.., ~1.substanct        nub  OR MORALITY AND RELIGION    IN THEIR RELATION TO     LIFE: AN ESSAY UPON        THE PHYSICS O...
-             THE :: f.-I YORK                           PUBLIC LIBRARY                           5AaJR1~~ ~D             ...
TABLE OF CONTENTS.                                                  --+--                                                 ...
lV                        Table     of Contents.                             CHAPTER V.                                   ...
~able      of Contents.                              v                                                                    ...
VI                         ~able      of Contents.                             CHAPTER XIII.                              ...
fable of Contents.                             Vll                       CHAPTER XVII.                                    ...
VIll                           Table of Contents.                                                                         ...
fable of Contents.                                        IX                                                              ...
x                             crable of Contents.                                                                         ...
THE INTRODUCTION.   THE leading words of my title-page call fora precise definition, in order that the reader mayclearly d...
4              ~he   Introduflion.becomes pronounced either the one sort of manor the other could not be his action, and c...
[he Introduflion.          ,/ ismajority or manhood, what every man, as man,possesses in common with every other man.    B...
(he Introduf1j()l1.al ways understand me, then, as using the wordreligion in its strictly literal signification, to in-dic...
~he In/roduE/ion.                   7  duced by some body intercepting the light.  Thus the shadow of the tree upon the la...
~ ~~? ~t~r 1t,~jJ1P~-l t ~ t1<-.rl~,_                 4-;>   ~~~i~~k,~.       8                the lntrodllffion.       na...
the IntroduElion.              9few months hence, possibly, and it will be in-distinguishable from the dust of the earth. ...
10              lhe In/roduEfrol1.    mans social destiny. The three elements which    determine its constitution as a sha...
7he Introduflion.                11vivifying sap, and humbles its superb life to theground, in the interests of a spring t...
12              crhe IntrfJduElion.our men in office are to lend themselves to atro-cious jobbery; how incessantly public ...
tfhe Introduflion.thing can well be. The moral force was neveranything but a scaffolding for Gods spiritual·house in the s...
The Introduflion. the subject himself as finitely constituted or dif-ferenced from all other men, giving place to thehumbl...
The Introdultio1l.towards what is decidedly rococo In fashion, andnot seldom bestows a word of munificent Phari-saic patro...
VJv. ~~..ttl d.t" vfP~1 ~*~ wrJtI ft··Jc.6-.           H   J.~~." ~JI        ~ ~.,)H :..,!~ ~?ld                 k   l-rp-...
7he IntroduElion.               17Daily I visit this sepulchre in which the Lordlay buried. I find the spiced linen garmen...
18               ~he   Introdutlion.interests. Unquestionably. But how if He can-not deal directly with its spiritual inte...
~he   Introdutlion.be loved in such a way as to take captive myheart and understanding.         N ow as naturallyconstitut...
20               ~he   IntroduBion.the mighty, and base things and things whichmen despise, yea and things which are not, ...
~he   Introdllflion.           21duty to love Him. At this rate one could neverlove his fellow-man even, but would come at...
22                ~he   IntroduElion.  us - He may give them totally new and unex-  pected issues in harmony with His own ...
The Introduflr"on.the vulgarest private and sectarian pretension.It has so completely renounced its ancient andpurely typi...
Cfhe Introduffion.  ual impotence and self-distrust, but all simply to  jump from a grossly absurd fear of Gods per-  sona...
~e   Introdutlion.             25Gods sight, by which the subject is eternallydifferenced from other men; and the clergy a...
The IntroduElion. ever transgressed thy commandments, and yet thou hast never given me the slightest expres- sion of thy h...
[he Introduffion.             27eous, unexacting heart [I will say unto him,Father, I have sinned against heaven~ and befo...
the Introduflion.sacraments, with papacy or with prelacy, withCalvin or Socinus; but only with a heart in itssubject of un...
AN ESSAY        ON THEPHYSICS OF CREATION.
By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down; yea, we wept,when we remembered Zion.  We hanged our harps upon the willows i...
AN ESSAY                     ON THE        PHYSICS OF CREATION.                 CHAPTER I.   MANY of my friends have at va...
Relation of Swedenborg " pure God shows himself pure; to the froward he shows himself froward. "A man receives," says Swed...
to the Intellect.              33The good man has always been thought to begood in himself, absolutely good, and thus even...
34          HIS   Staunch rindicationone person as naturally constituted (say. theapostle John,) which He does not feel to...
of Human Equality.              3S   But he makes much more thorough work ofit than this. He maintains this uncompromis-in...
~he    Angels devoidsal."l "There is no will of good, nor any un-derstanding of truth, which attaches to the angelhimself,...
of Personal Worth.               37angels the most celestial will prove very disa-greeable persons to many who now aspire ...
~he    .Angels devDidnothing but evil and falsity, as is shown to thelife after death. The truth of this statement isdemon...
of   Personal Worth.             39showing no favor to any but those who shouldbecome his abject slaves. Such is the natur...
40       Swedenborgs Statements imply   Such is the fundamental postulate of this phi-losophy: but this would go but a lit...
a Profound Philosophy.and superior style of life. Morality is a purelyrational fact. It supposes its subject to be aratio,...
Its Fundamental Notion    Freedom or selfhood, then, is implied in Gods creature, just as the foundation of a house is im-...
the Dependence of Morality.          43to regard it. I may feel myself to be my ownmaster just as much as I please, and cl...
44           Its Fundamental Notion  tion as a purely physical exploit of Gods  power, an event in time and space; and hen...
the Dependence of Morality.          45that our conduct should be visibly self-moved,or date from ourselves exclusively, t...
Our Moral Forceresult very probable whenever the occaSiOn todecide shall arise.   N ow the popular theologian looking at t...
perpetually communicated.          47help appropriating it, or feeling it to be indeedbone of my bone and flesh of my fles...
Our Moral Forcebasis or foundation in the individual bosom, fora stupendous spiritual edifice which the Divinewisdom is as...
perpetually communicated.           49intellect thence engendered. The invinciblewitness of the heart towards God is, that...
CHAPTER II.   THE profoundest of our sensuous judgments,and the basis of the religious instinct in us, is,that our natural...
Moral Life in order to Spiritual.        51in aggravated form; that where we approvethe good man and condemn the evil one,...
52         Moral Life in order to Spiritual.pronounces us His children, redeemed from dis-tant creatureship into intimate ...
Kant and Swedenborg.               53that is to say, does not express the relation ofthe creature to the creator, but of t...
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr

1,249 views
1,209 views

Published on

The Swedenborg moment and movement in America. Henry James 1811-1882. Religion and Philosophy united. (google books + OCR)

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,249
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Henry james-substance-and-shadow-or-morality-and-religion-in-their-relation-to-life-boston-1863 google books and ocr

  1. 1. .., ~1.substanct nub OR MORALITY AND RELIGION IN THEIR RELATION TO LIFE: AN ESSAY UPON THE PHYSICS OF CREATION. BY HENRY JAMES. + ....... BOSTON: TICKNOR AND FIELDS. J8~. t._ ~- L, Coogle
  2. 2. - THE :: f.-I YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 5AaJR1~~ ~D TILDEN }OuNOATIONS R 1932 L Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, by HENRY JAMES,In the Clerks Office of the District Court of the District of Rhode Island. I • • ~~ ~ ~ : : 1 ... ~.. • •• . . --~ RiUerside Press: Stereotyped and Printed by H. O. HOUGHTON. ..
