. commends thereligion of Mohammed,54-Discpmflted by Tous-saint LOuverture, 82.Newton, R. Clarke, sleep-lessness a starvation ofthe cerebrum, 195.Night, The, Henry Vaugaansverses on, 165.223
  • 236. IndexONEIROS, the Greek god ofdreams, 52.Ovid and the morning hour,127.PARSONS, THEOPHILTJS, hisestimate of Swedenborg,206Parsons, T. W., "Visions ofthe morn, when dreamsare truest/7128.Pausanias, Temple for sac-rifices to the Muses andSleep, 131.Account of Oneiros andHypnos, 52.Picture of Death andSleep, i 60.Peabody, Dr. A. P., 199.Perseus, King of Macedoniamurdered by privation ofsleep, 82.Phenomenal world, Detach-ment from, in sleep, ab-solute, 21.And one of the supremebehests of a Christianlife, 22.Pilate warned wisely by adream of his wife, 69.Po]3e, Alexander, "Whattime the mom mysteriousvisions brings," 128.Pope Leo XIII., God aloneis life, 145.REST, as implying inac-tivity, a substitution ofidleness for labor, errone-ous, 44.No example of absoluterest in nature, 8.Resting, what is meant byGods resting on theseventh day, 103.Richardson, Benjamin Ward,diseases of modern life,Rustic, A, first visit to alarge city, cannot sleep,ii.SABBATHS, supplementary,168.Savages shorter lived thanthe civilized because moreexposed to surprises bynight, 84.Schmettau denounces Hum-boldts influence on theworld, 1 01.Science now admits thatneither physical nor psy-chical faculties are at restduring sleep, 10.Scotch ploughboy who hadnever enjoyed a nightsrest, 13.Serpents, the venomousnever close their eyes, 85.The harmless sleep atnight, 85.Capture of lachesis,the most deadly ofvenomous serpents,by Dr. Herring, 85.Therapeutic effects oflachesis, persistentsleeplessness, 86.Shakespeares view of theuses and purposes of sleep,88.Sleep, Why do we spend one-third of our lives in ? i .No function of ourbody rests in, 3.None of the animalnor vegetable king-doms inactive in, 4.Invitation of nature to,22.Marvellous changeswrought by, not phys-ical but psychical, 25.Quantity needed varieswith our age, 42 ,224
  • 237. IndexEffect of, on the de-mands of our stom-ach, 44.When awake on ourbed, we lie but a fewminuteswithout mov-ing. If asleep we re-main immovable formany hours, 47.As we descend in or-ganized life, moresleep is required, 49.Our impressions ofsleep formed before itarrives and after webegin to awake, 5 1 .,<Consequences of its pri-vation, 78.The natural cure of alldisease, 82.It is a transient death,143-In it we have no morepower over anythingin the visible worldthan when awake wehave over anythingin the spiritual world,146.Its resemblance to deathrecognized in the Bi-ble, 155; byLucretius,I 59" by Homer, 160;by Xenophon andHesiod, 161; by SirThomas Brown, 162;by Heinrich Meibonand Henry Vaughan,164.Death and Sleep in theGreek Pantheon wereplaced beside eachother as brothers,159.Why we are kept in ig-norance of what goeson in our sleep, 188.Its enemies, 190.Sleepers, supposed by theancients to be more apt toreceive divine comrnunica-95*Sleeping in church explain-ed, 91.Sleep-walkers, their activity,sagacity, and strength, 15.Smith, Professor Joseph M.,drugs do not cure disease,195.Somnambulists, superiorcourage and abilities insleep, 15.Supplementary Sabbaths,168.Swedenborg, dual memory,internal and external, 133.Spiritually illuminated,32.Letter to the King ofSweden, 33.Letter to Ostinger, 34.Whv a credible witness,36.Interviews with Luther,Melancthon, and Cal-vin (Appendix B) ,208.How idiots and luna-tics in the spiritualworld acquire under-standings suitable totheir former quality,185.His theory of the pun-ishment of evil spirits,137.Swift, Dean, letter to Pope,98.TEMPLES, sleepers in sup-posedby the ancients moreapt to receive divine com-munications in sleep thansleeping elsewhere, 95.225
  • 238. IndexTicknor, George, story toldhim by Lord t Byron, 100.Tod, Maria Kennedy, verse,41, 42.Tolstoi, Count, how, if onewishes, he makes othersdo wrong, 191.Toussaint LOuverture, howhe defeated Napoleonsarmy in Hayti, 82.Tuke, Dr. Hack, exercise ofthought on a high level,common in sleep, 16.VAUG-HAN, HENRY, likenssleep to death, 164.Vaughan, R. A., Hours withthe Mystics, 53." The Night," verses on,165.Virgils ^Eneas prayer of Ti-ber, to Juno, 129.Virtues all tavor sleep, vicesdiscourage it, 200.Voltaire dreams of suppingwith Touron, 30.Recites first canto ofthe "Henriade" in adream, 31.All our ideas come to usin sleep, independent-ly and in spite of us,SI-WALKER, PRESIDENT F. A.,on force, 76.Waller, lines on old age, 43.Watson, Mr., lines "To theUnknown God," 30.World, The, synonym for*al sorts of lusts, 141.XENOPHON, likeness of sleepto death, 164.THE END
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