Em swedenborg-sapientia-angelica-de-divino-amore-et-de-divina-sapientia-latin-english-edition-new-york-1890
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Em swedenborg-sapientia-angelica-de-divino-amore-et-de-divina-sapientia-latin-english-edition-new-york-1890

on

  • 1,292 views

Latin-English edition... Learn latin while you discover Em. Swedenborg. If you download the pdf file, the latin and english pages will display side to side. / ...

Latin-English edition... Learn latin while you discover Em. Swedenborg. If you download the pdf file, the latin and english pages will display side to side. /
[source : archive.org, and google.com (2007). A few pages have been overlapsed in the scanning process by google. I have filled their missing place with a blank page so as not to disrupt the pagination. OCR pdf file ]

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,292
Views on SlideShare
1,292
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Em swedenborg-sapientia-angelica-de-divino-amore-et-de-divina-sapientia-latin-english-edition-new-york-1890 Em swedenborg-sapientia-angelica-de-divino-amore-et-de-divina-sapientia-latin-english-edition-new-york-1890 Document Transcript

  • J[atin~engl~JJ Ebition SAPIENTIA ANGELICA De Divino Amore etde Divina Sapientia ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING THE DIVINE I~VE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM EMANUEL SWEDENBORG = ..... UTIlI BDITBD PROM THR AUTHORS ORIGINAL Immoll PUBUSBBD AT AllSTBltDAM 1763 NEW YORK AMERICAN SWEDENBORG PRINTING AND PUBLISHING SOCIETY 20 COOPER UNION Mncccxc
  • KF /~ C" !,q cJ () a ,~., , . HAWARD UNlVERSI1Y LIBRARY Tile translatUm in tAis edition of Divine Love and Wisdom Iuu ken carefully read tnrouglwut 6y tile Societys Committee on Eng/isn Translahtms, and has been made to accord witll, tile sug- gestions of tile Committee. b 1,S luJped ilzat it fIJilJ be found to be f,ee from any serious errors. J.C.A. *.* "
  • EDITORIS PRAEFATIUNCULA. F.rrons typotheble, qui poterant nuDa temeritatis Dota emendari, in IlOItra editione silentio correximus: ubi gravius quid latebat, rem diligenter significavi- mus. Modum scribendi, ad verba nonnulla, usui horum temporom optimo accom- modaYimus. Granda litteras, oculis et cODSuetudiDi Dostrae aetatis obsequentes. parcius usurpavimus. Verborum quidem interpunCtiones ad certam nonnam redi. gere conati, non mutarimus ubi periculum ne sententiae mutarentur. Commuta,. tiODes, qua enumeralimus, fadae sunt ut auxilio mnt studi060. In editione principe, capita singularum sedionum, ut principia artieulorum quae iisdem pertinent, sistuntur i in nostra, distinda. SAMUEL H. WORCESTllR.563:~
  • I .
  • CONTENTA.* are IJrima.QUOD AKO& SIT VITA HOMINIS ~D. IJ.QUOD DEUS SOLUS ITA DOMINUS SIT IPSE AKOR, QUIA EST IPSA VITA i BT QUOD ANGELI ET HOMINES SINT ItECIPIENTES VITAE (11. 4).QUO~ DIVINUM NON SIT IN SPATIO (D. 7).QUOD DEUS SIT IPSE HOMO (n. II).QUOD EssE ET EXISTERE IN DEO HOMINE DISTINCTE UNUM SINT (De 14).QUOD IN DEO HOMINE INFINITA DISTINC1"E UNUM SINT (D. 17).QUOD SIT UNUS DEUS HOMO A QUO OMNIA (n. 23).QUOD IPSA DIVINA EssENTIA SIT AMOR ET SAPIENTIA (n. 28).QUOD DIVINUS AMOR. SIT DIVINAE SApIENTIAE, E"t QUOD DIVINA SAPlBX- TIA SIT DIVINI AMOIUS (D. 34).QUOD DIVINUS AMOK. ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA SIT SUBSTANTIA ET QUOD SIT FORMA (n. 40).QUOD DIVINUS AMOR ET DIVINA SAPIENnA SINT SUBSTANTIA BT FOllMA IN SEt ITA IPSUM ET UNICUM (n.44).QUOD DIVINUS AMOK. ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA NON POSSIT ALITER. QUAM ESSE ET EXISTEllE IN ALliS A SE CllEATlS (n. 47).QUOD OMNIA IN UNIVERSO A DIVINO AMORE ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA DEI HOMINIS CRRATA SINT (n. 52).QUOD OMNIA IN UNIVERSO CREATO SINT DIVINI AMOR.IS ET DIVINAE SA- PIENTIAE DEI HOMINIS RECIPIENTIA (n.55).QUOD OMNIA QUAE CB.EATA SUNT IN QUADAM IMAGINE UFEUNT HOMI- NEM: (n. 61).QUOD USUS OMNIUM QUAE CB.EATA SUNT, ASCENDANT PER. GB.ADUS AB ULTI- MIS AD HOMINEM. ET PER. HOMINEM: AD DEUM CllBATOR.EM. A QUO (n.65).QUOD DIVINUM IMPLEAT OMNIA SPAfIA UNIVERSI ABSQUE SPAno (D. fig).QUOD DIVINU),! SIT IN OMNI TEMPORE ABSQUE TEMPORE (n. 73).QUOD DIVINUM IN MAXIMU ET MINIMIS SIT IDEM (n. 77). lJare gecuubG.QUOD DIVINUS AMOIl ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA APPAllEANT IN KUNDO SPI- RITUALI UT SOL (n. 83).QUOD EX SOLE, QUI EX DIVINO AIIOR.~ ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA EXISTIT, PllOCEDAT CALOR. ET LUX (n. 89). •QUOD SOL ILLE NON SIT DEUS, SED QUOD SIT PROCEDENS EX DIVINO AMORE ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA DEI HO..INIS: SlKILlTEIt CALOIl. ET LUX EX ILLO SOLE (D. 93).QUOD SPlllITUALIS .cALOR ET LUX. A PROCEDENDO A DoMINO UT SOLE, UNUM FACIA NT. SICUT IPSIUS DIVINUS AMOIl. ItT DIVlNA SA,PIENTIA UNUM PACIUNT (n. 99)• • Ab editore coneaa.
  • CONTENT~ art .firet.LOVE IS TUB Lin OF MAN (n. I).GOD ALONE, CONSEQUENTLY THE LoRD, IS LoVE ITSELF; BBCAUSE HE IS Lin ITSELF, AND ANGELS AND KEN AR.E R.ECIPIENTS OF LIFE (n. 4).THE DIVINE IS NOT IN SPACE (n. 7).GoD IS VERY MAN (n. II).IN GoD-MAN ESSB AND EXISTBRB AU ONE DISTINCTLY (n. 14).IN GoO-MAN INFINITE THINGS AR.E ONE DISTINCTLY (n.17).THEIlE IS on GoD-MAN, FROM WHOM ALL THINGS AJlE (n.23).THE DIVINE EssENCE ITSELF IS LoVE AND WISDOM: (n. 28).DIVINE LoVE IS OF DIVINE WISDOM, AND DIVINE WISDOM IS OF DIVINE LoVE (n. 34).DIVINE LoVE AND DIVINE WISDOM AilE SUBSTANCE AND AilE FORM (n. 40).DIVINE LoVE AND DIVINE WISDOM AilE SUBSTANCE AND FORK IN ITSELF, THUS THE VERY AND THE ONLY (n. +4)DIVINE LoVE AND DIVINE WISDOM MUST NECESSARILY BE AND HAVE EX- ISTENCE IN OTHERS CREATED BY ITSELF (n. 47).ALL THINGS IN THE UNIVERSE ARE CIlUTIONS FROM THE DIVINE LoVE AND THE DIVINE.WISDOM OF GOD-MAN (n. 52).ALL THINGS IN THE CRUTED UNIVERSE AilE RECIPIENTS OF THE DIVINE LoVE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM OF GoD-MAN (n. 55).ALL CREATED THINGS HAVE RELATION IN AN IMAGE TO MAN (n. 61).THE USES OF ALL CaRATED THINGS ASCEND BY DEGREES FROM OUTMOST THINGS TO MAN, AND THROUGH MAN TO GOD THE CIlEATOR, FROM ~HOM THEY ARE (n. 65).THE DIVINE, APA1T FROM SPACE, FILLS ALL SPACES OF THE UNIVEJLSE (n. 69).THE DIVINE IS IN ALL TIME, APART FROM TIME (n.73).THE DIVINE IN THINGS GREATEST AND LEAST IS THE SAMK (n. 71). lJart 6econb.DIVINE LoVE AND DIVINE WISDOM APPEAlt. IN THE SPIRITVAI. WORLD AS A SUN (n. 83).OUT OF THB SUN THAT HAS EXISTENCE FROM DIVINE LoVE AND DIVINE WISDOM. HEAT AND LIGHT GO FOllTH (n. 89).THB SUN OF THE SPIlllTUAL WORLD IS NOT GoD. IT IS A PROCEEDING FROM THE DIVINE LoVE AND DIVINE WISDOM OF GOD-MAN; SO ALSO AIlE THE BEAT AND LIGHT FR.OM THAT SUN (n. 93).SPIB.IroAL HEAT AND LIGHT, BY THEIR PROCEEDING FROM THE LoIlD AS A SUN, MAKE ONE. JUST AS HIS DIVINE LoVE AND DIVINE WISDOM IlAXE ON~ (n. 99).
  • iv CONTENTA.QUOD SOL MUNDI SPIRITUALIS APPAltEAT IN MEDIA ALTITUDINE, DISTANS AD ANGELIS SICUT SOL MUNDI NATUR.ALIS AD HOMINIBUS (n. 103).QUOD DISTANTIA INTER SOLEM ET I!fiER ANGELOS IN MUNDO SPIIUTUALI SIT APPAR.ENTIA SECUNDUM: RECEPTIONEM DIVlNI AMORIS KT DI- V1NAE SAPIENTIAK AD ILLIS (n. loS).QUOD ANGELI SINT IN DoMINO, ET DOMINUS IN ILLIS: ET QUIA ANGELI SUNT RECIPIENTES, QUOD SOLUS DOMINUS SIT CARLUM (n.113).QUOD IN MUNDO SPIRIn1ALI OklENS SIT UBI DOMINUS UT SOL APPARET, ET QUOD RELIQUAE PLAGAK INDR SINT (n. 119).QUAE PLAGAE IN MUNDO SPIRITUALI NON SINT A DOMINO UT SOLE, SED QUOD SINT AD ANGELIS SECUNDUM RECEPTIONEM (n. Iq).QUOD ANGELI FACIEM SUAM JUGITEB. VERTANT AD DOIlINUK UT SOLEK, ET SIC HADE ANT MERIDIEM AD DEXTRUM, SEPTENTRIONEM AD SINIS- TRUM, ET OCCIDENTEM A TER.GO (n. 129).QUOD OMNIA INTEIUORA TAM MENTIS QUAM CORPORIS ANGELORUM AD Do- MINUK UT SOLEM VERSA SINT (n.135).QUOD UNUSQUISQUE SPIRITUS, QUALISCUNQUE SIT, AD AMOIlEM SUUM REG- NANTEM SIMILITER SB VERTAT (n. 140).QUOD DIVINUS AMOIt ET" DIVINA SAlIENTIA, QUAE PR.OCBDUNT A Do- MINO UT SOLE, ET FACIUNT CALOREM ET LUCEM IN CAELO, srr DIVINUM PR,OCEDENS, QUOD EST SPIRITUS SANCTUS (n.146). .QUOD DOMINUS UNIVERSUM ET OMNIA EJUS MEDIO SOLE, QUI EST PRIMUK PROCEDENS DIVINI AMOR.IS ET DIVINAE SAPIENTIAE, CIl.EAVERIT (n. lSI).QUOD SOL MUNDI NATURALIS SIT PUIlUS IGNIS, RT tNDR MORrous; ET QUOD NATUR,A, QUIA EX ILLO SOLE DUCIT ORIGINEK, SIT KORnJA (n. 157).QUOD ABSQUE BINO SOLE, UNO VIVO ET ALTERO MORTUO, NON DETUR CllEATIO (n. 163).QUOD FINIS CREtTIONIS EXISTAT IN ULTIKIS, QUI EST, UT OMNIA UDEANT AD CIlBATOllBli. AC lIT SIT CONJUNCTIO (n.I67).QuOD IN MUNDO SPIR.ITUALI SINT ATMOSPHAERAE, AQUAE ET TER.RAE, QUEM- ADMODUM IN MUNDO NATURALI; SED QUOD ILLAE SINT SPlltI111ALES, HAE AUTltM NATIYR.ALES (n. 173).QUOD GRADUS AMORIS ET SAPIENTIAE SINT, ET INDE GRADUS CALOlUS ET LUCIS, TUM GRADUS ATMOSPHAERARUM (n. 179).QUOD GRADUS DUPLICIS GENER.IS SINT, GRA.DUS ALTITUDINIS ET GRADUS LATJTUDIWIS (no 184).QUOD GRADUS ALTITUDINIS SINT HOMOGENEI, AC ONUS AB ALTEIlO IN SERlE, SICUT SUN°r FINIS, CA.USA ET EFFECTUS (n. 189).QUOD GJlADUS PItIMUS SIT OMNE IN OMNIBUS GRADUUM SEQUENTIUK (no 195).QUOD OHNES PERFECTIONES CRESCANT ET ASCENDANT CUM GllADIDUS ET SECUNDUM ILLOS (n. 199).QUOD IN ORDINE SUCCESSIVO PRIMUS GRADUS FACIAT SUPREMUM, AC TERTIUS INFIMUM; AT QUOD IN ORDINE SIMULTANEO PRIMUS GRADUS FACIAT INTIMUK, AC TEJlTWS EXTIMUM (n. ~S).QUOD GRADUS ULTIMUS SIT COMPLEXUS, CONTINENS ET BASIS GJlADUUK PR.J- ORUM: (n. 209).QUOD GllADUS ALTITUDINIS IN SUO ULTIMO SINT IN PLENO ET IN POTENTIA (n. SlI7).
  • IV CONTENTSTBB SUN OP THE SPIRITUAL WOB.LD APPBAU AT A MIDDLE ALTITUDE, FAll OFF FB.OII THE ANGELS, LIltE THB SUN OF THE NATUJlAL WOllLD 11l01i liEN (n. 103). TaB DISTANCE BETWEEN THE SUN AND THE ANGELS IN THE SPIllITUAL WOIlLD IS AN APPEARANCE ACCORDING TO JlECEPTION BY THEK OF DIVINE LoVE AND DIVINB WISDOM (De loS).ANGELS ARE IN THE LoRD, AND THE LollD IN THEM: ; AND BECAUSE ANGELS AJlE llECIPIENTS, THE LoRD ALONE IS HEAYEN (n. 113).IN THE SPIR.ITUAL WORLD THE EAST IS WHERE THE Low APPEARS AS A SUN, AND F&OM THAT THE OTHER QUAR.TERS AJt.E DETEItMINED (n.llg).THB QUAIlTEkS IN THE SPIRITUAL WOaLD AilE NOT FROM THE LoIlD AS A SUlI, BUT FR.OK THE ANGELS ACCORDING TO llBCEPTION (n. la.j.).ANGELS TURN THEIR PACES CONSTANTLY TO THE LoRD AS A SUN, AND THUS HAVE THE SOUTH TO THE RIGHT, THE NOIlTB TO THE LEFT, AND THE WEST BEHIND THEM (n. I~).ALL lNTEIUOB. THINGS OF THB ANGELS, BOTH OF MIND AND BODY, ARE TURNED TO THE Lo&D AS A SUN (n. 135).Ev1ut.Y SPIlUT, WHATEVEIl HIS QUALITY, TUlLNS IN LIK.B MANNltIl TO HIS IlULING LOVE (n. 140).DIVINB LoVE AND DIVINE WISDOM n.OCZlIDING nOli THE LoRD AS A SUN, AND PRODUCING HEAT AND LIGHT IN BEAVEN, ARE THE PRO- CEEDING DIVINE, WHICH IS THE HOLY SPIRIT (n. 146).TIm LoIU> CREATED THE UNIVEllSB AND ALL THINGS THEREOF BY MEANS OF THE SUN WHICH IS THE FlUT PB.OCKEDING OF DIVINE LoVE AND DIVINE WISDOM (n. lSI). .THB SUN OF THB NATURAL WOIlLD IS PURE FIRE, CONSEQUENTLY DEAD; NATUO .ALSO IS DEAD, BECAUSE IT DElUVES ITS ORIGIN FIlOM THAT SUN (n. IS7).WITHOUT A DOUBLE SUN, ONE LIVING AND THE OTHER DEAD. NO CREATION IS POSSIBLE (n. 163).THE END OF CREATION BAS EXISTENCE IN OUTMOSTS, WHICH END IS THAT ALL THINGS MAY RETURN TO THE CllEATOR AND THA.T THBB.E MAY BE CONJ1]NCTION (n. 167). Ian Qtbirb.Ix TIm SPIIlITUAL WOIlLD THBllE AilE ATIiOSPHEllES, WATERS, AND EAllTHS, JUST AS IN THE NATURAL WOllLD; ONLY THE FORKER AIlE SPIRIT- UAL, WHILE THE LATTER AilE NATURAL (n. 173).TBnE ARE DEGIlEES OP LOVE AND WISDOM, CONSEQUENTLY DEGREBS OF HEAT AND LIGHT, ALSO DEGR.EES OF ATMOSPHERES (n.179).DEGllEES AJt.E OF A TWO-FOLD KIND, DEGIlEES OF HEIGHT AND DEGllEES OF .. BREADTH (n. 184).DBGREES OF HEIGHT UK HOMOGENEOUS, AND ONE IS FROM THE OTHEIl IN SUCCESSION, LIKE END, CAUSE, AND EFFECT (n. 18g).THB PUlST DEGRBE IS THE ALL IN BVEB.Y THING OF THE SUBSEQUENT DBGUBS (n. 195).ALL PBllFECTIONS INCREASE AND ASCEND ALONG WITH DEGB.EES AND ACCOJt.DING TO THEM (n.I99).IN SUCCESSIVE ORDER THE FIRST DEGllEE MAKES THE HIGHEST, AND THE THIR.D THE LOWEST; BUT IN SIMULTANEOUS OlU>EB. THE FIBST DEGREE KAKES THB INNERMOST, AND THE THIB.D THE OUTE1UrIOST (n. ~S).THB OUTMOST DEGR.EE IS THE COMPLEX, ClNTAINANT AND BASE OF THE PIlIOR. DEGIlEBS (n. 209).
  • ,; CONTENTA. v QUOD UTIUUSQUE GENEJt.IS GllADUS SINT IN OMNIUM KAXDIIS BT MINIMIS QUAE CllEATA SUNT (n. ~2). • QUOD TRBS GIlADUS ALTITUDINIS INFINITI ET INCREATI SINT IN DOMINO, ET QUOD TRES GllADUS FINITI ET CRRATI SINT IN ROMINE (no 230). QUOD TilES ILLI GRADUS ALTITUDINIS IN QUOVIS ROMINE A NATIVITATE SIN" ET QUOD SUCCESSIVE POSSINT APERIR.I, ET QUOD SICUT APElUUNTUR. HOMO IN DOMINO SIT. ET DOMINUS IN ILLO (n.236). QUOD LUX SPIRITUALIS INFLUAT PER TRES GllADUS APUD HOMINEM. SED NON. CALOR SPIlUTUALIS, NISI QUANTUM HOMO FUGIT MALA UT PEe· CATA, ET SPECTAT AD DOMlNUM (n. 242). QUOD HOMO. SI NON APUD ILLUM SUPERIOR GR.ADUS, QUI EST SPIR.IroALIS, APBIUTUR. FIAT NATURALIS ET SENSUALIS (n. 248). (i.) QllitlluJ1IIO "atr.ralis, 4t pitl !tJ1IU) spiritualis (n. 251). (ii.) QIIa/is "aturaJis MtIUJ est, apN f14e", sliriJuaJis gradlU aJerlu esl (n. 252). (Iii.) {JIIa/is est jo",o "ahlralis ap.d tplnI& spiritua/is gradru "()fJ al"- tIu est, sId tUfIU 110" OCC/"SfU (n. 253). (Iv.) QfIa/iJ est IIahlra/is Ao",o, al"d tjlUf1l spirU.alis I"atbu Irornu OCC/IUIU est (n. 254). (v.) QIIa/4 discriwulI ,sl i.tn- llita. IIahIralis luJ",iIIir ,1 i"tw flitat lJutku (n. 2SS). QuOD GRADUS NATUllALIS MENTIS HUMANAE IN SE SPECTATUS SIT CONTI- NUUS, SED QUOD PER. CORRESPONDENTIAM CUM BINIS GRADIBUS SUPER.l- ORIBUS, DUM ELEVATUR, APPARJtAT SICUT SIT DISCRETUS (n. 256). QUOD HENS NATUR.ALIS, QUIA EST CONTEGENS ET CONTINENS GRADUUM SUPERIORUM MENTIS HUMANAE, SIT REAGENS: ET QUOD SI NON APERI- UNTUR. GRADUS SUPERIORES, AGAT CONTRA ILLOS; AT SI APERIUNTUR, AGAT CUM ILLIS (n. 260). QUOD OIlIGO MALI SIT EX ABUSU FACULTATUM, QUAE HOMINIS PR,OPJt.IAE SUNT, BT VOCANTUR RATIONALITAS ET LIBERTAS (n. 264). (i.) Quod ",alus Ao",o fUg.e ac 60n.s duahs ii/isfaCll/tatilfU ga"tkal (n. 266). (it) QfIod maJus jOlleo aI.tatur ii/is facu/tatiIJlU ad colJfirmantlu. ",ala et falsa, et !J01l1U IuJmo utahlr ii/is ad co"ji""au,., /Jolla ,t TIer-a (D. "7). (iii.) QIIod mala IIfalsa conjirmala al.d IuJmillem /Jermaneant, tIC jia"t a",oris It Vit4 ejIIs (n. ~8). (tv.) QIIod i//a, palfatla n.t amoris et1Ith Tlitu, inrnurmhlr prol; (n·269)· (v.) f}IIotl o",,,ia mala ,tillthfalsa, la. ingellwata pam njJWi"d.tlIl, in mnle "ahlrali residea,,1 (D. 270). QUOD KALA ET "ALBA IN OKNI OPPOSITO SINT CONTRA BONA ET VERA, QUIA MALA ET FALSA SUNT DIABOLICA ET INFERNALIA. AC BONA ET VERA SUNT DIVINA ET CAELESTIA (n. 211). (i.) QfIotl -.nu tlQtura/is, tJUIU ill malis It ilUU falsis nt, sitfo,.",a et i",aro i"fern; (n. 273). (U.) Quntl1lU1U n.alf4ra/is, guIU estforma Sell imago ill/Inti, tUsCI"dat per tres pat/us (n. 274). (tit) QIIod Ires padus Mmtis "ahlralis, pae nt !o"..a ,t i~o ;".- fwni, oppositi sint trilJus gradwus melitis spiritMalis, gUIU est forma It i",lIvfO clUl; (n. 27S). (Iv.) QIIod 1IU1U nahlrali..l gUM i"/ent".,." o",,,i OPJosito sit co.tra mWI1II spirihla/nn g#a4 cM/um (n. 276). QUOD OIlNIA, QUAE nUUM GRADUUM MENTIS NAnJllALIS SUNT, OPERIBUS, QUAE FIUNT PEa ACTUS CORPOR.IS, INCLUSA SINT (n. 277).I .....