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS. --+-- PAG!! THE INTRODUCTION·································· 3 CHAPTER I. Relation of Swedenborg to the Intellect. - His staunch vin- dication of human equality. - The angels devoid of personal, I worth. - Swedenborgs statements imply a profound Philosophy. - Ita fundamental notion, the dependence of Morality. - Que moral force a perpetual communication •....•. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 31 CHAPTER II. Moral life in order to spiritual.-Kant and Swedenborg.- Swedenborgs doctrine of the origin of Evil. - His sincere tes- timony to the actuality of creation. - Infinite love necessarily " creative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . .. 50 CHAPTER III. How the letter of Revelation degrades its spiritual contents. - Time and Space constitutional conditions of our conscious- ness. - Natural Religion affronts the heart even more than the head. - The Divine perfection is eminently human· •..•••.. 65 CHAPTER IV. The Divine Humiliation. - The creature must necessarily antagonize the creative perfeetion. - Personality the true mar- vel of creation. - The creatures identity the prime interest of creation. - The practical obstacle to it in the nature of the creature. - Revelation alone competent to the question .•••. , 78
  4. 4. lV Table of Contents. CHAPTER V. PACK Philosophys true function. - Treachery of philosophers to it.- Sir William Hamilton makes scepticism the basis of faith.-Kant makes real things unintelligible, and intelligible things un-real. - Sir William Hamilton runs Kants doctrine into theground. - Between the two Philosophy is. reduced to a pioushiccup. - Philosophy is totally unharmed by the Positivists.-The total problem of Philosophy is to reconcile Freedom withDependence. - Swedenborg alone solves it honestly and with-out ostentation· .•..•.•..... , ........•••.•.. " .. .. .... . 89 CHAPTER VI. Swedenbor~s Doctrine of Nature.-Natures total subordi-nation to spinto - Discrimination of moral from spiritual life,largely illustrated···············.······· •••• •• ••••• ·.• 106 CHAPTER VII. Incompetency of reason in spiritual things. - Nature is animplication of the spiritual world. - It is according to Swe-denborg the Hand of Gods Power. - Moral righteousness in.compatible with spiritual innocence. - The Law is intendedto minister death. - Moral force characterizes us only in theinfancy of our spiritual developmen t. - The Law alone givesa knowledge of sin. - Delight in ritual righteousness fatal tospiritual life. - Our spiritual creation contingent upon ournatural redemption. - We are born only to be reborn······· 118 CHAPTER VIII. Morality is a platform for our spiritual regeneration. - It isthe subject earth of spiritual existence. - Natural existencesforms of use. - SpiritUal existences forms of power. - Naturesdiscords harmonized in man. - Our moral discords harmonizedin the social development of the race. - Society or fellowshipamong men the proper outcome of the Divine redemption ofNature.- Thus the moral sentiment claims only a social glo-rification. - Individual regeneration is a fruit of our naturalredemption.- Church and Slate are mere factors of a perfectsociety. - The Divine benignity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • . . .• 137 CHAPTER IX. The letter of religion inversely serviceable to its sprnt.-Revelation implies a veiling of spiritual truth; i.~. a lowering
  5. 5. ~able of Contents. v PAGEof it to the capacity of carnal minds. - The Divine is prima-rily akin to our least reputable interests; or has chief regard towhat men esteem the least.- Hostility of the religious con-science to Gods humane perfection. - The fearful perversionwhich Orthodoxy makes of the Christian Atonement. - Rit-uality fatal to spirituality " 156 CHAPTERX. Testimony of experience. - The aim of all Gods dealingswith us is to undermine our virtue, or ollr conceit of our abilityto be better in ourselves than other people. - Redemption thesole secret of creation. - The conscience of sin. - It is theonly legitimate fruit of religious culture. - Is the conscience ofsin real or dramatic 1 - The sectarian view absurd. - Thejudgment is exclusively a spiritual one. - The philosophicmeaning of the judgment. - The true confession of sin isnever a ritual one. - Ones conscience of sin means inwardlyhis worship of Gods perfection. - It is a mere practical decla-ration that Gods goodness is ineffable· ••.•. , ..•••••••• " 168 CHAPTER XI. The Church affects a real sanctity. - She lives by adroitlyflattering our self-righteous instincts. - Moral righteousnesswhen regarded as a positive quantity, fatal to spiritual innocenceand peace. - The church embodies and authenticates our nat-ural sottishness in Divine things. - She is the refuge and cita_del of a frenzied egotism and unbelief. - There are very manyin the church who are not of it. - The church cannot conferboth a literal and a spiritual sanctity. - Which alternative doesshe see fit to adoptl- She adopts the latter · IS8 CHAPTER XII. Salvation and damnation, spiritually interpreted, mean sever-ally to love aud hate our kind.- The tap-root of character isones conception of God. - The unhandsome fruits of Catholicreligiosity. - The subtler but more harmful fruits of Protestantf.maticism. - When the son of man cometh, shall he find faithon the earth 1 - The Jew and the Christian are, respectively,carnal tlpe and spiritual substance. - Religion is now the idolof men s impure devotion. - The sole legitimate force of re-ligion cathartic not alimentative. - The true enemy of God isalways the saint, never the sinner. •• ••• • •• • . • • • . • • • . . . . .. a05 b
  6. 6. VI ~able of Contents. CHAPTER XIII. PAGI The kingdom of God to come on earth. - Man is a micro-cosm because the cosmos is 3 grand man.- The heart of menis much in advance of their head. - Regeneration impossiblesave through a redemption of Nature. - In Christ God is re-vealed as a glorified NATURAL man: hence Christianity por-tends a Divine innocence for man in the sphere of his naturallite. - Our religious life is a standing opprobrium to the Divinename. -The life which Christ inaugurates in human na.ture isnot post-mortem existence. - God is perfect Man· . . . • • • • •• 2.24 CHAPTER XIV. The thorough redemption of Nature in Christ. - Christ isnot a spirit but a Divine natural man. - Swedenborg scoutsthe notion of any arbitrary power in God, there being no infantwho has not more. - Angel and devil both involved in Man.- Inlluence of the Christian truth in the natural sphere ofthe mind. - In Divine order the First is last, and the Lastfirst. - Hell is glorified in conventional, Heaven in true, Man-hood·· ..•••••••••.....•••••.•...••....•...••.•...... 341 CHAPTER XV. Nature implied in Man. - Incompetency of the church tointerpret Revelation. Both Theology and Philosophy as atpresent administered only inllame our native Pharisaism.-There is but One Life, and we are His constant creatures.-The philosophic idea of creation. - It is the giving inwardsubstance to what in itself is pure form. - Our subjective historyinvolved in our objective creation. - A subject can never prop-erly be his own object. - Kant refutes creation by the fictionof noumenal existence. - Sir William Hamilton hereupon de-grades Philosophy into snivel· • • . . • . • . . . • • • • • • . . . • . . • . . •. 356 CHAPTER XVI. Constitution is not character, any more than heart and lungsare the body. - Kant habitually confounds the two things, orsupposes that you give being to things when you give themphenomenality. - Idealism the bane of Philosophy from thebeginning of time till now. - Swedenborg puts a stop to phil-osophic guessing. - Hamilton and Mansels testimony to Phi-losophy. - They make it an abject scepticism relieved byCant··············································· 274
  7. 7. fable of Contents. Vll CHAPTER XVII. PAGK Kants analysis of knowledge. - He makes knowledge afact of physical constitution, not of spiritual creation. - Sci-ence has to do with the constitution of things; Philosophy withtheir creation. - Science deals with the finite and relative; Philosophr with the infinite and absolute. - Facts of life knownfrom withm; facts of existence from without. - The consti-tution of a thing, or what makes it appear, is never what cre-ates it, or makes it he. - Life implies existence; soul body .. 286 CHAPTER XVIII. Life or consciousness unites what sense and reason disunite.- Sir William Hamiltons curious theory of the causal judg-ment. - He finds the cause of a thing in the things own en-trails. - Thus he thinks saltpetre is not merely constituted butcaused by K 0 and N 06. - Cause evoked only to explainsome breach of natural order. - We never ask the cause ofThin~s, but only of their mutations. - Sir W. Hamilton stul-tifies mtelligence by confounding Finiteness with Phenomenal-ity. - They are as distinct as sense and reason. - Cause isadduced to explain facts of phenomenal not of lixed existence.- It is not a sensible but a rational inquest. - Cause is a sci-entific rudiment of the philosophic idea of creation. - Theforce of the causal judgment is In its educating or disciplining the intellect •••••••••.•• • ••••• •··•• •••••• ·•·· ... , • . • •• :&99 CHAPTER XIX. John Mills broad human sympathies. - His failure never-theless to explain the causal instinct. - He also sinks thephilosopher in the man of science. - He restricts cause to amerely constitutive not creative import. - He makes it signifyonly what identifies, not what individualizes things. - Philoso-phy reverses this jud~ment, giving cause a creative efficacy, ormaking it an attestatton exclusively of the spiritual side of life,not of its material. - Cause invariably opens up the supernat-ural realm. - It is in this point of view solely that Philosophyenvisages it. - Men of mere thought, not of life, like Kant,Sir William Hamilton, and the rest, deny cause a spiritual im-plication, because they resolve spiritual being itself into physi- cal constitution. - Kant makes the dissecting.room the school of Philosophy. - He found life so dazzling a thing to contem-plate, that he betook himself, to the unspeakable comfort of
  8. 8. VIll Table of Contents. PAGEhis optics, to the contemplation of death instead: only unfor-tunately he misnamed that death life; and so, by his great au-thority over men cf thought, not of life, stirred up any amountof dreary sepulchral literature. - His pretension to be the Co-pernicus of Philosophy. - His German and Scotch disciples .. 322 CHAPTER XX. The fundamental misconception of the Critical Philosophy.- Kants dread of Philosophy, lest it plainly avouch creation.- Common sense affirms creation. - Pseudo Philosophy deniesit. - Kants fatal philosophic delinquency, in exterioratm~ ob- ject to subject. - The extraordinary performances of Flchte,Schelling, and Hegel thereupon. - The testimony of sense onething; that of consciousness another. - Kant confounds them.- He thought finite and relative to be one and the same con-ception. - Sense divorces what consciousness marries. - Kantreduces Philosophy to a requiem over deceased hopes. - Na-ture a correspondence of the things of the mind. - Man itssole unity. . . • . • . . . . • . . • . . . . • . . . . . . . • •• • . • • . • • • • • • • . •• 347 CHAPTER XXI. Alleged duality of Man and Nature in consciousness.-Their real unity there. - The objective sphere in life alwayscontrols the subjective sphere. - The ground of Kants mIS-take. - A re we properly active or passive in knowledge 1 -Noumenal existence fatal to creation. - Nature necessary toposit the creature, or give him identity. - Imp0rl of the dis-tinction between Identity and Individuality. - Philosophy mustaccept the guidance of Revelation. - Uncontrolled by Philoso-phy science is necessarily atheistic and logic pantheistic. . • • •• 371 CHAPTER XXII. God is not voluntarily but spontaneously creative. - He can-not create Life, but only communicate it. - Before life can becommunicated, a basis of communication must be organized.- Creation in order to be real exacts self hood in the creature;and hence claims to be a I?urely spiritual operation of God. -Orthodoxy turns creation mto a mere ph}Slcal exploit of God.- In truth, however, Nature is but a mask of Gods spiritualpresence. - The creatures identity the supreme care of thecreative Love. - This interest requires that he be an inverseimage of Gods perfection. - Community, the essence of Na-
