THECHRISTIAN MINISTRY,                 CO!llIDI....D IIf u,u.nOH TO"11 .. U   .. CUolI:K 01111....710" I .. aOTIoL J.n:mto...
NOTICE TO THE READER.THE   following is an abridgment of a work publishedabout ten years    &gO,   in Amerioa, under a som...
TI
CONTENTS.                OHAPTER I.                    PRIESTHOOD.                                                       P...
vi.                        C01f~E1fTS.                C H APT E R I I I.                           MINISTRY.              ...
THE AP08TLlD PAUL TO THE CHURCH IN ROKE.  "Alwe bave muymemben In ODe body, and all members have Dot thesame oftlce; 10 we...
CHAPTER I.                     PRIESTHOOD.                    § 1. Definition.  IT will be important to settle in limine t...
2                   PRIESTHOOD.              [CHAP. J.important of the Levites sacerdotal functions wasto make an atonemen...
8110.1J               DEFINITION.                       3      consecration from their hands. But he had other      views,...
4                   PRIESTHOOD.              [OllA.P. I.to destroy: the priesthood of grace, and exalt thepriesthood of ma...
8Eo.1.J             DEFINITION.                   5God for ever; enjoying spiritual union with the ex-alted Head of the ch...
6                     PRIESTHOOD.                [CHAP. I.v&gances, they were also sure to discover sometruths unknown, de...
SEC.   2]   PREB.OGA.TIV:z OF A.LL CHBIBTIA.liS.     7   § 2. Prie,thood the prerogative common to all                    ...
8                   PRIESTHOOD.             [CHAP. I.the priesthood of the whole body of believers to anaked theory, and m...
BEC.   2J   PBEllOGAtIIVE OF ALL CHBISTIANB.        9 ministering to the spiritual necessities of a con-gregation, and sub...
10                 PRIESTHOOD.              [CHAP. I.into one body." (1 Cor. xii.) This importantpassage proves the whole ...
SEC.   2]   PREROGATIVE OF ALL CHRISTIANS.        11thing like an incidental passing allusion, which canauthorize even the...
12                  PRIESTHOOD.             [CHAP. I.     § 8. WAyo Zittle aid of OkurCh Government                 in the...
SBc.4J CHURCH FRUITS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.          13and the life of controversy, and the strength of allBeets, should have...
141                 PRIESTHOOD.              [CHAP. I.the knowledge of the deep things of God, and, withthe strength of pr...
SEC.   5]    THE AOTS AND EPISTLES.                 15dent, the watchful, perceptive character will takehis natural place ...
16                 PRIBSTHOOD.             [CHAP. I.principle of love; which, if it were understood andfelt, would effectu...
SEC. 6]    LAW OF C~UBCH GOVBBXllENT.                 17 the Lord; giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Fa...
18                   PBIESTHOOD.               [CIIAP.   I.receive ye one another, as Christ also received 118 _tothe glor...
SEC.   7.]        THE EA.RLY OHURCH.                          io  this department, and they all concur in substan-  tially...
20                         PBIESTHOOD.                     [CHAP. I.quickened by the Spirit of Christ. All those m~mbera, ...
SEo.7.]            THE EA.RLY CHlJRCH.                        21apeab in his Comment all Bpke, :-" At first all taught and...
22                      PRIESTHOOD.                   [OJLUl.   I.personal responsibility of every individual believerto G...
SEC.   7.]         THE EA.RLY CHURCH.                        28.with their feeders, the despised laity, through all ages e...
24               THE APOSTOLATE.                  CHAPTER 11.                 THE ApOSTOLATE.              § ,I. Position ...
SEC.   2]        POSITION DEXIJ:D.                 25other persons to the performance of the sanle func-tions; thus perpet...
26                THE APOSTOLA.TE.             [CHAP. IT. tory; but that they were appointed to this work asan apostolic c...
SBo.2]          POSITIOlf D:BNI:aD•.zation of the apostles, as a corporation, is evident .from the statement made by Paul,...
28               ~JDC   UOSroLA.TE.       [CHAP.   ll.apostles constituted 8 corporation, which WBB to bethe fountain-head...
:SEC.   2.]     POSIlION DENIED.                29many diiferent missionary enterprizes, wherein eachacted in accordance w...
30                    :MINISTRY.                  CHAPTER Ill.                      MINISTRY.              § 1. Prevailing...
SEC. 2]    SCRIPTURAL REPRESENTATION.                31is to preach and pray for the people, to visit thepoor and the sick...
32                    llINISTBY.           [ CHAP. Ill.there are diversities ofgifts, but the same Spirit; andthere are di...
SEC.   2.J   SCRIPrUnA.r~ REPRESENTA.TION.        88  these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit,  diDiding to elJery...
.34                  lIINISTRY.           [CHAP.   I n.beyond this one need not push the inquiry, in orderto be satisfied ...
SEC.   2.]   SCRIPTURA.L REPRESENTATION..        35described. in the twelfth chapter of the first epistleto the CorinihiaD...
36                   m.1STHY.             [CHAP.   nx.to the feet, I have no need of you. . • • . Now yeare the body of Ch...
SEo.2.]     SCKIPTUlUL UPBBSENTATIOlf.             37macyof the Holy Spirit cannot be owned, nor canHis distribution of gi...
38                   llINIBTBY.          [CHAP. UT.to every man severally aB He chose, then we canunderstand all the argum...
BEC.   2.]   SCRIPTURAL BBPRESENTATIOY.           39bation, the possible fact of all prophesying, nay,he plainly S&ys, tha...
40                   lIDfIBTBY.            [ CHA.P. Ill.any intel1j~ble meaning, the following words couldnow be addressed...
BEC.   2.1   8CBIPTUB.A.L REPBBSE:NTATION.           4.1       diligence; he that showeth mercy, with cheerful-       ness...
42                    lIINI8TBY.           [CHAP.   nI.body and its members for an intelligible and con-vincing similitude...
SEC.   2.J   SCRIPTUBAL BEIRESEKTATION.            48find professing Christians deliberately rejectingGods order, and lett...
lIINISTnT.           [OHAP.III. of the fact of 3 perversion-of an apostacy-there can be no doubt at all in the minds of th...
SEC.   3.]      SCRIPTURE TERMS.§ 3. Ezamination of Scripture      Ter111B   relative to                      Ministry_   ...
46                       llINISTBY.               . [CHAP.   3.tage gained by the clerical theory is due to a subtleproces...
BEC.4.]                    DIAKONIA.                         47  In the general BertJice to be rendered by ail themembers ...
48                           KINISTRY.                  [CRAP. fiX. with teaching, as tbe two are clearly distinguished. W...
811:0•.4.]2 Cor. Ix. 11. cc For the t.atltIIi.iltNtiofl of tAi, ,,,.,,,. (ditJ-   _ita   t. lfttDurgia, tauta) not oD1y au...
50                          KIBISTBY.             [CRU.IU.legitimate than the following, or one equivalentto it: cc for th...
8:£C.   5.]               DUKono.                              51supposed to have been an ofticial pastorate; so thatminis...
52                      KmIBTBY.                 [CHAP.   III.administer, and in two by uftrIg           tu   ~       of  ...
SEc.5.J                      DIAXONBO.                          58John xii. 26.   Cl   If any man ,rtJs (tlialone) me, let...
54                         KINISTRY.                 [ CHAP. lIT.1 Pet. i. 12. cc But unto us they did, .ini8tw (tliekotao...
SEc.6.J                  DUXONOS.                           55SI Cor. vi. 4. "But in all things approving ourselves the   ...
66                    KmlSTBY.             [ CH.u. III.fails, wherever an opportunity oceDn, to give a high  church interp...
George bush the_christian_ministry_longmans_london_1867
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George bush the_christian_ministry_longmans_london_1867
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George bush the_christian_ministry_longmans_london_1867

  1. 1. THECHRISTIAN MINISTRY, CO!llIDI....D IIf u,u.nOH TO"11 .. U .. CUolI:K 01111....710" I .. aOTIoL J.n:mtooo." 1 Pet. it. 9. LONDON:LONGHANS, GREEN, READER, 4; DYER.
  2. 2. NOTICE TO THE READER.THE following is an abridgment of a work publishedabout ten years &gO, in Amerioa, under a somewhatdifferent title. Various alterations have been made inthe original text, which, without affecting the generaloharacter of the work, will, it is believed, tend to re-move oooasional obsourities in the style, and to bringthe subjects treated on-subjects especially importantat the present day-still more olearly before the mindof the reader.
  3. 3. TI
  4. 4. CONTENTS. OHAPTER I. PRIESTHOOD. Page§ 1. Definition .. 1§ 2. Prerogative of Priesthood common to all Chris- tians ... .•. .., ... ... ... ... ..• ..• 7§ 8. Why so little said of Chmch Government in the Scriptures ... ... .. . .. . ... .. . •.. 12§ 4. The Churoh Fruits of the Holy Spirit.. . ... 18§ 6. What kind of Government recognized in the Acts an~ the Epistles ... ... ... ... ... ... 15§ 6. Where we are to look for the Law of Chmch Government ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 16§ 7. The Doctrine of a Christian Priesthood apart from the general body of Believers reoeives no oountena.noe from the earliest History of Christianity ... .., ... 18 OHAPTER 11. TIlE APOSTOLATE.§ 1. Position 8Bsumed 24§ 2. Position denied 26
  5. 5. vi. C01f~E1fTS. C H APT E R I I I. MINISTRY. Page§ 1. Prevailing Notions ... ... ... so§ 2. The true Idea of :Ministry as set forth in the Scriptures ... ... ... " ... ... ... ... SI§ 8. Examination of Scripture Terms relative to Ministry 4t5§ 4.~... 46§ 6. DiakoMo ... 61§ 6. Diakono,... 54§ 7. The Office of Deacon 67§ 8. lfinistry as implied in the term ~eer.u 66§ 9. Imposition of Hands ... ... 67§ 10. Administering the Sacraments 68§ 11. Preaching the Gospel 70§ 12. Ordination ... ... 78§ 13. General Remarks on Ministry 87§ 14. Tendency of Clerical Rule ... 99§ 15. The Clerical system espeaially out of place among the C~gationaJists 103§ 16. The Evil Effects of the Distinction in Question 104 CHAPTER IV.GBNEBAL RESULTS ••• ••• .•. . •• ...... 106
  6. 6. THE AP08TLlD PAUL TO THE CHURCH IN ROKE. "Alwe bave muymemben In ODe body, and all members have Dot thesame oftlce; 10 we belng many, Ue ODe body In 0brIIt, and e,ery ODe mem-ben one of another. HavlDI then gifta dlfterJDI accordtDI to the grace that11 given to as, whether prophecy, let UI propheey aecordinl to the propor-tion of falth; or min1ltry, let UI walt on our mlDJ8terlng; or he that teaebethOD teaching; or he that ahortetb, OD ubortatlon. He that glveth, letbim do it with simplicity; h. that ruletb, with d1UIence; he that Ihowethmercy, with cheerfalD_."-BoK£1fS sUe " 6, 6, 7, 8.