  • CONTENTS. v THE DEGllEES OF HEIGHT AIlE IN FULNltSS AND IN POWER. IN THEIR OUT- MOST DEGR.EE (n. 2I7). fRERK ARE DEGR.EES OF BOTH KINDS IN THE GJlEATEST AND IN THE LEAST OF ALL CIl.EATED THINGS (D. 222). IN THE LoR.D THE THREE DEGREES OF HEIGHT ARE INFINITE AND UN- CREATE, BUT IN MAN THEY AR.E FINITE AND CREATED (n. 230). rRItSB THUE DEGR.EES OF HEIGHT ARE IN EVERY MAN FROM BIRTH, AND CAN BE OPENED SUCCESSIVELY; AND, AS THEY AU OPENED, MAN IS IN THE LoRD AND THE LoRD IN MAN (n. 236). SPIJlITUAL LIGHT FLOWS IN WITH MAN THROUGH THR.EE DEGREES, BUT NOT SPIJt.ITUAL HEAT, EXCEPT SO FAa. AS ONE SHUNS EVILS AS SINS AND LOOKS TO THE LoRD (n.242). UNLESS THE BIGHER J>EGllEE, WHICH IS THE SPIRITUAL, IS OPENED IN MAN, BE BECOMES NATURAL AND SENSUAL (n. ~8). (i.) Mat tlu tuIhIral-. it, ad.1ul1 tlu spirihlal-.a" (n. SlSI). (ti.) Tlu cluJra/lw of 1M 1UIhIral.aa;" UlM1JI tJu spiritual iUgre6 it tIjetIed (n. 252). (UI.) Tlu cAaractw of tlu IIahlral fllall ill tDMfIJ tlu sjirihlal tkgree u "Dt tJlnud tUUl yet IIot closed (n. 253). (tv.) Tlu cluzracter tif tlu 1IIJtrwa1 ",aII ; " wIumJ tlu .IJ1i~al tUI"e6 is UlAol17 clo.red (n. 254). (v.) Lastly, TIu "alwr6 of tlu dilwmee lJetuJem tlu life of a ",a flUrely IUltMral aIIIl tJu life of a lJeast (n. 255). THE NATURAL DEGllEE OF THE HUMAN MIND REGAR.DED IN ITSELF IS CON- TINUOUS, BUT BY COR.IlESPONDENCE WITH THE TWO HIGHER. DEGREES IT APPEARS WHEN IT IS ELEVATED AS IF IT WEllE DISCR.ETE (n.256). THB NATUJlAL KIND, SINCE IT IS THE COVE1ING AND CONTAINANT OF THE HIGHER DEGllEES OF THE HUMAN MIND, IS R.EACTIVE: AND IF THE BIGHn DEGREES AIlE NOT OPBNlED IT ACTS AGAINST THEM, BUT IF THEY AR.E OPENED IT ACTS WITH THEM: (n. sa6o). THE 01IGIN OF EVIL IS FROM THE ABUSE OF THE CAPACITIES PB.OPEJt, TO MAN, THAT ARE CALLED RATIONALITY AND FREEDOM: (n.264). (i.) A. lad """ Ipally UlitA a rood fllall enjoys tluS6 mo &ajacitUs (n.~). (ii.) A lJail 1IUUt fllinues tllue eaJacUies to ctmflrw erJU.r adfabUk.l,lnd a rood ma" wsu tlu8 to c01ljl""goods a"d trlltlu {no 267). (iii.) Evib and fabities ctmji1"llUd ill ",a" are In111anm.t, and eDm4 to Ie of Ais ItnJe a"d iift (no ~8). (iv.) S.cll tllinrs as luzve C011JI to Ie of tlu ItnJe, ad &01Ulpmtly tJ/ nu lift, aremr mdwed ;" ofslri11z (n. ~). (v.) All nJib ad tluirfal.ritin, lolA e"lnulwed ad acpired, Aave IAnt SIal ill tIu "aIMral.uul (n. Sl70).EvIlS AND FALSITIES AltE IN EVEB.Y IlESPECT OPPOSED TO GOODS AND nUTUS, BECAUSE EVILS AND FALSITIES ARE DIABOLICAL AND INFER.- NAL. WHILE GOODS AND nUTHS AB.E DIVINE AND HEAVENLY (n. 271). (I.) TIu IIattwal ",Uul tluzt is ill nib ad tluir fahities is a flW1lJ 41Ul imag6 of lull (n. 273). (li.) Tlu tIahIral ",;"d tAatis afortJl ori1ll4Ke of lull tkscmds tArtJlllj tAre6 tkrree.l (n. 274). (iii.) Til tkrel degrees of tlu llahlral milUi tAat is afDrlll au itluzK~ of lull, are "/JPosUe to tlu tllree degreu of tlu.ljJiri.tIuU .iIul tJud is a fDrm MId imare ofluave1J (n. 275). (iv.) D4 nahlral",ilUl tAat is a lull is i" c011Jllet6 tJ110silioll to tM .Ipirihullfllitul tAat is a Juavm (n. 2]6).ALL THINGS OF THE THREE DEGREES OF THE NATUllAL MIND AilE IN- CLUDED IN THE DEEDS THAT AR.K DONE BY THE ACTS OF THE BODY (n.277).
  • vi CONTENTA. 11Jars C&narta.QuOD DOMINUS AB AETBIlNO. QUI EST JEHOVAH. CJlltAVBllIT UNIVKISUM: ET OMNIA EJUS A 58 Ipso. BT NON A NIHlLO (n. sa8a).QUOD DoMINt18 AD AltTERNO SKU JEHOVAH NON 7OroJt1UT C1JtA.RB UNI- VEJlSUK itT OMNIA ltJUS, NISI ESSET HOllo (n. :aSS).QUOD DOMINUS AB AETERNO SEU JEHOVAH EX SE IpsO PR.ODUXEIlIT SOLEM MUNDI SPIR.ITUALIS, ET EX ILLO CllEAVXB.IT UNIVEllSUM BT OMNIA EJUS (n. ~90).QUOD TRIA IN DOr-UNO SINT, QUAE DOMINUS. DIVINUK AMOIUS. DIVINUM SAPIENTIAE, ET DIVINUM USUS: ET QUOD ILLA TRIA SISTANTUR IN APPARENTIA EXTRA SOLEM MUNDI SPIRITUALIS, DIVINUK AMORIS PER CALOIlKM, DIVINUM SAPIKNTIAE PEIl LUCBK. BT DIVINUK USUS PER ATKOSPRAEIlAM, QUAB CONTINENS (n. sa¢).QUOD ATMOSPHAEllAE, QUAB TIlES SUNT IN UTIlOQUE KUNDO. SPIRITUALI ET NATURALI. IN ULnMIS SUIS DBSINANT IN SUBSTANTIAS ET IIATEIUAS. QUALBS SUNT IN TERRIS (n.308).QUOD IN SUBSTANTIIS ET KATEIlIIS, EX QUIBUS SUNT TERllAE, NIHIL DIVINI IN SE SIT, SEn QUOD USQUE ILLAE SINT A DIVINO IN SE (n. 305).QUOD OIlNBS USUS. QUI SUNT FINES CIt.EATIONIS. SINT IN FORMIS. ET QUOD FORKAS ACCIPIANT EX SUBSTANTIIS ET MATERIIS QUALBS SUNT IN TEltR.IS (n. 3(1). (i.) Qtlod;" lems lit eDIIa*s fWtJdtlentdllUlU ;" p,.u. SM !o".,.as tutnI", (n. 310). (ii.) QtlDtl;" o",.ins ftnMU 1UIIfI" IiI alipa itII4go &1WlJifJ,," (n. 3 1 3). (iii.) Q-od ill. Ot#"iIJ.., !o",w 1ISf61 sit a/ipa itlUlK0 luJ",illu (n. 317). (iv.) Qllod ill o",.ihs!IJrmis lUll_til sit alifua illlaKo IlIft.;ti elAetertli (n.3 18).QuOD OMNIA UNIVERSI CR.EATI EX USIBUS SPECTATA R.EFERANT IN IMAGINE BOKINBK; itT QUOD ID TBSTBTUll QUOD DEUS SIT HOllO (n. 319).QUOD OMNIA QUAE A DOKINO CIlEATA SUNT, SINT USUS; ET QUOD IN EO ORDINE. GRADU ET RESPECTU SINT USUS, QUO SE REFERUNT AD HOMI- NaI, BT PEa. HOMINEM AD DOWNUM A QUO (n. 321). Unn ad nutmtalUl.", Corl"s (n. 331). Unu adlerjidmdum Ratio"ale (n. 332). Unu ad ~4"pU"d"", SjJirihlale a Do",i"o (n. 333).QuOD MALI USUS A DOMINO NON CRBATI SINT, SED QUOD UNA CUM INFERNO ORTI (n.336). (i.) Quid -IN telhlr~ illtelligitll /JW tUtU .alos (n. 338). (ii.) Quod omnia fJflU flSIU tlUlJi nlll. sW U. ;"16"0, et J"u fUfU lo"i, si"t i" culo (D. 339). . (iii.) Quod i1JjlMXUS C01ltilllllU sit ~...u sJirituali ;" tudlwau. (n. 340)· (iv.) ~od ¥1IXfU ex Ui!enuJ tJlw~trI.~ ilia pile .Itu fI&4li _JII, ill 10m lI!Ji nllIJ ilia fJUU correslO"dntt (n. 341)• . (v.) Q"od ulli",,,,,, sjliriblale sef1artlhl- a $Ilperiori SfltJ ill ojenlttr ( n 345)· (vi.) (J#od /Jin" !ONIIU si", ill pas OfJeratio fJer ;"./1,""", fil I· !o".,a fJeptalJiJis et!twfIUJ atriflUJus (n. 346). (vii.) Qtlod fltra,.~ prIM. till", existit, IrYJItllaIUJ.u flUtliIJ aecipiid (II. 347).
  • CONTENTS.THE LoJU> FIlOM ETERNITY, WHO IS JEHOVAH, CllEATED THE tlNIVEaSB AND ALL THINe.s THEIlEOF FllOM HIMSELF, AND NOT nOM NOTHING (n. d~).TBB LoJU> nOM ET1tlLNITY, THAT IS. JEHOVAH, COULD NOT HAVE caRATED TH& UNIVEUE AND ALL THINGS TRUROI UNLESS HE WEB.B A MAN (n. 88S).TIm Loan paoli ETEaNITY. THAT IS, JEHOVAH. BIlOUGHT FOam FROM HIMSELF THE SUN OF THE SPIJUTUAL woaLD. AND FB.OM THAT CIlEATED THE UNIVEUE. AND ALL THINGS TaUEOF (11. ~).TBBa.B AIlB IN TIlE Lom THREE THINGS THAT AllE THE LoaD, THE DIVINE OF LoVE. THE DIVINB 0,. WISDOII, AND THE DIVINE OF USE i AND THESE THREE ARE PIlESENTED IN APPEAIlANCE OUTSIDE 0,. THE SUN OF THE SPIRrnlAL WOIlLD, THE DIVINE OF LoVE BY HEAT, THE DIVINE OJ WISDOM BY LIGHT, AND THE DIVINE OF USE BY THE ATIIOSPHEU WHICH IS THUll CONTAINANT (n. ag6).TIm ATMOSPHERES. OF WHICH THEIlB ARE THR.EE BOTH IN THE SPIRITUAL AND IN THE NATURAL WORLD, IN THEIR OUTMOSTS CLOSE INTO SUCH SUBSTANCES AND MATTEllS AS AllE ON THE UB.m (D. 3(2).IN THE SUBSTANCES AND MATTEJlS OF WHICH THB BAIlTB IS FoaMED THEilE IS NOTHING OF THE DIVINE IN ITSELF. BUT STILL THEY ARE FROM THE DIVINE IN ITSELF (n.305).ALL USES, WHICH ARE ENDS 0,. CaUTION, ARE IN FOR.KS. WHICH FOIlMS THEY TAKE FROM SUCH SUBSTANCES AND MATTEIlS AS ARE ON THE BAlLTH (n.307). (i.) f" earllu tAwe is a etJ1ltJhu to ~ee au ;" ftWllU.11ud is,fo"," OflU4S (n. 310.) (ite} I" allltJIWS of tl~U llure is a1J ;..,. of &1Mtio" (n. 313). (iii. I" alljtJIWS oflUU tu,e i s . ; " " oj.", (0. 317). (iv. I" allforYU ofruu tAere is all itNll~ tJflM l¥mu tuIIl tM Ele,. ul (D. 318).ALL THINGS OF THE CllEATED UNIVUSE. VIEWED IN "EFEaKNeE TO USES, JlEPaESENT MAN IN AN IMAGE; AND THIS PIlOVES THAT GoD IS MAN (De 319).ALL THINGS CllBATED FROII THE LoRD AilE USES; THEY ARE USES IN niB OaDEIl, DEGREE, AND RESPECT IN WHICH THEY HAVE IlKLATION oro KAN, AND THllOUGH MAN TO THE LoaD. FIlOM WHOM [THEY ARE] -(D. 321). UsesfOr nutailli"llu 1047 (n. 331). UsesftW /JW.Ieaitv" 1M ,.tdio1lllJ (n. 33a). USUffW reeeivill,r 1M spirilMalfrtnt 1M Loyd (De 333).EVIL USES WER.E NOT CIlEATED BY THE Loan. BUT OaIGINATED TOGETHER WITH HELL (0.336). (i.) Mat is .u1Ult Iy nnJ lUes t1tJ 1M ••rl1 (n. 338). (iL) All tJM,rs tIItd art! ftJil lUIS ar~ i" Mil. ad iUII!lillKs tAal are K(J(JtllUes ar-e itt MaWJI (0. 339). (tiL) TJure it fllUeasi"l"fltl$ tJIIt of tM ~ flJtJrld ;"to tile 1UIt- 1nzt fI1(WJd (0. 340). (iv.) TluJse tm"Ks tJuU are ftIi/ fUIS ar6 Ieiletlly tile o!J"41io. of;",- jltlZ frfHII llell, flJlurftlw tllw4 an 111&11 lti.tI.Ks as CO"es!Jo1Ul tllwelo (n. 341). (Ve) TIW it efflaetl 6y 1M lInIJul lPi".u.al sejHlratetlfrfml llJMI is un, it (n. 345). (~) TAnv are tuHJ IfWIIU Wo .AieA till tJIWtIIUm ~ ;"jltI$ Ida ;lae., 1M wrelUu tuuI 1M . . . .1f",. (n. 346).
  • viii CONTENTA. (~.) QlltJtl"ltwae~ sill "etlilJlInIJ WelH,pluli, es PIa ~ &I}& 11m (n. 404). (m) QluJd IwIia &OIIpll8io sillwale/WI. . fIidnIdi id, e# p4 11IM (D. 404). &0"- (Ix.) Qud atO- Sill fJ()lata IW Ins alas &fJllj_1Idio1U3 ill ItUJ f1UIJ 11IUitirItJ. el ;" nul flita utilla nt (n. 406). (s.) Qud atIJ~ sn fltJllllltas ~~tII $a~. NIl .Ullu~ .. /I1II,,;a t1MMru Srlae (n. 408). (xL) QtltJtl afMr Sill fIol.lllas ,,;Ail qrzt.iIi i" COlli-tUMU e..lali- ",tia Sni i"teU~"" (n. 409). (siL) QIlDd alllW Sell _tJIII"las I~ eo"inral sapinJtiae sn i,,ellee";. (U fadal ,,1 sapinw Sill iltt~ll"hu reei}ro&1 C01lilUlKahIr (n. 4 10). (d.) QlltJd sa~ 111I iflUll«bu IZ jJD*"Iia #M tltlItI til ~ lossU _1_4Ii. 11& "I~ am PM bIeU.", e au1lJ. -lWciJIWI UJa en. 413). (m.) QIIIHl"~Sill fltUfIIIItu IDuit si.il.,. elevan. ae ndJWI U~ JIUU eaJqris . . , I cuu, n 48IIJ ~ &01fi"l68 la;;tN., .. etJ",.adII (n. 414). . (D.) fJ-od allllJr Sell flolulltas alup; ~draIuIJ S4pUtt&. 1_ "lk&- hl", a SIUJ elnJaJiou••, seCII", """", qat (n. 416). (m.) QIIod a1ltlJ,. NIl wlatas pri.pcehl,.;" i,,*ll«bI, .ti n.-"l.lnahl,. (n.41 9)· (nit.) QrIotl atlliJ~ Sell fJ"I""ttu e01UffWeehw;" iIIIeludII,. aIJ illo, n liD" sis"J ~/lTJa"tII". (n. 421). (xviii.) QIlDtl a",tw fnl"jleahu a sa/Jierdia lit _lllun. PI ~ u II caeustis (n. 422). (xix.) QIltJd a",or etnUjJtlrcahuilt UIIIJ.hI el til Ul"~ fI4hl~alu, Sntnl- alis et CD10rnu (n. 424). (xx.) fJ-od IUl"e ,.ntlfJftealfaCtllttu i"tellirmdi tJfIfU fJtJ&ahlr raHouli- las, IIfacu/tas agelldi pM fIoeahlr JUnotas (n. 425). (Di.) Qwd afIIIW llirihlalu It culutil sit a.-.o~ ega }roz;",,,,,, ~I a-or ill DfJ1IIia. . ,· et f/IIOtl afllt)~ -.atw,.alis It sn.slUJlU dJ tJIIItJr- ",.1Ul; et IUJUJr Srli (D. 426). (DiL) Qtlodn.",Ue sit &fI1II ellaritate etjltk, et ". ii/a,.. enjaetio•• lit esl &II", fJOlaltJI." W.llletll, d &II", 110".". eO";11&&_ (n. 4~7).QuAL. aT INmAJdNTUJI ROJIINIS A COMCltPTION. (n. 432).
  • CONTENTS.