  9. 9. fable of Contents. IX PAGEture, inversely images the Divine unity. - Natures sole func-ti~n. is to embody the spiritual creation. - She incorporatessplnt •••••••••••••..•.•••••••....••••...•••••.•..••• 395 CHAPTER XXIII. Natures part in creation is J?urely mediatorial. - It is im-plied in Man as body is implied In soul. - History is the vindi-cation of the human form in creation. - Adam a symbol ofthe Divine celestial, Eve of the Divine natural, mind. - Weknow ourselves at first only as sensuously defined. - Sweden-borg compels Nature into the limits of consciousness. - Ouridentity and our individuality equally abject masks of Godscreative presence in us· • • . • • • • . • . • • • • • . . • . • • . . • . . • • • . •• 419 CHAPTER XXIV. The problem of creation. - Insoluble to faith and sciencealike.- Atheism or Pantheism a necessary logical result.-God must give His creature moral conscIOusness as well asphysical being. - The inevitable implication of the finite con-sciousness. - Science is but a bridge between Religion andPhilosophy. - Formula of our intellectual progress: Religion,Science, Philosophy. - Natural religion is bound to give wayto science, while science herself however has no pretension tofinality. - Science is only a handmaid to Philosophy. - Phi-losophy alone has power hvingly to reinstate religion. - Relig-ion the heart, science the lungs, of the mind. - Science purgesFaith of its sensuous elements. - Philosophy is the brain ofthe mind· •••.••••••••••••••••••••••..•• , • • • . • • • • • • •• 434 CHAPTER XXV. History summed up in the interests of church, state, and so-ciety. - Its practical scope is to free Eve from the dominationof Adam; that is, invert the relation of subserviency whichthe principle of Individuality is under to that of Universality.-It transfigures our natural communism itself into the intensestindividuality. - Man by creation is perfectly imbecile in him-self. - Neither man angel nor devil has the least power in him-self. - Mans freedom utterly pliant to the Divine behests.-Marble is not so pliant to the hand of the sculptor. - Our na-tive evil a negative witness to the divinity of our ori~in. - Ourexperience of evil strictly constitutional or subjective. - Evilfor man means the domination of the individual by the common I
  10. 10. x crable of Contents. PAGElife. - Good on the other hand means the social subjection ofthe common to the individual life· .. ·· . . . . .. • • • • .. .. . • . .. 46 r CHAPTER XXVI. Spiritual import of the Gospel. - Creation means the givingnatural substance to spiritual form. - Nature means the princi-ple of community in all existence. - Philosophic bearing ofthe Christian truth. - Consciousness always identifies us withmaternal nature. - Why does the wifes personality merge inthat of the husband 1- The reason to be found only In the sym-bolism of marriage. - Marriage typifies the union of infiniteand finite in true manhood. - What has so long blinded us tothe spiritual contents of Revelation 1- The churchs supersti-tion. - Gloria i/l excelsis domino. . . . . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 484ApPENDIX. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• 509
  11. 11. THE INTRODUCTION. THE leading words of my title-page call fora precise definition, in order that the reader mayclearly discern the aim of the discussion to whichI invite his attention. tJ3y morality I mean that sentiment of self-hood or property which every man not an idiotfeels in his own bodyljIt is a state of consciousfreedom or rationality, exempting him from thefurther control of parents or guardians, and en-titling him in his own estimation and that ofhis fellows, to the undivided ownership of hiswords and deeds. It is the basis of consciencein man, or what enables him to appropriate goodand evil to himself, instead of ascribing the for-mer as he may one day learn to do exclusivelyto celestial, the latter exclusively to infernal in-fluence. The word is often viciously used as asynonyme of spiritual goodness, as when wegay, "A is a very moral man," meaning a justone; or, "B is a very immoral man," meaning an unjust one. No man can be either good or evil, either just or unjust, but by virtue of his morality; i. e. unless he have selfhood, or free- dom entitling him to own his action. This is a rondriio sine qua non. The action by which he
  12. 12. 4 ~he Introduflion.becomes pronounced either the one sort of manor the other could not be his action, and conse-quently could never afford a basis for his spirit-ual development, unless he possessed this origi-nal moral force, or strict neutrality with respectto heaven and hell; but would on the contrarybe an effect in every case of overpoweringspiritual influence. We should be very care-ful, therefore, not to confound the condition ofan event with the event itself, as we do whenwe call the good man moral, and deny moralityto the evil man. For if the good man alonebe moral, while the evil man is immoral, thenmorality ceases to be any longer the distinctivebadge of human nature itself, which separatesit from all lower natures (so furnishing a plat-form for Gods spiritual descent into it), andbecomes the mere arbitrary endowment of cer-tain persons. The error in question originatesin, at least is greatly promoted by, our habitof calling the decalogue" the moral law." As .the law is instinct with an ineffable Divine sanc-tity, we get at last to think that the word whichwe so commonly couple with it partakes ofright the same sanctity, and accordingly callonly the man who obeys it moral, while hewho disobeys it is immoral. In point of fact,however, morality means nothing more nor lessthan that state of natural neutrality or indiffer-ence to good and evil, to heaven and hell, whichdistinguishes man from all other existence, andendows him alone with selfhood or freedom.Thus the term properly designates our natural
  13. 13. [he Introduflion. ,/ ismajority or manhood, what every man, as man,possesses in common with every other man. By religion I mean - what is invariablymeant by the term where the thing itself stillexists - such a conscience on mans part of ~forfeiture of the Divine favor, as perpetuallyurges him to make sacrifices of his ease, hisconvenience, his wealth, and if need be his life,in order to restore himself, if so it be possible,to that favor. This is religion in its literalform; natural religion; religion as it standsauthenticated by the universal instincts of therace, before it has undergone a spiritual con-version inJo life, and while claiming still apurely ritual embodiment. I t is however inthis gross form the germ of all humane cul-ture. Accordingly we sometimes use the termin an accommodated sense, I: e. to express thespiritual results with which religion is fraughtrather than the mere carnal embodiment it firstof all offers to such results. Thus the apostleJames says: Pure and undefiled religion (I. e.,religion viewed no longer as a letter, but as aspirit), is to visit the fatherless and the widow,and keep oneself unspotted from the world (I:e., has exclusive reference to the life).. Te alsosay proverbially, handsome is that handsomedoes; not meaning of course to stretch theword handsome out of its literal dimensions, butonly by an intelligible metonomy of body forsoul, or what is natural for what is spiritual, toexpress in a compendious way the superiorityof moral to physical beauty. My reader will
  14. 14. (he Introduf1j()l1.al ways understand me, then, as using the wordreligion in its strictly literal signification, to in-dicate our ritual or ceremonious homage to theDivine name. N ow morality and religion, thus interpreted.are regarded on my title-page as concurring topromote the evolution of mans spiritual destinyon earth. Mans destiny on earth, as I am led to con-ceive it, consists in the realization of a perfectsociety, fellowship, or brotherhood among men,proceeding upon such a complete Divine subju-gation in the bosom of the race, first of self·loveto brotherly love, and then of both loves to uni.versal love or the love of God, as will amountto a regenerate nature in man, by convertingfirst his metely natural consciousness, which isone of comparative isolation and impotence,into a social consciousness, which is one of com-parative omnipresence and omnipotence; andthen and thereby exalting his moral freedom,which is a purely negative one, into an restheticor positive form: so making spontaneity andnot will, delight and no longer obligation, thespring of his activity. But morality and religion are further regardedon the title-page as bearing, in the evolution ofthe spiritual destiny of man on earth, the rela-tion respectively of substance and shadow. Itonly remains that I explicate this point, in orderto put in the readers hands the clew to my entirethought. A shadow is a phenomenon of vision pro-
  15. 15. ~he In/roduE/ion. 7 duced by some body intercepting the light. Thus the shadow of the tree upon the lawn is an effect of the tree intercepting the suns rays. My shadow on the wall is an effect of my body intercepting the rays of the candle, and so forth. Evidently then three things concur to constitute a shadow: 1. a light; 2. an opaque body which drinks up or refuses to transmit its rays; 3. a background or suitable plane of projection on which such refusal becomes stamped. Thus the shadow which anything casts is strictly propor- tionate to its power of absorbing the light, or appropriating it to itself: which is only saying. in other words, that the shadow of a thing is the exact measure of its finiteness or imperfec-. tion. i. e. of its destitution of true being. And this remark prepares us to ask what purpose the shadow serves, what intellectual use it renders. Obviously the use or purpose of shadows is to attest finite substance, or separate between phenomenal and real existence. Real existence is that which exists in itself, being vitalized from within. Phenomenal existence is that which exists only by virtue of its implication in something not itself, being vitalized wholly from without. In short real existence is spir- . itual; phenomenal existence natural.J.. So far as J..;-. £. *,dkh<;. ( I am spiritual, that is, to all the extent of my resthetic or spontaneous life, I am a real exist- ence, possessing life in mysel£ So far as I am simply natural, that is, to all the extent of my instinctual and voluntary life, I am a phenome-
  16. 16. ~ ~~? ~t~r 1t,~jJ1P~-l t ~ t1<-.rl~,_ 4-;> ~~~i~~k,~. 8 the lntrodllffion. nal existence, deriving my life from without. My spiritual manhood consequently casts no shadowJWhatsoever I do spontaneously; what- soever I do in obedience to the inspiration of Beauty; whatsoever I do, in short, from individ- ual taste or attraction in opposition to the com- mon instinct of self-preservation; is good and beautiful in itself, is positively or infinitely good, as being without any contrast or oppugnancy of evil. But my physical and moral existence never fails to project a shadow. Let me be as beautiful physically as Venus or Apollo, still I am not really or positively, but only actually or apparently, so; as by contrast with some oppo- site ugliness. Let me be morally as good as all saints and angels, it is yet not a good which is positive or stands by itself, but one which stands in the opposition of evil. In short, my beauty in the one case, and my goodness in the other, is finite; and like all finite existence claims its attendant and attesting shadow. Clearly, then, the purpose of shadows is to attest finite or imperfect existence, existence which does not involve its own substance. The shadow which the tree casts upon the lawn, and that which my body projects upon the wall be- hind me, are a mute confession on the part of body and tree that they are purely finite and phenomenal existences: that while they sensibly appear to be in themselves. their being is yet in something very superior to themselves. Seek this tree a few years hence, and you will find no vestige of it remaining. Ask for this body a