  7. 7. CHAPTER I. PRIESTHOOD. § 1. Definition. IT will be important to settle in limine the meaning that is ordinarily attached to the word cc Priest." A. priest is a person consecrated to the priestly office, by &11 order of priests already existing, and sup- posed, in virtue of this consecration, to be endowed with a character, giving him privileges in divine things above those of his fellow-worshippers who are not consecrated as he is. In the Levitical institutions, we find the priest greatly exalted in the service of God above the people, because the Levitical order was, till the coming of Christ, a type of the company of the faith- ful under the High Priest, who was eminently a type of Ohrist Himself; the whole of the worship, the burning of the offerings on the altar, the pre- senting of every zeback and mmcka, of every korbcm and olGk-in the temple, and the performance ofevery religious ceremony, were the exclusive privilege and. duty of " the priests, the sons of Aaron." The most • Zebach, .the slaughtered-offering; Mincha, the meat-offering of inanimate things offered by fire j Korbcm, anoffering generally; Olah, a burnt-offering. B
  8. 8. 2 PRIESTHOOD. [CHAP. J.important of the Levites sacerdotal functions wasto make an atonement for the sins of those thatcame t<;> him to have their sins removed throughhis mediation. "And the prie,t ,hall make an atonfJ-ment for llim concerning kill nn, ana it ,kall he for-given, kim." (Lev. iv. 20.) ".And it shall be, whenhe shall be guilty in one or these things, that heshall confess that he hath sinned in that thing; andhe shall bring hi~ trespass offering unto the Lordfor his sin which he has sinned." (Lev. v. 5,6.) . In the above definition of "a priest," we have stated that such an one "is & pe18on consecrated tothe sacerdotal office by an order of priests already existing." This is deemed absolutely indispensable to constitute & human priesthood; whereas every true member of the church of Christ, who has re- ceived the seal of the Spirit, is a priest in the gospel sense; and if, with that seal, he has re- ceived also the gift of preaching, and the church accept his gift, he is a "prophet," and may deliver that knowledge which he has received. Paul de- clares he was an apostle, "not of men, neither by-man;" that is, he was no priest according to the received ideas and ancient custom; nobody had ordained him; no son of Aaron had anointed him with oil, and arrayed him in the consecrated ~phod ; the corporation of priests were not at all concerned or consulted in his ordination. If he had thought the apostolical succession indispensable in establish. . ing the validity of his office, he might most easily have sought out the" archbishops " (ss the apostles . are deemed by some to havebeen) and have received
  9. 9. 8110.1J DEFINITION. 3 consecration from their hands. But he had other views, and what those views were he has stated very plainly: "When it pleased God, who separated me from my mothers womb, and called me by his grace, to reveal his son in me, that I might preach Him among the heathen, immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood, neit~er went I up to J ern- salem to them which were apostles before me, but I went into Arabia." So he began preaching and teaching without human ordination; and so little did he think it requisite to be ordained by the apostles that he purposely avoided it, as is clearly intimated in the epistle to the Gslatians. This, then, .is to be " an apostle not of men, neither by man," and is the true apostolicaJ succession, for the honour of which the church of Christ has good reason to be jealous. To distinguish, by a broad line of demarcation, between Cl the clergy" and "laity;" to act as if we supposed that a certain order of men had the power of admitting candidates into their body corporate, or that their interference, or even assis-· . tance, was indispensable in opening the door of the ministry to those whom the grace of God had previously selected to teach the truth, is, in fact, to take away from the glory of Him who sends the rod of his strength out of ZioD, and who, by the gift of repentance and remission of sins, rules 8S a Prince in his Israel, and anoints all his true servants to be kings and priests to God and his Father. As one great aim of the Bon of perdition has been B2
  10. 10. 4 PRIESTHOOD. [OllA.P. I.to destroy: the priesthood of grace, and exalt thepriesthood of man, and as this his work has too suc-cessfully transformed the oneness of the believingbody into "clergy and laity, tt so should it now be theunremitting labour of the servants of the Lord toundo his work; to go back again to tbe fountain oforiginal purity, and there, in a thorough cleansingof holiness, to recover the fair image of primevalsimplicity. And for this purpose it behoves usnot to tolerate any ancient custom, any receivedformulary of words, by which it is possible that theunderstanding of believers may be led, unawares,into a train of thought bordering on the old delu-sion. We have all an inherent tendency to thatdelusion: without this tendency, the papacy nevercould have achieved that mighty dominion which itformerly secured for itself: for, what is the papacybut an accommodation, in all things, to the un-hallowed desires of the natural man? How careful,then, should we be to avoid the paths whereinit is even p08sible to lapse into old errors! Howcautious to shun the stumbling-blocks which arethickly set by Satan in every high-road and by-pathof the journey! cc If any man be in Christ, he is anew creature: old things are passed away; behold,all tiling are become new!" He comes to see themany privileges of the church; a spiritual temple, aspiritual altar, a spiritual High-priest, a spiritualcompany of priests anointed by God the Holy Ghost,and by Him appointed, and sent forth to exercisetheir gifts in any office He chooses for them; a frater-nity of spiritual kings, who shall reign with their
  11. 11. 8Eo.1.J DEFINITION. 5God for ever; enjoying spiritual union with the ex-alted Head of the church,-perfect God and perfectman,-who has taught his servants this unspeakablemystery, that they" are members of his body, ofhis :flesh, and of his bones." Now, in order to recover these privileges, ourduty is to place the gospel ministry in a clearlight; to bring it forth in open day; and to de-prive it of the false effect produced by shadowy •back-grounds, and the picturesque accompanimentsof antiquity. If the churches of Rome, of England,or other countries, have their orders-if they, inperfect consistency with their system, make theirpriests first breathe the sacerdota1life through thelaying on of prelatical hands-we" cannot be at alos8 for the line of conduct which we ought topursue, in ceasing to imitate or tolerate theirexample. It is but justice to remark in this. connection,that one sect, if sect it may be called, has ap-proached perhaps nearer the truth concei-ning thepriesthood than any other, and, entirely levellingevery remnant of distinction between clergy andlaity, has at last produced a system framed on thefundamental doctrine, that "the old covenant"having " decayed and w:axed old," ought "to vanishaway." This sect is the Quake18; a body of menwho seemed determined to investigate this ques-tion, without the least regard to the trammels ofpreconceived opinions and settled customs; andthough, by such a method of investigation, they mayhave been in danger of running into Bome extra-
  12. 12. 6 PRIESTHOOD. [CHAP. I.v&gances, they were also sure to discover sometruths unknown, denied, or detested by their con-temporaries: for 80 great are the delusioDs of everygeneration, that he who systematically opposes theopinions of the age in which he lives, can h&1dlyfail to liber~te Bome truths from the captivity oferror. The Quakers, then, are entitled to the wholecredit of having placed the sacerdotal controversyin its true light; and they not only stated thetruth, but acted on it, guarding their opinions withsuch a watchful discipline, that it became impos-sible for their successors to misunderstand or mis-interpret their meaning. To acknowledge a priestin any way, directly or indirectly, is, in fact, to ceaseto be a Quaker. And herein is their wisdom deserv-ing the highest admiration; for they acknowledgeand act upon this great maxim, that our Lord andSaviour J eallS Christ is the only Priest that hasany pre-eminence, and that the whole body ofbelievers are priests in perfect equality one withanother, in and through Him, their Head and Lord.One ofthe early Quakers was, therefore, rightwhen he 8aid, "we are not persons that have shotup out of the old root into another appearance, asone sect hath done out of another, till many arecome up one after another, the ground still re-maining out of which they all grow; but that veryground hath been shaking, destroyed and is destroy-ing, removed and is removing in us."· • Life of William Dewsbury t. London, 1836, p. 5.
  13. 13. SEC. 2] PREB.OGA.TIV:z OF A.LL CHBIBTIA.liS. 7 § 2. Prie,thood the prerogative common to all OkristiMuJ. Ohristianity can never be fully developed, norcan the points of difference between Christ andAnti-Christ ever be fully settled, till the liberty ofthe ministry to all believers, and the ordination bythe Holy Spirit of all the members of the mysticalbody be fully understood, and admitted 88 entirelyvalid and sufficient. This is the axe that strikes attbe root of the tree of Popery, indestructible by anyother instrument, but, by this, ultimately to beuprooted. To deny all distinction between clergyand laity, prohibits, in limiAuJ, the advance of anyother papal heresy; neither Pope nor Prelate canpla.nt his feet where this is held forth and acted on ;it meets him with confutation and expulsion at thedoor of the sanctuary; and, by referring to thesole priesthood of the divine Head of the Church-who brings into union with Himself all bis people,and invites them "with boldness and confidence" to enter "the holiest of all," as "priests to Godand their Father"-renders it impossible for any " clergyman" to usurp functiOn! which his brethren, anointed with the Holy Ghost, may not perform with an authority and validity fully equal to any that he can claim. But it is marvellous to see h~w this important truth of the Gospel has been neglected, and how Christians have, in almost all Protestant denomi. nations, set themselves to the work of consolidating such a form of church government 88 should reduce
  14. 14. 8 PRIESTHOOD. [CHAP. I.the priesthood of the whole body of believers to anaked theory, and make that a mere idea, abstractedfrom anything practical or tangible, which was in-tended to be a governing principle of the churchupon earth. , Protestant Dissenters are of all others the mostdeeply interested in this question; both becausethey profess to have seceded to the utmost distancefrom Rome on purely Scriptural grounds, and alsoto have secured to themselves an ecclesiasticalpolity free from the evils incident to the systemswhich elsewhere prevail. Still their practice andtheir principles seem not to be consistent with eachother. Their principles would lead to a pluralityof ministers in each church; and we know not thatsuch a plurality has ever been denied, in theoryat least, by any respectable writer· of their class.Nevertheless, the great body of Dissenters have,in practice, rejected the plurality of ministers, andhave settled down into the one-man system, withoutthe semblance of an argument in favour of such anarrangement. But we take still higher ground. We pleadnot merely for the plurality of ministers, but for thefull and free acknowledgment of the liberty of minis.try to the whole Ohurch of God; by which all maybe placed in such a position " as that all may pro-phecy, that all may learn, and all may be com-forted." (1 Oor. xiv. 31.) We plead for the abro-gation of that law, or, which amounts to the samething, of that jl:&sd cuatom which commits to aclerical order, the whole duty of teaching and
  15. 15. BEC. 2J PBEllOGAtIIVE OF ALL CHBISTIANB. 9 ministering to the spiritual necessities of a con-gregation, and substitutes for tb~ mutual exhor-tations of the church, the studied orations of pro-fessional theologians. We plead for the plenary recognition of the church-privileges of all the people of God; that they may, if called to the work andgifted for it, preach the word (Acts viii. 4); thata saving faith in Christ may be admitted 88 proofof that anointing, which institutes into the evnn-geli~ priesthood-for no one can say that Jesusis his Lord but by the Holy Spirit-and that therule of the Apostle may be revived and acted on,cc We, having the same spirit of faith, according88 it is written, I have believed and therefore haveI spoken, tDlJ alBo beZitme Mid tltJrttfors apelik." Ifthe New Testament is to give us any light in thesematters, this is plain, that the whole body of be-lievers are, by it, regarded as exercising di1Ferentministrations: cc The manifestation of the Spirit isgiven to every man to profit withal; for to one,is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; toanother, the word of knowledge by the sameSpirit; to another, faith by the same Spirit; toanother, the gift of healing by the same Spirit;to another, the working of miracles; to another,prophecy; to another, discerning of spirits; toanother, divers kinds of tongues; but all theseworketh that one and the self-same Spirit, dividingto every man severally u he will: for as the bodyis one, and hath many mem bers, Bnd all the mem-bers or that body, being many, are one body, 80also is Christ: for by one Spirit are we all baptized
  16. 16. 10 PRIESTHOOD. [CHAP. I.into one body." (1 Cor. xii.) This importantpassage proves the whole argument,-that the Holy Spirit does baptize all believers into the body of Christ; making them priests in the sanctuary, byvirtue of their union with Him; and that theHoly Spirit imparts to each the gifts of ministra- tion, according to the will of God. Again, it is written, cc Every one of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, bath a tongue, hath a revela- tion, bath an interpretation: let all things be done unto edifying,1 Cor. xiv. 26." Now, whatever may be said of the miraculous gifts to which there is here an allusion, this is certain, that these passages con- template the whole church in action, in miniltr. tion ; and it would be presumptuous indeed to assert that the modem practice of restricting the ministry to one individual, however pious, learned, and respectable that individual may be, was known, or even thought of, in the mra when the New · Testament was composed under divine in1luence. Incidental directions are continually occurring in the Scriptures, indicating th~t the work of the·ministry (i. 8. the edification of the church by exhortation, experience, doctrine, warning, counsel, faith, &c.) was with all believers: cc As every man hath received the gift, even so minister the same one to another, 88 good stewards of the manifold grace of God" (1 Pet. iv. 10); "not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is, but 6$lwrting one MWtker." (Heb. x. 25.) But whilst passages like these are of frequen~ occurrence, there is no record of a fact, nor of any .