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICA DE DIVINO AMORE. QUOD AM OR SIT VITA HOMINIS. %. Homo Dovit quod amor sit, sed non novit quid amot est. Novit quod amor sit, ex communi loquela j ut quod dicatur quod ille me amet, quod rex amet subditos et quod subditi ament regem, quod maritus amet uxorem et quod mater liberos, ac vicissim, tum quod hie et HIe amet pa- triam, concives, proximum; similiter de rebus abstraetis a persona, ut quod amet hoc aut illud. Sed tametsi amor tam universale est in IoqueIis, usque vix aliquis novit quid amor. Dum meditatur de eo, quia tunc non potest aliquam ideam cogitationis de eo sibi formare, dicit vel non esse aliquid, vel solum esse aliquod influens ex v,isu, auditu, taCtu et conversatione, et sic mavens: nescit prorsus quod sit ipsa ejus vita j non modo vita communis totius ejus corporis, et vita communis omnium ejus cogitationum,• sed etiam vita omnium singularium eorum. Hoc potest sapiens percipere ex hoc, cum dicitur, "Si removes affec- tionem quae amoris, an pates cogitare aliquid? et an potes agere aliquid? Annon quantum frigescit affeB:io quae amoris, tantum frigescat cogitatio, Ioquela et aCtio ?et quantum incalescit, tantum incalescant ilIa 1" Sed haec sapiens percipit non ex cogitatione quod amor sit vita hominis, sed ab experientia quod ita fiat. ~. Nemo scit quid vita hominis, nisi sciat quod sit amor; si hoc non scit, potest unus credere quod vita ho- minis modo sit sentire et agere, alter quod sit cogitare, cum tamen cogitatio est effeB:us vitae primus, ac sensa- tio et aCtio est effeCtus vitae secundus.. Dicitur quod cogitatio sit effeB:us vitae primus, sed datur cogitatio in- terior et interior, tum exterior et exterior; intima cogi-
  • ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE. LOVE IS THE LIFE OF MAN. I. Man knows that there is such a thing as love, but he doesnot know what love is. He knows that there is such a thing aslove from common speech, as when it is said, he loves me, aking loves his subjetls, and subjetls love their king, a hus-band loves his wife, a mother her children, and conversely;also, this or that one loves his country, his fellow-citizens, hisneighbor; and likewise of things abstraCled from person, aswhen it is said, one loves this or that thing. But although theword love is so universally used, hardly anybody knows whatlove is. And because one is unable, when he refleCls lIpon it, toform to himself any idea of thought about it, he says either thatit is not anything, or that it is merely something flowing in fromsight, hearing, touch, or intercourse with others, and thus affeCl:-ing him. He is whony unaware that love is his very life; notonly the common life of his whole body, and the common life ofall his thoughts, but also the life of all their particulars. Thisa man of discernment can perceive when it is said: If youremove the affeCl:ion which is from love, can you think any-thing, or do anything? Do not thought, speech, and acnongrow cold in the measure in which the affeCl:ion which is fromlove grows cold? And do they not grow warm in the measurein which this affeClion grows warm? But this a man of dis-cernment perceives simply by observing that such is the case,and not from any knowledge that love is the life of man. ~ Also, what the life ofman is, no one knows unless he knowsthat it is love. If this is not known, one person may believethat mans life is only feeling and aCling, and another that it isonly thinking j when yet the first effeCl: of life is thought, and thesecond effeCl: of life is sensation and acnon. Thought is heresaid to be the first effeCl: of life, yet there is thought which isinterior and more interior, also exterior and more exterior.What is actually the first effeCl: of life is inmost thought, which
  • ,
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS I.-N. 7. 3 5. Sed ut hoc in intelleCtum cadat, omnino sciendum est, quod Dominus, quia est Amor in ipsa sua essentia, hoc est, Divinus Amor, appareat coram angelis in caelo sicut Sol, et quod ex illo Sole procedat calor et lux, et quod calor inde procedens in sua essentia sit amor, et lux inde procedens in sua essentia sit sapientia; et quod an- geli quantum recipientes spiritualis illius caloris et spiritua- lis illius lucis sunt, tantum sint amores et sapientiae; non amores et sapientiae a se, sed a Domino. Spiritualis Hie calor et spiritualis ilia lux non modo influunt apud ange- los et afficiunt illos, sed etiam inftuunt apud homines et afficiunt illos, prorsus sicut recipientes fiunt; et reci- pientes fiunt secundum eorum amorem in Dominum, et amorem erga proximum. Ipse ille Sol, seu Divinus Amor, non potest per 8uum calorem et per suam lucem creare aliquem immediate ex se, sic enim foret Amor in sua essentia, qui est Ipse Dominus, sed potest creare ex sub- stantiis et materiis ita formatis ut recipere possint ipsum calorem et ipsam lucem; comparative sicut sol Mundi non potest per calorem et lucem immediate producere germi- nationes in tellure, sed ex materiis humi, quibus per calo- rem et lucem potest inesse, et vegetationem dare. Quod Divinus Amor Domini appareat ut Sol in mundo spirituali, et quod ex ilio procedat spiritualis calor et spiritualis lux, ex quibus angelis est amor et sapientia, videatur in opere De Caelo et Inferno (n. 116-140). 6. Cum itaque homo non est Vita, sed recipiens vitae,sequitur quod conceptio horninis a patre non sit conceptiovitae, sed modo conceptio primae et purissimae formaereceptibilis vitae, cui ut stamini aut initiamento in uterosuccessive accedunt substantiae et materiae in formis adreceptionem vitae in suo ordine et in suo gradu adaptatae. QUOD DIVINUM NON SIT IN SPATIO. 1. Quod Divinum seu Deus non sit in spatio, tametsiest omnipraesens, et apud unumquemvis hominem inmundo, et apud unumquemvis angelum in caelo, et apudunumquemvis spiritum sub caelo, non potest idea merenaturali comprehendi, sed potest idea spirituali. Quodid non possit idea naturali comprehendi, est quia in ilIa
  • CONCER.NING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 3-7. 3 .Ie But that this may reach the understanding, it must needsbe known positively that the Lord, because He is Love in itsvery esseDce, that is, Divine Love, appears before the angelsin heaven as· a sun, and that from that sun proceed heat andlight; the heat which proceeds therefrom being in its essencelove, and the light which proceeds therefrom being in its essencewisdom ; and that angels so far as they are recipients of thatspiritual heat and of that spiritual light, are loves and wis-doms; not loves and wisdoms from se~ but from the Lord.~his spiritual heat and this spiritual light not only flow intoangels and affeCt them, but they also flow into men and affeCtthem precisely as they become recipients; they become recipi-ents according to their love to the Lord and love towards theneighbor. This sun itself; or the Divine Love, by its heatand its light, cannot create anyone immediately from itself ifor one so created would be love in its essence, which love isthe Lord Himself; but it can create from substances and mat-ters so formed as to be capable of receiving the very heat andthe very light; comparatively as the sun of·the world cannotby heat and light produce germinations on the earth imme-diately, but only out of earthy matters in which it can bepresent by its heat and ~light, and cause vegetation. In thespiritual world the Divine Love of the Lord appears as a SUD,and from it proceed the spiritual heat and the spiritual lightfrom which the angels derive love and wisdom, as may beseen in the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 116-140). 6. Since, then, man is not life, but a recipient of life, it fol-lows that the conception of a man from his father is not aconception of life, but only a conception of the first and purestform capable of receiving life. To this, as to a nucleus orstarting-point in the womb, are successively added substancesand matters adapted in form, according to their order anddegree, to the reception of life. THE DIVINE IS NOT IN SPACE. 7. That the Divine, that is, God, is not in space, althoughomnipresent and with every man in the world, and with everyangel in heaven, and with every spirit under heaven, cannotbe comprehended by a merely natural idea, but it can by aspiritual idea. It cannot be comprehended by a natural idea,because in the natural idea there is space; for it is formed outof such things as are in the world, and in each and all of these,
  • 4 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAest spatium; formata enim est ex talibus quae in mundosunt, in quorum omnibus et singulis, quae speB:antur ocu-lis. est spatium; omne magnum et parvum ibi est spatii;omne longum, latum et altum ibi est spatii; verbo omnismensura, figura et forma ibi est spatii; quare dietum est,quod non possit idea mere naturali comprehendi, quodDivinum non sit in spatio, cum dicitur quod sit ubivis.Sed usque potest homo comprehendere id cogitationenaturali, modo in illam admittat aliquid lucis spiritualis ;quare primum aliquid dicetur de idea et inde cogitationespirituali. Idea spiritualis non trahit aliquid ex spatio,sed orone suum trahit ex statu. Status dicitur de amore,de vita, de sapientia, de affeEtionibus, de gaudiis inde; ingenere de bono et de vero. Idea vere spiritualis de illisnon commune habet cum spatio; est superior, et speEtatideas spatH sub se sicut caelum spe&at terram. At quiaangeli et spiritus aeque vident oculis ut homines in mundo,et objeB:a non videri possunt nisi in spatia, ideo in mundospirituali, ubi spiritus et angeli sunt, apparent spatiasimilia spatiis in terris, at usque non sunt spatia, sed ap-parentiae; non enim sunt fixa et stata sicut in terris;possunt enim elongari et contrahi, possunt mutari et va-riari; et quia sic non possunt mensura determinari, nonpossunt ibi aliqua idea naturaIi, sed solum idea spiritualicomprehendi; quae non alia est de distantiis spatii, quamsicut de distantiis boni aut de distantiis veri, quae suntaffinitates et similitudines secundum status eorum. 8. Ex his constare potest, quod homo ex idea merenaturali non comprehendere possit quod Divinum sit ubi-vis et tamen non in spatio, et quod angeli et spiritus idclare comprehendant; consequenter quod etiam homopossit, modo in cogitationem suam admittat aliquid Iucisspiritualis. Causa quod homo possit comprehendere, estquia non corpus ejus cogitat. sed spiritus ejus; ita nonnaturale ejus, sed spirituale ejus. 9. Quod autem plures id non comprehendant, est quiaamant naturale, et ideonon volunt cogitationes intelleetussui supra illud elevare in Iucem spiritualem; et qui nonvolunt, illi non possunt nisi ex spatio cogitare, etiam deDeo; et cogitare de Deo ex spatio, est de extenso naturae.Hoc praemittendum est, quia absque scientia et aliqua
  • 4 ANGELIC WISDOMas seen by the eye, there is space. In the world, everythinggreat and small is of space; everything long, broad, and highis of space; in short, every measure, figure and form is of space.This is why it has been said that it cannot be comprehended.by a merely natural idea, that the Divine is not in space, whenit is said that the Divine is everywhere. Still, by naturalthought, a man may comprehend this, if only he admit intoit something of spiritual light. . For this reason something shallfirst be said about spiritual idea, and thought therefrom. Spi-ritual idea derives nothing from space, but it derives its allfrom state. State is predicated of love, of life, of wisdom,of affeCtions, of joys therefrom; in general, of good and oftruth. An idea of these things which is truly, spiritual hasnothing in common with space; it is higher and looks downupon the ideas of space as heaven looks down upon the earth.But ~ince angels and spirits see with eyes, just as men inthe world do, and since objeCts cannot be seen except in space,therefore in the spiritual world where angels and spirits· are,there appear to be spaces like the spaces on earth; yet theyare not spaces, but appearances; for they are not fixed andconstant, as spaces are on earth. They can be lengthened orshortened; they can be changed or varied. Thus because theycallDot be determined in that world by measure, they cannotbe <:omprehended by any natural idea, but only by a spiritualidea. The spiritual idea of distances o( space is the same asof distances of good or distances of truth, which are affinities3Jld likenesses according to states of goodness and truth. 8. From this it may be seen that man is unable, by a merelynatural idea, to comprehend that the Divine is everywhere,and yet not in space; but that angels and spirits comprehendthis clearly; consequently that a man also may, provided headmits into his thought.something of spiritual light; and thisfor the reason that it is not his body which thinks, but his .spirit, thus not his natural, but his spiritual. 9. But many fail to comprehend this because of their loveof the natural, which makes them unwilling to raise the thoughts of their understanding above the natural into spiritual light;and those who are unwilling to do this can think only fromspace, even concerning God; and to think according to space concerning God is to think concerning the expanse of Nature.This has to be premised, because without a knowledge andsome perception that the Divine is Dot in space, nothing can be understood about the Divine Life, which is Love and Wisdom,
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS I.-N. II. 5 perceptione quod Divinum non sit in spatio, non aliquidintel1igi potest de Divina Vita, quae est Amor et Sapientia, de quibus hie agitur; et inde parum si quicquam de Di-vina Providentia, Omnipraesentia, Omniscientia, Omnipo-tentia, Infinitate et Aeternitate, de quibus in serie agendumest. :1.0. DiCtum est, quod in mundo spirituali aeque appa-reant spatia ut in mundo naturali, consequenter etiamdistantiae ; sed quod sint apparentiae secundum affinitatesspirituales quae sunt amoris et sapientiae, seu boni et veri.Inde est, quod Dominus, tametsi est in caelis apud ange-los ubique, usque appareat alte supra illos ut Sol: et quiareceptio amoris et sapientiae facit affinitatem cum Ipso,ideo [I]propiores Ipsi apparent caeli ubi angeli in [:a1propioreaffinitate ex receptione sunt, quam qui in remotiore: exeo etiam est, quod caeli, qui tres sunt, inter se distinB:isint, similiter societates cujusvis caeH; tum quod infernisub illis sint remoti secundum rejettionem amoris et sapi-entiae. Simile est cum hominibus, in quibus et apud quosDominus praesens est in universo terrarum orbe; et hocunice ex causa, Quia Dominus non est in spatio. QUOD DEUS SIT IpSE HOMO. 2:I. In omnibus caeHs non alia idea Dei est quam ideaHominis. Causa est, quia caelum in toto et in parte estin forma sicut Homo, ac Divinum, quod est apud angelos,faeit caelum; et cogitatio vadit secundum formam caeli ;quare aliter cogitare de Deo angelis impossibile est. lodeest, quod omnes illi in mundo, qui" conjuntti sunt eaelo,similiter de Deo, cum interius in se seu in suo spiritu,cogitent. Ex eo quod Deus sit Homo, omnes angeli etomnes spiritus, in perfeCta forma homines sunt; formaeaeH hoc facit, quae in maximis et in minimis est sibi simi-lis. (Quod caelum in toto et in parte sit in forma utHomo, videatur in opere De Caeto et Inferno, n. 59-87:et quod cogitationes vadant secundum formam caeH, n.203, 204.) Quod homines ad imaginem et ad similitudi-nem Dei creati sint, notum est, ex Genes- (i. 26, 27); tumquod Deus visus sit ut Homo Abrahamo, et aliis. Anti-
  • • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 8-11. 5of which subje8s this volume treats; and hence little, if any-thing, about Divine Providence, Omnipresence, Omniscience,Omnipotence, Infinity and Eternity, which will be treated ofin succession. IO. It has been said that in the spiritual world, just as inthe natural world, there appear to be spaces, consequently alsodistances, but that these are appearances according to spiritualaffinities which are of love and wisdom, that is, of good andtruth. From this it is that the Lord, although everywhere inthe heavens with the angels, nevertheless appears high abovethem as a sun. Furthermore, since reception of love and wis-dom causes affinity with Him, those heaveps appear nearer toHim in which the angels are, from reception, in closer affinitywith Him, than those in which the affinity is more remote.From this it is also that the heavens, of which there are three,are distina from each other, likewise the societies ofeach heaven;and further, that the hells under them are remote accord-mg to their rejeCtion of love and wisdom. The same is trueof men, in whom and with whom the Lord is present through-out the whole earth; and this solely for the reason that theLord is nf:>t in space. GOD IS VERY MAN. :0:. In all the heavens there is no other idea of God thanthat He is Man, because heaven as a whole and in part is inform like man, and because the Divine which is with the angelsconstitutes heaven, and because thought proceeds according tothe fonn of heaven; consequently it is impossible for the angelsto think of God in any other way. And from this it is thatall those in the world who are conjoined with heaven think ofGod in the same way when they think interiorly in themselves tthat is, in their spirit. From this faa that God is Man, allangels and all spirits, in their complete form, are men. Thisresults from the form of heaven t which is like itself in itsgreatest and in its least parts. That heaven as a whole andin part is in form like man may be seen in the work on Utavenand Utll (n. 59-87); and that thoughts proceed accordingto the fonn of heaven (n. 203, 204). It is known from Gen-esis (i. 26, 27), that men were created after the image andlikeness of Ged. God also appeared as a man to Abrahamand to others. The ancients, from the wise even to the simple,thought of God no otherwise thaI:. as being a Man; and when
  • 6 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAqui, a sapientibus usque ad simplices, non aliter de Deoquam ut de Homine, cogitaverunt; et tandem cum pluresdeos coeperunt colere, ut Athenis et Romae, colueruntomnes ut homines. Haec illustrari possunt per haec se-quentia, de quibus in quodam opusculo prius: Gentes, imprimis Africani, qui unum Deum Creatorem universiagnoscunt et colunt, ideam Hominis de Deo habent; dicunt quodnemo aliam de Deo possit habere. Cum audiunt quod plures deDeo foveant ideam sicut nubeculae in media, quaerunt ubinam illisunt; et cum dicitur quod sint inter Christianos. negant quod dabilesit. Sed respondetur, quod sit illis talis idea ex eo, quod Deus inVerba dicatur Spiritus," et de spiritu non aliter co~itant, quam Usicut de particula nubis; non scientes quod omnis spiritus et omnisangelus sit homo. At usque exploratum est, num spiritualis illorumidea sit similis ideae illorum naturali, et compertum est quod nonsimilis sit apud Hlos qui Dominum pro Deo caeli et terrae interiusagnoscunt. Audivi quendam presbyterum ex Christianis dicentem,quod nemo possit habere ideam Divlni Humani; et vidi ilium trans-latum ad varias Gentes, successive ad interiores et interiores, et abillis ad caelos earum, et tandem ad caelum Christianum; et ubivisdata est communicatio perceptionis interioris eorum de Deo, et ani-madvertit quod non alia iBis idea Dei esset quam idea Hominis,quae eadem est cum idea Divini Humani. [( Vide Con. de Uti. Judi-cio, D. 74.)] :1:2. Plebeia idea in Christianismo de Deo est ut deHomine, quia Deus vocatur Persona in Doetrina TrinitatisAthanasiana: at qui supra plebem sapiunt, illi Deum in-visibilem pronuntiant; quod fit quia non comprehenderepossunt, quomodo Deus ut Homo creare potuisset caelumet terram, tum implere universum praesentia sua, et plura,quae non cadere possunt in intelleetum, quamdiu ignora-tur quod Divinum non sit in spatio. Illi autem qui solumDominum adeunt, Divinum Humanum cogitant, ita Deumut Hominem. :1:3. Quanti interest justam ideam Dei habere, constarepotest ex eo, quod idea Dei faciat intimum cogitationisapud omnes quibus est religio, omnia enim religionis etomnia cultus speCiant Deum: et quia Deus universaliteret singulariter est in omnibus religionis et cultus, ideonisi justa idea Dei sit, non potest communicatio dari cumcaelis. Inde est, quod unaquaevis gens in mundo spiri-tuali sortiatur locum secundum ideam Dei ut Hominis; inhoc enim est idea Domini, et non in alia. Quod status
  • 6 ANGELIC WISDOMat length they began to worship a plurality of gods, as atAthens and Rome, they worshipped them all as men. W~atis here said may be illustrated by the following extract from asmull treatise already published: • The Gentiles, es~cial1y the Africans, who acknowledge andworship one God, the Creator of the universe, have concerning Godthe idea that He is a Man, and declare that no one can have any otheridea of God. When they learn that there are manr who cherish anidea of God as something cloudlike in the midst 0 things, they askwhere such persons are; and on being told that they are anlongChristians, they declare it to be impossible. They are informed,however, that this idea arises from the faa that God in the Word iscalled" a spirit," and of a spirit they have no other idea than of abit of cloud, not knowing that every spirit and every angel is a man.An examination, nevertheless, was made, whether the spiritual ideaof such persons was like their natural idea, and it was found to bedifferent with those who acknowledge the Lord interiorly as God ofheaven and earth. I heard a certain elder from the Christians saytbat no one can have an idea of a Human Divine; and I saw himtaken about to various nations, and sucessively to such as were moreand more interior, and from them to their heavens, and finally tothe Christian heaven; and everywhere their interior perceptlon con-cerning God was communicated to him, and he observed that theyhad no other idea of God than that He is Man, which is the sameas the idea of a Human Divine." ~. The common people in Christendom have an idea thatGod is a Man, because God in the Athanasian doCtrine of theTrinity is called a "Person." But those who are esteemedwiser than the common people pronounce God to be invisible;and this for the reason that they cannot comprehend how God,as a Man, could have created heaven and earth, and then couldhave filled the universe with His presence, and .many thingsbesides, which cannot enter the understanding so long as thetruth that the Divine is not in space is ignored. Those, how-ever, who approach the Lord alone think of a Human Divine,thus of God as Man. I3. How important it is to have a correa idea of Godcan be known from the truth that the idea of God constitutesthe inmost of thought with all who have religion, for all thingsof religion and all things of worship look to God. And sinceGod, universally and in particular, is in all things of religionand of worship, without a proper idea of God no communi-cation with the heavens is possible. From this it is that in ·the spiritual world every nation has its place allotted in accord-ance with its idea of God as Man; for in this idea, and in noother, is the idea of the Lord. That mans state of life aftel
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS I.-N. 16. 7vitae post mortem sit homini secun~um ideam Dei apudse affirmatam, patet manifeste ab ejus opposito, quodnegatio Dei faciat infernum, et in Christianismo negatioDivinitatis Domini.QUOD ESSE ET EXISTERE IN DEO HOMINE DISTINCTE UNUM SINT. LIe Ubi est Esse, ibi est Existere; non datur unumabsque altero: Esse enim per Existere est, et non absqueeo. Hoc rationale comprehendit, dum cogitat, num danqueat aliquod Esse quod non exist"t, et num dari queatExistere nisi ab Esse; et quia unum cum altero et nonabsque altero datur, sequitur quod unum sint, sed distinB:eunum. Sunt distinCte unum, sicut amor et sapientia:amor etiam est Esse, et sapientia est Existere, amor enimnon datur nisi in sapientia, nec sapientia nisi ex amore;quare cum amor in sapientia est, tunc existit. Haec duotale unum suot, ut quidem distingui cogitatione possint,sed non aCtu: et quia distingui possunt cogitatione etnon actu, ideo dicitur distinae unum. Esse et Existere inDeo Homine etiam distincte unum sunt sicut anima etcorpus: anima non datur absque suo corpore, nee corpusabsque sua anima. Divina Anima Dei Hominis est quaeintelligitur per Divinum Esse; ac Divinum Corpus, quodintelligitur per Divinum Existere. Quod anima existerepossit absque corpore, ac cogitare et sapere, est error pro-fluens ex fallaciis; omnis enim anima hominis in spiritualicorpore est, postquam rejicit exuvias materiales quas inmundo circumtulit. I5. Quod Esse non sit Esse nisi existat t est quia nonprius est in forma, et si non est in forma non habet quale,et quod non habet quale non est aliquid. Illud quod exEsse ezistt"t, unum facit cum Esse per id quod sit ex Esse;inde est unitio in unum, et inde est quod unum sit alte-rius mutua et vicissim, tum quod unum sit amne in omni-bus alterius sicut in see :1:6. Ex his constare potest, quod Deus sit Homo, etquod per id sit Deus Existens; non Existens a Se, sed inSe. Qui in Se existit, ille est Deus a quo omnia.
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 12-1 5. 7death is according to the idea of God in which he bas becomeconfirmed, is manifest from the opposite of this, namely, that thedenial of God, and, in the Christian world, the denial of theDivinity of the Lord, constitutes hell.IN GoD-MAN *EsSE AND EX/STERR ARE tONE DISTINCTLY. LIe Where Esse is Erisiere is; one is not possible apartfrom the other. For Esse Is by means of Erislere, and notapart from it. This the rational mind comprehends when itthinks whether there can possibly be any Esse which does notExist, and whether there can possibly be Eristere except fronlEsse. And since one is possible with the other, and not apartfrom the other, it follows that they are one, but one distina:ly.They are one distinB:ly like Love and Wisdom; in faCt, loveis Esse, and wisdom is Existere for there can be no love ex- I·cept in wisdom, nor can there be any wisdom except fromlove; consequently when love is in wisdom, then it EXISTS.These two are one in such a way that they may be dis-tinguished in thought but not in operation, and because theymay be distinguished in thought though not in operation, itis said that they are one tdistinaIy. Esse and Existere inGod-Man are also one distinB:ly like soul and body. Therecan be no soul apart from its body, nor body apart from itssoul. The Divine soul of God-Man is what is meant byDivine Esse, and the Divine Body is what is meant by DivineErisiere. That a soul can exist apart from a body, andexercise thought and wisdom, is an error springing from falla-cies; for every man 5 soul is in a spiritual body after it hascast off the material coverings which it carried about in theworld. IS- Esse is not Esse unless it Exists, because before this itis not in a fonn, and if not in a fonn it has no quality; andwhat has no quality is not anything. That which Exists fromEsse, for the reason that it is from Esse, makes one with it.From this there is a uniting of the two into one; and from • TD Ie tz1Ul tIJ emt. Swedenborg seems to use this word II exist" nearly in theclassical sense of springing or standing forth. becoming manifest, taking form. The _.,ndistinCtion between USI and emtere is essentially the same as between substanceand Conn. , For the meaning or this phrase, udiJtiII8e see below in this puagrapb,also D. 17. g2.34, -3, and Div. PrOfJ., n. 4. * It should be noticed, that in Latin, dirli""l7 is the adYerb or the verb . . . .pill. If traDIIated dUtM,pi.llull17. tbia would appear.
  • 8 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAQUOD IN DEO HOMINE INFINITA DISTINCTE UNUM SINT. °I7. Notum est, quod Deus infinitus sit, vocatur enim Infinitus; sed vacatur Infinitus quia est infinitus. Ex eosolum quod sit ipsum Esse et Existere in Se, non est In-finitus, sed quia infinita in Ipso sunt: Infinitum absqueinfinitis in Ipso non est Infinitum nisi quoad solum nomen.Infinita in Ipso non dici possunt infinite multa, nec infi-nite omnia, propter ideam naturalem de multis et deomnibus; nam idea naturalis de infinite multis est limi-tata, et de infinite omnibus est quidem illimitata, sed tra-hit ex limitatis in universo. Quar~ homo, quia ei ideanaturalis est, non potest sublimatione et approximationevenire in perceptionem de infinitis in Deo; at angelus,quia est in idea spirituali, potest sublimatione et approxi-matione venire supra hominis gradum, non tamen usqueHluc. " I8. Quod infinita in Deo sint, quisque apud ,se af-firmare potest, qui credit quod Deus sit Homo; et quiaest Homo, est Ipsi Corpus, et omne quod corporis est; itaest Ipsi facies, peCtus, abdomen, lUlnbi, pedes; nam absqueHlis non"foret Homo: et quia Ipsi ilIa sunt, etiam suntIpsi oculi, aures, nares, os, lingua; tum etiam quae intrain homine sunt, ut cor et pulmo, et quae ex illis pendent;quae omnia simul sumpta faciunt ut homo sit homo. Inhomine creato sunt ilIa multa, et in contexturis suis speaatasunt innumera: sed in Deo Homine sunt illa infinita; nondeest quicquam; inde Ipsi infinita perfeaioo Quod com-paratio Hominis Increati, qui est Deus, cum homine creatofiat, est quia Deus est Homo, et ab Ipso dicitur quod homomundi ad imaginem Ipsius et in similitudinem Ipsius crea-tus sit (Genes. i. 26, 27). I9. Quod infinita in Deo sint, patet manifestius ange-lis ex eaeHs in quibus sunt. Universum caelum, quod exmyriadibus myriadum angelorum consistit, in universalisua forma est sicut Homo; unaquaevis societas caeli tammajor quam minor similiter; inde etiam angelus est homo,est enim angelus caelum in minima forma; quod ita sit,
  • ,8 ANGELIC WISDOMthis each is the others mutually and interchangeably, and eachis wholly in all things of the other as it is in itself: I6. From this it can be seen that God is Man, and conse-quently He is God-Existing; not existing from Himself but inHimself: He who has existence in HimseU; He is God fromwhom all things are. IN GoD-MAN INFINITE THINGS ARE ONE· DISTINCTLY. I7. That God is infinite is well known, for He is called theInfinite; and He is called the Infinite because He is infinite.He is infinite not from this alone, that He is very Esse andEristere in itself; but because in Him there are infinite things.An Infinite without infinite things in it, is infinite in name only.The infinite things in Him cannot be called infinitely many, orinfinitely all, because of the natural idea of many and of all;for the natural idea of infinitely many is limited, and of infi-nitely all, though not limited, is derived from limited thingsin the universe. And because mans ideas are natural, he can-not, by any refinement or approximation, come into a perceptionof the infinite things in God; and though an angel is able byrefinement and approximation, because he is in spiritual ideas,to rise above the degree of man, still he cannot attain to thatperception. I8. That in God there are infinite things, anyone mayconvince himself who believes that God is ~Ian; for, beingMan, He has a body and every. thing pertaining to it, that is, aface, breast, abdomen, loins and feet; for without these He wouldnot be Man. And having these, He also has eyes, ears, nose,mouth and tongue j also tb.e parts within man, as the heart andlungs, and their connections, all of which, taken together, makeman to be man. In a created man these parts are many, andregarded in their combinations are numberless; but in God-Manthey are infinite, nothing whatever is lacking, and from thisHe has infinite perfeCtion. This comparison holds betweencreated man and the uncreated Man who is God, becauseGod is Man; and He Himself says that the man of this worldwas created after His image and into His likeness (Gen. i. 26,27)· I9. That in God there are infinite things, is still more evi-dent to the angels from the heavens in which they dwell. Thewhole heaven, consisting of myriads of myriads of angels, in itsuniversal form is like a man. So is each society of heaven, be it
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS I.-N. 22. 9videatur in opere De Caelo et Inferno (n. 51-87). In taliforma est caelum in toto, parte, et individuo, ex Divinoquod angeli recipiunt; nam quantum angelus ex Divinorecipit, tantum in perfeCta forma homo est. Inde est,quod angeli dicantur in Deo esse, et Deus in illis; tumquod Deus sit omne illorum. Quam multa sunt in caelo,non describi potest; et quia Divinum facit caelum, et indeilIa inefTabilia inulta ex Divino sunt, clare patet, quod in-finita in ipso Homine, qui est Deus, sint. -.. Simile potest induci ex universo creato, dum hocspeCtatur ex usibus et eorum correspondentiis: sed an-tequam hoc potest intelligi, praecedent quae illustra-bunt. • x. Quia infinita in Deo Homine, quae in caelo,· inangelo et in homine, ut in speculo apparent, et quia DeusHomo non est in spatio (ut supra, n. 7-10, ostensum est),aliquantum videri et comprehendi potest, quomodo Deuspotest Omnipraesens, Omnisciens, et Omniprovidens esse,ac quomodo ut Homo potuerit creare omnia, ac utHomo possit in aeternum tenere creata ab Ipso in suoordine. ••• Quod infinita distinae unum sint in Deo Homine,hoc quoque constare potest ut in speculo ex homine. Inhomine multa et innumera sunt, ut supra diCtum est; sedusque homo illa ut unum sentit. Non ex sensu scit ali-quid de suis cerebris, de suo corde et pulmone, de suohepate, liene et pancreate i nec de innumeris in oculis, auri-bus, lingua, ventriculo, membris generationis, et in reli-quis; et quia ex sensu non scit ilIa, est sibi sicut unus.Causa est, quia omnia ilIa in tali forma sunt, ut non possitunum deesse ; est enim forma recipiens vitae a Deo Homine(ut supra, n. 4-6, demonstratum est). Ex ordine et con-nexu omnium in tali forma sistitur sensus et inde idea,sicut non multa et innumera sint, sed sicut unum. Exhis concludi potest, quod multa et innumera, quae faciuntin homine sicut unum, in ipso Homine qui est Deus, dis-tinete immo distinaissime unum sint.