  17. 17. the IntroduElion. 9few months hence, possibly, and it will be in-distinguishable from the dust of the earth. Thisis what the shadow invariably says: - that thesubstance which projects it is a mere appear-ance to the senses, not a reality to the philo-sophic understanding; and that if we wouldpenetrate the world of realities we must trans-cend the realm of sense, the finite realm, andenter that of mind or spirit. J... We now fairly discern the constitution ofthe shadow, and what is its rational scope andsignificance; and are thus prepared to interpretthe greatest of shadows which we call Religion,and which falls everywhere across the page ofhuman history darkening the face of day, turn-ing the fairest promise of nature to blight, un-dermining the most towering pride of moralityby a subtle conscience of sin, and forbidding man to content himself with a righteousness, apeace and a power which shall be anything less than Divine. The reader recalls the constitution of the shadow, namely, that it is always an effect of some opaque body intercepting the rays of light. Thus the shadow which the tree projects upon the lawn is an effect of the tree intercept- ing the suns rays; and the shadow of my per- son on the wall an effect of my body intercept- ing the rays of the lamp. In like manner precisely this stupendous shadow designated by the name of Religion, is an effect produced by our moral consciousness intercepting the rays of the Divine Truth as they shine forth from
  18. 18. 10 lhe In/roduEfrol1. mans social destiny. The three elements which determine its constitution as a shadow are thus distributed: History being the sole field of its projection; Morality the opaque substance which alone projects it; and the Social principle, the principle of a perfect society fellowship or broth- erhood among men, being the great Divine light, of whose obscuration by morality religion has always been at once the shadow and the scourge. So much definition seems due by way of pref- ace in vindication of the title of my book, or in order to apprise my reader that I regard Re- ligion and Morality as respectively shadow and substance in their relation to the social develop- ment of the race. Society-fellowship-equal-I ity- fraternity, whatever name you give it, is the central sun of human destiny, originating aU its motion, and determining the, pathway of its progress towards infinite Love and Wisdom. LMorality and Religion together constitute the subject-earth of self-love which revolves about this centre, now in light now in shade; morality being the illuminated side of that love, religion its obscured side; the one constituting the splen- dor of its day, the other the darkness of its night. Morality is the summer lustihood and luxuriance of self-love, clothing its mineral ribs with vege- table grace, permeating its rigid trunk with sap, decorating its gnarled limbs with foliage, glori- fying every reluctant virgin bud and every mod- est wifely blossom into rich ripe motherly fruit. Religion is the icy winter which blights this summer fertility, which arrests the ascent of its
  19. 19. 7he Introduflion. 11vivifying sap, and humbles its superb life to theground, in the interests of a spring that shall beperennial, and of autumns bursting with imperish-able fruit. In other words, religion has no sub-stantive force. Her sole errand on earth hasbeen to dog the footsteps of morality, to humblethe pride of selfhood which roan derives fromnature, and so soften his interiors to the recep-tion of Divine Truth, as that truth stands ful-.filled in the organization of human equality orfellowshiP.:.! The backbone of morality has long beenprovidentially broken. The moral force menonce had, the power of controlling natural ap-petite and passion, has abated, and in its placehas come a sense of Gods presence in Nature, andthe aspiration to realize in life the infinite Beauty which she reveals. Almost no one is now strong by himself, strong against the floods of natural arrogance and cupidity which are sure to assail him, but only by association with others. Scarce- ly anyone resists the temptation to which he is naturally prone on religious grounds, or from a sentiment of reverence to the Divine name, but only on social grounds or from a sentiment of what is due to good-fellowship. The failure to see this great change in human nature, and to organize it betimes in appropriate institutions, is what keeps us in this state of public and private demoralization, which has at last resulted in the downfall of our political edifice. See what thorough-paced unconscious scoundrels we have long had for politicians. Observe how apt
  20. 20. 12 crhe IntrfJduElion.our men in office are to lend themselves to atro-cious jobbery; how incessantly public and pri-vate trusts are betrayed; how our clergy in suchlarge numbers habitually emasculate and stultifythe gospel, in order to adapt it to the dainty earsof the fierce worldlings who underpin their ec-clesiastical consequence; how ostentation, un-bridled luxury of every sort, and the shamelessapery of foreign class-pretension, even down tothe decorating our imported servants withimported liveries, are corrupting us from ouroriginal democratic simplicity; how rapidlyimmodesty, dissipation, insolence, and the mostunblushing egotism are vulgarizing the man-ners, hardening the visages, and hopelessly blast-ing the hereditary remains of innocence of ourrich young men and women; - and who candoubt that Jeff Davis, Joe Smith, filibusterWalker, secretary Floyd, James Buchanan, andall the other dismal signs and portents of ourcurrent political, and religious life, have beenonly so many providential scourges sent todevastate and consume a world long ripe forthe Divine judgment ~ The only possible explanation of the existingcrisis in human affairs, everywhere indeed, com-patible with the Divine sovereignty, is, that themoral force in man no longer subserves thegreat spiritual uses which once sanctified andsweetened it; that the mission which was once Divinely given it of nurturing men for the skies has been revoked and put in more competent hands. This to my judgment is as plain as any-
  21. 21. tfhe Introduflion.thing can well be. The moral force was neveranything but a scaffolding for Gods spiritual·house in the soul; it was never designed to givepermanent substance but only temporary formto Gods finished work in human nature; andwhen accordingly it ceases to look upon itselfin this subordinate plight, and insists upon be-ing treated not as the scaffolding but as thehouse, not as the mould but as the substance tobe moulded, not as the matrix but as the gem,in short, not as an accessory but as a principal,it loses even this justification and becomes apositive nuisance. The social sentiment, thesense of a living organic unity among men, isaccordingly fast absorbing it or taking it upinto its own higher circulation, whence it willbe reproduced in every regenerate resthetic form.Art is the resurgent form of human activity. The artist or producer is the only regenerate im-age of God in nature, the only living revelationof the Lord on earth. Society itself will erelongrelease her every subject from that responsibilityto his own material interests which has hithertodegraded human life to the ground, and by provid- ing for his honest and orderfy physical subsistence, leave his heart and mind and hand free to the only inspiration they spontaneously acknowledge,-that of infinite Goodness, Truth, and Beauty. This· most profound and intimate life of God in our nature is groping its way to more and more vivid consciousness in us every day; and the consequence is that we see the proud old Pagan ideal of moral virtue, a virtue which inheres in
  22. 22. The Introduflion. the subject himself as finitely constituted or dif-ferenced from all other men, giving place to thehumble and harmless Christian ideal of a purelyspiritual virtue in man, a virtue which inheresin him only as he becomes infinitely constituted,or united with all other men, by the unlimitedindwelling of God in his nature. The Pagangoodness proceeds upon self-denial, and henceimplies merit. The Christian goodness proceedsupon the frankest and fullest possible self-asser-tion, and hence implies boundless humility orgratitude. "After those days, saith the Lord, Iwill put my law in their inward parts, and writeit in their hearts." As the shadow obeys the law of the substance,so religion is bound to undergo a proportionatemodification with that of morality. This is whyreligion in the old virile sense of the word hasdisappeared from sight, and become replaced bya feeble Unitarian sentimentality. The old re-ligion involved a conscience of the profoundestantagonism between God and the worshipper,which utterly refused to be placated by any-thing short of an unconditional pledge of theutmost Divine mercy. The ancient believer felthimself sheerly unable to love God, or do any-thing else towards his salvation, were it only thelifting of a finger. To un-love was his onlytrue loving, to un-learn his only true learning, toun-do his only true doing. The modern relig-ionist is at once amused and amazed at thesecurious archreological beginnings of his own his-tory. He feels towards them as a virtuoso does
  23. 23. The Introdultio1l.towards what is decidedly rococo In fashion, andnot seldom bestows a word of munificent Phari-saic patronage upon them, such as the opulentMr. Ruskin dispenses to uncouth specimens ofearly religious Art. He has not the slightestconception of himself as a spiritual fonn in-wardly enlivened by" all Gods peace and inno-cence. On the contrary, he feels himself to bea strictly moral or self-possessed being, vivifiedexclusively by his own action, or the relationshe voluntarily assumes with respect to humanand Divine law. The modern believer aspiresto be a saint; the ancient one abhorred to beanything but a sinner. The former looks backaccordingly to some fancied era of what he callsconversion: I: e. when he passed from death tolife. The latter was blissfully content to forgethimself, and looked forward exclusively to hisLords promised spiritual advent in all the formsof a redeemed nature. The one is an absolutelychanged man, no longer to be confounded withthe world, and meet for the Divine approbation.The other is a totally unchanged one, only moredependent than he ever was before upon theunmitigated Divine mercy. The one feels sureof going to heaven if the Lord observes the dis-tinctions which his own grace ordains in humancharacter. The other feels sure of going to hellunless the Lord is blessedly indifferent to thosedistinctions. I might multiply these contrasts to any length,but my desire is only briefly to indicate how very near and intimate Gods spiritual approxi-
  24. 24. VJv. ~~..ttl d.t" vfP~1 ~*~ wrJtI ft··Jc.6-. H J.~~." ~JI ~ ~.,)H :..,!~ ~?ld k l-rp-o.,LJ ...k eo. DI4 ~fJr~ -T"( r in. . ~ h~~..J.y Je...tf(.~~. {. (J1t Jb- t!I-4- ~ t.. ,-....-~ ~ ~~ ·w .D _J]6 J. 17he"I1Jtf1JduB/o1l~,f) , __ - .,Il.. ~f11("-1t(.~~~""~.,e IA.~~Y:~..----) mation to our nature must have become, in order to justify those hopes of the purely natu- ral heart towards him. I t is impossible to go to the - - Church in -.- , and observe how skil- fully and yet unconsciously the gifted minister of that parish appeals to all that is most selfish and most worldly in the bosoms of his hearers, in order to build them up a fragrant temple for the Divine indwelling, without feeling ones heart melt with adoration of the Infinite Love which is taking to itself at last the riches of the earth, and making the kingdoms of this world also forever its own. In short, both the world and the church from having been very dense are be- coming almost transparent masks of Gods inef- fable designs of mercy to universal man, and are helping along in their blind delirious way the speedy advent of a scientific human society or brotherhood upon earth. If accordingly my reader discover as he conceives in the progress of my book any animus of hostility either to the polite or the religious world, he will do me the justice to believe that such appearance is only the negative or literal aspect of a love, which on its positive or spiritual side embraces univer- sal man. Let ~ indeed insist on this justice. It is evident enough throughout my book, of course, that I assail ritual or professional religion with undissembled good-will; yet it is quite equally evident, I hope, that I never for a moment do so in the interest of irreligion, but exclusively in the interest of its own imprisoned spirit.