  17. 17. SEC. 2] PREROGATIVE OF ALL CHRISTIANS. 11thing like an incidental passing allusion, which canauthorize even the most resolute partizan to assertthat the order existing in these days existed also inthe days of the apostles. But here we encounter the usual argumentsadvanced for the power, authority, and pre-eminence of the clergyman, whether he be cailedBishop, Priest, or Deacon, Minister, Pastor, orSuperintendent. Now, as nearly all denominationshave substantially, 88 it relates to the laity, thesame ~use to defend, it is no matter of surpriseto find them all supporting their common theoryby precisely the salne arguments. There is indeeda wide difference in the eztent of power which theyclaim for their clergy; and Rome and Oxford8uperinduce the aid of tradition to make theircase still stronger; but all agree in quotingthe same texts for the establishment of the clericalorder. "Remember them which have the ruleover you, who have spoken unto you the wordof God; whose faith follow, considering the end oftheir conversation. (Heb. xiii. 7)" "Obey them thathave the rule over you, and submit yourselves; forthey watch for your souls as they that m.ust giveaccount; that they may do it with joy, and not~th grief." (Heb. nii. 17.) "We beseech you,brethren, to know them which labour among you,and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you;and to esteem them very highly in love for theirworks sake" (1 Thess. v. 12, 18) ; and others of asimilar import.
  18. 18. 12 PRIESTHOOD. [CHAP. I. § 8. WAyo Zittle aid of OkurCh Government in the Scripture8. In contemplating this question of early churchgovernment, we are too apt to bring to it our ownideas and practices 88. a medium through which toview the subject. The object of most personswho engage in this inquiry, is to discover theexact degree of authority which the Elders, orDeacons, or Bishops of the church respectivelypossessed; to know and define, with precision, allthe laws and customs of church polity; to restorethe discipline and recover the canons ofecclesiasticalregimen. Some writers will tell us that there wasonly one Bishop, and that he ruled the Priests ;others, that there were no Priests, but many Elders,who were the same as Bishops; others, that therewas one Bishop, above the rest, in every church;others, that the brethren might elect, or might notelect, to clerical offices; that the Deacons had thisor that office, or this or that duty; and diversother points of that sort, which have been investi-gated with laborious research, and sustained withno little animosity in ecclesiastical controversies.But how comes it, if this indeed were the realmatter of inquiry, that it is left undefined, un-certain, intangible, in Scripture; that churchgovernment is nowhere clearly described; that weare constrained to make our discoveries as well aswe can, by the very unsatisfactory help of passingallusions or incidental remarks; and that thatwhich seems to be the very soul of modern division,
  19. 19. SBc.4J CHURCH FRUITS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 13and the life of controversy, and the strength of allBeets, should have no definite shape in the canon ofthe New Testament P The church government of the Mosaic Law isclear beyond dispute. There are, in the Law, notmerelya few detached and questionable allusions,butwhole chapters and books expressly on the subject :but in the Gosp~l, which is a more glorious minis- .tr&tion, which is a better, a clearer, a more life-giving system, the whole question of church govern-ment is Dever once directly handled! Howahall we account for this P Simply by this ex-planation; that our Lord Jesus Christ is Himselfthe Head of the church, and that He raises upwhom lIe will by the giit of the ij:oly Spirit, toedify the church according to bis own purpose;that He never designed that it should be governedby a code of human laws and a book of canons, butthst He did intend, and will effect that which Heintended, to rule by his Spirit the church which He purchased with his own blood. § 4. The Church Fruit, of tke Holy Spirit. Where the Holy Spirit is imparted, there willbe seen the fruits of it, "love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness,temperance;" and, with such fruits 88 these, therewill be no lack of church order. There will beElders and Teachers; yea, there will be Epucopoior Overseers of the Hock; but their power will bethat of love; they will, with the mitre of meekness,and the P8ltoral staff of humbleness of mind, with
  20. 20. 141 PRIESTHOOD. [CHAP. I.the knowledge of the deep things of God, and, withthe strength of prayer, seek to lead the flock to stillwaters and green pastures, and to keep them closeunder the eye of the great Shepherd and Bishop ofsouls. They will sit enthroned in the affections oftheir faithful brethren: and, amidst the royal priest-hood, the holy nation, the peculiar people, they willrule with priestly sway. Who can doubt it P Whodoes not wish that so it should be P Dare we nottrust the promise of the exalted Head of the church PAre we unable to believe that He will magnify hisword above all his name, and that He will, accordingto his word, be with his people to the end of theworld P And are we at all doubtful that, if wecome together with one mind and with one spirit,having no other desire than to live and die for theglory of Him who died for us, that He will not onlyraise up Pastors to take care of us from amongst ournumber; but will supply all other gifts needed forthe different branches of edification and ministra-tion P That is very simple in itself which to many per-sons is a problem of inextricable difficulty. TheHead of the Church will, by the agency of theHoly Spirit, raise up spiritual men into those officeswhich are for edification. Wherever there are giftsof preaching or teaching in the brethren, there theywill, by that IBme grace by which faith was firstimparted, be ultimately made manifest. Everyman will stand in his proper position: each willfall into the ranks of the church according to thestation for which he is adapted. The grave, the pru-
  21. 21. SEC. 5] THE AOTS AND EPISTLES. 15dent, the watchful, perceptive character will takehis natural place for government; the brother, whohas a gift of utterance, and who is well instructedin the Scriptures, will become a preacher or teacher;some, by general superiority of understanding, willprecede others; and some, by faith and patience, andothers by the gift; of prayer, will be in that place oftrust in the church which is evidently theirs, with-out any ceremony of election, or imposition ofhands. The true authority is that of the messagedelivered and the character of him who deliversit. There is one Spirit which anoints them all forthe priesthood, and sanctifies their faculties andcalls them forth according to their adaptation,for the edification of the church. CaiuB may havemany qualifications for government or for teaching,either conjointly or distinctly, which Lucius hasnot; whilst Lucius, a very dear brother, will takesome other station, and be exceedingly valued bythe church in his proper capacity. And thus itwill come to pus, that, in the kingdom of love, eaius will be an overseer (epiBCOP08), and he will take the oversight of the brethren· by ruling in their affections.§ 5. Wnat kind of Government is recognized in tke .Acta and tke EpiBtle8. To us, it is obvious that both the Acts and theEpistles were written with a view to churrh govern-ment such as this ;-a church government, not withmy fixed laws or defined polity, but avowedly underthe direction of the Holy Spirit, ruling by the
  22. 22. 16 PRIBSTHOOD. [CHAP. I.principle of love; which, if it were understood andfelt, would effectually Bettle all disputes aboutecplesiastical regime, and show the utter emptinessof all those interminable questions concerning theministerial office, which have indeed filled manybooks, but have not advanced the settlement of thequestion one degree further than it was in the daysof Luther and Calvin.§ 6. Where we Me to look for tke Law of Ckwrci G01JtJNI,mtmt. The law of church-government is to be found inthe general principles prescribed for the regulationof Ohristian conducta and not in any canons or enact-menta of discipline. In texts like these we are todiscover it: "If we live in the Spirit, let us alsowalk. in the Spirit; let us not be desirous of vainglory, provoking one another, envying one another."(Gal. v. 25.) "Bear ye one anothers burdens,and 80 fulfil the law of Christ: for if a man thinkhimself to be something, when he is nothing, hedeceiveth himself; but let every man prove his ownwork, and . then shall he have rejoicing in himselfalone, and not in another; for every man shall bearhis own burden. Let him that is taught in theword, communicate unto him that teacheth in allgood things." (Gal. vi. 2-6.) "Walk in love, asChrist also hath loved us, and bath given himselffor UB, an offering and a sacrifice to God, for asweet-smelling savor." (Eph. v. 2.) "Speakingto yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritualsongs, singing and making melody in your heart to
  23. 23. SEC. 6] LAW OF C~UBCH GOVBBXllENT. 17 the Lord; giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father, in the name of the Lord J eSllS Christ; submitting !louraclveB one to anotlatJr in t1u) fear of God." (Eph. v. 19-21.) "The Elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an Elder." cc Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint but willingly; not. for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; neither as being Lords over Gods heritage, but being ensamples to the flock; and ,vhen the chief Shephera shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away. Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto theelder; !lea, all l!f !loo be BUbJect one to OIIWtker, and be clothed with humility." (1 Pet. v. 1-5.) "Put-OD, therefore, 88 the elect of God, holy and beloved,bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness of mind,meekness, long-suffering; forbearing one another,and forgiving one another, if any man have a quarrelagainst any; even as Christ forgave you, so also doye; and, above all these things, put on charity, which is the bond of perfectness: and let the peaceof God rule in your hearts, to the which also yeare called in one body; and be ye thankfuI." (Col.iii. 12..15.) " I am persuaded of you, my brethren,that ye also are full of goodness, filled with allknowledge, able also to admonish one another." (Rom. xv.14.) "Now the God of patience andconsolation grant you to be like-minded one towardsanother according to Christ Jesus: that ye maywith one mind and one mouth glorify God, eventhe Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Wherefore c