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 16-22. 9 larger or smaller. From this, too, an angel is a man, for an angel is a heaven in least form. (This is shown in the work 01& Heaven and Hell, n. 51-86.) Heaven as a whole, in part, and in the individual, is in that form by virtue of the Divine which the angels receive; for in the measure in which an angel receives from the Divine is he a man in a perfeCted form. From this it is that angels are said to be in God, and God in them; also, that God is their all. How many things there are in heaven cannot be told; and because the Divine is what makes heaven; and consequently these unspeakably many things are from the Divine, it is clearly evident that there are infinite things in Very Man, who is God. . . . From the created universe a like conclusion may be drawn when it is regarded from uses and· their correspond- ences. But before this can be understood some preliminary explanations must be given• • 1::. Because in God-Man there are infinite things which appear in heaven, in angel, and in man, as in a mirror; and because God-Man is not in space (as was shown above, n. 7-10), it can, to some extent, be seen and comprehended how God can be Omnipresent, Omniscient, and All-providing; and how, as Man, He could create all things, and as Man can hold the things created by Himself in their order to eternity. • ~ That in God-Man infinite things are one distinCUy, can also be seen, as in a mirror, from man. In man there are many and numberless things, as said above; but still man feels them all as one. From sensation he knows nothing of his brains, of his heart and lungs, of his liver, spleen, and pancreas ; or of the numberless things in his eyes, ears, tongue, stomach, generative organs, and the remaining parts; and because from. sensation he does not know about these things, he is to him- self as one. The reason is that all these are in such a form that not one can be lacking; for it is a form recipient of life from God-Man (as was shown above, n. 4-6). From the order and conneCt:ion of all things in such a form there comes the feeling, and from that the idea, as if they were not many and numberless, but were one. From this it may be concluded that the many and numberless things which make in ,man a seem- ing one, in Very Man who is God, are one distinaIy, yea, most distinaIy.
  • 10 SAPIENTIA ANGELICA QUOD SIT UNUS DEUS HOMO A QUO OMNIA• • 3. Omnia rationis humanaese conjungant et quasiconcentrant in id, quod Deus unus Creator universi sit:quare homo, cui ratio, ex communi intellectus sui non ali-ter cogitat, nee cogitare potesta Die alicui, cui sana ratioest, quod duo Creatores universi sint, et comperies repug-nantiam ex illo in te, et forte ex solo loquelae sono inaure: unde patet, quod omnia rationis numanae se con-jungant et concentrent in id, quod Deus unus sit. Quodita sit, sunt binae causae. Prima est, quia ipsa facultasratio·naliter cogitandi in se speCtata non est hominis, sedest Dei apud ilIum; ex ilia pendet ratio humana in com-muni, et commune facit ut id videat sicut a see Alteraest, quia homo per facultatem illam vel est in luce caeH,vel trahit commune suae cogitationis inde, et universalelucis caeH est quod Deus unus sit. Aliter si homo exfacultate illa perverterit inferiora intellectus; ille quidem .pollet ilIa (acultate, sed per intorsionem inferiorum vertitillam aliorsum; inde ejus ratio non sana fit. . ~4. Omnis homo, tametsi nescit, cogitat de coetusicut de homine; quare etiam percipit illico cum diciturquod rex sit caput et subditi corpus, tum cum dicitur quodis et Hie talis sit in communi corpore, hoc est, in regno.Simile est cum spirituali corpore sicut cum civili; spiri-tuale corpus est ecclesia, ejus caput est Deus Homo. lodepatet qualis in hac perceptione appareret ecclesia ut homo,si non unus Deus Creator et Sustentator universi cogita-retu(, sed pro uno plures; appareret in perceptione iliasicut unum corpus super quo plura capita, ita non sicutHomo, sefJ sicut monstrum. Si diceretur, quod capitibusHUs una essentia sit, et quod per id simul faciant unumcaput, non potest alia idea inde resultare, quam quod veluni capiti plures facies sint, vel quod pluribus capitibus unafacies sit; ita ecclesia in perceptione sisteretur deformis :cum tamen Deus unus est Caput, et ecclesia est corpus,quod a nutu Capitis, et non a se, agit, ut quoque fit inhomine. Inde quoque est, quod non nisi quam unus rex
  • 10 ANGELIC WISDOM: THERE IS ONE GOD-MAN, FROM: WHOM ALL THINGS ARE. ~3. All things of human reason join, and as it were cen- tre on this, that there is one God, the Creator of the universe; consequently a man who has reason, from the general nature of his understanding, does not and cannot think otherwise. Say to any man of sound reason that there are two Creators of the universe, and you will be sensible of his repugnance, and this, perhaps, from the mere sound of the phrase in his ear; from which it appears that all things of human reason join and centre on this, that God is one. There are two reasons for this. First, the very capacity to think rationally, in itself considered, is not mans, but is Gods in man; upon this capacity human reason in its general nature depends, and this general nature of reason causes man to see as from him- self that God is one. Secondly, by means of that capacity man either is in the light of heaven, or he derives the general nature of his thought therefrom; and it is a universal of the light of heaven that God is one. It is otherwise when man by that capacity has perverted the lower parts of his understanding; such a man indeed is endowed with that capacity, but by the twist that he gives to these lower parts, he turns it contrariwise, and thereby his reason becomes unsound. Sf. Every man, even if unconsciously, thinks of a company of men as of one man; therefore he instantly perceives what is meant when it is said that a king is the head, and the sub-jeCts are the body, also that this or that person has such a place in the general body, that is, the kingdom. As it is with the body politic, so is it with the body spiritual. The body spi-ritual is the church; its head is God-Man; and from this it isplain what sort of a man the church thus viewed would appearto be, if one God, the Creator and Sustainer of the universe,were not thought of, but instead of one, several. The churchthus viewed would appear as one body with several heads;thus not as a man, but as a monster. If it be said that theseheads have one essence, and that thus together they make onehead, the only conception possible is either that of one headwith several faces or of several heads with one face; thus makeing the church, viewed as a whole. appear deformed. But intruth, the one God is the head, and the church is the body,which a& under the command of the head, and not from it..self; as is also the case in man; and from this it is that the~e
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS I.-N. 27. 11in uno regno sit; plures enim distraher.ent, at unus potestcontinere. ~5. Simile foret in ecclesia per universum terrarumorbem sparsa, quae communio vacatur, ex eo quod sicutunum corpus sub uno Capite sit. Notum est, quod caputregat corpus sub se ad nutus; in capite enim residet intel-leetus et voluntas, et ex intelleetu et voluntate agitur cor-pus, usque adeo ut corpus sit modo obedientia. Corpusnon potest agere aliquid nisi ex intelleB:u et voluntate incapite; similiter homo ecclesiae nisi ex Deo. Apparetsicut corpus agat ex se; ut sicut manus et pedes in agendamoveant se ex se, et sicut os et lingua in loquendo vibrentse ex se; cum tamen ne hilum ex se, sed ex affeB:ionevoluntatis et inde cogitatione intelleaus in capite. Co-gita tunc si uni corpori plura capita forent, et unumquodviscaput sui juris esset ex suo intelleCtu et ex sua voluntate,an subsistere possit corpus: inter ilIa unanimum non da-bile est, quale est unius capitis. Sicut est in ecclesia, itaest in caelis, quod ex myri~dibusIlmyriadum angelorumconsistit; nisi omnes et singuli speB:arent ad unum Deum,decideret unus ab altero, et caelum dissolveretur. Quaresi angelus caeli modo cogitat de pluribus diis, illico dis-paratur; ejicitur enim in ultimum finem caelorum, ac de-cidit. • 6. Quoniam universum caelum et omnia caeli adunum Deum se referunt, ideo loquela angelica talis est,ut per quendam concentum ex concentu caeli fIuens desi-nat in unum; indicium quod illis impossibile sit cogitarenisi unum Deum; loquela enim est ex cogitatione. ~7. Quis, cui integra ratio est, non percipiet, quodDivinum non dividuum sit? tum quod plures Infiniti, In-creati, Omnipotentes ac Dii non dentur? Si alius, cuiratio non est, diceret quod plures Infiniti, Increati, Om-nipotentes ac Dii dabiles sint, modo una eadem essentiasit illis, et quod per id unus Infinitus, Increatus, Omni-potens et Deus sit, annon una eadem essentia est unumidem? et unum idem pluribus non datura Si diceretur,quod unum sit ab altero, tunc HIe qui est ab altero nonest Deus in se, et tamen Deus in Se est Deus a quo omnia(videatur supra, n. 16).
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 23-27. IIcan be only one king in a kingdom, for several icings wouldrend it asunder, but one is able to hold it together. ~5. So would it be with the church scattered throughout~e whole globe, which is called a communion, because it islike one body under one head. It is known that the headrules the body under it at will j for understanding and willhave their seat in the head j and in conformity to the under-standing and will the body is direCted, even to the extent thatthe body is nothing but obedience. As the body can donothing except from the understanding and will in the head,so the man of the church can do nothing except from God.The body seems to aCl of itself; as if the hands and feet inaCling are moved of themselves, or the mouth and tonguein speaking vibrate of themselves, when, in faa, they do notin the slightest degree aCl of themselves, but only from anaffeCtion of the will and the consequent thought of the under-standing in the head. Suppose, now, one body to have morethan one head, and each head to be -independent, from its ownunderstanding and its own will, could such a body continue toexist? For among several heads, singleness of mind such asresults from one head would be impossible. As in the church,so in the heavens; heaven consists of myriads of myriads ofangels, and unless these all and each looked to one God, theywould fall away from one another, and heaven would be brokenup. Consequently, if an angel of heaven but thinks of a plu- rality of gods he is at once separated; for he is cast out into the outmost boundary of the heavens, and sinks downward• • 6. Because the whole heaven and all things of heaven have relation to one God, angelic speech is of such a nature that by a certain unison flowing from the unison of heaven it closes in a single cadence-a proof that it is impossible for the angels to think otherwise than of one God; <or speech is from thought. WI. Who that has sound reason will not perceive that the Divine is not divisible? also that a plurality of Infinites, of Uncreates, of Omnipotents, and of Gods, is impossible? Sup- pose one destitute of reason were to declare that a plurality of Infinites, of Uncreates, of Omnipotents, and of Gods is possi- ble, if only they have one identieat essence (for this· would make one Infinite, Uncreate, Omnipotent, and God), would not the one identical essence be one identity? And one iden- tity is not possible to several. If it should be said that one is
  • 12 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAQUOD IPSA DIVlN A ESSENTIA SIT AMOR ET SAPIENTIA• • 8. Si colligis omnia, quaecunque nosti, et mittis iliasub mentis tuae intuitionem, et in aliqua spiritu~ elevationescrutaris quid universale omnium est, non potes concIu- dere aliud quam quod sint Amor et Sapientia; sunt enimilIa duo essentialia omnium vitae hominis; omne civileejus, omne morale ejus, et omne spirituale ejus, a duobusiBis pendent, absque illis duobus non sunt aliquid. Simi-liter omnia vitae Hominis compositi, qui est, ut prius dic-tum est, societas major et minor, regnum et imperium,ecclesia, et quoque caelum angelicum. Deme illis amoremet sapientiam, et cogita num sint aliquid, et deprehendesquod absque illis, ut ex quibus, sint nihil. .9. Quod in Deo sit Arnor et simul Sapientia in ipsasua essentia, a nemine negari potest; amat enim omnesex Amore in Se, et ducit omnes ex Sapiel1tia in See Uni-versum etiarn creaturn ex ordine speaatum, est ita plenumsapientia ex amore, ut dicas omnia in complexu illarnipsam esse; sunt enim indefinita in tali ordine, successiveet simuitanee, ut simul sumpta unum faciant. Ex eo etnon aliunde est, quod contineri et in perpetuum conser-vari possint. 30. Ex eo, quod ipsa Divina Essentia sit Arnor etSapientia, est quod hornini binae facultates vitae sint,ex quarum una est illi intelleCtus, et ex altera est illivoluntas. Facultas ex qua intelleCtus, trahit omnia suaex influxu sapientiae a Deo; et facultas ex qua voluntas,trahit omnia sua ex influx~ amoris a Deo. Quod homonon juste sapiat ex non juste amet non tollit facuitates,sed modo includit illas; et quamdiu includit illas, intel-leaus quidem dicitur intelleCtus, similiter voluntas, sedusque essentialiter non sunt: quare si facultates illae au-ferrentur, periret omne humanum, quod est cogitare et excogitare loqui, ac yelle et ex velIe agere. Inde patet, quodDivinum apud hominem resideat in binis illis facultatibus,quae suot facultas sapiendi et facultas amandi, hoc est,quod possit. Quo~ in homine sit posse [sapere et posse]arnare, tametsi non sapit et non amat sicut potest, ex
  • 12 ANGELIC WISDOM:&om the other, the one which is from the other is not God inHimself j nevertheless, God in Himself is the God from whomall things are (see above, D. 16). THE DIVINE EssENCE ITSELF IS LOVE AND WISDOM. 4 Sum up ~ things you know and submit them to care- ful refleCtion, and in some elevation of spirit search for the universal of all things, and you cannot conclude otherwise than that it is Love and Wisdom. For these are the two essentials of all things of mans life; everything of that life, civil, moral, and spiritual, hinges upon these two, and apart from these two is nothing. It is the same with all things of the life of the colleCtive Man, which is, as was said above, a society, larger or smaller, a kingdom, an empire, a church, and also the angelic heaven. Take away love and wisdom from these, and consider whether they be anything, and you will find that apartfrom love and wisdom as their origin they are nothing. sg. Love together with wisdom in its very essence is in God. This no one can deny; for God loves every one fromlove in itself; and leads every one from wisdom in itself: Thecreated universe, too, viewed in relation to its order, is so fullof wisdom coming forth from love that all things in the aggre-gate may be said to be wisdom itsel£ For things limitless are insuch order, successively and simultaneously, that taken togetherthey make a one. It is from this, and this alone. that theycan be held together and continually preserved. 30. It is because the very Divine Essence is love andwisdom that man has two capacities for life; froln one of thesehe has understanding, from the other, will. The capacityfrom which he bas understanding derives everything it has fromthe influx of wisdom from God, and the capacity from whichhe has will derives everything it has from the influx of lovefrom God. Mans not being truly wise and not loving rightlydoes Dot take away these capacities, but merely closes them up ;and so long as they are closed up, his understanding may becalled understanding and his will may be called will, but they arenot such in essence. If these two capacities; therefore, were tobe taken away, all that is human would perish j for the humanis to think and to speak from thought, and to will and act:u-om will. From this it is clear that the Divine has its seatin man in these two capacities, the capacity to be wise andthe capacity to love (that is, that one may be wise and love).
  • DE DIVINO APtIORE, PARS I.-N. 3+ 13 multa experientia mihi innotuit, quam alibi videbis in copia. 3:1:. Ex eo quod ipsa Divina Essentia sit Amor et Sa- pientia, est quod omnia in universo se referaot ad bonum et ad verum; omne enim id quod ex amore procedit vo- catur bonum, et quod ex sapientia procedit vocatur ver~m. Sed de his infra plura. 3~. Ex eo quod ipsa Divina Essentia sit Amor et Sapientia, est quod universum et omnia in ilIo, tam viva quam non viva, subsistant ex calore et luce; calor enim correspondet amori, et lux correspondet sapientiae. Quare etiam calor spiritualis est amor, et lux spiritualis est sa- pientia. Sed de his etiam infra plura. 33. Ex Divino Amore et ex Divina Sapientia, quae faciunt ipsam Essentiam quae est Deus, oriuntur amnes af- feetiones et cogitationes apud hominem; affeaiones ex Divino Amore, et cogitationes ex~ Divina Sapientia; et omnia et singula bominis non sunt nisi quam affeetio et cogitatio; illae duae sunt sicut fontes omnium vitae ejus. Omnia jucunda et amoena vitae ejus ex illis suot, jucunda ex afTeetione amoris ejus, et amoena ex cogitatione inde. Nunc quia homo creatus est ut sit recipiens, et recipiens est quantum amat Deum, et ex amore in Deum sapit, hoc est, quantum afficitur illis quae a peo sunt, et quantum cogitat ex affeCl:ione ilIa, sequitur quod Divina Essentia, quae Creatrix, sit Divinus Amor et Divina Sapientia. QUOD DIVINUS AMOR SIT DIVINAE SAPIENTIAE, ET QUOD DIVINA SAPIENTIA SIT DIVINI AM ORIS. 34. Quod Divinum Esse et Divinum Existere in Deo Homine distinete unum sint, videatur supra (n. 14-16). Et quia Divinum Esse est Divinus Amor, et Divinum Ex- istere est Divina Sapientia. ideo haec similiter distinCte unum sunt. DistinCte unum dicuntur, quia amor et sapi- entia duo distineta sunt, sed ita unita ut arnor sit sapientiae et sapientia amoris ; amor enim est in sapientia, et sapi- entia ez:stit in amore: et quia Sapientia trahit suum Ex- istere ex arnore (ut supra, n. IS, dictum est), inde etiam. Divina Sapientia est Esse. Ex quo sequitur, quod Amor et Sapientia simul sumpta sint Divinum Esse, at distinete
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 28-34· 13That in man there is a possibility of loving [and being wise], even when he is not wise as he might be and does not loveas he might, bas been made known to me from much experience,and will be abundantly shown elsewhere. ·3L It is because the very Divine Essence is Love andWisdom, that all things in the universe have relation to goodand truth; for everything that proceeds from love is calledgood, and everything that prqceeds from wisdom is called truth.But of this more hereafter. 3" It is because the very Divine Essence is Love andWisdom, that the universe and an things in it, alive and notalive, have unceasing existence from heat and light; for heatcorresponds to love, and light corresponds to wisdom. Con-sequently spiritual heat is love and spiritual light is wisdom.But of this, also, more hereafter. 33- From the Divine Love and from the Divine Wisdom,that make the very Essence which is God, all affeCtions andthoughts with man have their rise-affeCtions from DivineLove, and thoughts from Divine Wisdom; and each and allthings of man are nothing but affeCtion and thought; these twoare like fountains of all things of mans life. All enjoymentsand pleasantnesses of his life are from these-enjoyments fromthe affeCtion of his love, and pleasantnesses from the thoughttherefrom. Now since man was created to be a recipient, andis a recipient in the degree in which he loves God, and from love •to God is wise; in other words, in the degree in which he isaffeCted by those things which are from God, and thinks fromthat affeCtion, it follows that the Divine Essence, which is theCreator, is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom.DIVINE LOVE IS OF DIVINE WISDOM, AND DIVINE WISDOM IS OF DIVINE LOVE. U. In God-Man Divine Esse and Divine Eristere are onedistinCtly (as may be seen above, n. 14-16). And becauseDivine Esse is Divine Love, and Divine Erisiere is DivineWisdom, these are likewise one distinaIy. They are said to beone distinCtly,· because love and wisdom are two distinCl things,yet so united that love is of wisdom, and wisdom of love;for in wisdom love IS, and in love wisdom EXISTS; and sincewisdom derives its &isiere from love (as was said above, D.IS), therefore Divine Wisdom also is Esse. From this itfollows that love and wisdom taken together are Divine Esse,
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICA sumpta vocatur Am~r Divinum Esse, et Sapientia Divinum Existere. Talis est idea angelica de Divino Amore et de Divina Sapientia. 35. Quoniam talis unio Amoris et Sapientiae, ac Sa- pientiae et Amoris, est in Deo Homine, est Divina Essentia una; Divina enim Essentia est Divinus Amor quia est Divinae Sapientiae, et Divina Sapientia quia est Divini Amoris: et quoniam talis unio illorum est, ideo etiam Divina Vita est una. Vita est Divina Essentia. Quod Divinus Arnor et Divina Sapientia sint unum, est quia unio est reciproca, ae unio reciproca facit unum. At de unione reciproca alibi plura dicentur. 36. U nio amoris et sapientiae est quoque in omni opere Divino; ex ilIa est perpetuitas, immo aeternitas ejus. Si plus Divini Amoris quam Divinae Sapientiae, aut si plus Divinae Sapientiae quam Divini Amoris, in aliquo opere creato foret, non subsistet, nisi quantum ex aequo insunt; transit quod super est. 37. Divina Providentia in reformandis, regenerandis, et salvandis hominibus, ex aequo participat ex Divino Amore et ex Divina Sapientia. Ex pluri Divini Amoris quam Divinae Sapientiae, aut ex pluri Divinae Sapientiae quam Divini Amoris, homo non reformari, regenerari et• salvari potest. Divinus Amor vult omnes salvare, sed non salvare potest nisi per Divinam Sapientiam; et Divi- nae Sapientiae sunt omnes leges per quas fit salvatio, et Arnor non potest illas leges transcendere, quoniam Divinus Amor et Divina Sapientia unum sunt, et in unione agunt. 3 8 • Divinus Amor et Divina Sapientia in Verbo intelli- guntur per" justitiam et judicium," Divinus Amor per" jus- titiam" et Divina Sapientia per" judicium :" quare in Verbo dicitur" justitia" et " judicium" de Deo. Ut apud Davitkm, U Justitia et Judicium fulcrum throni tui .. (Ps. lxxxix. blxS[B.A. 14]); apud eundem, Jehovah" educet sicut lucem justitiam••• et judicium •.sicut meridiem J (P.r. xxxvii. 6) : apud Hosclteam, II Desponsabo (2]Me tibi in aetemum ••• in justitia et judicio" (ii. 19); apud Jeremia"" I Suscitabo Da.. idi gennen justu~ qui repabit Res, .•. et faciet judi- cium et justitiam in terra" (xxiii. 5) ;
  • ANGELIC WISDOM but taken distinCtly love is called Divine Esse, and wisdom Divine Eristere. Such is the angelic idea of Divine Love and of Divine Wisdom. 35- Since there is such a union of love and wisdom and of wisdom and love in God-Man, there is one Divine Essence. For the Divine Essence is Divine Love because it is of Divine Wisdom, and is Divine Wisdom, because it is of Divine Love. And since there is such a union of these, the Divine Life is one. Life is the Divine Essence. Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are a one because the union is reciprocal, and recipro- cal union causes oneness. Of reciprocal union, however, more will be said elsewhere. a6. There is also a union of love and wisdom in every divine work; from which it has perpetuity, yea, its everlasting duration. If there be more of Divine Love than of Divine Wisdom, or more of Divine Wisdom than of Divine Love, in any created work, it can have continued existence only in the measure in which the two are equally in it; whatever is in excess passes of[ 37. The Divine Providence in the reforming, regenerating, and saving of men, partakes equally of Divine Love and of Divine Wisdom. From more of Divine Love than Divine Wis- dom, or from more of Divine Wisdom than Divine Love, man cannot be refonned, regenerated and saved. Divine Love wills to save all, but it can save only by means of Divine Wisdom; to Divine Wisdom belong all the laws through which salvation is effected; and these laws Love cannot transcend, because Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are one, and act in unison. a8. In the Word, Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are meant by ,( righteousness" and "judgment, J Divine Love by c righteousness, " and Divine Wisdom by ((judgment i J for this reason ,( righteousness" and (judgment" are applied in the Word to God; as· in David,, U Righteousness and judgment are the support of Thy throne" (Ps. btuix. 14)j .e Jehovah shall bring forth righteousness as the light, and judgment as the noonday" (PI. xxxvii. 6) ; in Hosea, "I will betroth thee unto Me forever, ..•.in righteousness, and in judi- ment" (ii. 19); in Jeremiah, at I will raise unto David a righteous branch, who shall reign as Idng, .... and shan ezecute judgment and righteousuess in the earth" (xxiii. 5); .