  25. 25. 7he IntroduElion. 17Daily I visit this sepulchre in which the Lordlay buried. I find the spiced linen garments inwhich he was embalmed reverently exhibited,and the napkin that was about his sacred headtenderly folded away and cherished; but no fa-miliar feature of his vanished form remains;he is indeed no longer there but risen. Allthat was late so helpless in him has becomeglorified and triumphant; all that was late sohuman and finite has become Divine and infi-nite. I find, in other words, any amount of literalor personal homage addressed to Christ in thechurch; but never a glance that I can discer.nof spiritual recognition. And yet this alone is real and living; all the rest is dramatic anddead Let us call him Lord! Lord! as muchas we please, and lift up the devoutest possible eyes to some imaginary throne he is supposed to occupy in the super-celestial solitudes; we are utterly inexcusable for so doing, since if we believe his own most pointed and memorable counsels, (Matthew xxv. 31-46,) he is no longer to be found spiritually isolated from, but only most intimately associated with, the business and bosom of universal man: that is to say, only wherever there is hunger to be filled, thirst to be slaked, homeless want to be housed, nakedness to be clad, sickness to be relieved, prison-doors to be opened. No doubt the church will answer that a mans soul is worth more to him than all the world be- side; that God busies himself with the spiritual interests of humanity rather than its material a
  26. 26. 18 ~he Introdutlion.interests. Unquestionably. But how if He can-not deal directly with its spiritual interests with-out impairing them? How if His only safeway of dealing with them, is to do so indirect-ly, that is, by means of its material interests ?Of course no reasonable man can doubt thatGods real and primary delight is to appease thespiritual wants, and assuage the spiritual woesof humanity, which are accurately symbolizedunder these images of mere material destitutionand distress. But then we must recollect thatHe is utterly unable to effect these ends save bythe mediation of his own truth, or in so far asour private individual commerce with him hasbeen organized upon, and energized by, a pre-vious recognition of his boundless presence andoperation in human nature itself: Gods privatemercies to us, in other words, do not prejudice,but on the contrary irresistibly exact or presup-pose, this grander public operation of His, thisstupendous work of redemption which he haspractised in our very nature itself, as the basisof their own vitality. Let me elucidate thisproposition a little. Whatever be the Lords unmistakeable good-will towards the spiritual or immortal conjunc-tion of every individual soul of man with him-self, it is nevertheless evident that such a resultto be permanent can never be forced, but mustconciliate in every case the legitimate instinctsof the soul, which are freedom and rationality.If God would have my love and have it eter-nally, he must exhibit his perfect worthiness to
  27. 27. ~he Introdutlion.be loved in such a way as to take captive myheart and understanding. N ow as naturallyconstituted, or when left to myself, I am a beingof consummate selfishness and covetousness. Iunconsciously exalt myself above all mankind,and would grasp, if that were possible, the richesof the universe. It were obvious and unmixeddeviltry simply to condemn this natural makeof mine, or turn it over to ruthless punish-ment. It is, on the other hand, unmixed divin-ity to condescend to these natural limitations, tocome down to the level and breathe the atmos-phere of these overpowering lusts, to live in thedaily and hourly intimacy of their illusions, theirinsanities, their ferocities and impurities, until atlength by patiently separating what is relativelygood in them from what is relatively evil, andthen subjecting the latter to the unlimited ser-vice of the former, the two warring elementsbecome bound together in the unity of a newor regenerate natural personality, in which in-terest will spontaneously effect what principlehas hitherto vainly enjoined; or self-love accom-plish with ease what benevolence has only beenable hitherto weakly to dream of accomplishing.If now we appeal to the word of God, which isChristian doctrine, this is precisely what Goddoes; and if we appeal to his work, which is thehistory of Christendom, the response is equallyfull and clear. Revelation and History both alikeproclaim with unmistakeable emphasis that Godchooses the foolish things of the world to con-found the wise, the weak things to confound
  28. 28. 20 ~he IntroduBion.the mighty, and base things and things whichmen despise, yea and things which are not, hathGod chosen, to bring to nought establishedthings, in order that no flesh should exalt itselfin his presence. This alone is why I love God, if indeed Ido at all love Him. I hate Him with a cordialhatred - of this at least I am very sure -forhis alleged incommunicable infinitude, for thatcold and solitary grandeur which my naturalreason ascribes to Him, and which entitles Him,according to the same authority, to exact theendless servile homage of us poor worms of thedust. For all this difference between God andme as affirmed by my natural deism,-which ismy reason unillumined by revelation, - mycrushed and outraged affections writhe with un-speakable animosity towards him. I t is onlywhen I read the gospel of his utter condescensiontQ my foul and festering nature, and discern thelucent lines of his providence in the world illus-trating and authenticating every word and toneof that gospd,-it is only, in other words, whenI see how sheerly impersonal and creative his Joveis, 1: e., how incapable of regarding itself and howirresistibly communicative of its own blessednessto whatsoever is not itself, to whatsoever is mosthostile and repugnant to itself, that my soulcatches her first glimpse of the uncreated holi-ness, and heart and head and hand conspire inhelpless, speechless, motionless adoration. In short, no one can love God simply bywishing to love Him, still less by feeling it a
  29. 29. ~he Introdllflion. 21duty to love Him. At this rate one could neverlove his fellow-man even, but would come atlast infallibly to hate him. In other words,love is never voluntary but always spontaneous.Its objective or unconscious element invariablycontrols its subjective or conscious one. Ilove my wife or child not by any force of myown, but by virtue altogether of a force whichtheir innocence and sweetness lend me. I t istheir natural or cultivated grace which empow-ers me to love; abstract this, and I should beimpotent as a clod. So also I can never loveGod by any force of my own. His absoluteworth indeed makes it even more impossiblefor me to love Him, than my wifes or childsrelative imperfection makes it impossible for meto love them: namely, by removing Him spirit-ually to such a distance from me as to makehatred rather than love towards Him, an instinct-ive dictate of my own self-respect. If then Ican never hope to love God by my own force,He himself must enable me to love Him. Howshall He do this without overpowering my con-scious freedom or rationality ~ Why simply bytaking upon Himself the conditions of my na-ture, or coming to know experimentally howirresistibly prone the finite mind is by the merefact of its finiteness to lie, to steal, to commitadultery and murder. in order that, being thustempted like as we are, yet without sin-beingthus touched with a feeling of our infirmities,and yet rigidly self-debarred from the actual dis-order in which they are sure to terminate with
  30. 30. 22 ~he IntroduElion. us - He may give them totally new and unex- pected issues in harmony with His own univer- sality of love and providence. In other words, let God reveal Himself to my intelligence as a natural man, as a sympathetic partaker of my own corrupt nature, not with any view as my natural reason alleges to condemn and denounce it, but only to purify and exalt it to the measure of His own infinitude, and I shall necessarily love Him, love Him with such a reality and in- tensity of love as reconciles me even to my past natural animosity, and fills me moreover with His· own unspeakable tenderness towards the possible natural animosity of all mankind. This briefly stated is all I mean by saying that our private or individual regeneration is wholly conditioned upon a great and sincere work of redemption accomplished by God in human na-. ture; so that every really regenerate person, everyone reconciled in heart to the Divine ways, feels himself an unlimited dependent upon the unbought Divine mercy, and scorns nothing so cordially as the pretence of a superior person- al sanctity in the Divine regard, to that of the veriest reptile that shares and illustrates his na- ture. . And this will also explain to the reader why, in the progress of my book, I have felt myself called upon to deal so frankly with our ritual or professional religion. It is because religion as an institution no longer subserves the great human uses which once alone consecrated it, but has sunk into an impudent canonization of
  31. 31. The Introduflr"on.the vulgarest private and sectarian pretension.It has so completely renounced its ancient andpurely typical sanctity, and challenges nowa-days such an absolute prestige, or prestige inits own right, to mens regard, that the veraciouspublic witness it once bore to the truth of allmens equal and utter personal alienation andremoteness from God, has become degradedinto the lying testimony of some A, B, or Csindividual regeperation and salvation. From asincere record of our universal natural destitu-tion and despair, it has sunk into a flatteringwitness of our private wealth, of our strictlyindividual assurance or presumption. The dis-tinctively spiritual or human substance whichalone sanctifies religious aspiration and saves itfrom blasphemy, is humility, is an unaffectedcontrition on the part of the worshipper for thepride and rapacity which he perceives underly-ing his finite consciousness, and forever separat-ing him from the Divine. In short, a conscienceof death is the sole legitimate flower of the re-ligious experience; death to every cherishedpretension the worshipper feels of ever beingpersonally any purer better holier in the Divinesight than any criminal that ever was hung. Scarcely a vestige of this most ancient truthsurvives in our modern profession; or if it does,survives in chronic not in acute form. To"experience religioo," or "become converted,"means now not what it once meant, to pass fromthe noon-tide radiance of natural force and self-confidence into the grimmest midnight of spirit-
  32. 32. Cfhe Introduffion. ual impotence and self-distrust, but all simply to jump from a grossly absurd fear of Gods per- sonal enmity to us grounded on our moral de- linquencies, or perhaps our purely ritual unclean- ness, into a more grossly absurd hope of His personal complacency towards us, based upon some inward mystical change which He himself has arbitrarily wrought in us. Thus viewed, religion no longer witnesses to the truth of Gods immutable, perfection, but only to the capricious operation of His spirit ordaining cer- tain differences in human character, whereby one man becomes avouched in his proper per- son an heir of heaven; another stigmatized as a child of hell. Look at the social consequences. of this most real but unrecognized spiritual buffoonery, how inevitably it depresses all that is sweet and modest and unexacting in manners, and forces into conspicuity whatsoever is for- ward, ungenerous, and despotic. Look at any of our ecclesiastical coteries, and observe how torpid grows the proper spiritual or human force of its members, while every shabbiest pattern of a formalist is radiant, twittering, and alert with preternatural activity. No doubt very many of the clergy are personally superior to their office, and feel their instinctual modesty outraged by the spirit of servility and adula- tion which it appears to have the faculty.of eliciting on the part of their adherents. But how can they help themselves? Professional religion means the claim of a private sanctity, of a strictly personal and individual worth in I I III •••• .... I I
  33. 33. ~e Introdutlion. 25Gods sight, by which the subject is eternallydifferenced from other men; and the clergy arethe protagonists or defenders each in his sect ofthis debased state of the public mind, so that tobe personally flattered and cockered and excusedand apologized for out of all reasonable shapeof manhood, by precisely the style of peoplewhose opinions they least value, seems above allthings their just official Nemesis or retribution.In a spiritual point of view the clergy are mostreal martyrs to their perilous calling. As to the attitude of the Divine mind towardsthe separatist or Pharisaic portion of the world,i. e. towards those who are identified with theoutward profession of serving Him, the NewTestament leaves no doubt on that subject, butratifies every instinct of our proper humanity. The parables of the Prodigal Son and of the Publican and Pharisee praying, justify everyprevision of common sense in the premises.Surely if I have a family of children the eldestof whom is alone legitimate, and therefore aloneentitled to my name and estate, while all theyounger children are bastards, and consequentlydestitute of all legal righteousness, I should bea worm and no man, if~ while according to theformer his fullest legal consideration, I did notbestow my tenderest and ripest affection andindulgence upon the latter. If my acknowl-edged heir, conceiving himself prejudiced bythis action on my part, should grow angry and reproach me thereupon, saying, "Lo! thesemany years do I ~erve thee, neither have I
  34. 34. The IntroduElion. ever transgressed thy commandments, and yet thou hast never given me the slightest expres- sion of thy hearts delight, such as thou art nowlavishing upon those others who have wastedthy substance with riotous living:" this strain of remonstrance would only prove how essen-tially incompatible legal or literal heirship iswith spiritual heirship; how infinitely short themost faultless moral righteousness falls of in-ward or spiritual innocence; but it would neverprove me unrighteous. Nothing could be easierfor me than to show my dissatisfied and envi-ous offspring that I had at all events done himno injustice. I should say. "My son, I leaveit to yourself to estimate the claim which theservice you boast of exerts upon my heart, nowthat your shameless inhumanity to your less for-tunate brethren reveals even to your own eyesthe spirit which has always animated that ser-vice; a spirit of unlimited self-seeking, of lowprudence or worldly conformity, befitting indeedthe elder son (or head). but totally alien to thetemper of the younger son (or heart). The ser-vice you render I am sure of at all times [son,thou art ever with me], because it is an inter-ested service, prompted by your self-love alone.It is the homage of the proud self-righteousrapacious head. and though I have no powerand no desire to balk its legal expectations [andall that I have is thine], it yet awakens in mybosom no emotion of pleasure, begets no throbof gratified paternal affection. It is the homageof the heart exclusively, the prodigal, unright-
  35. 35. [he Introduffion. 27eous, unexacting heart [I will say unto him,Father, I have sinned against heaven~ and beforethee, and am no more worthy to be calJed thyson: make me as one of thy hired servants]which opens up the responsive fountains of myheart, which satisfies the hunger and thirst ofmy paternal bosom, and irresistibly compelstherefore every answering outward demonstra-tion of my inmost pride and joy, of my ex-quisite spiritual delight and blessedness. Youshall have accordingly your legal deserts to theutmost, all that you have bargained for; allthat I outwardly possess shall be yours, whileI bestow myself, all that I inwardly- am, uponyour humbler brethren." Thus much I feel called upon to say to thereader by way of forewarning, or in order thathe may observe that I do not quarrel with theliving spirit of religion, which glows in everybreast of man where Gods own spirit of humil-ity, meekness, equality, fellowship, is cultivatedand reproduced however feebly; but only withwhat the best men in history have always quar-relled with, namely, its dead and putrid bodywhich still goes unburied and taints Godswholesome air with its baleful exhalations. Re-ligion disdains any longer a literal or ritualestablishment. It claims a purely living and spiritual embodiment, such as flows from Godssanctifying presence and animating power in every form of spontaneous human action. It has no longer anything to do accordingly with churches or with clergy, with sabbaths pr with
  36. 36. the Introduflion.sacraments, with papacy or with prelacy, withCalvin or Socinus; but only with a heart in itssubject of unaffected love to all mankind, andunaffected fellowship consequently with everyperson and every thing however convention-ally sacred or prof-me, that seeks to further thatlove by the earnest distaste disuse and undoingof whatsoever plainly withstands perverts orabuses it. ? 2 rr
  37. 37. AN ESSAY ON THEPHYSICS OF CREATION.