  24. 24. 18 PBIESTHOOD. [CIIAP. I.receive ye one another, as Christ also received 118 _tothe glory of God." (Rom. xv. 5-7.)§ 7. The doctrine of a Okriatian Priesthood apart jrorn, tke gfJfl,eral boily of Believer8 receives fU) countenance from tke earZie,t HiBtOr!J of 01lriB- tianity. On this head we make no pretensions to dive deep into the depths of patristic lore. Indeed, we place very little stress on the historical argument as compared with the Scriptural. It is of small.lnoment to us what the most ancient Fathers hal"e taug~t on a question that is finally to be settled solely on the authority of Holy Writ•. If they are to be summoned into court, it is simply that they may give testimony to matters of. fact, and not to take the judges seat and lay down the la,v for the church. That we have to seek in the archives of Inspiration, and nowhere else. At the same time, if the collateral records· of the purest ages of Christianity go to confirm the rel!ults of previous enquiry conducted wholly on other grounds, nothing forbids our availing our- selves of this fact. Happily there is ample evidence that, though the apostolic polity was very early . departed from, and the foundations of the hierarchy . thoroughly laid, yet in the really prima-primitive . days of the church the order for which we plead was the one that actually prevailed. The profound and clear-sighted N eander, the honest Mosheim, the exact Gjeseler, are accounted reliable authorities in
  25. 25. SEC. 7.] THE EA.RLY OHURCH. io this department, and they all concur in substan- tially the same vi~w of the non-distinction of the clerical and the laical classes in the commencement of the churchs career. The following extracts, samples ofverymanyothers which might be adduced, will convince the reader that, in the averment now made, we do not "speak withoJlt book." ., What MOBes expressed as a wish, that the Spirit of God might lest upon all, and all might be prophets, is a prediction of that which was to be realized thl"Ough Christ. By Him was instituted an economy distinguished from the constitution of aU previously existing religious societies. There could be no longer a priestly or prophetio office, constituted to serve 88 a medium for the propagation and development of the Kingdom of God, on which office the religious consciousness of the com- munity was to be dependent. Such a class of priests as exis~d in the previous systems of religion, emp.owered to guide other men, who lemained, as it werf, in a state of religious pupilage, having the e:cclurive oare of providing for theh leligious wants, and serving 8S mediators, by whom all other men must be pla~ed in conneotion with God and divine things,-such a priestly caste could :find no place withiJl Christianity. • • • • When the apostles applied the Old Testament idea of the . priesthood, this was done invariably for the simple purpose of showing that no such visible partioular priestllood could find place in the new oommunity; that since free access to God . and to heaven had been, once for all, open to believers by one High Priest, even ChI"jst, they had, by virtue of their union to Him, become themselves a eph·itual!)eople, consecrated to God j . their calling being DODe other than to dedicate their entire life to God 8S a thank-o:ffering for the grace of redemption, to publish abroad the power aud gt"ace of Ifim who had called them out of the kingdom of darkness into his ma.rvellous light,. to make their life one continual priesthood. • • • " Eaeh society was a whole composed of equal melnbers, all the mem- bers being but organs of the community, as this was the body c2
  26. 26. 20 PBIESTHOOD. [CHAP. I.quickened by the Spirit of Christ. All those m~mbera, organs of the whole and of the one Spirit that gavt it life, were to co- operate each in his appropriate place, for the oommon eDd: and some of the members acted in this organization of parts as the pre-eminently guiding ones. But it could hardly work itself out in a natural way from the eS8p.noe of the ChriatiaD life and of Chl"isuan fellowship, that tllu (JUidantJ6 8houltJ beplaced in tke ha1uU elf 011.111 one individual. 11I.e monarchicaZform o.f gov8rll,1Il61lt 1VU Itot mitet/, to the OhrUtian com,nunitll of Spirit. The preponderance of one individual at the head oC the whole might too easily operate 8S. cheque on the free development of the life of the church, and the free co-operation of the different organs, in whom the oonsciousnesl of mutual independence must ever be kept alive. The individualon whom every thing depended, might acquire too great animportance for the whole, and 80 beoom.e a oentre round which all would gather, so 88 to obscure the sense of their commonrelation to that only One, who should be the centre for all."- .!VtJander8 Cl". Hut., p. 179-183. TOPr8g8 T".an8. ".All CltriBtWlIU, originally, had the right of pouring outtheir hearts before the brethren, and of speaking for theiredification in the public 88sembliea."-Id. Vol. I., p. 186. " The duty of teaching, as an office, was by no means incum- bent on the elders, although the apostle wishes that they should be apt to teacl". The capacity for instructing and edifying in the auemblfes was rather considered 88 a free gift.of the Spirit, which manifested itself in many Chriati&lls, though in different modes. Stalk. ",111 tI di8tinDt pritJltZy order kntJTDn at tAia time; fm tluJ RJko~ ,oci8tV qf Okri8titMflWaea a r01/al prie8thood, Gotl, petnJ,lial PtKJP~." GiUlUr,.EM. Kut., ch. ii. § 30. p. 90. Edin. Ed. "The authority of the church constituted the dUFereucebetween the (olerical) order and tbe people. (Di1Ferentiaminter ordinem et plebem cODltituit ecole8be auotoritaa!)Ambl"Osiaster (Hilary the Deacon), about A.D. 800, thus
  27. 27. SEo.7.] THE EA.RLY CHlJRCH. 21apeab in his Comment all Bpke, :-" At first all taught andall baptized on whatever days or whatever times it might beconvenient. • . • . As then the people grew and weremultiplied it was a privilege conceded to Iill at the outset toevangelize, to baptize, and to expound the Scriptures in thechurch. But 88 places became :filled with churches, conven-tieles were established and directors appointed, and othel·011088 were created in the churches,80 that no one of tilenumber who was not ordained dared to take upon him an officewJrlch YOB not thus entrusted or conceded to hinl. The con-sequence was, that the church begun to be governed byentirely a difterent ordelo and providence, because if all were tobe vieved as competent to the same function, it would of coursebe esteemed i.orational, vulgar, and vile. Hence it bas happenedthat now neither do deacons pl·each among the people~ nor doolerics or lais baptize, nor aloe believers baptized on any and evel·Y duy, unless it be the sick."-Gieaeler, Vol. I. p. 91. The grand question is the true sense of the Wordof God, and yet we are not indifferent to the suffragesof great and good men. Bro,Yn, the earliest of tbeEnglish Independents (from whom they were origi-nally called BrowniBt8) held the liberty of ministry,the equality of Christian brethren, the Spirits teach-ing and competency (and not mans appointmentor ordination), as the proper and only warrant forministry in the present dispensation. Milton alsomaintains entirely the spiritual priesthood of all trnebelievers, and utterly repudiates the idea of anyolraer of men whatever be tlieir name, being aJlowedto come in as prie8t8, between God and his peo-ple, as the medium of intercourse, and the link oftheir connection with hen:ven; maintaining, wbatthe Nev Testament so enlpbatically enforces, tlie
  28. 28. 22 PRIESTHOOD. [OJLUl. I.personal responsibility of every individual believerto God, and the impossibility of transacting, by rproxy, those matters which relate to God and thesoul, and can only be carried on by the aid ofthe Spirit, through the mediation of J esU8 at theright hand of God. So far Miltons principlesaccord with the principles of the New Testament:and many of his pungent remarks in the tractateentitled· u The Likeliest Means to remove Hirelingsout of the Church," deserve the grave and practicalattention of the pastors and people of all sectionsof the professing church. We quote 8 brief pas-sage from the close of it, commending the perusalof the whole to those who would see a clear andforcible exposition of the mischief which h88 beenwrought in the church, by the exhibition of lures ofany kind for inducing men to take upon themselvesa work which they should undertake "not by con-straint, but willingly, not for filthy lucre but of aready mind:" " Heretofore, in the first evangelio times (and it were happyfOI- Christendom were it 80 again), ministers of the gospel weloeby nothing else distinguished from other Christians but bytheir spiritual knowledge and sanctity or life, for whicn theChUl-ch elected them to be her teachers and overseers, thoughnot thereby to separate them from 1IJhatever calling she thenfound them following besides; 8S the example of St_ Paul de-clares, and the .first times of Christianity. When once theyaffected to be called a clergy, and became, as it were, a distinctorder in the commonwealth, bred up for divines in babblingschools, and fed at the public cost, good for nothing else butVhatw88 good for nothing, they aoon grew idle; tllat idleneu,witb fuhw8S of brend, begat pride &nd perpetual contention
  29. 29. SEC. 7.] THE EA.RLY CHURCH. 28.with their feeders, the despised laity, through all ages eversince, to the penerting of religion and the disturbanoe of allChristendom j"-of which" Christendom might soon rid her-self and be happy, if Christians would but know their owndignity, their liberty, their adoption, and, let it not be won-dered if I say, their apiritual prie8tkooa; whereby they haveall equally access to any ministerial function, whenever calledby their own abilities and the ChUlch, though they nevercame near commencement 01" university. But while Protes-tants, to avoid the due labor of understanding their ownreligion, are content to lodge it in the breast, or rather in thebooks of a clergyman, and to take it thence by scraps andmammocks, as he dispensEs it in his Sundays dole, they willbe ~ways learning, and never knowing; always infants;always his vassals,88 lay Papists are to their priests; or atodds with him, 88 reformed principles give them some light tobe not-wholly conformable."