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS I.-N.40 . ISapud Esat.am, Sedebit "super throno Davidil, et super regno eius, ad ltabiliendum illud ..• in judicio et in justitia" (ix. 6 [R.,A. 7J) :apud eundem, .. Exaltetur Jehovab, ..• quia implevit" terram Ie judicio et justitia" (xxxiii. 5): .apud Dav"-dem, U Cum didicero judicia justitiae tuae :.... septies in die laudo Te super judiciis justitiae tuae " (Ps. cxix. 7, (1]164) ;Simile per" vitam" et U lucem" intelligitur apud Johanne"" 11n Ipso Vita erat, et Vita erat Lux bominum " (i. 4):per U vitam" ibi intelligitur Divinus Amor Domini, et peru lucem U Divina Sapientia Ipsius. Simile etiam per U vi-tam" et U spiritum" apud Jokannem, Jesus dixit, ClVerba quae ego loquor vobis spiritus et vita lunt "(vi. 63). 39. In homine apparent amor et sapientia ut duoseparata, sed usque in se distinCie unum sunt, quoniamapud hominem talis est sapientia qualis est amor, et talisamor qualis est sapientia. Sapientia quae non unum facitcum suo amore, apparet sicut sit sapientia, et tamen nonest; ac amor qui non unum facit cum sua sapientia, appa-ret sicut sit sapientiae amor, tametsi non est; unum enimtrahet suam essentiam et suam vitam ex altero reciproce.Quod sapientia et amor apud hominem appareant ut duoseparata, est quia facultas intelligendi apud ilium estelevabilis in lucem caeli, sed non facultas amandi, nisiquantum homo facit sicut intelligit. Quare id apparentissapientiae, quod non unum facit cum amore sapientiae,relabitur in amorem qui unum facit, qui potest esse amornon sapientiae, immo amor insaniae: homo enim potest.ex sapientia scire quod ilIum oporteat facere hoc et illud,sed usque non facit, quia non amat illud; at quantum examore facit quod sapientiae est, tantum est imago Dei.QUOD DIVINUS AMOR ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA SIT SUB- STANTIA ET QUOD SIT FORMA. 40. Idea vulgarium hominum de amore et de sapien-tia, est sicut de volatili et ftuente in subtili aere seu
  • CONCERNINIJ DIVINE LOVE.-N. 35-40. 15in Isaiall, "He sha118itupon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to estab. lish it in judgment and in righteousness" (ix. 7) ; I. Jehovah shall be exalted, because He hath filled the earth with judgment and righteousness" (xxxiii. 5);in David, "When I shan have learned the judgments of thy righteousness. •••• Seven times a day do I praise Thee, because of the judgments of thy righteousness" (Ps. em. 7, 164).The same is meant by elife" and elight" in ftkn, .. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men" (i. 4).By "life" in this passage is meant the Lords Divine Love,and by "light" His Divine Wisdom. The same also is meantby ,e life" and CC spirit" in Joint, I. Je5US said, The words which I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life" (vi. 63). 39- In man love and wisdom appear as two separate things,yet in themselves they are one distinaIy, because with manwisdom is such as the love is, and love is such as the wisdom is.The wisdom which does not make on-e with its love appearsto be wisdom, but it is not; and the love which does notmake one with its wisdom appears to be the love of wisdom,but it is not; for the one must derive its essence and itslife reciprocally from the other. With man love and wisdomappear as two separate things, because with him the capacityfor understanding may be elevated into the light of heaven,but not the capacity for loving, except in the measure in whichhe a& according to his understanding. Any apparent wis-dom, therefore, which does not make one with the love ofwisdom, sinks back into the love which does make one withit; and this may be a love of unwisdom, yea, of insanity.Thus a man may know from wisdom that he ought to do thisor that, and yet he does not do it, because he does not love it.But. so far as a man does from love what wisdom teaches, heis so far an image of God.DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM AR.E SUBSTANCE AND ARE FORM. 40. The idea of men in general about love and about wis-dom is like something hovering and ftoating in thin air or ether ;
  • 16 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAaethere; aut sicut de exhalato ab aliquo tali; et vix ali-quis cogitat quod sint realiter et aCl:ualiter substantia etforma. IIIi qui videllt, quod substantia et forma, usquepercipiunt amorem et sapientiam extra subjeB:um ut pro-fluentia ex ilIa; et quod extra subjeB:um ut proftuens abillo percipiunt, tametsi ut volatile et fluens, etiam vacantsubstantiam et formam; non scientes quod arnot et sapi-entia sint ipsum subjeB:um, et quod id quod extra Hludpercipitur ut volatile et fiuens, sit modo apparentia statussubjeB:i in see Causae, quod hoc non haetenus visum sit,sunt [I]plures. Inter illas est, quod apparentiae sint pri-mae ex quibus mens humana format suum intellectum, etquod discutere illas nequeat nisi ex indagatione causae;et si causa alte latet, illam indagare nequit, nisi intellec-tum teneat diu in luce spirituali, in qua ilium diu tenerenequit propter lucem naturalem quae continue retrahit.Veritas usque est, quod amor et sapientia sint realis etaCl:ualis substantia et forma, quae faciunt ipsum subjec-tum. 4I. Sed hoc quia contra apparentiam est, videri pot-est sicut non merens fidem, nisi demonstretur; et hocdemonstrari non potest nisi quam per talia quae homopercipere potest ex sensu sui corporis; quare per ilia de-monstrabitur. Sunt homini quinque sensus externi, quivocantur tactus, gustus, olfaaus, auditus et visus. Sub-jeB:um taCl:us est cutis, qua homo circumcinetus est; ipsasubstantia et forma cutis faciunt ut sentiat applicata:sensus taClus non est in iBis quae applicantur, sed est insubstantia et forma cutis, quae sunt subjeB:um; sensusHie est modo affeB:io ejus ab applicatis. Simile est cumgustu: hie sensus est modo affeB:io substantiae et formae,quae sunt linguae; lingua est subjeClum. Simile est cumolfaetu: quod odor afficiat nares et quod sit in naribus,et quod sit affeetio illarum ab odoriferis tangentibus, no-tum est. Simile est cum auditu: apparet sicut auditussit in loco ubi sonus inchoat, sed auditus est in aure, etest affeaio substantiae et formae ejus; quod auditus sit indistantia ab aure, est apparentia. Simile est cum visu:apparet dum homo videt objeeta ad distantiam sicut visusibi sit, sed usque est in oculo qui est subjeCtum, et simi-liter est affeCtio ejus: distans est solum ex judicio con-
  • 16 ANGELIC WISDOMor like what exhales from something of this kind. Scarcelyanyone believes that they are really and actually substance andform. Even those who recognise that they are substanceand fonn still think of the love and the wisdom outside the sub-ject and as issuing from it. For they call substance and fonnthat which they think of outside the subjeCl: and as issuingfrom it, even though it be something hovering and floating;not knowing that love and wisdom are the subjeCl: itse~ andthat what is perceived outside of it and as hovering and floatingis nothing but an appearance of the state of the subjeCl: initself: There are several reasons why this has not hithertobeen seen, one of which is, that appearances are the first thingsout of which the human mind forms its understanding, andthese appearances the mind can shake off only by the explo-ration of causes; and if the cause lies deeply hidden, the :mindcan explore it only by keeping the understanding for a longtime in spiritual light; and this it cannot do by reason of thenatural light which continually withdraws it. The truth is,however, that love and wisdom are the real and aaual substanceand form which constitute the subject itself: 4I. But as this is contrary to appearance, it may seem notto merit belief unless it be proved; and since it can be provedonly by such things as man can apprehend by his bodilysenses, by these it shall be shown. Man has five externalsenses, called touch, taste, smell, hearing and sight. ThesubjeCl: of touch is the skin by which man is enveloped, thevery substance and form of the skin causing it to feel whateveris applied to it. The sense of touch is not in the things applied,but in the substance and form of the skin, which are the sub-jeCl; the sense itself is nothing but an affecting of the subjeCl:by the things applied. It is the same with taste; this senseis only an affeCl:ing of the substance and fonn of the tongue;the tongue is the subjeCl:. It is the same with smell; it is wellknown that odor affeCts the nostrils, and that it is in thenostrils, and that the nostrils are affeaed by the odoriferousparticles touching them. It is the same with hearing, whichseems to be in the place where the sound originates; but thehearing is in the ear, and is an affecting of its substance andform; that the hearing is at a distance from the ear is anappearance. It is the same with sight. When a man seesobjeCls at a distance, the seeing appears to be there; yet theseeing is in the eye which is the subjeCl:, and is likewise anaffeCting of the subjeCl:. Distance is solely from the judgment
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS , 1.-N.43. 17cludente de spatia ex intermediis, vel ex diminutione etinde obscuratione objeB:i, cujus imago sistitur intus inoculo secundum angulum incidentiae. Inde patet, quodvisus non exeat ab oculo ad objeClum, sed quod imagoobjeB:i intret oculum, et afficiat substantiam et formamejus: simile enim est cum visu quemadmodum est cumauditu; auditus nec exit ab aure ad captandum sonum,sed sonus intrat aurem, et afficit. Ex his constare pot-est, quod affeCiio substantiae et formae, quae facit sen-sum, non sit separatum quid a subjeClo, sed solum faciatmutationem in illo, subjecto remanente subjeeto tunc utprius, et postea. Inde sequitur quod visus, auditus, olfac-tus, gustus et taetus, non sit aliquod volatile effluens exillorum organis, sed quod sint organa in sua substantia etforma speCtata, quae dum afficiuntur fit sensus. ~. Simile est cum amore et sapientia, cum sola diffe-rentia, quod substantiae et formae, quae sunt amor et sapi-entia, non exstent coram oculis, sicut organa sensuum ex-ternorum: sed usque nemo negare potest, quin substantiaeet formae sint ilia sapientiae et amoris quae vocanturcogitationes, perceptiones et affeB:iones, et quod non sintentia volatilia et fluentia ex nihilo, aut abstraeta ~ realiet aetuali substantia et forma, quae subjeB:a. Sunt enimin cerebro innumerabiles substantiae et formae, in quibusomnis interior sensus, qui se refert ad intelleB:um etvoluntatem, residet. Quod omnes affeCtiones, perceptio-nes et cogitationes ibi non sint halitus ex illis, sed quodsint actualiter et realiter subjecta, quae nihil a se emittunt,sed modo mutationes subeunt secundum alluentia quaeafficiunt, ex supradictis de sensibus externis constare pot-est. De alluentibus quae afficiunt, dicentur plura infra. 43- Ex his primum potest videri, quod Divinus Amoret Divina Sapientia in se sint substantia et forma, suntenim ipsum Esse et Existere; et nisi forent tale Esse etExistere sicut sunt substantia et forma, forent modo ensrationis, quod in se non est aliquid.
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 4 1-43. 17~oncluditlg about space from things intennediate, or from thediminution and consequent indistinCl:ness of the objeCl, an imageof which is produced interiorly in the eye according to theangle of incidence. From all this it is evident that sight does notgo out from the eye to the objeCl, but that the image of theobjeCl enters the eye and affeCts its substance and form. Thusit is just the same with sight as with hearing; hearing does notgo out from the ear to catch the sound, but the sound enters .the ear and affeCts it. From all this it can be seen that theaffeCling of the substance and form which causes sense is nota something separate from the subjeCl, but only causes a changein it, the subjeCl remaining the subjeCl then as before andafterwards. From this it follows that seeing, hearing, smell,taste, and touch, are not a something volatile flowing from theirorgans, but are the organs themselves, considered in theirsubstance and form, and that when the organs are affeCledsense is produced. 4Se The same is the case with love ~nd wisdom, with thisdifference only, that the substances and forms which are loveand wisdom are not obvious to the eyes as the organs ofthe external senses are. Nevertheless,. no one can deny thatthose things of wisdom and love, which are called thoughts,perceptions and affeCtions, are substances and forms, and notentities flying and flowing out of nothing, or abstraCted fromreal and aCl:ual substance and form, which are subjeCts. Forin the brain are substances and forms innumerable, in whichevery interior sense which pertains to the understanding andwill has its seat. The affections, perceptions and thoughtsthere are not exhalations from these substances, but are allaClually and really subjeCts emitting nothing from themselves,but merely undergoing changes according to whatever flowsagainst and affeCls ·them. This may be seen from what hasbeen said above about the external senses. Of what thus flowsagainst and affeCts more will be said below. 43- From all this it may now first be seen that Divine Love and Divine Wisdom in themselves are substance andform j for they are very Esse and Ezistere,· and unless they were such Esse and Eristere as they are substance and form,they would be a mere thing of reasoning, which in itself is nothing.
  • 18 SAPIESTIA ASGELICA •QUOD DIVINUS AMOR ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA SINT SUB- STANTIA ET FORMA IN SE, ITA IpsUM ET UNI- CUM. 4f. Quod Divinus Amor et Divina Sapientia sit sub-stantia et forma, mox .supra confirmatum est; et quodDivinum Esse et Existere sit Esse et Existere in se, etiamsupra diClum est. Non dici potest quod sit Esse et Ex-istere a se, quia hoc involvit initium, et quoque a quodamin illo quod sit Esse et Existere in se; at ipsum Esse etExistere in se est ab aeterno. Ipsum Esse et Existere inse est etiam increatum, et omne creatum non potest essenisi ab Increato; et quod creatum est, etiam est finitum,et finitum nee existere potest nisi ex Infinito. * Qui aliqua cogitatione potest assequi et compre-hendere Esse et Existere in se, ille omnino assequetur etcomprehendet quod illud sit Ipsum et Unicurn; Ipsumdicitur quod solum est j et U nicum a quo omne aliud.Nunc quia Ipsum et Unicum est substantia et forma, sequi-tur quod iliud sit ipsa et unica substantia et forma; etquia ipsa ilIa substantia et forma est Divinus Amor etDivina Sapientia, sequitur quod sit ipse et unicus Amor,ac ipsa et unica Sapientia; consequenter quod sit ipsa etunica Essentia, tum ipsa et unica Vita, nam Amor etSapientia est Vita. 46. Ex his constare potest, quam sensualiter, hocest, ex corporis sensibus, et ex eorurn tenebris in spiritu-alibus, cogitant iIli, qui dicunt naturam a se esse. Cogi-tant ex oculo, et non possunt ex intelleetu. Cogitatio exoculo occludit intelleCtum, at cogitatio ex intelleetu ape-rit oculum. Illi non aliquid cogitare possunt de Esse etExistere in se, quodque hoc sit Aeternum, I~creatum etInfinitum; nee possunt aliquid cogitare de Vita nisi sicutde volatili abeunte in nihilum; nee aliter de Amore etSapientia, et prorsus non quod ab illis sint omnia natu-rae. Quod ab i1lis sint omnia naturae, nee videri potest,nisi natura speetetur ex usibus in sua serie et in suoordine, et non si ex aliquibus ejus formis, quae sunt soliusoculi objeCl:a. Usus enim non sunt nisi quam ex vita, aceorum series et ordo ex sapientia eet amore i at formae
  • 18 ANGELIC WISDOM DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM AR.E SUBSTANCE AND FORK IN ITSELF, THUS THE VER.Y AND THE ONLY. 4f. That Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are substance and form has been proved just above; and that Divine Esse and Ezistere are Esse and Ezistere in itself; has also been said above. It cannot be said to be Esse and Enstere from itself; because this involves a beginniQ.g, and a beginning from something within it which would be Esse and Ezistne in itseU: But very Esse and Existere in itself is from eternity. Very Esse and Ezistere in itself is also uncreated, and everything created must needs be from an Unereate. What is created is also finite, and the finite can exist only from the Infinite. 45. He who by exercise of thought is able to grasp the idea o~ and to comprehend, Esse and Ezistere in itsel~ can cer- tainly perceive and comprehend that it is the Very and the Only. That is called the Very which alone IS; and that is called the Only from which every thing else proceeds. Now because the Very and the Only -is substance and form, it follows that it is the very and only substance and form. Because this very sub- stance and form is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, it follows that it is the very and only Love, and the very and only Wis- dom; consequently, that it is the very and only Essence, as well as the very and only Life; for Life is Love and Wisdom. 46. From all this it can be seen how sensually (that is, how much from the bodily senses and their blindness in spiritual matters) do those think who maintain that Nature is from herse1£ They think from the eye, and are not able to think from the understanding. Thought from the eye closes the understanding, but thought from the understanding opens the eye. Such persons cannot think at all of Esse and Ezistne in itself; and that it is Eternal, Unereate, and Infinite; neither can they think at all of life, except as a something fleeting and vanishing into nothingness j nor can they think otherwise of Love and Wisdom, nor at all that from these are all things. of nature. Neither can it be seen that from these are all things of nature, unless nature is regarded, not from some of its forms, which are merely objeCts of sight, but from Uses in theirsuccession and order. For uses are from life alone, and their succession and order are from wisdom and love alone; while forms are only containants of uses. Consequently, if forms alone are regarded, nothing of life, still less anything of love and wisdom, thus nothing of God, can be seen in nature.