  38. 38. By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down; yea, we wept,when we remembered Zion. We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof. For there they that carried us away captive required of us a song;and they that wasted us required of us mirth, saying, Sing us one ofthe songs of Zion. How shall we sing the Lords song in a strange land? If I forget thee, 0 Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cun-ning! If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof ofmy mouth; if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy! Remember, 0 Lord, the children of Edom In the day of Jerusa-lem; who said, Rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof. o daughter of Babylon, who art to be destroyed; happy shall hebe, that rewardeth thee as thou hast served us. Happy shall he be that taketh and dasheth thy little ones againstthe stones. - PSALM exxxvii. ,
  39. 39. AN ESSAY ON THE PHYSICS OF CREATION. CHAPTER I. MANY of my friends have at various timesasked me to give them a brief statement of myviews as to the practical bearing of Sweden-borgs writings upon the intellect. As I under-stand the request, they do not care to .have amere recapitulation of Swedenborgs intellectualprinciples. for these are palpable to sight onevery page of his books: they simply seek toknow what judgment I, who hold these prin-ciples to be rationally indisputable, feel myselfcompelled to form with respect to their prac-tical operation in the realms of speculation andaction. Judgments of this nature must vary of courseaccording to the various temper and culture ofthe persons who render them. Truth is alwaysmodified to its subject by his own states of life:i. e. by the attitude of his heart towards Good.What is grapes to one intelligence is thistles toanother, and the bramble bush of one spirituallatitude is the fig-tree of its opposite. To the
  40. 40. Relation of Swedenborg " pure God shows himself pure; to the froward he shows himself froward. "A man receives," says Swedenborg, "only so much as he either has of himself, or makes his own by looking into things for himself: what exceeds these lim- its passes Off"l Interpreting Swedenborgs general relationthen to the intellect by the effect his booksproduce upon mine, I should say that theirdirect tendency was, to assert and vindicate suchan intimate Divine presence and operation inthe lowest depths of consciousness, as will ere-long practically obliterate all those superficialdifferences in human character upon which oursocial legislation has been hitherto exclusivelybased, by spiritually shutting up all men-goodand evil alike-to a dependence upon God sovital and absolute, as to make the pretension ofindependence a mark of spiritual idiocy and death. Let me explain. Human society - what lit-tle of it at least the exigencies of Priest andKing, of church and state, have permitted toget body or become visible - has been organ-ized in all the past upon the belief of a radicaldiversity in human na~ure, a fundamental dis-tinction among men of good and evil. Societyhas not been content to affirm that one manwas good anti another evil, as they stood sever-ally related to herself, that is, to human prog-ress. She has declared them to be absolutelygood or evil, i. e. good and evil in themselves,irrespective of their relations to any third thing. . I Arc. Cel., 38°3
  41. 41. to the Intellect. 33The good man has always been thought to begood in himself, absolutely good, and thus evenmore sure of attracting the Divine complacencythan ours. The evil man, the liar, thief, adul-terer, murderer, has always been regarded asessentially, or in himself, a worse man than hewho refrains from these odious practices. Andsociety accordingly in rewarding the one andpunishing the other, as the law of self-preserva-tion has hitherto bound her to do, has appar-ently never doubted that she was performinga work of absolute righteousness, permanentlyconsonant with the Divine name; above all, hasnever for a moment suspected that the glaringdiversities of character and action she perpetu-ally signalized were all the while the fruit ex-clusively of her own immaturity. . Now Swedenborgs writings reverse this su-perficial judgment, or turn it into a mere preju-dice on our part, having no more valid basisthan any other superstition which our devoutbut unenlightened reverence has temporarilyhallowed. His writings effectually invalidatethe alleged radical discrepancy among men inGods sight, by proving all men without excep-tion to be in themselves, or apart from Godsoperation in their nature, alike prone to eviland falsity. Swedenborg uniformly denies thatpersonal distinctions among men, distinctions ofmerely natural temperament and character, havethe least spiritual validity. He denies that it ispossible for the Divine being to feel the slightestemotion of tenderness or complacency towards 3
  42. 42. 34 HIS Staunch rindicationone person as naturally constituted (say. theapostle John,) which He does not feel towardsevery othet person, however differently consti-tuted (say, Judas Iscariot). He utterly deniesthe pretension of any creature of God to bespiritually any better, I: c. any better in himself,than any other creature, however comparativelydegraded the latter may be in all moral or per-sonal regards. And doing all this in entiregood faith - scourging out of rational sight for-ever the conception of any personally meritori-ous or personally. blameworthy relation of manto God - he of course makes it inevitable toconclude against the absolute wisdom of ourpast social legislation. Indeed, he does morethan this. He powerfully disposes his intelli-gent reader to all those tendencies of modernthought, which go to urge upon society theparamount obligation she herself is under ofself-examination, self-denial, and self-humilia.tion, in order that vice and crime may be nolonger punished merely, but actually and per-manently extinguished. In one word, Swedenborg refutes the possi-bility of a moral righteousness on mans partbefore God: i. c. a righteousness which inheresin the man himself, and is not exclusively de-rived to him from the equal Divine influx andindwelling in all the forms of our nature. Andhence, of course, he stamps all those contraryjudgments of character upon which our ordi-nary social legislation proceeds, as practicallypuerile and visionary.
  43. 43. of Human Equality. 3S But he makes much more thorough work ofit than this. He maintains this uncompromis-ing truth of every mans equality with everyother man before God, not merely in respectto men on earth, or as they stand reciprocallydistinguished to our sight by differences of nat-ural temperament and moral character; but alsowith respect to men in heaven, or as they standspiritually differenced one from another to theDivine sight by their various relation to theinfinite Goodness and Truth. "In heaven noattention is paid to person, nor the things ofperson, but to things abstracted from person.Hence they have no recognition of a man fromhis name or other personal attributes, but onlyfrom his distinctive human faculty or quality.The thought of persons limits the angelic idea,or gives it finiteness; whereas that of thingsdoes not limit it, but gives it infinitude. Noperson named in the Word is recognized inheaven, but only the human quality or sub-stance symbolized by that person; neither anynation or people, but the human quality of suchnation and people. Thus there is not a singlefact of Scripture concerning person, nation, orpeople which is not completely ignored in heav-en, where the angels are totally unconcernedabout the personality of Abraham, Isaac, andJacob, and see no difference between Jew andGentile, but difference of human quality. Theangelic idea, refusing in this manner to be de-termined to persons, makes the speech of the an-gels compared with ours unlimited and univer-
  44. 44. ~he Angels devoidsal."l "There is no will of good, nor any un-derstanding of truth, which attaches to the angelhimself, but only to the Lord in him. Themost celestial angel is in himself altogether falseand evil: what is good and true in him, beinghis own not in reality but only apparently." i"All good and truth is from the Lord, and whatis the Lords remains His in those who receiveit; for it is Divine, and cannot become theproperty of any man. What is Divine may bein man, but not as his own or in his selfhood,for this is nothing but evil, and he consequent-ly who appropriates what is Divine to him-self defiles and profanes it. The Lords divin-ity (in human nature) is exquisitely separatedfrom mans selfhood, elevated above and neverimmersed in it."s This is doubtless why, ac-cording to another statement of Swedenborg,"there is no enforced or arbitrary authorityex-isting in heaven, since no angel in his heart ac-knowledges anyone superior to himself but theLord alone." "Heaven is heaven from theDivine alone, he says. So much accordinglyas the angels have in them of the Lords Divine,so much they constitute heaven; but so much asthey have of themselves in them, so much theydo not constitute heaven"-but rather of course,its opposite. 5 According to these statements heaven is any- thing but "a mutual admiration society," and 1 Arc. eel., 5:135,8343,9007. 4 Apocalypse Explained, 735. I Ibid., 633. Ii See Arc. Cel., 9479 :I Apocalypse Revealed, 758.