  30. 30. 24 THE APOSTOLATE. CHAPTER 11. THE ApOSTOLATE. § ,I. Position a88Umetl."CHURCH Government," says Prof. Schaaff, in hisHistory of the Apostolic Church, "has its founda-tion in the Christian Ministry, which is originallyidentical with the Apostolate and contains thegerms of all other church offices." Such, brieflystated, is the theory which constitutes the strong- .hold of the advocates of a priestly and clerical caste.It supposes that our Lord, in giving his last com-mandment to the disciples to go forth and proselyteall nations, gave it to them as 8 kind of corporation,or apostolic college, set apart under 8 special eccle-siastical organization, instead of giving it to themmerely as individuals. Nearly all theologians haveinterpreted our Saviours words in the former sense,implying a special commission to the apostles 88 anecclesiastical corporatioa...and authorising them, as8uch, henceforth to preside over the whole body ofbelievers; having power, in virtue of that position, t·oexpound the doctrines of the Christian faith, tO Iadminister the sacraments, and especially to ordain •
  31. 31. SEC. 2] POSITION DEXIJ:D. 25other persons to the performance of the sanle func-tions; thus perpetuating the clerical order as longas the church should endure on earth. § 2. Positio1~ denied. The above statement brings the great questionbefore us. Is it an undoubted fact that Christ didconstitute the apostles an ecclesiastical corpora-tion P The determination of this question involvesthe most serious consequences, since the clergy·resttheir claims, as a body of men consecrated by divine-appointment to perform certain flIDctions, on the8ssumption that the apostles themselves were 8corporation; for unless they were so constitutedthey could not confer corporate powers upon those-who succeeded them in point of time. Everyimportant passage that is quoted from the NewTestament, as implying commission, authority, orpower to the clergy or ministers of the gospel,consists of words addressed expressly to theapostles. But no one- has 8 right to apply to taeclergy at large words 8pok~n by Christ specially tohis apostles, unless he can also show that the apostleswere a corporation, and that as such they com·-municated the powers or authority which theythemselves had received. Were they such a body PDid they communicate such a power P That twelveapostles were, in a special manner, individuallycommissioned to COMMENCE the work of proselyting-mankind, is evident from tIle New Testament his-
  32. 32. 26 THE APOSTOLA.TE. [CHAP. IT. tory; but that they were appointed to this work asan apostolic corporation, with powers to perpetuate this corporate authority by ordination, is a doctrine for which we :find no adequate evidence in the;Scripture. In the first place, we have sought in vain for any passage in the New Testament that either speaks of, or implies, any ~uch corporate action of the apostles as a distinct body. There is no plan for the organizations of such a collegiate body laid down in the apostolic writings~ nor rules given by which it -should be regulated. In warning the disciples against false prophets who would in time appear among them, our Lord gave them no other instruc- tion bywhich to determine the cbaracterofthesefalse teachers than that of judging them "according to ,theirfruits." The theory of the appointment of such .an apostolic college empowered to teach or govern" with a special authority is also at variance with what -t~e Lord says to his disciples, Matt. niii. 7-10, cc Be ye not called Rabbi, for one is !lour Master, even Ohrist, and all !If) are brethren. And call no man!lOfllr.father upon tho earth, for one is your father which is in heaven. Neither be ye called masters, for one i" your master even Christ." Is it possible for words to bear 8 more direct testimony against a body of teachers so constituted than the circum- -stance, that the very words which imply the neces- :SarY superiority of such teachers are positively forbidden to be used P . Secondly. That there could have been no organ i-
  33. 33. SBo.2] POSITIOlf D:BNI:aD•.zation of the apostles, as a corporation, is evident .from the statement made by Paul, who expresslytells us (Gal. i. 15, &c.) that, after his miraculouscall to the apost1eship, he held no conference what-ever with those who were apostles before him, butwent into Arabia in the work of the ministry; andDot until three years after did he go up to Jeru-salem, where he conferred only with Peter, andmerely mentions having seen James of aU the otherapostles• .Thirdly. Neither did the other apostles know,during these three years, that Christ had appointedPaul to be an apostle with them; for when he firstwent up to J ernsalem (Acts n. 26, 27) and " assayedto join himself with the disciples," they were allafraid of him, not believing him to be even a convertto Christianity, till Barnabas cleared up the matter.It BeemB incredible, then, that the apostles shouldhave been a corporation when, for three years, theydid not even know so eminent a member of their own. bod,.. Fourthly. It is to be observed that Paul, in the.gzeater number of his epistles, associates with him. self in the address, Timothy, Bylv&nus, or- Sos- thenes, who were. his ordinary attendants on his missionary excursions. In other epistles he writes in his own name, and never uses any expression implying the concurrent authority of an apostolic body. It is the same with Peter, James, and John; they each write as individuals only. These facts are ineoDBistent with the hypothesis that the
  34. 34. 28 ~JDC UOSroLA.TE. [CHAP. ll.apostles constituted 8 corporation, which WBB to bethe fountain-head of ministerial authority. The popular theory, therefore, that the minis--terial function centered in, and originated with~what is termed the" apostolic college," viewed as adivine corporation, is, we think, totally irrecon-·cilable with the statements made above. Nor doesthe filling up of the vacancy occasioned by the-defection of Judas in the election of Matthias, a&related Acts i. 15-26, invalidate in our minds thisconclusion. The election does not appear to havebeen made by the apostles exclusively, but by thewhole body of the disciples; and moreover it mustbe borne in mind that Christ Himself selected Paulfor the vacant apostleship by a direct and super-natural appointment: The description (in Rev. xxi.14) of the city of the celestial Jerusalem states thatits foundations bore the names of cc the twelveapostles of the Lamb." If Paul was included inthis enumeration, then certainly Mattmas was not,for then there would have been thirteen apo8tles~and if Matthias was included, then by the samere880n Paul was not. The same remark is appli- cable to what is said by our Lord respecting thetwelve apostles sitting upon twelve thrones, judgingthe twelve tribes of Israel. . From the various considerations now adduced we deem the conclusion justified, that Christ called the apostles as individuals, and commissioned them to act in this capacity, and in this only. As such· they went forth into the world, as it were upon so •
  35. 35. :SEC. 2.] POSIlION DENIED. 29many diiferent missionary enterprizes, wherein eachacted in accordance with his own views of religious duty, and not according to any enactments of an.spostolical conclave. Consequently the theory of a permanent or perpetuated body of clergy originating from this source has, in our. opinion, no founda-tion.
  36. 36. 30 :MINISTRY. CHAPTER Ill. MINISTRY. § 1. Prevailing Notion8.THE setting aside of any other prie8tlwoiJ in the- ChristiaI;l church than that of our Lord Himself stillleaves the institution of a mini8try untouched, and our inquiry now concerns that subject. What then.is the general and popular idea of "ministry," andwhat is the divine teaching concerning it P Withthe multitude it is a wide undefined term, meaningan office equally undefined, held by one who is·termed a priest, clergyman, minister, or preacher.With the uninstructed, "priesthood" and "min-·istry" are the same thing. Whoever will take the·trouble to institute the inquiry, will find that thepopular idea of "ministry" is like the popular ideaof" church"-all dimness and confusion. A notion.prevails that whatever is said about priests andlevites in the Old Testament, and about bishops.and ministers in the New, is to be applied to the·Christian ministry,-that a minister is a priest, and.8 priest 1 minister; that. the person holding this.office is, in some way, to be ordained to it by otherpriests or ministers; that by virtue of his office he-
  37. 37. SEC. 2] SCRIPTURAL REPRESENTATION. 31is to preach and pray for the people, to visit thepoor and the sick, to look after the salvation ofmens souls, and more or less to secure it; that he is to be more pious than "the laity;" to wear official apparel; to be called" Reverend;" and generally to take the management of everything that belongs to "religion." This is, with very little variation, the popular idea of " ministry," among all bodies of Christians ; and it obviously is not the interest of the clerical·department, in any sect, to clear up the popular mistakes on a subject which, if rightly understood,·might tend to subvert all established arrangements, and to restore Gods order over the ruins of the order of man.§ 2. PIle true Idea of Minist171 a~ set forth in tAe 8criptu1~e8 . The first and most obvious duty attached to aministry by all parties is, of course, official teaching; except, indeed, in the Roman Catholic persuasion, where performing the sacrifice of the mass, and administering "the sacraments," take precedence of preaching and teaching; but now we are writing of· Protestants, and amongst them-in all their deno- minations-teaching and preaching constitute, of necessity, a large portion ofthe ministerial functions. Let us now see what the N ew Testa~ent says of these functions, their origin, and the persons to whom they are assigned. We find all this stated in 1 Cor. xii. " Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant .•.• Now
  38. 38. 32 llINISTBY. [ CHAP. Ill.there are diversities ofgifts, but the same Spirit; andthere are differences of administrations (or services),but the same Lord; and there are divenities ofopera-tions, but it is the same God which worketh all inall. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given toevery man to profit withal; for to one is given bythe Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the wordof knowledge by the same Spirit; to another faithby the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healingby the sanle Spirit; to another the working ofmiracles; to another prophecy; to another dis-cerning of spirits; to another divers kinds oftongues; to another the interpretation of tongues :but all these worketh that one and the self-sameSpirit, dividing to every man severally as he will." This statement is very clear: we are here veryplainly informed that the Holy Spirit bestowsvarious gifts on the members of the church; that thedonation is not to a privileged class, separated fromtheir brethren, nor according to mans appointmentor election, but that the selection is made out of thewhole body, according to the unrestrained will ofthe sovereign Distributor. " The manifestation ofthe Spirit is given to every man, to profit withal"(v. 7), and in consequence of this divine regula-tion, one man receives wisdom, another knowledge,another faith (v. 8,9). There are, indeed, other giftsmentioned, but with them we are not now con-cerned, as the church confessedly does not nowpossess them; but wisdom, knowledge, and faithmust, in degree at least, exist, otherwise therevould be no ministry or teaching a.t all. IC Now all
  39. 39. SEC. 2.J SCRIPrUnA.r~ REPRESENTA.TION. 88 these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit, diDiding to elJery man severaJIy as he will." (v. 11.) If this be a true description of the church as it was at the first, then it clearly bears no resem- blance to the arrangements p~vailing at the present time, when the division of ministry is not by the. will and appointment of the Spirit, but by the direction and choice of man. This is indeed 80 plain, that almost all commentators seem quietly to yield the point,-that the ministry in the Corinthian church was of an order now lost, and that all existing churches have adopted another system. They speak of the Corinthian order as a pattern known only in the Scriptures; it is, in fact, terra in- cognita to them, and so accustomed are they to the arrangements introduced by tradition, that the dis- tribution of gifts by the Spirit to eve..ry man in the church, they regard as some strange phenomenon of the days of miracles. Amongst the yarious deno- minations we do indeed see quite another system. In the churches of Rome and EngI8nd, the bishops appoint to the ministry; in the kirk of Scotland, the Presbytery is the fountain of clerical functions; amongst dissenters generaJIy, the people, or the church as it is called, elect the minister, and otb~l ministers ordain him after he has been elected; whilst amongst the Wesleyans, the Confere~ce, or some power deputed by the Conference, selects and governs all the ministers and preachers.. Now, it must be clear to everyone, that neither bishops) popular elections, presbytery, nor conference, can supersede the functions of the Holy Spirit; . and D
  40. 40. .34 lIINISTRY. [CHAP. I n.beyond this one need not push the inquiry, in orderto be satisfied that nearly all secta, from the statelychurch of England, down to the lowest denomina-tion of dissent, are gone far astray from the orderrecorded in the New Testament. If the Scriptures,then, are to be our guide: we have already advancedfar in the ~olution of the problem before us; and.we have only to apply the statements in the NewTestament to facts before our eyes, to assure us orthe accuracy of our deductions. For instance, let U8try the existmg church of Rome, by Pauls descrip-tion of what that church was in his day. Paul, inwriting to the Romans, (chap. xii.) says, "We, beingmany, are one body in Christ, and every one mem-bers one of another," having different gifts-somebeing evangelists, others pastors, teachers, rulers,or helps. But now all that can be said ofthe churchof Rome is, that it is entire}y clerical; that theHoly Spirit does not appoint to the ministry, andthat every thing there is under the supreme controlof the Pope. The church of Rome, therefore, haslost the order set forth in the Scriptures; and so itis with others also; for we do not find it written,"He gave some bishops to rulfl dioceses; or Hegave rectors and curates for the care of parishes ;or He gave ordained ministers," &c., but some-thing very dissimilar in every respect. Protes-tants, therefore, as well as the church of Rome,have departed from the authority of Scripture intheir arrangements in regard to ministry. Aiain: supposing, for arguments sake, thatsuch tt. form of the church did exist as has beeR