  • DE DIVINO AMOR·E, PARS I.-N. 49· . 19sunt usu~m continentia: quare si speCiantur solum for-mae, nOll potest in natura videri aliquid vitae, minus ali-quid amoris et sapientiae, ita non aliquid Dei. ,QUOD DIVINUS AMOR ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA NON POSSIT ALITER QUAM ESSE ET EXISTERE IN ALlIS A SE CREATIS. 47. Ipsum amoris non est amare se, sed est amare alios, ac iBis per amorem conjungi. Ipsum amoris etiam est ab aliis amari, sic enim conjungitur. Essentia omnis amo- ris in conjunCl:ione consistit; immo vita ejus quae vocaturjucunditas, ~moenitas, delicium, dulcedo, beatitudo, fausti- tas et felicitas. Amor in eo consistit, ut suum sit alterius. ac ut sentiat ejus jucundum ut jucundum in se, hoc est amare; at sentire suum jucundum in altero, et non ejusin se, non est amare, hoc enim est amare se, illud autemamare proximum. Ilia duo amoris genera sunt e diame-tro sibi opposita: utrumque quidem conjungit; et nonapparet, quod amare suum, hoc est, se in altero, disjungat ;cum tamen ita disjungit, ut quantum quis alterum sic ama-verit, tantum postea ilIum odio habeat: solvitur enimconjunCt:io ilia a se successive, et tunc amor fit odium insimili gradu. 48. Quis non id potest videre, qui potest intueri amo-ris essentiam? Quid enim est amare se solum, et non ali-quem extra se, a quo redametur? Hoc potius est dissolutioquam conjunetio. ConjunB:io amoris est a reciproco, etreciprocum non datur in se solo: si putatur dari, est a re-ciproco imaginativo in aliis. Ex his patet, quod DivinusAmor non possit aliter quam esse et existere in aliis,quos arnet, et a quibus ametur; cum enim tale est inomni amore, maxime erit, hoc est, infinite, in ipsoAmore. 49. Quod Deum attinet: amare et reciproce amarinon potest dari in aliis, in quibus est aliquid infiniti, seu ali-quid essentiae et vitae arnoris in se, seu aliquid Divini ; sienim aliquid infiniti, seu essentiae et vitae amoris in se, hocest, aliquid Divini, esset in illis, tunc non amaretur abaliis, sed amaret se; infinitum enim seu Divinum est uni-
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 45-49· 19DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM MUST NECESSARILY BE AND HAVE EXISTENCE IN OTHERS CREATED BY IT- SELF. 47- It is the essential of love not to love self; but to loveothers, and to be conjoined with others by love. It is theessential of love, moreover, to be loved by others, for thusconjunClion is effeCted. The essence of all love consists inconjunClion; this, in faa, is its life, which is called enjoyment,pleasantness, delight, sweetness, bliss, happi!jess, and felicity.Lo~ consists in this, that its own should be anothers; to feelthe joy of another as joy in oneself; that is loving. But tofeel ones own joy in another and not the others joy in oneseltis not loving; for this is loving self; while the former is lovingthe neighbor. These two kinds of love are diametrically op-posed to each other. Either, it is true, conjoins; and to loveones own, that ~is, onesel~ in another does not seem to divide jbut it does so effeCtually divide that so far as anyone hasloved another in this manner, so far he afterwards hates him.F or such conjunCl:ion is by its own aCl:ion gradually loosened,and then, in like measure, love is turned to hate. 48. Who that is capable of discerning the essential char-aBer of love cannot see this ? For what is it to love selfalone, instead of loving some one outside of self by whom onemay be loved in return? Is not this separation rather thanconjunCtion? ConjunCtion of love is by reciprocation j andthere can be no reciprocation in self alone. If there is thoughtto be, it is from an imagined reciprocation in others. Fromthis it is clear that Divine Love must necessarily be and existin others whom it may love, and by whom it may be loved.For as there is such a need in all love, it must be to the fullestextent, that is, infinitely, in Love Itsel£ 49- With respeCt to God; it is impossible for Him tolove others and to be loved reciprocally by others in whomthere is anything of infinity, that is, anything of the essenceand life of love in itsel~ or anything of the divine. For if.there were beings having in them anything of infinity, that is,of the essence and life of love in itseIt that is, of the divine,it would not be God loved by others, but God loving Himself;since the Infinite, that is, the Divine, is one only, and ifthis were in others, it would be the Very in them, and wouldbe the Very love of se~ of which not the least trace caD-
  • 20 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAcum; si hoc in aliis foret, foret Ipsum, ac foret ipse arnorsui, cujus ne hilum dari potest in Deo; hoc enim prorsusoppositum est Essentiae Divinae. Quare dabitur in aliis,in quibus nihil Divini in se, est. Quod id detur in creatisa Divino, infra videbitur. Sed ut detur, erit Infinita Sa-pientia, quae unum faciet cum Infinito Amore; hoc est,erit Divinus Amor Divinae Sapientiae et Divina SapientiaDivini Amoris (de quo supra, n. 34-39). 50. Ex perceptione et cogitatione hujus arcani pendetperceptio et cognitio omnium existentiae seu creationis,tum omnium subsistentiae seu conservationis a Deo j hocest, omnium operum Dei in .universo creato j de quibus insequentibus agendum est. 5I. Sed quaeso, ne confundas ideas tuas cum temporeet cum spatio j quantum enim temporis et spatH est inideis cum sequentia legis, tantum non intelligis ilIa: namDivinum non est in tempore et spatio; quod clare videbi-tur in continuatione hujus operis, in specie de Aeternitate,Infinitate, et de Omnipraesentia.QUOD OMNIA IN UNIVERSO A DIVINO AMORE ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA DEI HOMINIS CREATA SINT. 5~. Universum in maximis et minimis, ac in primis et1Iltimis, ita plenum est Divino Amore et Divina Sapientia.ut dici queat quod sit Divinus Amor et Divina Sapientiain imagine. Quod ita sit, manifeste constat ex corre-spondentia omnium universi cum omnibus hominis. Om-nia et singula quae in universo creato existunt, talemcorrespondentiam cum omnibus et singulis hominis habent,ut dicl possit, quod homo etiam. sit aliquod universum.Correspondentia ejus affeetionum et inde cogitationum estcum omnibus regni animalis; ejus voluntatis et inde in-tellectus cum omnibus regni vegetabilis; ac ejus vitaeultimae cum omnibus regni mineralis. Quod talis corre-spondentia sit, non apparet alicui in mundo naturali; sedcuivis, qui attendit, in mundo spirituali. In hoc mundo suntomnia quae in Mundo naturali in tribus ejus regnis exis-tunt, et sunt correspondentiae affeetionum et cogitationum,
  • 20 ANGELIC WISDOMpossibly be in God; for this is wholly opposed to the Divine.Essence. Consequently, for this relation to be possible theremust needs be others in whom there is nothing of the Divinein itseU: That it is possible in beings created from theDivine will be seen below. But that it may be possible, theremust be Infinite Wisdom making one with Infinite Love; thatis, there must be the Divine Love of Divine Wisdom, andthe Divine Wisdom of Divine Love (concerning which seeabove, n. 34-39). 50. Upon a perception and knowledge of this mysterydepend a perception and knowledge of all things of existence,that is, creation, also of all things of continued existence, thatis, preservation by God j in other words, of all the works ofGod in the created universe; of which the following pagestreat. p. But do not, I entreat you, confuse your ideas withtime and with space, for so far as time and space enter intoyour ideas when you read what follows, you will not understandit; for the Divine is not in time and space. This will be seenclearly in the progress of this work, and in particular fromwhat is said of eternity, infinity, and omnipresence.ALL THINGS IN THE UNIVERSE ARE CREATIONS FROM THE DI- VINE LOVE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM OF GoD-MAN. p. So full of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom is theuniv,erse in greatalt and least, and in first and last things, thatit may be said to be Divine Love and Divine Wisdom in animage. That this is so is clearly evident from the correspond-ence of all things of the universe with all things of mao.There is such correspondence of each and every thing thathas existence in the created universe with each and everything of man, that man may be said to be a universe.There is a correspondence of his affeB:ions, and thence of histhoughts, with all things of the animal kingdom; of his will,and thence of his understanding, with all things of the vegetablekingdom; and of his outmost life with all things of the mineralkingdom. That there is such a correspondence is not apparentto anyone in the natural world, but it is apparent to every onewho gives heed to it in the spiritual world. In that worldthere are all things which have existence in the natural worldIn its three kingdoms, and they are correspondences of affe~-
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS I.-N. 55. 21afTeB:ionum ex voluntate et cogit~tionumex intelleCtu, tumultimorum vitae, illorum qui ibi: atque haec et ilia appa-rent circum illos in tali aspeCtu, in quali est universumcreatum, cum differentia quod in minore effigie. Ex hismanifeste patet angelis, quod universum creatum sit imagorepraesentativa Dei Hominis, et quod Ipsius Amor et Sapi-entia sint quae in universo sistuntur in imagine. Non quoduniversum creatum sit Deus Homo, sed quod sit ab Ipso;nam nihil quicquam in universo creato est substantia etforma in se, nee vita in se, nee amor et sapientia in se,immo nee homo est homo in se, sed omne est a Deo, qui estHomo, Sapientia et Amor, ac Forma et Substantia in seeQuod in se est, hoc increatum et infinitum est; quod au-tern ab Ipso est, hoc, quia nihil tenet apud se quod in seest, creatum et finitum est, et hoc repraesentat imaginemIpsius, a quo est et existit. 53- De creatis et finitis potest dici Esse et Existere,tum substantia et forma, ut et vita, immo amor et sapientia,sed omnia ilIa sunt creata et finita. Causa, quod diciqueant, non est quod aliquid Divinum illis sit, sed quodin Divino sint et quod Divinum in illis sit: amne enimquod creatum est, in se est inanimatum et mortuum, sedanimatur et vivificatur per id, quod Divinum sit in illis, etilia in Divino. 54- Divinum non aliter "est in uno subjeao quam inalio, sed unum subjeCl:um creatum est aliud quam alte-rum, non enim dantur duo idem, et inde est aliud con-tinens; ex quo Divinum in sua imagine apparet vari-urn. De praesentia Ipsius in oppositis, dicetur in sequen-tibus.QUOD OMNIA IN UNIVERSO CREATO SINT DIVINI AMO- RIS ET DIVINAE SAPIENTIAE DEI HOMINIS RECIPIENTA. 55- Notum est, quod omnia et singula universi a Deocreata sint; inde universum curn omnibus et singulis ejusin Verbo vocatur "opus manuum Jehovae." Dicitur quod
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-H. 50-55. 21tiODS and thoughts, that is, of affeCtions from the will and ofthoughts from the understanding, also of the outmost things ofthe life, of those in that world, around whom all these thingsare visible, presenting an appearance like that of the createduniverse, with the difference that it is in lesser form. Fromthis it is very evident to angels, that the created universe isan image representative of God-Man, and that it is His Loveand Wisdom which are presented, in an image, in the universe.Not that the created universe is God-Man, but that it is from.Him; for nothing whatever in the created universe is substanceand form in itself; or life in itself; or love and wisdom in itsel~yea, neither is man a man in himse1~ but all is from God, who isMan, Wisdom and Love, also Form and Substance, in itsel£That which has Being-in-itself is uncreate and infinite j butwhatever is from Very Being, since it contains in it nothing ofBeing-in-itself; is created and finite, and this exhibits an imageof Him from whom it has being and existence. 53- Of things created and finite esse and ezistne can bepredicated, likewise substance and form, also life, and even loveand wisdom; but these are all created and finite. This can besaid of things created and finite, not because they possess any-thing Divine, but because they are in the Divine, and theDivine is in them. For everything created is, in itsel~ inani-mate and dead~ but all things are animated and made aliveby this, that the Divine is in them, and that they are in theDivine. 5+ The Divine is not in one subjeCl: differently from whatit is in another, but one created subjeCl: differs from another;for no two things can be precisely alike, consequently eachthing is a different containant. On this account, the Divine asimaged forth presents a variety of appearances. Its presencein opposites will be discussed hereafter.ALL THINGS IN THE CREATED UNIVERSE ARE RECIPIENTS OF THE DIVINE LOVE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM OF GoD- MAN. 55- It is well known that each and all things of the uni.verse are created by God; hence the universe, with each andevery thing pertaining to it, is called in the Word the work ofthe hands of Jehovah. There are those who maintain that theworld, in its aggregate, was created out of nothing, and of that
  • 22 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAmundus in suo complexu ereatus sit ex nihilo, et de nihilofovetur idea plane nihili; cum tamen ex plane nihilo ni-hil fit, nee aliquid fieri potest. Hoc constans veritas est.Quare universum, quod est imago Dei, et inde plenumDeo, non potuit nisi quam in Deo a Deo ereari; Deusenim est ipsum Esse, et ab Esse erit quod est: a nihiloquod non est, creare quod est, est prorsus eontradiClo-cium. Sed usque ereatum in Deo a Deo, non est conti-nuum ab Ipso; nam Deus est Esse in Se, et in creatisnon est aliquid Esse in se j si in creatis foret aliquid Essein se, foret id continuum a Deo, et continuum a Deo estDeus. Angelica idea de hoc talis est, quod creatum inDeo a Deo, sit skut id in homine, quod traxerat ex vitaejus, sed a quo extraCia est vita; quod tale est, ut eon-veniat vitae ejus, sed usque non est vita ejus. Hoc an-geli confirmant ex multis, quae in caelo illorum existunt,ubi dicunt se esse in Deo, e~ Deum in illis, et tamen ni-hil Dei, quod Deus est, in suo Esse habere. Plura, exquibus id confirmant, in sequentibus [I]afferentur; hie modoid sit pro scientia. 56. Omne creatum, ex ea origine, est tale in suanatura ut sit recipiens Dei, non per continum sed percontiguum j per hoc et non per illud est conjunttivum jest enim conveniens quia in Deo a Deo creatum est; etquia ita creatum est, est analogon, et per conjunClionemillam est sicut imago Dei in specula. 57. Ex eo est, quod angeli non sint angeli a se, sedquod sint angeli ex conjunttione ilia cum Deo Homine;et ilia conjunttio est secundum receptionem Divini Boniet Divini Veri, quae sunt Deus, et apparent procedere abIpso, tametsi in Ipso sunt: ac receptio est secundumapplicationem legum ordinis, quae sunt Divinae veritates,ad set ex libero cogitandi et volendi secundum rationem,quae illis sunt a Domino sicut eorum. Per id est ~11isreeeptio Divini Boni et Divini Veri sicut ab illis, et perid est reciprocum amoris; nam, ut supra dictum est,amor non datur nisi sit reciprocus. Simile est cum homi-nibus in terris. Ex diais primum videri potest, quod om-nia universi creati sint Divini Amaris et Divinae Sapien-tiae Dei Hominis recipientia.
  • 22 ANGELIC W1SDOKnothing an idea of absolute nothingness is entertained. Fromabsolute nothingness, however, nothing is or can be made.This is an established truth. The universe, therefore, which isGods image, and consequently full of God, could be createdonly in God from God j for God is Esse itself; and from Essemust be whatever is. To create what is, from nothing whichis not, is a direCl contradiaion. But still, that which is createdin God from God is not continuous from Him; for God isEsse in itself; and in created things there is not any Esse in.itsel£ If there were in created things any Esse in itself; thiswould be continuous from God, and that which is continuousfrom God is God. The angelic idea of this is, that what iscreated in God from God, is like that in man derived out ofhis life, but from which the life is withdrawn, which is of sucha nature as to be in accord with his life, and yet it is not hislife. The angels confinn this by many things which haveexistence in their heaven, where they say they are in God,and God is in them, and still that they have, in their esse,nothing of God which is God. Many things whereby theyprove this will be presented hereafter; let this serve for presentinformation. 56. Every created thing, by virtue of this origin, is suchin its nature that it may be a recipient of God, not by continuity,but by contiguity. By the latter and not the former comes itscapacity for conjun8ion. For having been created in Godfrom God, it is accordant, and is an analogue, and throughsuch conjunction it becomes like an image of God in a mirror. 57. From this it is that angels are angels, not from them-selves, but by virtue of this conjunClion with God-Man; andthis conjun8ion is according to their reception of Divine Goodand Divine Truth, which are God, and whiCh seem to proceedfrom Him, though really they are in Him. This reception isaccording to their application to themselves of the laws oforder, which are Divine truths, in the exercise of that freedomof thinking and willing according to reason, which they possessfrom the Lord as if it were their own. By this they have areception, as if from themselves, of Divine Good and of DivineTruth, and by this there is a reciprocation of love j for, as wassaid above, love is impossible unless it be reciprocal. Thesame is true of men on the earth. From what has been saidit can now first be seen that all things of the created universeare recipients of the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom ofGod-Man.
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS I.-N. 60. 23 58. Quod reliqua universi, quae non sunt sicut angeli et sicut homines, etiam sint recipientia Divini Amoris et Divinae Sapientiae Dei Hominis, sicut quae infra hominessunt in regno animali, et quae infra haec in regno vegeta-bili, et quae infra haec in regno mincrali, non potest adhucad intelleCtum exponi ; prius enim plura de gradibus vitae,et de gradibus recipientium vitae, dicenda sunt. Con-junCtio cum illis est secundum usus illorum; omnes enimusus boni non trahunt aliunde 8uam originem, quam persimilem conjunttionem cum Deo, sed dissimilem secundumgrad us; quae conjunttio successive in descensu fit talis, utnihil liberi quia nihil rationis, et inde nihil apparentiae vi-tae insit, at usque sunt recipientia. Quia sunt recipientia,etiam sunt reagentia; nam per id quod sint reagentia,sunt continentia. De conjunClione cum usibus non bonis,dicetur postquam origo mali ostensa est. 59- Ex his constare potest, quod Divinum sit inomnibus et singulis universi creati, et inde quod univer-sum creatum sit opus manuum ]ehovae, ut dicitur inVerbo; hoc est, opus Divini Amoris et Divinae Sapientiae,nam haec intelliguntur per "manus ]ehovae." Et tametsiDivinum est in omnibus et singulis universi creati, usqueest nihil Divini in se in illorum Esse j universum enimcreatum non est Deus, sed a Deo; et quia est a Deo, estin illo imago Ipsius, sicut imago hominis in speculo, inquo quidem homo apparet, sed usque in ilIa nihil hominisest. 60. Audivi plures in mundo spirituali loquentes cir-cum me, dicentes, quod quidem agnoscere velint, quod inomnibus et singulis universi sit Divinum, quia in illis vi-dent mirabilia Dei, et quo interius speClantur, eo mirabi-liora; sed usque cum audiverunt, quod in omnibus etsingulis universi creati Divinum insit aCtualiter, indignatisunt; indicium quod id quidem dicant, sed non credant.Quare iBis diCtum est, annon hoc possint videre solum exmirabili facultate, quae inest cuivis semini in tali ordineproducendi vegetabile suum uSlue ad nova semina j etquod in unoquovis semine sit idea infiniti ac aeterni, nisusenim in illis est se multiplicandi et fruCtificandi in infinitumet in aeternum. Tum ex quolibet animali etiam minimo,
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 56-60. 23 58. It cannot yet be intelligibly explained how all otherthings of the universe which are unlike angels and men, thatis, the things below man in the animal kingdom, and the thingsbelow these in the vegetable kingdom, and the things still be-low these in the mineral kingdom, are also recipients of theDivine Love and of the Divine Wisdom of God-Man; for manythings need to be said first about degrees of life, and degreesof the recipients of life. Conjunction with these things is ac-cording to their uses; for no good use has any other sourcethan through a like conjunClion with God, but yet differentaccording to degrees. This conjun8:ion in its descent becomesgradually of such a nature that nothing of freedom is left inthem, because nothing of reason, and therefore nothing of theappearance of life j but still they are recipients. Becausethey are recipients, they are also re-agents; and forasmuchas they are re-agents, they are containants. Conjunction withuses which are not good will be discussed when the origin ofevil has been made known. 59- From the above it can be seen that the Divine is ineach and every thing of the created universe, and consequentlythat the created universe is the work of the hands of Jehovah,as is said in the Word; that is, the work of Divine Love andDivine Wisdom, for these are meant by the hands of Jehovah.But though the Divine is in each and all things of the createduniverse there is in their esse nothing of the Divine in itself;for the created universe is not God, but is from God; and sinceit is from God, there is in it an image of Him like the imageof a man in a mirror, wherein indeed the man appears, butstill there is nothing of the man in it. 60. I heard several about me in the spiritual world talkingtogether, who said that they were quite willing to acknowledgethat the Divine is in each and every thing of the universe, be-cause they behold therein the wonderful works of God, andbecause these are the more wonderful the more interiorly theyare examined. And yet, when they were told that the Divineis at9ually in each and every thing of the universe, they weredispleased; which is a proof that although they assert thisthey do not believe it. They were therefore asked whether thiscannot be seen simply from the marvellous power which is inevery seed, of producing its own vegetable fonn in perfeCt ord~,even to new seeds; also because in every seed an idea of theinfinite and eternal is presented; since there is in seeds anendeavor to multiply themselves and to fructify infinitely and
  • 24 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAquod in illo sint organa sensuum, sint cerebra, corda, pul-mones, et reliqua, cum arteriis, venis, fibris, musculis, etex illis aClus; praeter stupenda in illorum indole, de quaintegri libri scripti exstant. Omnia ilIa mirabilia sunt exDeo; formae autem quibus induta sunt, ex materiis ter-rae suot; ex illis sunt vegetabilia, et in suo ordine homi-nes: quare de homine ~icitur, Quod creatus sit ex humo, et quod sit pulvis terrae, et quod anima vi. tarum sit IDspirata (Gnus. H. 7);ex quo patet quod Divinum non homini sit, sed illi ad-jun8:um.QUOD OMNIA QUAE CREATA SUNT IN QUADAM: IMAGINE REFERANT HOMINEM. 6:1:. Hoc constare potest ex omnibus et singulis regnianimalis; exque omnibus et singulis regni vegetabilis j etex omnibus et singulis regni mineralis. Re/att:o ad kominem in omnlous ~t singu/is ".~gni ani-malls, patet ex his: quod animalibus omnis generis sintmembra per quae se movent, organa per quae sentiunt,et viscera per quae aCl:uant ilia, quae illis communiasunt cum homine: sunt quoque illis appetitus et affec-tiones, similes naturalibus apud hominem: et sunt sci-entiae connatae affeetionibus illorum correspondentes,in quarum aliquibus apparet sicut spirituale, quod apudbestias terrae, volucres caeli, apud apes, bombyces, for-micas, etc., plus et minus exstat coram oculis. Indeest, quod mere naturales homines faciant animantia il-lius regni sui similia, praeter loquelam. Re/atio ad Aominem ~z omnibus ~t singulis ".egnifJ~g~talJi/is, patet ex his: quod ex semine existant, etex illo successive in aetates suas progrediantur; quodillis aliqua connubii similia sint, et post ilia prolifica-tio; quod anima vegetativa illorum sit usus, cujus for-mae sunt, praeter plura alia, quae sunt relationes adhominem; quae etiam a quibusdam descriptae sunt. Relat;o ad Aom;ne", ab omnibus et singu/is ".~gni mi,,-"a/is, apparet solum in copatu producendi formas quae
  • ANGELIC WISDOMeternally? Is not this evident also in every living creature,even the smallest? from its having the organs of the senses, alsobrains, a heart, lungs, and other parts; with arteries, veins,fibres, muscles, and the aaivities proceeding therefrom; besidesthe surpassing marvels of animal nature, about which wholevolumes have been written. All these wonderful things arefrom God; but the fonns with which they are clothed are fromearthy matters, out of which come plants, and in their order,men. .Therefore it it is said of mas, That he was created out of the ground, and that he is the dust of the earth, and that the soul of lives was breathed into him (Gmesi.r fi.7).From which it is plain that the Divine is not mans own, butis adjoined to him.ALL CREATED THINGS HAVE RELATION IN AN IMAGE TO MAN. 6:1:. This can be seen from each and all things of theanimal kingdom, from each and all things of the vegetablekingdom, and from each and all things of the mineral kingdom. A relation to man in eack anti all tkings of tke animal king-dom is evident from the following. Animals of every kind havelimbs by which they move, organs by which they feel, andviscera by which these are exercised; these they have in com-mon with man. They have appetites and affeaions similarto mans natural appetites and affeaions; they also have inbornknowledges corresponding to their affeaions, in some of whichthere appears a resemblance to what is spiritual, which is moreor less evident in beasts of the earth, and birds of the air,and in bees, sdk-worms, ants, etc. From this it is that merelynatural men consider the living creatures of this kingdom tobe like themselves, except in the matter of speech. A relation to man arising out of eac" and all tIl-ings of tkefJegettW/e kingdom is evident from this: they spring forth fromseed, and thereafter proceed step by step through their periodsof growth; they have what is akin to marriage, followed byprolification; their vegetative soul is use, and they are formsthereof; besides many other particulars which have relation toman. These also have been described by various authors. A r-elatitm to man in respell to eac" anti ev~ tlu:ng of tilemineral kingdom is seen only in an endeavor to produce forms
  • I,t.I,~ .