  45. 45. of Personal Worth. 37angels the most celestial will prove very disa-greeable persons to many who now aspire totheir company. But let us go on to cull afew more of these generous and humane para-graphs, with the hope that some one who hasbeen deeply imbued with our prevalent man-worship, or current insanity in regard to thenecessity of some sort of personal worth inman, before he can be entitled to expect theDivine favor, and been led by it to strain andpuff himself out of all childlike innocence andhonesty, in order to catch a breath of Godsapplause, may be arrested by them and recon-ducted into the ways of truth. "Every man, regenerate though he be, is suchthat unless the Lord withheld him from evilsand falses, he would cast himself precipitatelyinto hell; and the very instant he is not with-held, he plunges headlong into it, as has beenmade known to me by actual experiences." 1" Noone nowadays doubts that evils and falsesin man are dispersed and abolished while heis regenerating, so that when he becomes re-generated, nothing of evil and falsity remains,but he is clean and righteous like one cleansedand washed with water. This however isutterly false. For no single evil or falsityin man can be so broken up as to be abol-ished, but on the contrary, whatsoever evilhas been hereditarily derived to a person, orbeen actually contracted by him, remains; sothat every man, even the regenerate man, is 1 Arc. eel., 789
  46. 46. ~he .Angels devDidnothing but evil and falsity, as is shown to thelife after death. The truth of this statement isdemonstrable from the fact, that nothing of goodor truth exists in man but from the Lord, andthat all his evil and falsity are from selfhood ;so that every man, every spirit, yea every angel,if left in the least to themselves, would plungespontaneously into hell. This is why in scrip-ture the heavens are said to be impure. Theangels acknowledge this truth, and whoso re-fuses to acknowledge it is unfit for their society.It is Gods mercy alone which emancipatesthem from evil; yea, which withdraws and with-holds them from hell, into which they of them-selves rush headlong." 1 Again he says in the same remarkable repos-itory: "It has been proved to me by livelyexperience, that every man, spirit, and angel,viewed in himself, or as to his entire proprium,is the vilest excrement, and that if he were leftto himself he would breathe only hatreds, re-venges, cruelties, and foulest adulteries. Thesethings are his proprium and his will. This isevident to reflection from the fact, that man ashe is born is viler than all beasts; and when hegrows up and becomes his own master, unlessexternal bonds which are of the law, and thebonds he imposes upon himself in order togrow greatest and richest, prevented him, hewould rush into every iniquity, nor ever restuntil he had subjugated everybody else to him-self: and possessed himself of their substance, 1 Arc. eel., 868.
  47. 47. of Personal Worth. 39showing no favor to any but those who shouldbecome his abject slaves. Such is the nature ofevery man, however ignorant he be of the factin consequence of his want of power to dowhat he would like; but give him the power,and release him from the obligations of pru-dence, and his inclination would fall no whitbehind his opportunity. The beasts are not sobad as this, for they are born into a certain orderof nature. Those that are fierce and rapaciousdo indeed inflict injury upon others, but onlyfrom self-preservation; and when they devourothers, it is to appease hunger, for when this isdone they cease from violence." 1 Certainly these are anything but slipshodstatements. They involve on their very faceindeed a philosophy which no merely meta-physic wit has yet sounded; which, on thecontrary, would seem to leave Schelling andSir William Hamilton forever to bump theirlearned heads, without striking out a solitaryspark available to human hope or progress. What, obviously, is the fundamental postu-late of this philosophy? It is that man is in literal strictness a crea-ture of God, dependent every moment upon theDivine communication for all that he has andis and hopes to become. He is absolutely andat ev;ery moment void of life in himself, so thatif the fulness of the creative bounty were sus-pended towards him for a moment, or if it werefor an instant overclouded, he would at once cease to be. 1 Arc. eel., 987.
  48. 48. 40 Swedenborgs Statements imply Such is the fundamental postulate of this phi-losophy: but this would go but a little wayto satisfy the mind, if this were all. For thereader would in that case reasonably ask:" Whence comes it, if this be the truth of things,that the appearance is so different? If man bethis abject creature of God, how has he self-hood, or a feeling of life in himself? How isit that he feels so self-sufficient, for example, asto be able to reason about the possibility of hisnever having been created, and to doubt theDivine existence? See the statue which Icreate. It is abjectly servile to my will, andhas no capacity whatever to gainsay it. It ex-hibits no faintest show of life or consciousness.And is it conceivable that the creature of theDivine power should not be infinitely moredependent upon God, than any product of mypower can be upon me ? How then shall weexplain mans moral experience on the hy-pothesis of his unlimited creatureship ? Howshall we account for his exuberant selfhood,freedom, conscious life, if he be the absolutecreation you make him?" I t is clearly impossible to satisfy these reason-able demands, if we continue to conceive ofcreation as a physical act of God in time andspace; if we do not at once begin to view it asa purely rational act, involving the most exqui--site adjustment of means to ends; or what is thesame thing in other words, if we do not con-ceive of the natural creation as taking place .altogether in the interests of a totally distinct
  49. 49. a Profound Philosophy.and superior style of life. Morality is a purelyrational fact. It supposes its subject to be aratio, or mean, between two extremes: God andnature, infinite and finite, spirit and flesh. Toattempt to account for moral consciousness thenon physical principles purely, would be like at-tempting to account for a child by assigning it amother and denying it a father. It is evidentthat we can explain no phenomenon of conscious-ness, if we allow its physical element to swampor supersede its spiritual one. It is impossiblein fact to justify a single breath of morality,unless you. subordinate, what is natural in thecreature to what is spiritual, unless you makewhat gives it finiteness or identity serve whatgives it infinitude or individuality. In short,our natural creation is not final, does not takeplace on its own behalf, but only in order tosomething else, which is our spiritual conjunc-tion or fellowship with God. As the Biblephrases it, we are created in order to be madeor formed. "And God blessed the seventhday and sanctified it, because that in it he hadrested from all his work which he had createdto mate."l And inasmuch as all spiritual con-junction or fellowship implies mutual actionand reaction-reciprocal give and take-be-tween the parties to it, it is evident that mancan become spiritually conjoined with God onlyin freedom, only so far forth as he is consciouslyself:prompted thereto, or feels an intelligent sym-pathy with the Divine I)ame. 1 Gen. ii. 3.
  50. 50. Its Fundamental Notion Freedom or selfhood, then, is implied in Gods creature, just as the foundation of a house is im- plied in its superstructure; because the creature, being destined for spiritual conjunction with God, for the fellowship of his makers perfec- tion, must of course first be to his own con- sciousness, or exist in himself, before he can be- come conjoined with God. I emphasize the word "implied" here, because I want the readerdistinctly to understand the point involved, which is: that that most distinctive and charac-teristic force in our nature which we call free-dom, rationality, selfhood, the moral force inshort, and upon which we are all so disposed torun riot, is not a finality; is by no means anabsolute gift; but is on the contrary a most strictand perpetual Divine communication or permis-sion, in the interest exclusively of a very supe-rior spiritual and eternal end. This is theinfirmity of all our ordinary traditional notionson the subject of creation, that mans selfhoodor moral force, his freedom or rationality, istacitly excepted from the Divine operation, andhis mere passive or physical experience account-ed for. But clearly if I am an unlimited crea-ture of God, my most characteristic experienceis precisely what that fact ought best to explain.If I am an indubitable creation of Gods power,then whatsoever goes inmostly to constitute meto my own perception, must especially fallwithin that framework, and not outside of it;must confess itself strictly incidental to mycreation, instead of accidental as we are inclined
  51. 51. the Dependence of Morality. 43to regard it. I may feel myself to be my ownmaster just as much as I please, and claim withpride the exclusive responsibility of my ownactions. I may cherish such a feeling indeed ofmy own independence of any higher power thanthat I call Nature, as to entertain grave doubtsof the Divine existence: but these facts shouldonly illustrate not invalidate my alleged crea-tureship. Every legitimate hypothesis of mycreatureship is bound to cover and account forall these apparently contradictory phenomena,under penalty of invalidating itself: Let merob my neighbor of his property to any extent,defame his character, betray his domestic peace,deprive him of life; in short, let me obscure theDivine image in my soul under any amount ofturpitude: the reader has not the smallest right to go on affirming my creatureship, without at the least trying to explain these very ugly things by it. He may be scientifically incapable of doing so, but it is a manifest philosophic obli- gation upon him to make the attempt. For if God be truly my creator, it is my very self that he gives being to, my most distinctive character- istic and inseparable self: and every attempt consequently to postulate my creation, and at the same time exclude my moral history from it, confesses itself simply preposterous. Let my meaning be clearly understood. The moral experience of man has always been and still is the stumbling-block of Philosophy, be- cause Philosophy has not known how to bring it within creation, inasmuch as it regards crea-
  52. 52. 44 Its Fundamental Notion tion as a purely physical exploit of Gods power, an event in time and space; and hence leaves the human mind or the moral realm of experience completely unhoused by it. N ow I say that Philosophy is most inconsistent in this,, because if I am a creature of God, if He gives me literally all the being I possess, Philosophy has no right to restrict His creative operation to the limits of my merely physical or passive per- sonality: it is bound to prove it equally energetic and absolute within the range of my moral or active subjectivity as well. It has no right to say that God possesses me ab extra exclusively: it is bound, if all my being derives from Him, to show that He possesses me also ab intra. I know very well how contrary this is to established prejudice. The grand old religions of the world are running very low nowadays; have given place in fact to the emptiest scientific babble. The moral sphere of life consequently, the sphere of our felt freedom or selfhood, is everywhere getting to be regarded by insincere and specu- lative religionists as absolute and rightfully ex- empt from the Divine invasion. Morality, as interpreted by our cleverest and most admired theological empirics, means a capacity in its subject of absolute self-determination; of unde- rived power; mfans the state of a man who not only in appearance but in reality is a law unto himself. No doubt the interests of our responsi- bility to God and the neighbor, when viewed in the letter or on the surface, do seem to justify this insane pretension, inasmuch as they require