  41. 41. SEC. 2.] SCRIPTURA.L REPRESENTATION.. 35described. in the twelfth chapter of the first epistleto the CorinihiaDa-that there was no " ordained ~ministry, no clerical or official appointments, noclergymen or "ministers" consecrated or chosen toact 8S functionaries for the people, but that all thepeople, without any recognition of ojJitMZ distinc-tion, met as a gathering of believers, to receive anycc diversity of gifts" which the Holy Spirit mightdispense amongst them; that "wisdom" "know-ledge," "faith," were exhibited here and there,without mans direction, and wholly independentof it; and that those so gathered had no idea ofany other order; would not such a church resemblea body in active and vigorous life; every limb, everymember, contributing, in proper proportion, to thelife and activity of the whole body? Now this isexactly the similitude selected by the apostle Paul,to describe the church of the Corinthians. cc. Thebody is not one member, but many. If the footshall say, Because I am not the hand, I am Dot ofthe body; is it therefore not of the body P And ifthe ear shall say, Because.I am not the eye, I amnot of the body; is it therefore not of the body PIf the whole body were an eye, where were ·thehearing P If the whole were hearing, where werethe smelling P But now bath God set the memberseveryone of them in the body, as it hath pleasedhim. .And if tkey fDM6 all 008 member, where werethe body P But now are they many members, yetbut one body. And the eye cannot Bay unto thehand, I have no need of thee: nor again, the head n2
  42. 42. 36 m.1STHY. [CHAP. nx.to the feet, I have no need of you. . • • . Now yeare the body of Christ, and members in particular. tJ(1 Oor. xii.) But let us uk, how can this portion of Scriptureapply to the generality ofProteatantdenomiDatioDS PID them there is no body at aJ.l, if ~e are to followthe apostles illustration of the life and visibilityof the church as manifested in the vitality ofall the members, for the· apostle plainly tells us,that" if they were all one member there would beno body;t and who is there that does not see in these words a condemnation of the clerical system, which presents tbe body in the form of one member only-THE MINISTER,-the ordained, official, and salaried minister, who, whetber he be appointed to his office by a prelate or popular election, supersedes all other spiritual gifts in the church? In such a system as this, the body is dead, all the members are inanimate, the "honorablo" or "feeble" are alike useless, and one individual is eye, mouth, ear, hand, and foot. " The eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee; nor again the head to the feet, I have no need of you." This is the illustration of the apostle; whereaa, applying this illU8~ation to the arrangements of the present day, we see that one member .ys, "I will be eye, hand, head, and foot: entrust all your funetioDs to me, ye separate members, for I will be the life of the whole body." This is a figurative description of tke fact presented to us by the ministry of tke . one man !I,tem, and in ,such & sY8tem the supre-
  43. 43. SEo.2.] SCKIPTUlUL UPBBSENTATIOlf. 37macyof the Holy Spirit cannot be owned, nor canHis distribution of gifts "to every man accordingto his own will " have any place. Paul says, "The body is not one member, butmany" (ver. 14). Now, the various sects prac-tically, though unintentionally, deny this; andthey ought, in keeping with their practices, to readthe text thus: "The body is one member, and Memany." The apostle afterwards proceeds thus:cc Now ye are the body of Christ, and members inparticular. And God hath set some in the church,first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers,after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps,governments, diversities of tongues. Are all apos-tles P are all prophets P are all teachers P" &c.This is a full explanation of all he had previouslyurged. Every member has not all these gifts, buteveryone is in a condition to receive any w~ch theSpirit may impart; some may have one gift, othersmore than one. Teaching, helping, governing, maybe separated or united, just as the Lord chooses; but not one word of this could be understood, if wewere to suppose that one or two individuals acted officially and permanently in lieu of the whole body·of believers. Suppose, only for arguments sake,that there was a ministry in the apostles days, luch &8 we see in these times, then would it be im- po88ible to comprehend Pauls meaning; but if on the other hand we dismiss the idea of a clerical order, and admit the fact that the whole body of believers waited for such ministry as the Holy Spirit migbt please to apportion to them, dividing
  44. 44. 38 llINIBTBY. [CHAP. UT.to every man severally aB He chose, then we canunderstand all the argument of the apostle. In the fourteenth chapter of the same epistle, Paulincidentally lets us know the result of the churcb-oMer 8S it eDsted in those days. (Ver. 28-31~ .."If therefore the whole church be come togetherinto one place, and all speak with tongues, andthere come in those that are unlearned; or unbe-lievers, will they not say that ye are mad P But ifall prophesy, and there come in one that believethnot, or one unlearned, he is convinced of all,he is judged of all. How is it then, brethren Pwhen ye come together, tJfJety 0ntJ of !lOll batha psalm, hath a doctrine, bath a tongue, bath arevelation, hath an interpretation. Let all thingsbe done unto edifying. If any man speak in anunknown tongue, let it be by two, or at themoat by three and that by course; and let oneinterpret. • • • . Let the prophets speak two orthree, and let the other judge. If anything berevealed to another that sitteth by, let the firsthold his peace. .llw!lB may all propAelg one by OftB,that all may learn and all may be comforted."The meaning of this passage is evident: Paul sup-poses it to be p08sible that in the meetings of thechurches all the believers might be 80 injudicious ..to use the one gift which would be intelligible onlyto themselves, but wholly unintelligible to cc th~unlearned ot unbelievers" (ver.28). This possiblemistake he corrects by recommending that only twoor three should speak in an unknown tongue; butat the same time be mentions, with manifest appro-
  45. 45. BEC. 2.] SCRIPTURAL BBPRESENTATIOY. 39bation, the possible fact of all prophesying, nay,he plainly S&ys, that" all might prophesy one byone, that all might learn, and all be comforted;"and whilst he says this, he never alludes to theexistence, in the Corinthian church, of official pas-tors, ordained ministers, or clergymen; his thoughtsnever go that way at all; be does not, as is thecustom now, addre88 his remarks 88 a matter ofcourse to "the minister," meaning thereby eitherthe parish priest or the popularly-elected preacher,but he directs his precepts to the whole Corinthisnchurch, as the ministering body. He takes it forgranted that gifts would be visible in tke body-thegifts of knovledge, wisdom, faith, teaching, help,government, evangelizing, and the rest; andthat the appointment to those gifts must be bythe Holy Spirit, that same Spirit by which, as betells us, in introducing the subject, every believerhas been enabled to say that J eaus is the Lord.(1 Cor. xii. 8). And indeed it is well worthy ofobservation that Paul, in writing to the Romans,Corinthians, Ephesians, GaIatians, Thessalonians,Philippians, and ColossiaDs, never directs his lettersto "the minister;" he never even names luch anindividual; and this fact alone, if duly weighed,would go far to settle the question of an " ordainedministry," wherever there is a disposition implicitlyto believe and obey the word of God. Are we then to follow the Scriptures in these matters P Are we to test "churches" as they are called, by the precepts and arrangements which we find in the Scriptures P If 80" let us see how, with
  46. 46. 40 lIDfIBTBY. [ CHA.P. Ill.any intel1j~ble meaning, the following words couldnow be addressed to the congregations assembled forworship whetber in church or chapel :-" Brethren,when ye come together,evSfY O1Ie of!lfJ1l hath a psalm,hath a doctrine," 1 Cor. xiv. 26: "To one is given bythe Spirit the word of wisdom, to another the wordof knowledge by the same Spirit, to anotber faith bythe same Spirit..•.. But all these worketh that oneand the self-same Spirit, dividing to e1JBr!l man Beve-rally aB he will." 1 Cor. xii. "AB 6fJety man bathreceived tbe gift, even 80 minister the same one toItnotbel, as good stewards of the manifold grace ofGod; if an.,! lnan speak, let him ~ptak as the oraelesof God: if an.,! man minister, let him do it as of theability which God giveth." 1 Pet. iv. 10, 11. There are two other chapters in the New Testa-ment in which the subject is fully set forth. To theRomans Paul writes, "For I say through the peegi"en unto me, to every man that is among you,not to think of himself more highly tban he oughtto think; but to think soberly, according as Godhath dealt to every man the measure of faith. Foras we have many members in one body, and allmemhers have not the same office; so we, beingmany, are one body in Christ, and everyone mem-bers one of another. Having then gifts differingaccording to the grace that is given to us, whetherprophesy, let us prophesy accordin~ to the propor-tion of faith; or ministry, let us wait on our minis-tering; or he that teachetb, on teaching; or hethat exhortetb, on exbortati~; he that giveth, lethim do it with simplicity; be that ruleth, with
  47. 47. BEC. 2.1 8CBIPTUB.A.L REPBBSE:NTATION. 4.1 diligence; he that showeth mercy, with cheerful- ness" (xii). Here Paul enumerates some of the gifts :-prophesy, mini~try, teaching, exhorting, giving, ruling, showing mercy; now whatever may be our opinion about the precise character . of some of these gifts, this is certain, that ministry, exhortation, teaching and ruling-four offices, which in these days are always assigned to one person, and which are always deemed to be the peculiar prerogatives or duties of "the minister "-are de- clared by Paul to be gifts" differing according to tho• grace that is given." Now his precepts and admo- nitions cannot, in. the least, be understood, unless it be admitted that these offices are distributed among the members of the church, instead of being con- ferred on one individual only. His remarks are to this effect: "Do not. any ofyon, in the church which is sojourning in Rome, be elated with your gifts; for if you have any gift, whether that of ministry, teach- ing, exhortation, prophesy, or power of government; understand that it is a donation of grace, a manifes- tation of the Spirit dividing to every man severally 88 He will. You are but members of one body; the members have each their proper office assigned to them, and when each member performs its func- tiODs, the whole body is in a state of harmonious and healthy vitality." This being the same Bubject as that which Paul handles in his epistle to the Corintbians, it is in- teresting to notice that on both occasions he enforces his thoughts by similar illustrations,-the subject leading him, as jt were of necessity, to refer to the
  48. 48. 42 lIINI8TBY. [CHAP. nI.body and its members for an intelligible and con-vincing similitude. Again, in his epistle to theEphesians, we :find the same statements: "There isone body, and one Spirit ..••. But unto everyone of us is given grace according to the measure ofthe gift of Christ. Wherefore he saith, when heascended up on high, he led captivity captive, andgave gifts unto men . • • . . . And he gave someapostles, and some prophets, and some evangelists,and some pastors and teacbe~ ; for the perfecting ofthe saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edify-ing of the body of Christ: till we all come in theunity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Sonof God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of thestature ofthe fulneu of Cbrist • . . • and may growup into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ j from whom the whole body fit1y joinedtogether and compacted by that which every jointsupplieth, according to the effectual working in themeasure of every part, maketh increase of the bodyunto the edifying of itself in love." (iv. 4-16.) In this portion then of the Scriptures we have again the same subject with the same illustrations- the Holy Spirit divides to all as He chooses-the ehureh is in a capacity to receive any gifts-every believer may help in the service of the church. Moreover, it deserves particular attention that "the growing up into the perfect man," and "the in- crease of the body," is presumed by Paul to be both possible and probable wken God. order prevails. He brings forward these things to show the end and object of such an .arrangement; if, therefore, we
  49. 49. SEC. 2.J SCRIPTUBAL BEIRESEKTATION. 48find professing Christians deliberately rejectingGods order, and letting up a ministry ordained ofman instead, can we be surprised if there is notamongst them any visible" growing up into a perfectman," and that "the increase of the body unto theedifying of itself in love," is a mystery with whichthey are practically unaequainted r And now, let us compare this teaching of Scrip-ture with the practices everywhere prevalent. Inthese days we hear clergymen asserting that theybold an office which makes them a class distinctfrom the body of believers; that to them, by theirordination, belongs the exclusive prerogative of evan-gelist, pastor, teacher, and ruler amongst "theirpeople;" and that "the laity" cannot, withoutgreat irregularity, nay, not without sin, interferein functions belonging exclusively to the clericalorder. In church and chapel we hear this eitheropenly asserted or tacitly implied, according to thedegree of clerical feeling which prevails with thosewho hold ecclesiastical offices; but wherever we see aclerical order, do we not at the same time see apractical contradiction of the scriptural constitutionof ministry P How can a ministry appointed byman, barmonize with a ministry distributed by theSpirit P How can an ordained clerical ctIBte com-port with the free exercise of gifts on the part of thewhole body of believers P. We can, therefore, cometo no other conclusion than that "the churches" ofour days do Dot represent the ditJine order in theirministerial arrangements. The origin and historyof this great perversion ,,·e need not now examine;
  50. 50. lIINISTnT. [OHAP.III. of the fact of 3 perversion-of an apostacy-there can be no doubt at all in the minds of those who are guided in this inquiry by the Scriptures rather than by tradition. A formidable array of Scripture authority has,been produced to establish the truths fer which we plead: but what is the UBUoJ. reply to 80 much and to such clear evidence P Generally, an exclamation .of amazement that we could have propounded anything so strange &8 that, in the New Testament, there il no such thing as human ordination to the ministry. It behoves us, therefore, to be still more explicit, that we may show both what Scripture does and does not teach on the subject-that we may prove our point both negatively and positively. Here, then, let it be remenlbered that we are not to be deceived by the use of words diverted from their proper meaning; for there is "ministry" in the New Testament, and abundantly set forth too there, far more abundantly than we are, for the most part, prepared to receive; but it has no reference to that kind of ministry which is handed down to us by tradition: it is therefore important again to describe the traditional, before we further exhibit the scrip- turaJ. The ministry of professing Ohristendom, at the present day implies a body of men set apart by a sacerdotal ceremony, and ordained into an office in which they have the exclusive right to preach, teach, feed, and tend the Hock, as well as to "ad- minister the 800rBlnents." We now proceed to inquire, if the ministry of scripture answers to this representation of it.