  • ,
  • 26 SAPIENTIA ANGELICApium est vis agens ex illo conatu. Haec sunt regni mi-neralis. Media sunt omaia et singula regni vegetabilis :quae sunt gr;mina et herbae omnis generis, plantae etvirgulta omnis generis, et arbores omnis generis. Horumusus sunt pro omnibus et singulis regni animalis, tamimperfeais quam perfeais; nutriunt ilIa, deleaant ilia, etvivificant ilia; nutriunt corpora eorum materiis suis, de-leaant sensus eorum sapore, odore, pulchritudine, etvivificant affeCl:iones eorum. Conatus ad ilIa etiam inestillis a vita. P,ima suot omnia et singula regni animalis.Infima ibi vocantur vermes et inseCta, media volucres etbestiae, ac suprema homines; nam in omni regno suotinfima, media, et suprema; infima pro usu mediorum, etmedia pro usu supremorum. Ita ordine ascendunt ususomnium quae creata suot ab ultimis ad hominem, qui pri-mus in ordine est. 66. Sunt tres gradus ascensus in mundo naturali, etsunt tres gradus ascensus in muodo spirituali. Omniaanimalia sunt recipientia vitae; animalia perfeaiora suotrecipientia vitae trium graduum mundi naturalis, minusperfeCta sunt recipientia vitae duorum graduum istiusmundi, et imperfetta sunt recipientia unius gradus ejus:at solus homo est recipiens vitae trium graduum non tan-tum mundi naturalis, sed etiam. trium graduum mundispiritualis. Inde est, quod homo possit elevari supra natu-ram, secus ac ullum animal; potest analytice et rationa-liter cogitare de civilibus et moralibus quae intra natu-ram sunt, et quoque potest de spiritualibus et caelestibus,quae supra naturam sunt; immo potest elevari in sapien-tiam, usque ut videat Deum. Sed de sex gradibus, perquos usus omnium quae creata in suo ordine ascenduntusque ad Deum Creatorem, in suo loco agendum est. Exsummario hoc potest videri, quod omnium, quae creatasuot, ascensus sit ad Primum, qui solus est Vita, et quodusus omnium sint ipsa recipientia vitae, et inde {ormaeusuum. 67. Paucis etiam dicetur, quomodo homo ab ultimogradu ad primum ascendit, hoc est, elevatur. Nasciturin ultimum gradum naturalis mundi; elevatur dein perscientias in secundum gradum j et sicut ex scientiis per-
  • .ANGELIC WISDOMthe beginnIng of all uses which are from life. The end of aUuses is the endeavor to produce uses, and the beginning is thea8ing force from that endeavor. These pertain to the mineralkingdom. Mit/dle things are each and all things of the vege-table kingdom, such as grasses and herbs of every kind,plants and shrubs of every kind, and trees of every kind. Theuses of these are for the service of each and all things of theanimal kingdom, both imperfeCl and perfeCl. These theynourish, delight, and vivify; nourishing their bodies with the~.l"·own substances, delighting their senses with taste, fragrance,and beauty, and vivifying their affeClions. The endeavortowards this is in these also from life. First things areeach and all things of the animal kingdom. Those are lowesttherein which are called wonns and inseCls, the middle arebirds and beasts, and the highest, men; for in each kingdomthere are lowest, middle and highest things, the lowest fdr theuse of the middle, and the middle for the use of the highest.Thus the uses of all created things ascend in order from out-most things to man, who is first in order. 66. In the natural world there are three degrees of ascent,and in the spiritual world there are three degrees of ascent.All animals are recipients of life. The more perfect are recip-ients of the life of the three degrees of the natural world, theless perfeCl of the life of two degrees of that world, and theimperfect of one of its degrees. But man alone is a recipientof the life both of .the three degrees of the natural world andof the three degrees of the spiritual world. From this it isthat man can be elevated above nature, while the animal can-not; he can think analytically and rationally of the civil andmoral things which are within nature, also of the spiritual andcelestial things which are above nature, yea, he can be so ele-vated into wisdom as even to see God. But the six degrees,by which the uses of all created things ascend in their ordereven to God the Creator, will be treated of in their properplace. From this summary, however, it can be seen that thereis an ascent of all created things to the First, who alone isLife. and that the uses of all things are the very recipients oflife j consequently that the fonns of uses are so likewise. 67. It shall also be stated briefly how man ascends, thatis, is elevated, from the outmost degree to the first. He isborn into the outmost degree of the natural world; then, bymeans of knowledges, he is elevated into the second degree:and as he perfeCts his understanding by knowledges he is ele-
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS I.-N.6g. 27 ficit intelleClum, elevatur in tertium gradum, et tunc fit rationalis. Tres gradus ascensus in mundo spirituali suntin illo supra tres gradus naturales, nec apparent priusquamexuit corpus terrestre: cum hoc exuit, aperitur ci primusgradus spiritualis, postea secundus, et demum tertius, sedsolum apud illos qui fiunt angeli tertii caeH; hi sunt quivident Deum: angeli secundi et ultimi caeli fiunt, apudquos secundus et ultimus gradus aperiri potest. Omnisgradus spiritualis apud hominem aperitur secundum re-ceptionem Divini Amoris et Divinae Sapientiae a Domino;qui aliquid recipiunt, veniunt in gradum spiritualem pri-mum seu ultimum ; qui plus, in gradum spiritualem secun-dum seu medium; et qui multum, in gradum tertium seusupremum; qui autem nihil eoru·m recipiunt, manent ingradibus naturalibus, et a gradibus spiritualibus non tra-hunt plus, quam quod possint cogitare et inde loqui, acvelIe et inde agere, sed non intelligenter. 68. De elevatione interiorum hominis quae mentisejus sunt, hoc etiam sciendum est. Omni creato a Deoinest reaCl:io. Soli Vitae est aaio, et reaClio excitaturper aCl:ionem Vitae. IlIa reaCl:io apparet sicut sit creati,ex eo quod existat cum agitur: ita in homine apparetsicut sit ejus, quia non sentit aliter quam quod vita sitejus, cum tamen homo est solum recipiens vitae. Ex eacausa est, quod homo ex malo suo hereditario reagat con-tra Deum: sed sicut credit quod omnis vita ejus sit aDeo, et omne bonum vitae ab attione Dei, et omne ma-lum vitae a reatiione hominis, ita reaB:io fit aaionis, achomo agit cum Deo sicut a see Aequilibrium omnium estab aCtione et simul reactione, et in aequilibrio· erit omne.Haec clitia sunt, ne homo credat quod ipse ad Deumascendat a se j sed a Domino.QUOD DIVINUM IMPLEAT OMNIA SPATIA UNIVERSI ABS- QUE SPATIO. 69. Sunt duo naturae propria, Spatium et Tempus.Ex his homo in naturali mundo format ideas suae cogita-tionis, et inde intellettum; si manet in illis ideis, et non
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 66-6g. 27 vated into the third degree, and then becomes rational. The three degrees. of ascent in the spiritual world are in man above the three natural degrees, and do not appear until he has put off the earthly body. When this takes place the first spiritual degree is opened to him, afterwards the second, and finally the third; but this only with those who become angels of the third heaven; these are they that see God. Those become angels of the second and of the outmost heaven in whom the second and the outmost degree can be opened. Each spiritual degree. in man is opened according to his reception of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom from the Lord. Those who receive some- thing thereof come into the first or outmost spiritual degree, those who receive more into the second or middle spiritual de- gree, those who receive much into the third or highest degree. But those who receive nothing thereof remain in the natural degrees, and derive from the spiritual degrees nothing more than an ability to think and thence speak, and to will and thence aa, but this not with true intelligence. 68. Of the elevation of the interiors of man, which belong to his mind, this also should be known. In everything created by God there is reaClion. In Life alone there is aCl:ion; reac- tion is caused by the aClion of Life. Because reaCl:ion takes place when any created thing is acted upon, it appears as if it belonged to what is created. Thus in man it appears as if the reaction were his, because he has no other feeling than that life is his, when yet man is only a recipient of life. From this cause it is that man, by reason of his hereditary evil, reacts against God. But so far as man believes that all his life is from G·od, and that all good of life is from the aCl:ion of God, and all evil of life from the reaction of man, so far his reaCl:ion comes to be from [Gods] aCl:ion, and man aCl:s with God as if from himself: The equilibrium of all things is from action and from reac9:ion together, and in equilibrium everything must be. These things have been said lest man should believe that he himself ascends to God from himself; and not from the Lord. THE DIVINE, APART FROM: SPACE, FILLS ALL SPACES 9F THK• UNIVERSE. 69. There are two things proper to Nature-spate and time. From these man in the natural world forms the ideas of his thought, and thereby his understanding. If man remains
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICA elevat mentem supra ilIas, nusquam potest percipere all- quid spirituale et Divinum; involvit enim ilIa ideis quae trahunt ex spatio et tetnpore, et quantum hoc facit, tan-tum fit lumen intelleetus ejus mere naturale. Ex hoccogitare ratiocinando de spiritualibus et Divinis, est sicutex caligine noC:is de Hlis quae solum in luce diei appa-rent. lode est naturalismus. At qui scit elevare men-tern supra ideas cogitationis, quae trahunt ex spatia ettempore, ille transit e caligine in lucem, et sapit spiritua-Iia et Divina, et tandem videt ea quae in illis et ex Ulissunt; et tunc ex ilia luee discutit caliginem Iuminis natu-ralis, ac fallacias ejus e medio ad latera relegate Omnisvir, cui inteileClus, cogitare potest supra ilIa propria na-turae, et quoque aetualiter cogitat; et tunc affirmat etvidet, quod Divinum, quia omnipraesens, non sit in spa-tio; et quoque affirmare et videre potest ilIa, quae supraallata sunt: at si negat Divinam Omnipraesentiam, etnaturae adscribit omnia, tunc non vult elevari, tametsipotest. 70. Ilia duo naturae propria, quae, ut dietum est, suntspatium et tempus, exuunt omnes qui obeunt et fiuntangeli; intrant enim tunc in lucem spiritualem, in quaobjeCta cogitationis sunt vera, et objeaa visus sunt simi-lia quae in mundo naturali, sed cogitationibus illorumcorrespondentia. Objetta cogitationis illorum, quae, utdiCtum est, sunt vera, prorsus nihil trahunt ex spatio ettempore; objeeta autem visus eorum quidem apparentsicut in spatio et in tempore, sed usque non cogitant exUlis. Causa est, quia spatia et tempora ibi non sunt statasicut in mundo naturali, sed mutabilia secundum statusvitae [l]eorum ; inde pro iBis in ideis cogitationis eorum suntstatus vitae, pro spatiis talia quae se referunt ad statusamoris, et pro temporibus talia quae se referunt ad statussapientiae. Inde est quod cogitatio spiritualis et inde quo-que loquela spiritualis, in tantum a cogitatione et indeloqueia naturali differat, ut nihil commune nisi quoad interi-ora rerum, quae omnia suot spiritualia, habeant: de quadifferentia plura alibi dicentur. Nunc quia angelorumcogitationes nihil trahunt ex spatia et tempore, sed exstatibus vitae, patet quod illi non comprehendant cum
  • 28 ANGELIC WISDOM in these ideas, and does not raise his mind above them, he caa in no way perceive things spiritual and Divine, for thest; he involves in ideas derived from space and time; and so far as that is done the light [lumen] of his understanding becomes merely natural. To think from this lumen iQ reasoning about spiritual and Divine things, is like thinking from the thick darkness of night about those things which appear only in the light of day. From this comes Naturalism. But he who knows how to raise his mind above ideas of thought derived from space and time, passes from thick darkness into light, and has discernnlent in things spiritual and Divine, and finally• sees the things which are in and from what is spiritual and Divine; and then from that light he dispels the thick darkness of the natural lumm, and banishes its fallacies from the middle to the sides. Every man who has understanding is able to transcend in thought these things which are proper to nature, and a8ually does so; and he then affirms- and sees that the Divine, because omnipresent, is not in space. He is also able to affirm and to see the things which have been adduced above. But if he denies the Divine Omnipresence, and ascribes all things to nature, then he has no wish to be elevated, though he can be. 70. All who die and become angels put off the two above- mentioned properties of nature, namely, space and time; for they then enter into spiritual light, in which the objeCls of their thought are truths, and the obje8s of sight are like those in the natural world, but are correspondent to their thoughts. The objeCls of their thought which, as just said, are truths, derive J10thing at all from space and time; and though the objeCls of their. sight appear as if in space and in time, still the angels do not think from these. The reason is, that spaces and times there are not constant, as in the natural world, but are subjeCl to change according to the states of their life. In the ideas of their thought, therefore, instead of space and time there are states of life, instead of spaces there are such things as have reference to states of love, and instead of times there are such things as have reference to states of wisdom. From this it is that spiritual thought, and spiritual speech therefrom, differ so much from natural thought and natural speech therefrom, as to have nothing in common except as regards the interiors of things, which are all spiritual. Of this difference more will be said elsewhere. Now, because the thoughts of the angels derive nothing from space and time, but everything from states
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS I. -N.7 2• 29dicitur quod Divinum impleat spatia, non sciunt enimquid spatia; sed quod clare comprehendant cum, abs-que idea ullius spatH, dicitur quod Divinum impleatomnia. 7I. Ut pateat quod mere naturalis homo de spiritua-libus et Divinis cogitet ex spatio, et spiritualis homoabsque spatio, sit hoc illustrationi. Homo mere natura-lis cogitat per ideas quas sibi comparavit ex objeCtis visus,in quibus omnibus est figura trahens ex longo, lato etalto, et ex forma per ilia terminata, quae vel est angula-ris vel circularis. Haec manifes.te insunt ideis cogitationis .ejus de visibilibus in tellure, et quoque insunt ideis cogi-tationis ejus de non visibilibus ut de civilibus et morali-bus. Haec quidem non videt, sed usque insunt ut continua.Aliter homo spiritualis, imprimis angelus caeli: ejus cogi-tatio nihil commune habet cum figura et forma trahente ali-quid ex longo, lato et alto spatii, sed ex statu rei ex statuvitae; inde pro longo spatii cogitat bonum rei ex bonovitae, pro lato spatii verum rei ex vero vitae, et pro altogradus eorum; ita cogitat ex correspondentia, quae estspiritualium et naturalium inter se; ex qua corresponden-tia est, quod "longitudo" in Verbo significet bonum rei,"latitudo" verum rei, et "altitudo" gradus eorum. Exhis patet, quod angelus caeli nequaquam aliter cogitarepossit cum de Omnipraesentia Divina, quam quod Divinumimpleat omnia absque spatio. Quod angelus cogitat, idest verum, quia lux, quae illuminat ejus intelleaiJm, estDivina Sapientia. 7~. Haec fundamentalis cogitatio de Deo est; namabsque illa possunt quidem ilia, quae dicentur de creationeuniversi a Deo Homine, de Ipsius Providentia, Omnipo-tentia, Omnipraesentia et Omniscentia, intelligi, sed usquenon retineri; quoniam mere naturalis homo, dum intelligitilIa, usque relabitur in amorem suae vitae, qui est volun-tatis ejus; et hie dissipat ilIa, ac cogitationem immergitspatio, in quo est lumen ejus quod vocat rationale; nonsciens, quod quantum negat ilIa, tan tum irrationalis sit.Quod ita sit, potest confirmari per ideam de hoc vero,Quod Deus sit Homo. Lege quaeso cum attentione, quaesupra, n. 11-13, et quae postea scripta sunt; tune intelli-
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 70-7 2• 29of life, when it is said that the Divine fills spaces the angelsevidently cannot comprehend it, for they do Dot know whatspaces are; but when, apart from any idea of space, it is saidthat the Divine fills all things, they can clearly comprehend it. II- To make it clear that the merely natural man thinksof spiritual and Divine things from space, and the spiritual manapart from space, let the following serve for illustration. Themerely natural man thinks by means of ideas which he hasacquired from objeCts of sight, in all of which there is figurepartaking of length, breadth, and height, and of shape deter-mined by these, either angular or circular. These [concep-tions] are manifestly present in the ideas of his thought concern-ing things visible on earth; they are also in the ideas of histhought concerning those not visible, such as civil and moralaffairs. This he is unconsciolls of; but they are neverthelessthere, as continuations. With a spiritual man it is different,especially with an angel of heaven, whose thought has nothingin common with figure and fonn partaking to some extent oflength, breadth and height of.space, but is altogether from thestate of a thing according to the state of its life. Consequently,instead of length of space he thinks of the good of a thing fromgood of life j instead of breadth of space, of the truth of athing from truth of life; and instead of height, of the degreesof these. Thus he thinks from the correspondence there isbetween things spiritual and things natural. From this cor-respondence it is that in the Word "length" signifies the goodof a thing, "breadth" the truth of a thing, and "height" thedegrees of these. From this it is evident that an angel ofheaven, when he thinks of the Divine Omnipresence, can byno means think otherwise than that the Divine, apart fromspace, fills all things. And that which an angel thinks is truth,because the light which enlightens his understanding is DivineWisdom. 72. This is the basis oCthought concerning God j for with-out it, what is to be said of the creation of the universe byGod-Man, of His Providence, Omnipotence, Omnipresence andOmniscience, even if understood, cannot be kept in mind;since the merely natural man, even while he has these thingsin his understanding, sinks back into his lifes love, which isthat of his will j and that love dissipates these trutha, andimmerses his thought in space, where his lumen, which he callsrational light, abides, not knowing that so far as he deniesthese things, he is irrational. That this is so, may be con·
  • 3° SAPIENTIA ANGELICA ges quod ita sit: at remitte cogitationem in naturale lumen quod trahit ex spatia,. annan ilia ut paradoxa visu- rus es? et si multum remittis, rejeaurus es. Haec causa est quod dicatur quod Divinum impleat omnia spatia uni- versi, et quod non dicatur quod Deus Homo impleat: nam si hoc diceretur, non suffragaretur mere naturale lumen: sed quod D.ivinum impleat, hoc suffragatur, quia concordat cum formula locutionis theologorum, quod Deus omn.i- praesens sit, ac audiat et sciat omnia. (Plura de hac re vitleantur supra, n. 7-10.) QUOD DIVINUM SIT IN OMNI TEMPORE ABSQUE TEM- PORE. 73- Sicut Divinum est in omni spatia absque spatio, ita est in omni tempore absque tempore j non enim ali- quid naturae proprium de Divino potest praedicari, et- naturae propria sunt spatium et tempus. Spatium in natura est mensurabile, similiter tempus: mensuratur tempus per dies, septimanas, menses, annos et saecula; ac dies per horas, septimana et mensis per dies, annus per quatuor tempora, et saecula per annos. Mensuratio- nem hanc trahit natura ex apparente circumgyratione et circumlatione solis mundi. Aliter vero in mundo spiri- tuali; ibi progressiones vitae similiter apparent in tem- pore; vivunt enim ibi inter se, sicut homines mundi inter se, quod non datur absque apparentia temporis; sed tempus ibi non distinguitur in tempora ut in mundo, nam Sol eo- rum est in suo oriente constanter, nusquam dimotus; est enim Divinus Amor Domini qui illis apparet ut Sol. lode non sunt illis dies, septimanae, menses, anni, saecula, sed loco illorum sunt status vitae, per quos fit distincrio, quae non vocari potest distinClio in tempora, sed in status. lode est quod angeli non sciant quid tempus, et quod, cum nominatur, loco ejus percipiant statum; et cum sta- tus determinat tempus, est tempus modo apparentia, nam jucundum status facit ut tempus appareat breve, et inju- cundum status facit ut tempus appareat longum. Ex qui... bus patet quod tempus ibi non sit nisi quam quale status.
  • ANGELIC WISDOMfinned by the idea entertained of this truth. that GoD ISMAN. Read with attention, I pray you, what has been saidabove (n. 11-13) and what follows after, and your understand-ing will accept it. But when you let your thought down intothe natural lumen which derives from space, will not thesethings appear like paradoxes? and if you let it down far, willyou not rejeCt them? This is why it is said that the Divinefills all spaces of the universe, and why it is not said thatGod-Man fills them. For if this were said, the merely natu- .ra1 lumen would not assent. But to the proposition that theDivine fills all space, it does assent, because this agrees withthe mode of speech of the theologians, that God is omni-present, and hears and knows all things. (On this subjeCt,more may be seen above, n. 7-10.) THE DIVINE IS IN ALL TIME, APART FROM TIME. 73- As the Divine, apart from space, is in all space, soalso, apart from time, is it in all time. For nothing which isproper to nature can be predicated of the Divine, and spaceand time are proper to nature. Space in nature is measurable,and so is time. Time is measured by days, weeks, months,years, and centuries; days are measured by hours; weeksand months by days; years by the four seasons j and centuriesby years. Nature derives this measurement from the apparentrevolution and annual motion of the sun of the world. But inthe spiritual world it is different. The progressions of life inthat world appear in like manner to be in time, for those therelive with one another as men in the world live with one another ;and this is not possible without the appearance of time. Buttime there is not divided into periods as in the world, for theirsun is constantly in the east and is never moved away: for itis the Lords Divine Love which appears to them as a sun.Wherefore they have no days, weeks, months, years, centuries,but in place of these there are states of life, by which a dis-tinaion is made which cannot be called, however, a distinctioninto periods, but into states. Consequently, the angels do notknow what time is, and when it is mentioned they perceive inplace of it state; and when state determines time, time is onlyan appearance. For joyfulness of state makes time seem short,and joylessness of state makes time seem long j from which itis evident that time in the spiritual world is nothing but quality
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS I.-N.76• 31 Ex eo est, quod per" horas," "dies," "septimanas," "men- ses" et "annos in Verbo significentur status, et eorum U progressiones in serie et in complexu; et cum tempora praedicantur d~ ecclesia, quod per "mane" ejus illtelli- gatur primus ejus status, per" meridiem" plenum ejus, per cc vesperam" decrescentia ejus, et per "noCtem" finis ejus: similia per quatuor tempora anni, quae sunt ver, aestas, autumnus et hiems. 74- Ex his constare potest quod tempus unum faciat cum cogitatione ex affeB:ione; quale enim status hominis inde est. Quod distantiae in progressionibus per spatia in mundo spirituali unum faciant cum progressionibus tempo- rum, ex multis illustrari potest, abbreviantur enim aCtua- iiter viae ibi ~ecundum desideria, quae sunt cogitationis ex affeCtione, ac vicissim prolongantur. Inde est quod etiam spatia temporis dicantur. In talibus autem, quando. cogitatio non se conjungit cum affeaione propria hominis, tempus non apparet, ut in [I]somnis. 75. Nunc quia tempora, quae sunt propria naturae in ejus mundo, sunt puri status in mundo spirituali, qui ibi progressivi apparent, quia angeli et spiritus sunt finiti, constare potest quod in Deo non sint progressivi, quia Infinitus est, ac infinita in Ipso unum sunt, secundum ilIa quae supra (n. 17-22) demonstrata sunt: ex quibus sequi- tur, quod Divinum in omni tempore sit absque tempore. 76. Qui non scit, et ex aliqua perceptione potest cogi- tare de Deo absque tempore, prorsus non .potest percipere Aeternum aliter quam aeternum temporis: et tunc non potest quam delirare in cogitatione de Deo ab aeterno; cogitat enim ex initio, ac initium unice est temporise De- lirium ejus fit tunc, quod Deus a Se exstiterit, ex quo prone labitur in originem naturae a se: ex qua idea non exsolvi potest, nisi quam per spiritualem seu angelicam ideam de aeterno, quae est absque tempore, et dum abs- que tempore est, est Aeternum et Divinum idem, Divinum est Divinum in se, et non a see Angeli dicunt, quod qui- dem percipere possint Deum ab aeterno, at nullo modo naturam ab aeterno, et minus naturam a se, et prorsus non naturam in se naturam; nam quod in se est, hoc est ipsum Esse, a quo omnia; et Esse in se est ipsa Vita,
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 73-76. 31 of state. It is from this that in the Word, "hours," "days," "weeks," "months," and "years," signify states and progres-sions of state in series and in the aggregate; and when times are predicated of the church, by its "morning" is meant itsfirst state, by cc mid-day" its fulness, by "evening" its de-cline, and by "night" its end. The four seasons of the year, "spring," cc summer," "autumn," and cc winter," have a likemeaning. 7+ From the above it can be seen that time makes one-with thought from affeCtion; for from that is the quality ofmans state. And with progressions of time, in the spiritualworld t distances in progress through space coincide; as maybe shown from many things. For instance, in the spiritualworld ways are aCl:ually shortened or are lengthened in accord-ance with the longings that are of thought from affeB:ion.From this, also, comes the expression, CCspaces of time."Moreover, in cases where thought does not join itself to itsproper affeCtion in man, as in sleep, the lapse of time is not noticed. 7S. Now, times which are proper to nature in its lrorldare in the spiritual world pure states, which appear progressivebecause angels and spirits are finite; from which it may beseen that in God they are not progressive because He is In-finite, and infinite things in Him are one (as has been shownabove, n. 17-22). From this it follows that the Divine inall time is apart from time. . 76. He who has no knowledge of: and is unable from anyperception to think of: God apart from time, is utterly unableto conceive of etemity in any other way than as an eternity oftime j in which case, in thinking of God from eternity he mustneeds become bewildered; for he thinks with regard to a be-ginning, and beginning has exclusive reference to time. Hisbewilderment arises from the idea that it is from Himself thatGod had existence, from which he rushes headlong into theorigin of nature from herself; and from this idea he can beextricated only by a spiritual or angelic idea of etemity, whichis an idea apart from time j and when time is separated, theEternal and the Divine are the same, and the Divine is Divinein itsel~ not from itself: The angels declare that while theycan conceive of God from eternity, they can in no way conceiveof nature from eternity, still less of nature from herself andnot at all of nature as nature in herself: For that which is initself is the very Esse, from which all things are; Esse in itself
  • 32 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAquae est Divinus Amor Divinae Sapientiae ac Divina Sa-pientia Divini Amoris. Hoc est angelis Aeternum, itaabstraCtum a tempore, sicut Increatum est a creato, seuInfinitum a finito, quorum ne quidem ratio datur. QUOD DIVINUM IN MAXIMIS ET MINIMIS SIT IDEM. 77. Hoc sequitur ex duobus articulis qui praecedunt,quod Divinum sit in omni spatio absque spatio, et in omni tempore absque tempore: ac spatia sunt majora et maxima,et suot minora et minima; et quia spatia et tempora unumfaciunt, ut supra diCtum est, simile est cum temporibus.Quod Divinum in illis sit idem, est quia Divinum non estvarium et mutabile, sicut est omne quod est spatH et tern-poris, seu omne quod est naturae, sed est invariabile etimmutabile; inde est ubivis et semper idem. 78. Apparet sicut Divinum non sit idem in uno homineut in altero; ut quod sit aliud in sapiente quam in sim-plici, et aliud in sene quam in infante. Sed hoc ex appa-rentia est fallacia; est homo alius, sed Divinum non estaliud in ilia. Homo est recipiens, ac recipiens seu recep-taculum est varium. Sapiens homo est recipiens DiviniAmoris et Divinae Sapientiae adaequatius, ita plenius,quam simplex homo; ac senex qui etiam sapiens est, plusquam infans et puer; sed _usque Divinum est idem in unoet in altero. Similiter ex apparentia est fallacia, quodDivinum sit varium apud angelos caeli et apud hominestelluris, quia angeli caeli in sapientia ineffabili sunt, nonita homines; sed apparens varium est in subjeCtis secun-dum quale receptionis Divini, et non in Domino. 79. Quod Divinum sit idem in maximis et in minimis,illustrari potest ex caelo et ex angelo ibi. Divinum intoto caelo et Divinum in angelo est idem; quare etiamtotum caelum apparere potest ut unus angelus. Simileest cum ecclesia, et cum homine ejus. -Maximum in quoest Divinum, est totum caelum et simul tota ecclesia;minimum est angelus caeli et homo ecclesiae. Aliquotiesapparuit mihi integra societas caeli sicut unus homo an-gelus; et diCtum quod apparere possit sicut homo magnus
  • 32 ANGELIC WISDOM:is Very life, which is the Divine Love of Divine Wisdom a~dthe Divine Wisdom of Divine Love. For the angels this isthe Eternal, an Eternal as removed from time as the Un"created is from the created, or the Infinite from the finite,between which, in faa, there is no ratio.THE DIVINE IN THINGS GREATEST AND LEAST IS THE SAME. 77. This follows from the two preceding articles, that theDivine apart from space is in all space, and apart from time is •in an time. Moreover, there are spaces greater and greatest,and lesser and least; and since spaces and times, as said abeve Jmake one, it is the same with times. In these the Divine isthe ume, because the Divine is not varying and changeable,as everything is which belongs to space and time, that is,everything which belongs to nature, but is unvarying and un-chaugeable, consequently the same everywhere and always. 78. It seems as if the Divine were not the same in onepenon as in another; as if: for instance, it were different in thewise and in the simple, or in an old man and in a child. Butthis is a fallacy arising from appearance; the man is different,but the Divine in him is not different. Man is a recipient, andthe recipient or receptacle is what varies. A wise man is arecipient of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom more adequately,and therefore more fully, than a simple man; and an old manwho is also wise, more than a little child or boy; yet the Divineis the same in the one as in the other. It is in like manner afallacy arising from appearance, that the Divine varies withangels of heaven and men on the earth, because the angelsof heaven are in wisdom ineffable, while men are not; but theseeming variation is not in the Lord but in the subje&, accord-ing to the quality of their reception of the Divine. 79. That the Divine is the same in things greatest andleast, may be shown by means of heaven and by means of anangel. The Divine in the whole heaven and the Divine in anangel is the same; therefore even the whole heaven may appearas one angel. So is it with the church, and with a man of thechurch. fhe greatest form receptive of the Divine is thewhole heaven together with the whole church; the least is anangel of heaven and a man of the church. Sometimes anentire society of heaven has appeared to me as one angel-man ;Gnd it was said that it may appear like a man as large as a
  • DE IJIVJSO AKORE, PARS 1.-s.82. 33ut ~j~a~, et sicut homo parvus ut infans: et hoc quiaJ),vinum e,t idem in maximis et in minimis. So. Divinum etiam est idem in maximis et minimisomnium quae creata suot, et non vivunt; est enim in(Jmni bono usus illorum.. Quod autem non vivant, est(Juia non {ormae vitae sed formae usuum sunt; ac formaIJccundum bonitatem usus est varia. Sed quomodo Divi-num in illis est, in sequentibus, ubi de creatione, dicetur. 8L Abstrahe spatium, et prorsus nega vacuum, et co-gita tunc de Divino Amore et de Divina Sapientia, quodsint ip~a Essentia abstraCto spatia et negate vacuo; co-gita dein ex spatia, et percipies quod Divinum sit inmaximis et minimis spatii, idem; non datur enim in Es-.entia abstraCla a spatia magnum et parvum, sed idem. 8~. Hie de vacuo aliquid dicetur. Audivi quondamangelo! loquentes cum Newtono de vacuo, dicentes quodideam vacui ut nihili non sustineant; quia in mundo suoqui cst spiritualis, ac intra seu supra spatia et temporamundi naturalis, aeque sentiunt, cogitant, afficiuntur, amant,volunt, respirant, immo loquuntur et agunt; quae nus-quam po~sunt dari in vacuo ut nihilo, quia nihil est nihil.ct de nihilo non aliquid praedicabile est. Dixit Newto-nus, quod sciat quod Divinum quod Est impleat omnia, etquod ip~c horreat ad ideam nihili de vacuo, quia ilIa estdCRtructiva omnium: hortans i1los, qui de vacuo loquunturcum illo, ut sibi caveant ab idea nihili, vocans illam deli-quium, quia in nihilo non datur ulla mentis a8:ualitas.