  53. 53. the Dependence of Morality. 45that our conduct should be visibly self-moved,or date from ourselves exclusively, to the denialof all outward constraint. But then the surfaceaspect of things is precisely what the philoso-pher disregards, being above all things carefulto seize their substantial or spiritual import,which alone is conformable to absolute truth.At all events it is just- this surface aspect of thecase which Swedenborg proves to be eminentlyfallacious, in showing us that the apparent self-hood or freedom we have from nature, is nothing but an appearance, vouchsafed to us in the in- terest of a higher or spiritual evolution, and contingent upon a certain strict equilibrium which the Divine Providence maintains in our nature between the opposing poles of good and evil. Let me briefly illustrate the practical differ- ence on this point between Swedenborg and the popular theologians, by a familiar example. I tell a lie, perhaps to screen myself from some menaced blame or injury, perhaps to ad- vance myself at anothers expense. Whatever be the motive of my action, I have an entire sense of freedom from constraint in doing it. So far as any feeling of coercion operates upon me to do it, I feel that I might refrain from doing it as well as not. In short, the de- termination of my action lies to my own con- sciousness wholly in mysel£ I actually debate whether to do it or not, and either deliberately conclude to do it, or else purposely leave my mind so un-made-up about it, as to render that
  54. 54. Our Moral Forceresult very probable whenever the occaSiOn todecide shall arise. N ow the popular theologian looking at thisexperience would say, that my natural feelingof freedom in the premises, was the exact meas-ure of the spiritual truth; that I felt free, in otherwords, to tell the lie, because I absolutely was tree.He sees that so far as app~arances go I am free;that so far as mans judgment or my own con-sciousness is concerned, I acted under no con-straint; and having no idea that natural appear-ances are only inversely and not directly as theirspiritual realities, he concludes that my moralpower, the power which I consciously haveeither to tell the lie or not to tell it, is all myown, my own absolutely, and independently ofmy relations to other beings. Swedenborg explodes this sensuous reasoningin toto. He denies that my natural feeling offreedom in the premises is any measure of thespiritual reality. He affirms, in short, that Ifeel free to do evil, and therefore charge myselfwith it, not by virtue of anything in myself, forin myself I am and can be nothing but a recip-ient; but altogether by virtue of an operationof God in the spiritual world, or the unseendepths of the human mind, so sharply separatinggood from evil, heaven from hell, and then soexquisitely balancing the one by the other, as toprevent any preponderant influx of either intonature, and enable Him to endow me conse-quently with a sense of freedom, a feeling ofselfhood, so genial and exquisite that I cannot
  55. 55. perpetually communicated. 47help appropriating it, or feeling it to be indeedbone of my bone and flesh of my flesh, andforegoing everything for it. God gives me thisselfhood or conscious freedom, this ability todiscern for myself between good and evil, notabsolutely or for its own sake, but in the inter-est of my immortal spiritual conjunction withHim. I can only become spiritually conjoinedwith him, as we have already seen, in freedom,or in so far as I am consciously self-promptedthereto; and He accordingly endows me withmy natural selfhood or freedom, only that itmay serve as the basis of this higher boon; orin order that I, knowing good and evil, may asof myself cleave to the one and forsake the other,and so come spiritually into such a relation ofcorrespondence with His perfection, as that Ishall eventually be quickened into the liveliestpersonal sympathy with, and most solicitous per-sonal aspiration towards, His fragrant and spot-less name. The difference, then, between Swedenborgand the popular religionists is, that the lattermake the moral consciousness in man a finality,or its own end; so leaving the good and evil that are in human nature, or heaven and hell, totally unamenable to any higher or subsequent operation of the Divine power. According to Swedenborg, on the other hand, our moral his- tory is but a merciful Divine means to an infi- nitely superior Divine end in humanity, which is our spiritual conjunction, as a race, with God. Our moral experience is merely a provisional
  56. 56. Our Moral Forcebasis or foundation in the individual bosom, fora stupendous spiritual edifice which the Divinewisdom is assiduously rearing in human natureitself: And if we regard it accordingly not asbeing purely ministerial to this diviner style ofmanhood, but as magisterial in fact, and havinga right to our unlimited allegiance, we shall belike a man who is so intent upon sinking thefoundations of his house to the greatest possibledepth, that he comes at last upon the elementalfires, or finds his ostentatious labor swallowedup of quicksands. In short, our ordinary cosmology accountsor professes to account for Nature, which is thebare skeleton of existence; but it leaves Historywhich is the lifeblood and rounded flesh thatclothe that skeleton with beauty. wholly lawlessand accidental. Swedenborg, on the contrary,illustrates Nature by History, or makes the bodyof things rigidly authenticate their soul. Thistreatment converts creation from a mere ostenta-tious exhibition of unprincipled power, withoutrational beginning as without rational result, intoan infinitely tender and orderly procedure of theeternal Love and Wisdom, in all the endlesslyvarious but ineffably harmonious forms of hu-man nature. This is but a glimpse of Swedenborgs labor.Yet even this glimpse entitles us to expect of him a clear philosophic explication of the great mystery of creation: i. e. a doctrine upon that subject which shall appease every aspiration of the heart towards God, and every demand of the
  57. 57. perpetually communicated. 49intellect thence engendered. The invinciblewitness of the heart towards God is, that he isinfinite in love: 1: c. that His love for his crea-tures is wholly untainted by any regard for Him-self It is the equally invincible witness of ourintelligence that He is infinite in wisdom: 1: e.that his ability to carry out his designs of lovefalls no whit behind his disposition. A doctrineof creation, therefore, which should practicallyaffront either of these great witnesses, byaffirm-ing a permanent imperfection in the creativework, or actual outcome of this infinite Loveand Wisdom, would stamp itself unworthy ofmens lasting respect.
  58. 58. CHAPTER II. THE profoundest of our sensuous judgments,and the basis of the religious instinct in us, is,that our natural force is final: that far from be-ing strictly incidental to a grander subsequentevolution of the Divine power in us, it is, on thecontrary, its own end: thus that the pleasure andthe pain, the health and the disease, the strengthand the weakness, the growth and the decay,·upon whose equilibrium our natural conscious-ness is contingent, are in themselves absolutegoods and evils: to be received, the former withthankfulness, as a mark of the Divine favor; thelatter with sorrow, as a mark of the Divine dis-pleasure. Christianity has done very much to soften thefierceness of this Pagan inheritance in our bo-soms, if not altogether to extinguish it. Butthe same prejudice in application to our moralinstincts, still exists there unsuspected, awaitingthe slow correction of science. Almost everyone in Christendom, especially in literal or Eu-ropean Christendom, conceives that our moraljudgments, our judgments of character, are adirect efflux of the Divine judgment: thus thatwhere we see a difference of good and evilamong men, God sees the same difference, only
  59. 59. Moral Life in order to Spiritual. 51in aggravated form; that where we approvethe good man and condemn the evil one, Hefeels literally the same emotions in kind thatwe feel, only more intense in degree. I scarcelyknow an orthodox ecclesiastic who is not socontent with feeding upon this windy fruit of"the tree of knowledge of good and evil," asvirtually to agree with the old serpent in consid-ering that diet as the souls best nutriment, infal- libly assimilating our intelligence to Gods, inplace of forever differencing it from His. Swedenborg effectually exposes this insanity,by proving that just as our physical experiencehas had no other end than to base or matriculateour moral manhood, so our moral experience inits turn has had no other end than to serve as amatrix or mould to our true spiritual manhood.He reduces the part which morality plays in theDivine aaministration to a strictlyeducative one; its whole office being to loosen natures remorse-less grasp upon us, and so prepare us spirituallyfor the unimpeded Divine inhabitation. N oth-ing consequently can be more hurtful to theintellect than to confound the moral and spirit-ual consciousness in man; or make that purelyphenomenal freedom which distinguishes us nat-urally from the brute, take the place of that mostreal freedom which allies us spiritually with God.One is simply the badge of our natural dignity,of what forever separates us from the animal;the other is the mark of our individual spiritualculture. One merely stamps us as Gods true creature among all lower creatures; the other
  60. 60. 52 Moral Life in order to Spiritual.pronounces us His children, redeemed from dis-tant creatureship into intimate sonship, by thefrankest freest and most cordial participation ofHis spirit. The particular service then which Sweden-borg renders to Philosophy, consists in the com-plete elucidation he affords the moral instinct, asbasing and alone basing the evolution of ourspiritual destiny. Morality admits of no abso-lute justification. How can any mind of truereverence tolerate the conception of a creatureof God, who is anything in-himself? For tobe anything in himself, he must claim a powerunderived from God, and the pretension to sucha power is fatal to creatureship. Accordingly,whenever a man attempts to vindicate moralityunconditionally, he finds himself logically com-pelled to bring up in Atheism or Pantheism: atall events to deny creation in any intelligiblesense of that word. l What justifies moral ex-istence and alone justifies it, is the use it sub-serves to an infinitely superior style of manhood:precisely as what justifies us in digging a subter-ranean foundation for our houses is, the use suchfoundation is calculated to promote to an edificemade up of light and air. Thus according to Swedenborg our moralhistory with all its tremendous issues of heavenand hell, falls within creation not outside of it : 1 Dr. Bushnell hazards a very rality being that it involves a par-rash and even desperate solution ticipation of the Divine essence Iof the difficulty, by making God See" Nature and the Supernat-to create a number of little gods ural," pauim.instead of men: his idea of mo-
  61. 61. Kant and Swedenborg. 53that is to say, does not express the relation ofthe creature to the creator, but of the creatureto himsel£ Unlike Kant Swedenborg restrictsnature to a purely constitutive use, and deniesher the least creative efficacy. Her total func-tion is to confer subjectivity not objectivity. Shegives conscious existence or identity to her sub-jects, but has no power to give them unconsciousbeing or individuality. Kant himself indeedallows that our knowledge of nature reaches only-to what is constitutive and phenomenal of otherexistence in her; but then he maintains that shepossesses a latent noumenal or creative force inherself as well, insisting that the thing which ap-pears is never the veritable thing.in-itself, neverthe thing which really is. Swedenborg on theother hand affirms that the thing which appearsis the veritable thing-in-itself; that phenomenonand noumenon are identical in other words; sincethe only selfhood or existence which is possibleand proper to created things, must in the natureof the case be phenomenal not absolute. Why "in the nature of the case ? The an- JJswer is very obvious. We saw a while ago that the Divine end increation is the eternal spiritual conjunction ofthe creature with Himself: this end being neces-sitated by the very infinitude of the Divine Love,which is so unalloyed by self-love as to be spon,.taneously communicative of itself to others: I: e.creative. But what is other than God, whatis alien to God, has and plainly can have no ab-solute existence, no existence in-itself; b,ut only

×