  51. 51. SEC. 3.] SCRIPTURE TERMS.§ 3. Ezamination of Scripture Ter111B relative to Ministry_ In the New Testament the Greek words trans-lated cc ministry," except when predicated of Christhimself, Rom. xv. 8, Matt. xx. 28, Heb. viii. 6, areused to denote 1I1&!I .erviC8 of beZitmw. to God aflllto liB Church, though in our English translationtheir meaning is occasionally weakened or perverted.The word "ministry" occurs in our New Testamente~hteen times, in all which instances, except two, itis a translation of the Greek word dia1coftill. In thefollowing pusuges m;""utry is given as the trans-lation of Zeitourgia, otherwise rendered 8BrDice:-cc But now bath he obtained a more excellent mini.-try (leitourgia) , by how much also he is the mediator of a better covenant." (Reb. viii. 6.) Moreover, he sprinkled likewise with blood both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the minilltrg (l.eitourgia). (ix.21.) These two instances are the only exceptions. There are, however, several in- stances in which tli.alconia is translated by some other word than "ministry j" and this fact may at once enable us to understand how much confusion of thought may be introduced by a capricious trans- lation, made under the iD1iuence of preconceived opinions. But in order to present the whole sub- ject in its clearest light, it will doubtless be expe- dient to bring before the reader the entire list of passages where the original terms for to minilltfYr, miniBtr!l, &c., occur in the New Te8tament~ The actual usage will evince that nearly all the ndvan-
  52. 52. 46 llINISTBY. . [CHAP. 3.tage gained by the clerical theory is due to a subtleprocess of tec1vnicaZizing terms which were intendedto bear no other than their ordinary import. Thiaprocess ha been somewhat largely applied byecclesiastical and other dignitaries in the interpreta-tion of holy writ, but in no case perhaps moreglaringly than in regard to the words which we arenow about to consider. § 4. dialtonitl. The word dialconia is found in the New Testa-ment thirty four times. In sixteen cases it istranslated cc plinistry"-in six, "ministration"-in four, "service"-in three, cc ministering"-intwo, "administratioDs"-in one, "oflice"-in one," relief"-and in one, "to minister."Luke x. 4:0. .c But Martha wu cumbered about much ,tJI"Oiftg (tlisko,.ia)."Acts i. 17. "IIad obtained part of this miniltt71 (tlialumia)."Acts i. 25. cc That he may take prt of this mini8trll (tlttJ- konia)." Ministry here is .errJice, service to God and hischurch; not a clerical or episcopal office, BB it is tobe feared the translators wished the readers tounderstand it, if we may judge by their unwarrant-able use of the word "bishoprick" in the 20th verseof that chapter.Acts vi. 1. cc Were neglected in the daily .in.tltration (tliakonia)."Acta vi. 4. . Will·give ourseh"es continuaIlf to prayer and to the fI~i"i8tlV (dia7wnia) of the Word."
  53. 53. BEC.4.] DIAKONIA. 47 In the general BertJice to be rendered by ail themembers to the church, that of expounding andapplying the Scriptures doubtless devolved moreespecially upon the apostles. So at the presentday, those whose gifts qualify them for it would, intrue gospel order, be called to the discharge of thesame functions.Aota xi. 29. "Then the disciples • • • • • determined to send ,.,zUj (dioJlonia) unto the brethren whioh dwelt in Judea."Acta xii. 25. " And Barnabas and Saul returned from J era- .lem when they had fulfilled their .nUt,.,(diako"j,· i.".,had admini8tINd tAs ,."ug spoken of in the preceding pauage.Aots ZX. 24. "So that I might finish my course with joy, and the fAift"trV (ditJlumia) "hicb I have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the g08pel of the grace of God." This was the special aervice to which Paul wascalled; and every man who has an experimentalknowledge of the gospel, and it! gifted for the work,is called also to "testify" of that gospel to hisfellow-men; though the character of his miniBtty or.tWtJ1ce may not be the same with that of Paul.Aots xxi. 19. cC And when he had saluted them, he declared particularly what things God had wrougbt among the Gentiles by his alnilt"!I (dioAonia)," i.,., by hia iutrN- m"",tal ",.,,1ctJ.Hom. xi. 13. cc Inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, 1 magnify mine q/fitJ, (difJionia)," i.,., my aervioe.Rom. xii. 7. "Or miniltr, (ditUt.ollia), l~t us wait on our ".inWerillg (diaJumia); or he that teacheth, on teaching. Whatever is bere implied by miniBtrg or millister-ing, it is evidently some~~ing not precisely identical
  54. 54. 48 KINISTRY. [CRAP. fiX. with teaching, as tbe two are clearly distinguished. With the popular ideas of the ministry, 88 now existing, this distinction would not have been made. Rom. xv. 81. "That my 6ic. (ditlkonia) which I have for Jerusalem may be accepted of the saints;" i.B., the cont1-i- butlon ofwhioh I am made the bearer. 1 Cor...U. 6. "And there are dUferenoea of tulmiaUtt-atItnu (tlitlJumio7J), but the aame Lord." 1 Cor. xvi. 15. "And that they have addicted themaelv8I to the minUt,., (tliakonia) of the wnts;" i .•., to the ,WfJics of the sain ta.I Cor. iii. 1. cc It the miniltratioJi (dilJJumia) or death, written," &0.2 Cor. ill. 8. "HoW shall not the .inim-tItioft (dill1umls) or the Spirit be rather glorioua!"2 Cor. Hi. 9. "For if the minWrtltio,,. (diaAoltia) or con- demnation be glory, much more doth the minutration (dia- llonitl) of righteousness exceed in gIol"." Ministration or miniBtry as used in this connec-tion seems to be equivalent to eCOMfllI·· or tlU.ptJ1l,tJtWn.2 Cor. iv. 1. cc Therefore seeing we have this miftiltr!l (Ills- 1umia), 88 we have received mercy, we faint DOt;" i.B., seeing we are called to act in connection with the O",w.z 8tJrrice befof"tl spoken of.2 Cor. v. 1. 8. .c, And hath given to us the miniIJtry (diaAonia) of reconoiliation."I Cor. vi. S. "Giving no offence in anything, that the . flllniltrg (dlnkonla) be not blamed."2 Cor. viii. 4. "Praying U8 with much entreaty, that we would receive the gift; and take upon U8 the· fellowship of the miniltring (if,iaAonia) to the saints;" 4•••, dording them relief.2 Cor. ix. 1. "Touohing the mlni8terillO (dioAonia) to the , laints ;" i.e., Bd obo·c, ministering to thtair tempol·il1 wants.
  55. 55. 811:0•.4.]2 Cor. Ix. 11. cc For the t.atltIIi.iltNtiofl of tAi, ,,,.,,,. (ditJ- _ita t. lfttDurgia, tauta) not oD1y aupp1ieth tile want of the aainta," &0.2 Cor. ix. 13. " While by the experiment of this minutratiofa (tlU&1unaia) they glorify God."SI Cor. xi. 8. cc I robbed other churohes, taking wagee of them to do W 1tJrfM, (tlia1tonitJ). n OUBph. iv. 11, 12. "And he gave some apostles, and some prophets, and some evangelisUJ, and 80me pastors and teachers; for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry (tlioJumia), for the edifying of the body of Christe" . Prior to a close inspection of this passage in the original we were not aware how far short the present rendering comes of exhibiting the true sense of the sacred writer. That rendering, it will be observed, presents three distinct clauses, dividedby commas, embracing what the English readerwould take to be three separate, but closely relatedobjects to be accomplished by the divine appointmentof "apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, andteachers" in the church-the first, "the perfecting ofthe saints,"-the second, "thework oftheministry,u-the third, "the edifying of the body of Christ."It may, however, be fairly doubted whether thistruly expresses the meaning of the original. Thereis, as is well known. no apostolic authority for thePfl1l,DtuatioA ot the text. Moreover, the preposition" for n before cc perfecting ., is not the same word asthat before "work of the ministry," or that before"edifYing ofthe body." In the one case it is pro8, andin the other tU. In view then of the phrasing ofthe original, no other rendering appears to be B
  56. 56. 50 KIBISTBY. [CRU.IU.legitimate than the following, or one equivalentto it: cc for the perfecting of the saints unto thework of ministry, unto the edifying of the bodyof Christ." The original is simply tlia1&oniaB, ofministry, without the article, and not of tl,:8 mill-utry, with the article. What more obvious thanthat the ministry here spoken of is a ministry per-taining to all the saints, and not the technical orclerical ministry which has been so generally under-stood by it P Christ gave these various offices tothe church for the express purpose of better quali-fying all his people to perform that ,,,",ice ormm;"try which should help to build up the wholebody into the fulness and completeness of the divinelife.Col. iv. 17. U Say to Archippus, Take heed to the mini8try (tliaionia) whioh thou hut received in the Lord, that thou fulDI it." Had tlialconia been here translated " service" itwould have far more faithfully expressed the mean-ing of the original. Archippus bad been knownas one in enJice to the Lord and to his people;what that service was, we cannot now say, but itdoes not at all appear that it was preaching theGospel, or the exercise of the pastoral office.Archippus might have had no gift for teaching orpreaching; he might bave had no gift for govern-ment. What bis gift was it is impossible for usnow to determine; only this is apparent, that theservice for which he was known, he had "receivedin the Lord;" but such is the force of the cus-tomary notions, that his "ministry" is generally
  57. 57. 8:£C. 5.] DUKono. 51supposed to have been an ofticial pastorate; so thatministers of the establishment claim Arcbippus asone of their clergy, while others, with equal confi-dence, tell us that he was a minister of a congre-·gational church.1 Tim. i. 12. cc For that he counted me faithful, putting me into the minutfy (eU tlioAonian);n lit. appointing tn8 to ,Wt1ice, the article being wanting in the original.2 Tim. iv. 5. "Make full proof of thy min_,., (tlWumia); lit. fulfil tAy lervice. By "ministry" here is to be understood not theclerical function, but the whole of Timothys service.What sort of service that is, we may learn by re-ference to the words of Paul respecting himself:cc I have fought a good fight, I have finished mycourse, I have kept the faith." This is the ilialconiawhich is so often in his thoughts and so much uponhis pen. Any service and all service is "ministry"in the New Testament diction.2 Tim. iv. 11. "Take Mark and bring him with thee; for he is profitable to me for the mini8try (Bildiakonian);" lit. he is profitable to me tmto ,BrtJice, i.e., to serving or minister- ing to my neoe88itiea.Heb. i. 14. "Are they not all ministering (leitourgico,) spirits sent forth to minuter (ei8 ditJlumian) for them who shall be heirs of salvation?" lit. sent forthfor ,ertJice.Rev. ii. 19. "I know thy works, and charity, and ,ert1ios (tlia- konia)." § 5. tlialconeo. The verb tliakoneo, to 8rV6, ~o miniater, occursthirty-six times, in twenty-two of which it isrendered by. mmilter, in ten by 6",8, in two by :s2
  58. 58. 52 KmIBTBY. [CHAP. III.administer, and in two by uftrIg tu ~ of ladeacon.Matt. iv. 11. "Allacrels came and mi,.Ww.tltllo (tliMOtIn.) ki1l~."Matt. viii. 15. "She arose and minwwetl unto (tliektmea") them."Matt. xx. 28. c, Even D8 the Son of Man came not to be minia- tered unto (diakonetkenai) but to ministtw (dia1unU8QI1and to give hialife," &0. So also Mark x. 45.Matt. xxv. 44. cc When saw we thee ••••• iD prison and did not miniate-r unto (diekonuQmen) thee?"Matt. xxvii. 55. "And many women were there ••••• which followed Jesus from Galilee, miniltering unto (diakonouBai) him.":Mark i. 13. "And the angels miniBtered unto (tlieko-noun) him."Mark. i. 31. "The fever l~ft her and she minut".ed unto (diekonei) them." Luke iv. 30.Mark xv. 41. cc Who also ••••• followed him and mi"I,i8teretl unto (diekonoun) him."Luke viii. 8. "And mauy others whioh minutered unto (diekonoun) him of their substance."Luke x.40. "My sister hath left me to 88rtJe (diakonein) alone."Luke xii. 37. "And will come forth and 8erve (diakone8ei) them."Luke xvii. 8. ":Make ready wherewith I may sup, and gird thyself, and serve (diakonei) me."Luke xxii. 26. "He that is chief, as he that dot" Brt:8 (dia- konon)."Luke xxii. 27. cc Whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that 8tlr1Jet" (tliakonon)."Luke xxii. 27. "I am among you 8S he that 8erfJeth (diaJumon)." .John xii. 2. cc There they made him 8 IU pper, and lIartbs ,ervetl (tliekonn).u
  59. 59. SEc.5.J DIAXONBO. 58John xii. 26. Cl If any man ,rtJs (tlialone) me, let him follow me."John xii. 28. "If any man ,.,6(tli4Jums) me, him will my Father honor.ftActa vi. 2. "It is Dot reason that we Ihould leave the word of God and "6 (diakonein) tables."Aots six. 22. h Two of th~m that m,,,inered unto (tlWumoun) him."Rom. sv. 25. "But now I go unto J eru8alem to minUter (diakonon) unto the eaintB."2 Cor. iii. 30 "Forasmuch 88 ye are manifestly declared to be the epistle of ChrilJt, mini8tsred (dioJum.stkei8a) by U8."2 Cor. viii. 19. "To travel with U8 with thi8 gloace, ",kick it Q,f/,mitti.uWBd (diakonoumma) by us to the glory of the same Lord."2 Cor.- viii. 20. " Which u admini8teretl (tlia1umOfMAena) by us."1 Tim. iii. 10. Cl Let these also first be proved; then let tksm ms tks ojJios of tI tleUOft, (tlioJumelt08o,n), being found blameleaa." 1 Tim. iii. 13 cc For they that have Ulell tM qfftce qf tJ dsacon (tlia1untuantu), well," &0. In the two preceding texts a new phase is givento the rendering of the original word; our trans-lators having turned the term into the "exercise ofthe deacons office," which they could readily dowhere it would especially suit tlleir purpose. Butupon the deaconship we shall dwell more at lengthin a ~ub8equent page.2 Tim. i. 18. "And in how many things he mlnut",sd unto (die1w1W6fl,) me at EphesU8."Pbil. 13. " That in thy 8tead he might M/VB miniatwed utato fn8 (tlia/unl,tJ) in the bonds of the Gospel."Beb. vi. 10. "In that ye lIave minutsred to (dioJuJuaMtea) the IlLinta and do minUttr (dialumotlntu). tt
  60. 60. 54 KINISTRY. [ CHAP. lIT.1 Pet. i. 12. cc But unto us they did, .ini8tw (tliekotaoun) the things which are D:OW reported." &c.1 Pet. iv. 10. "Even 10 minUtBr (d,ioJumountu) the same ODe to another;" i.e. be mutually 8mJiceabk one to another.1 Pet. iv. 11. "If any DUUl minl8tlf (tlitJJumsl,) let him do it. &e. § 6. tlia1con08. This word occurs in the New Testament thirtytimes. In twenty it is translated "ministers," iDseven, "servants," and in three, "deacons."Matt. XL 26. "Whosoever will be great among you" let him be your miniMer {dioAonoa}."Matt. xxii. 13. "Then said the king to the srt1a.u (ilia- Jumou), Bind him hand and foot."Matt. xxiii. 11. "He that is greatest among you sIian be your a,rvant (di0JuJn08).":Mark ix. 86. "If any man dflire to be first, the same shall be last of all, and 8ervant (tli41umoa), of all.":Mark x. 43. "Shall be your minister (dlaJumo8.)"John ii. 5. "His mother saith unto the l8r1am, (tlill1umoU)."John li. 9. "But the a,",ant, (tlia1umoi) whioh drew the. water knew."John xii. 26. "Where I am, there shall 8180 my ,,,,,,ani (ditJ,1r.onoa) be."Rom. xiii.4. "For he is the minWIf (dia1ttmn8) of God to thee for good." This is spoken of the oivil magistrate.Rom. xiii. 4. "For he is the mini8ter (dlaJumo8) of God, a revenger," &0.Rom. xv. 8. "Noy I lay that J eSU8 Christ was a minUt". (diakonol) of the circumcision for the truth of God."Rom. xvi. 1. "I commend unto you Phebe our sister which, is a atJMJfMt {tliokonoa} of the ohuroh whioh is at Cenchrea.,.1 Cor. ill. 5. "Who then is Paul, and who is Apollos, but mini8tBr8 (dialumoi) by whom ye believed !"2 Cor. ill. 6. "Who bath·also made us able min_er, (tlitJ- IuJnotu) of the New Testament."
  61. 61. SEc.6.J DUXONOS. 55SI Cor. vi. 4. "But in all things approving ourselves the minister (tlioJunwi) of God ;" i.s., as ,srt:aM8.2 Cor. xi. Ui. "It is no great thing tfbis minut61" (diakonoi) also be transformed as the "dnUter, of righteousness i" l.s., his WtJtmt8.2 Cor. xi. 28. "Are they tniniBter, (tlialumol) of Christ! . . . . . I am more." ,Gal. ii. 10;-. "Is therefore Ohrist the minUttlf (dia/umo,) of 8in?" Eph. iii. 7. "Whereof I was made a tni,.ilter {dioJumol} according to the gift," &to.Eph. vi. 21. e But that ye al80 may know my aftaira, and how I do, Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful miniattlf (tliaAon08) in the Lord shall make known. tt Phil. i. 1. "To all the saints in Chris Jesus whioh are at Philippi, with the bishops and deuom {dilJktJfWi8).tt Col. i. 7. "As ye al80 learned of Epaphras, our dear fellow servant who w for you. faithful minilt",. (ditJ1uwlM) of Christ." Com. ch. iv. 7.Col. i.23. "Whereof I Paul am made a .nUt". (tlitiJumol)." 80 al80 v. 20. 1 Thes. iii. 2. cc And sent Timotbeus, our brother and minllter (dialumo,) of God." I Tim. iii. 8... Likewile must the deaconl (dioAonotJ,I) be grave." &0. I Tim. iii. 12. "Let the tUtJCOfI,8 (tlialumoi) be the husbands of ODe wife.,t1 Tim. iv. 6. cc If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt be a good minilttlf (tJiaJumoI) of J eaU8 Christ.JJ These are very important instances of the usageof a word which in fact is descriptive of all Christsdeacons, ministe18, or servants. Anyone that servesOhrist is his tlitJ1cOflO. "I commend unto you Phebe,our sister, which is a MtJ1cOft08 of the church at Cen-chrea, (Rom. ni.I)." Even Bloom1ield, who seldom
  62. 62. 66 KmlSTBY. [ CH.u. III.fails, wherever an opportunity oceDn, to give a high church interpretation, says upon Rom. xii. 6, "The words tlialcOft08, tlitJlconein, and tlialconia, though general terms and used of the apostles *hemselvtl, are often, in the N ew TestameD~, used of some certain rpecific office undertaken in the cause of the Christian church and exer- cised by those Christians who did not BO much employ themselves in ezplaining tke doctrine, or the Gospel, as in fII,QNJgiIlg tke eztemal and t,m-po,.a~ affairB of the church and of individualB." This is a creditable conceuion for a member of that church which so emphatically teaches that tlellCOfl (tlialcono,) is the title of one of the orders of the teaching priesthood. It is one of the accumulated and irresistible testimonies to the fact, that the general import of the term, in all its branches, is ,enJictJ-,ermce of whatever kind-which is broughtinto requisition in building up the Lords church OD earth. But upon the usage of this term and on theoffice of deacon we shall have more to say shortly. In view of the ample array of passages nOlfadduced, is not the conclusion fair and unimpeach-able, that "miniBtef." MVW, in 0118 Bingle ~MlC6 i1ltke New Te,tament, means a clerical functiont1llY ;tkat "mini..try" has tM meaning of ,enJiclJ in everyi1l8taMe w1wrtJ it iB u:pre.w6 of tkB tlCtiDAI ofOA.,v- 0titmB; Mid ,,",, it freqtI8AtZg re/Br t~ ,BnJica oftllZ beZiltJ6r OIIe 0 MWtMr 1 This is our firm con..viction, and consequently we hold that the entireclerical system which has so long obtained in theChristian church has been, aB we have before ~

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