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 77-82• 33giant, or like a man as small as an infant; and this, becausethe Divine in things greatest and least is the same. So. The Divine is also the same in the greatest and inthe least of all created things which are not alive; for it is inall the good of their use. These, moreover, are not alive forthe reason that they are not forms of life but forms of uses;and the form varies according to the excellence of the use.But how the Divine is in these things will be stated in whatfollows, where creation is treated of: 8:1:. Put ~way space, and deny the possibility of a vacuum,and then think of Divine Love and of Divine Wisdom asbeing Essence itsel~ space having been put awayan.d a vacuumdenied. Then think according to space; and you will per-ceive that the Divide, in the greatest and in the least things ofspace, is the same; for in essence absttaCled from space neithergreat nor small is possible, but only the same. b Something shall now be said about vacuum. I onceheard the angels talking with Newton about vacuum, and say-.ing that they could not tolerate the idea of a vacuum as beingnothing, for the reason that their world is spiritual, and iswithin or above the spaces and times of the natural world,yet there, as well as in the natural world, they can feel, think,are affeCl:ed, love, will, breathe, yea, speak and act, whichwould be utterly impossible in a vacuum which is nothing,since nothing is nothing, and of nothing not anything can beaffirmed. Newton said that he knew that the Divine, whichis Being itself, fills all things, and that to him the idea of no·thing as applied to vacuum is horrible, because that idea isdestruCtive of all things. He exhorts those who talk with himabout vacuum to guard against the idea of nothing, comparingit to a SWOOD, because in nothing no real activity of mind ispossible.
  • 34 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAQUOD DIVINUS AMOR ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA APPAREANT IN MUNDO SPIRITUALI UT SOL. 83- Sunt duo mundi, spiritualis et naturalis ; et mun-dus spiritualis non trahit quicquam ex mundo naturali,nec mundus naturalis ex mundo spirituali; sunt prorsusdistinCti; communicant solum per correspondentias, quaequales sunt, alibi multis ostensum est. Ad hoc illustran-dum, sit hoc exemplum. Calor in mundo naturali corre-spondet bono charitatis in mundo spirituali, ac lux inmundo naturali correspondet vero fidei in mundo spiritu-ali. Quod calor et bonum charitatis, ac lux et verum fideiprorsus distineta sint, quis non videt? Ex prima intui-tione apparent illa ita distineta, sicut duo prorsus diversa ;ita apparent si cogitatur, quid commune habet bonumcharitatis cum calore, et quid verum fidei cum luce; cumtamen calor spiritualis est Hlud bonum, et lux spiritualisest illud verum. Haec tametsi ita distincta in se sunt,usque unum faciunt per correspondentiam: unum faciuntita, ut dum homo in Verbo legit "calorem" et "lucem,"tunc spiritus et angeli, qui apud hominem sunt, pro ca- Ielore" [Ilpercipiant charitatem, et pro U luce" fidem. Hocexemplum adduetum est, ut sciatur, quod duo mundi,spiritualis et naturalist ita distinCta sint, ut inter se nihilcommune habeant; sed usque ita creati ut communicent,immo conjungantur, per correspondentias. 84- Quoniam duo illi mundi ita distinB:i sunt, perspi-cue videri potest, quod mundus spiritualis sub alia Solesit quam mundus naturalis: in mundo enim spirituali aequeest calor et lux, ut in mundo naturali; sed calor ibi estspiritualis, et lux similiter, et calor spiritualis est bonumcharitatis, et lux spiritualis est verum fidei. Nunc quiacalor et lux non possunt aliunde originem ducere quam exsole, constare potest, quod in Mundo spirituali sit aliusSol quam in mundo naturali, tum etiam quod Sol mundi
  • 34 ANGELIC WISDOM part ~ttonb.DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM APPEAR IN THE SPIRIT.. , VAL WORLD AS A SUN. 83- There are two worlds, the spiritual and the natural.The spiritual world derives nothing whatever from the natural,nor the natural world from the spiritual. The two are totallydistintt, and communicate only by correspondences, the natureof which has been abundantly shown elsewhere. To illustratethis by an example, heat in the natural world corresponds tothe good of charity in the spiritual world, and light in thenatural world corresponds to the truth of faith in the spiritualworld; and who does not see that heat and the good ofcharity, and that light and the truth of faith, are wholly distinct ?At first sight they appear as distinct as two entirely differentthings. They so appear when one inquires what the goodof charity has in common with heat, or the truth of faith withlight; when in faCt, spiritual heat is that good, and spirituallight is that truth. Although these things are in themselvesso distinct, they make one by correspondence. They makeone in this way: when man reads, in the Word, of heat andlight, the spirits and angels who are with the man perceivecharity instead of heat, and faith instead of light. This exampleis adduced, in order that it m~y be known that the two worlds,the spiritual and the natural, are so distinCl: as to have nothingin common with each other; yet are so created &$ to havecommunication, even to have conjuntlion by means of corre-spondences. 84- Since these two worlds are so distinCl:, it can be seenvery clearly that the spiritual world is under another sun thanthe natural world. For in the spiritual world, just as in thenatural, there is heat and light j but the heat there, as wellas the light, is spiritual; and spiritual heat is tha good ofcharity, and spiritual light is the truth of faith. Now sinceheat and light can originate only in a sun, it may be evident thatthe spiritual world has a different sun from the natural world;
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS II.-N. 87· 3S spiritualis sit in sua essentia talis ut ex ilIa calor et lux spi- ritualis possit existere, et quod sol Mundi naturalis sit in sua essentia talis ut ex ilIa calor naturalis possit existere. Omne spirituale, quod se refert ad bonum et verum, non aliunde potest exoriri, quam ex Divino Amore et Divina Sa- pientia; omne bonum enim est amoris, et omne verum est sapientiae: quod non aliunde, omnis sapiens potest videre. 85- Quod Sol alius quam sol Mundi naturalis ~itJ hac- tenus ignotum fuit. Causa est, quia spirituale borninis transiit tantum in naturale ejus, ut non sciret quid spiri- tuale, ita nee quod spiritualis mundus, in quo sunt spiritus• et angeli, alius ac diversus a mundo naturali, detur. Quo- niam mundus spiritualis apud illos qui in mundo naturali sunt, in tantum latuit absconditus, ideo placuit Domino aperire visum spiritus mei, ut viderem ilia quae in ilio mundo sunt, sicut video ilia quae in mundo naturali, et dein ilium mundum [IJdescriberem, quod faCtum est in opere De Caelo et Inferno, in quo in uno articulo etiam aCtum est de Sale illius mundi: visus enim mihi est, et apparuit simili magnitudine, qua sol mundi naturalis, et quoque similiter sicut igneus, sed rutilans magis: et no- tum mihi faaum est, quod universum caelum angelicum sub illo Sale sit; quodque angeli tertii caeli videant ilium jugiter, angeli secundi caeli saepius, et angeli primi seu ultimi caeli aliquoties. Quod omnis calor et omnis lux apud illos, tum omnia quae in ilia mundo apparent, sint ex illo Sole, videbitur in sequentibus. 86. Sol ille non est Ipse Dominus, sed ex Domino; est Divinus Amor et Divina Sapientia procedens, quae ut Sol in ilIa mundo apparent: et quia Amor ef Sapientia in Domino unum sunt (ut in Prima Parte ostensum est), dici- tur quod Sol Hie sit Divinus Amor; Divina enim Sapi- entia est Divini Amoris, ita quoque ilIa est Amor. 87- Quod Sol Hie appareat coram oculis angelorum sicut igneus, est quia amor et ignis sibi correspondent; oculis enim suis non possunt videre amorem, sed pro amore id quod ei correspondet. Est enim angelis aeque ac hominibus internum et externum; internum eorum quod cogitat et sapit, ac quod vult et amat, et externum eorum est quod sentit, videt, loquitur et agit; et omnia externa eorum sunt correspondentiae internorum, sed correspon-
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 83-.87. 3Sand further, that the sun of the spiritual world in its essenceis such that it can give forth spiritual heat and light, whereasthe sun of the natural world in its essence is such that it can give forth natural heat. Everything spiritual has relation to good and truth, and can spring from no other source than Divine Love and Divine Wisdom; for all good is of love and all truth of wisdom j that they have no other origin any dis- cerning man can see. 85- That there is any other sun than that of the natural world has hitherto been unknown. The reason is, that thespiritual of man had so far passed over into his natural, that he did not know what the spiritual is, and thus did not know that there could be a spiritual world, the abode of spiritsand angels, other than and different from the natural world.Since the spiritual world has lain so deeply hidden from theknowledge of those who are in the natural world, it has pleasedthe Lord to opet;l the sight of my spirit, that I might see thethings which- are in that world, just as I see those in the naturalworld, and might afterwards describe that world; which hasbeen done in the work on Heaven and Hell, in one chapter oiwhich the sun of the spiritual world has been treated of:That sun has been seen by me; it appeared of the same sizeas the sun of the natural world; it also appeared fiery like it,but more golden. It has also been made known to me thatthe whole angelic heaven is under that sun; and that angelsof the third heaven see it constantly, angels of the secondheaven very often, and angels of the first or outmost heavensometimes. That all their heat and all their light, as well asall things that are manifest in that world, are from that sun,will be seen in what follows. 86. That sun is not the Lord Himself: but is from theLord. It is the Divine Love and Divine Wisdom proceedingfrom Him that appear as a sun in that world. And becauseLove and Wisdom in the Lord are one (as shown in Part I.),that sun is said to be Divine Love j for Divine Wisdom is ofDivine Love, consequently is Love. 87. Since. love and fire mutually correspond, that sunappears before the eyes of the angels as fiery; for angels can-not see love with their eyes,Abut they see in the place of lovewhat corresponds to it. For angels, equally with men, havean internal and an external; it is their internal which thinksand is wise, and that wills and loves; it is their external thatfeels, sees, speaks and aCts. All their externals are corre-
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS II.-N. 92. 37 Quisque homo quoad mentis suae interiora est spiritus. Cum homo moritur, egreditur prorsus e Mundo naturae, et relinquit omnia ejus, et ingreditur in mundum in quo nihil naturae est; et in hoc Mundo ita separatus a natura vivit, ut non ulla communicatio sit per continuum, hoe est, sie- ut purius et erassius, sed sicut prius et posterius; quo-rum communicatio non alia datur quam per correspon-dentias. lnde constare potest, quod calor spiritualis nonsit purior calor naturalis, et lux spiritualis non purior luxnaturalis, sed quod sint prorsus ex alia essentia; calorenim ~t lux spirltualis trahunt essentiam ex Sole qui estpurus Amor; qui est ipsa Vita; et calor et lux naturalistrahunt essentiam ex sole qui est purus ignis, in quo abso-lute nihil vitae est; ut supra diCtum. 9:1:. Quoniam tale discrimen est inter calorem et lucemunius et alterius mundi, patet clare unde est, quod i1liqui in uno mundo sunt non possint videre illos qui in al-tero mundo sunt. Oculi enim hominis, qui ex luee natu-rali videt, sunt ex substantia sui mundi, et oeuli angelisunt ex substantia sui mundi; ita utrobivis formati adrecipiendum adaequate suam lucerne Ex his videri potest,quantum ex ignorantia cogitant illi, qui in fidem suamnon admittunt, quod angeli et spiritus sint homines, quiaoculis illos non vident. 9~. HaB:enus ignotum fuit, quod angeli et spiritussint in prorsus alia luee et in alio calore, quam homines;immo ignotum fuit quod alia lux et alius calor detur.HQmo enim cogitatione sua non altius penetravit quam ininteriora aut puriora naturae; quare etiam multi finxerunthabitacula angelorum et spirituum in aethere, et quidamin stellis, ita intra naturam, et non supra seu extra illam :cum tamen angeli et spiritus sunt prorsus supra seu extranaturam, inque suo rnundo qui sub alio Sole est. Et quiain illo mundo spatia sunt apparentiae, ut supra demon-stratum est, ideo non potest dici quod sint in aethere nee instellis; sunt enim una cum homine, conjunai ejus spiritusaffeClioni et cogitationi : homo enim est spiritus; ex illo cog-itatet vult; quare mundus spiritualis est ubi homo, et pror-sus non dissitus ab illo. Verbo, omnis homo quoad interioramentis suae est in i1lo mundo in medio spirifuum et angelo-rum ibi; ac cogitat ex luce ejus, et amat ex calore ejus. ,
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 88-g2. 37As to the interiors of the mind every man is a spirit. Whenhe dies he withdraws entirely from the world of nature, leavingbehind him all its belongings, and enters a world where there isnothing of nature. . In that world he lives so separated fromnature that there is no communi~tion whatever by continuity,that is, as between what is purer and grosser, but only like thatbetween what is prior and posterior j and between such nocommWlication is possible except by correspondences. Fromthis it can be seen that spiritual heat is not a purer natural .heat, or spiritual light a purer natural light, but that they arealtogether of a different essence; for spiritual heat and lightderive their essence from a sun which is pure Love, and thisis Life itself j while natural heat and light derive their essencefrom a sun which is pure fire, in which (as said above) thereis absolutely nothing of life. 9I. Such being the difference between the heat and lightof the two worlds, it is very evident why those who are inthe one world cannot see those who are in the other world.For the eyes of man, who sees from natural light, are of thesubstance of his world, and the eyes of an angel are of thesubstance of his world; thus in both cases they are formedfor the proper reception of their own light. From all this itcan be seen how much ignorance there is in the thoughts ofthose who, because they cannot see angels and spirits withtheir eyes, are unwilling to believe them to be men.. 9-- Hitherto it has not been known that angels and spiritsare in a totally different light and different heat from men. Ithas not been know~ even that another light and another heatare possible. . For man in his thought has not penetratedbeyond the interior or purer things of nature. And for thisreason many have placed the abodes of angels and spirits inthe ether, and some in the stars-thus within nature, and notabove or out of it. But, in truth, angels and spirits are en-tirely above or out of nature, and in their own world, which isunder another sun. And since in that world spaces areappearances (as was shown above), angels and spirits cannot besaid to be in the ether or in the stars; in faa, they are presentwith man, conjoined to the affeCtion and thought of- his spirit j-for man, in that he thinks and wills, is a spirit ;-consequentlythe spiritual world is where man is, and in no wise away fromhim. In a word, every man as regards the interiors of hismind is in that world, in the midst of spirits and angels there ;and he thinks from its light, and loves from its heat.
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICAQUOD SOL ILLE NON SIT DEus, SED QUOD SIT PROCEDENS ~ EX DIVINO AMORE ET DIVINA SAPIEN~IA DEI Ho- MINIS: SIMILITER CALOR ET Lux EX ILLO SOLE. 93. Per Solem ilIum conspicuum angelis, ex quoillis est calor et lux, non intelligitur Ipse Dominus, sedintelligitur primum procedens ab Ipso, quod est summumcaloris spiritualis. Summum caloris spiritualis est spiri-tualis ignis, qui est Divinus Atnor et Divina Sapientia insua prima correspondentia. Inde est, quod Sol ille appa-reat igneus, et quoque quod sit igneus angelis, sed nonhominibus. Ignis qui ignis hominibus non est spiritualis,sed est naturalis; inter quos discrimen est sicut intervivum et mortuum. Quare Sol spiritualis per caloremvivificat spirituales, et redintegrat spiritualia: sol autemnaturalis quidem similiter naturales et naturalia, sed nonex se, verum per inftuxum caloris spiritualis, cui succentu-riatam opem fert. 9+ Ille ignis spiritualis, in quo etiam lux est in suaorigine, fit calor et lux spiritualis, quae decrescunt in pro-cedendo; et decrescentia fit per gradus, de quibus insequentibus. Hoc ab antiquis repraesentatum est per cir-culos ex igne rutilos et ex luce splendentes circum caputDei; quae repraesentatio etiam hodie communis est, cumsistitur Deus ut Homo in piCl:uris. 95- Quod amor producat calorem, et sapientia lucem,manifestum est ex ipsa experientia: homo dum amatincalescit, et cum ex sapientia cogitat videt res quasi inluce; ex quo patet, quod primum procedens amoris sitcalor, et primum procedens sapientiae sit lux. Quod cor-respondentiae sint etiam, patet; nam calor non existit inipso amore, sed ex ilia in voluntate et inde in corpore;et lux non existit in sapientia, sed in intellectus cogita-tione et inde in loquela.. Quare amor et sapientia suntessentia et vita caloris et lucis: calor et lux sunt proceden-tia; et quia sunt procedentia, sunt etiam correspondentiae. 96. Quod lux spiritualis sit prorsus distineta a lucenaturali, potest quisque scire, si ad mentis suae cogitationesattendit. Mens enim cum cogitat, videt objeaa sua in luce,et illi qui spiritualiter cogitant, vident vera, et hoc in media
  • ANGELIC WISDOM: THE .SUN OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD IS NOT GOD, IT IS A PROCEEDING FROM THE DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM OF GOD-MAN; SO ALSO ARE THE HEAT AND LIGHT FROM THAT SUN. 93. By that sun which is before the eyes of the angels, and from which they have heat and light, is not meant the Lord Himself: but the first proceeding from Him, which is the fulness . of spiritual heat. The futness of spiritual heat is spiritual fire, which is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom in their first cor- respondence. On this account that sun appears fiery, and to the angels is fiery, but not to men. Fire which is fire to men is not spiritual, but natural; and between the two fires there is a difference like the difference between what is alive and what is dead. Therefore the spiritual sun by its heat vivifies spirit- ual being"s and renews spiritual objeCls. The natural sun does the same for natural beings and natural objeCls; yet not from itsel~ but by means of an influx of spiritual heat, to which it contributes power that serves as a kind of substitute. 94- This spiritual fire, in which also there is light in its origin, becomes spiritual heat and light, which decrease in their going forth. This decrease is effeeted by degrees, which will be treated of in what follows. The ancients represented this by circles glowing with fire and resplendent with light around the head of God, as is common also at the present day in paint- ings representing God as a Man. 95. That love begets heat, and wisdom light, is manifest from attual experience. When man loves he grOVS warm, and when he thinks from wisdom he sees things as it were in light. And from this it is evident that the first proceeding of love is heat, and that the first proceeding of wisdom is light. That they are also correspondences is obvious; for heat has existence not in love itsel~ but from love in the wilt; and thence in the body; and light has existence not in wisdom, but in the thought of the understanding, and thence in the speech. Consequently love and wisdom are the essence and life of heat and light. Heat and light are what proceed, and because they are what proceed, they are also correspondences. 96. That spiritual light is altogether distinct from natural light, anyone may know if he observes the thoughts of his mind. For when the mind thinks, it sees its obje& in light, and they who think spiritually see truths, and this at midnight"
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS II.-N. 99· 39noele aeque bene ut in die. QU:Lre etiam de intelleelu prae-dicatur lux, et dicitur videre ; nam de iBis quae alius loqui-tur, dicit alter quandoque, quod videat quod ita sit, hoc est,intelligat. Intelleelus quia est spiritualis, non potest itavidere ex luce naturali; lux enim naturalis non inhaeret,sed abit cum sole. U nde patet, quod intelleClus gaudeat alialuce, quam oculus; et quod ilia lux ex alia origine sit. 97. Caveat sibi quisque, ne cogitet, quod Sol mundispiritualis sit ipse Deus; Ipse Deus est Homo; primumprocedens ex Ipsius Amore et Sapientia est igneum spiri-tuale, quod apparet coram angelis ut Sol: quare cumDominus Se manifestat angelis in Persona, manifestat Se utHomo, et hoc quandoque in Sole, quandoque extra Solem. 98. Ex ilia correspondentia est, quod Dominus inVerbo non modo dicatur "Sol," sed etiam "Ignis" etU Lux;" et per" Solem" intelligitur Ipse quoad DivinumAmorem et Divinam Sapientiam simul; per "Ignem"Ipse quoad Divinum Amorem J et per U Lucem Ipse quoad JJDivinam Sapientiam. .QUOD SPIRITUALIS CALOR ET Lux, A PROCEDENDO A Do- MINO UT SOLE, UNUM FACIANT, SICUT IpSIUS DIVI- NUS AMOR ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA UNUM FACIUNT. 99. Quomodo Divinus Amor et Divina Sapientia inDomino unum faciunt in Parte Prima diCtum est. Similiterunum faciunt calor et lux, quia haec procedunt, et quaeprocedunt, unum faciunt per correspondentiam: calor enimcorrespondet amori, et lux sapientiae. Inde sequitur,quod sicut Divinus Amor est Divinum Esse, et Divina Sa-pientia est Divinum Existere (ut supra, n. 14-16), ita spiri-tualis calor est Divinum procedens ex Divino Esse, etspiritualis lux est Divinum procedens ex Divino Existere ;quare sicut per unionem illam Divinus Amor est DivinaeSapientiae et Divina Sapientia est Divini Amoris (ut supra,n. 34-39), ita spiritualis calor est spiritualis lucis, et spiri-tualis lux est spiritualis caloris; et quia talis unio est,sequitur quod calor et lux in procedendo a Domino utSole unum sint. Quod autem non ut unum recipianturab angelis et ab hominibus, videbitur in sequentibus.
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 93-99· . 39jast as well as in the daytime. For this reason light is predi-cated of the understanding, and the understanding is said tosee; thus one sometimes declares of something which anothersays, that he sees (that is, understands) that it is so. Theunderstanding, because it is spiritual, cannot thus see bynatural light, for natural· light does not inhere in man, butwithdraws with the sun. From this it is obvious that theunderstanding enjoys a light different from that of the eye, andthat this light is from a different origin. 97. Let every one beware of thinking that the sun of thespiritual world is God Himself: God Himself is Man. Thefirst proceeding from His Love and Wisdom is that fire·likespiritual [substance] which ap·pears before the angels as a SUD.When, therefore, the Lord manifests Himself to the angels inperson, He manifests Himself as a Man; and this sometimesin the sun, sometimes out of it. 98. It is from this corresponde~ce that in the Word theLord is called not only a "sun" but also « fire" and « light. "And by the « sun" is meant Himself as to Divine Love andDivine Wisdom together; by "fire" Himself in respect toDivine Love, and by «c light" Himself in respeB: to DivineWisdom.SPIR.ITUAL HEAT AND LIGHT, BY THEIR PROCEEDING FROM: THE LOR.D..AS A SUN, MAKE ONE, JUST AS HIS DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM MAKE ONE. 99. How Divine Love and Divine Wisdom in the Lordmake one has been explained in Part I.; in like manner heatand light make one, because they proceed from these, and thethings which proceed make one by virtue of their correspond-ence; heat corresponding to love, and light to wisdom. Fromthis it follows that as Divine Love is Divine Esse, and DivineWisdom is Divine Ezistere (as shown above, n. 14-16), sospiritual heat is the Divine proceeding from Divine Esse, andspiritual light is the Divine proceeding from Divine Ezistcre.And as by that union Divine Love is of Divine Wisdom, andDivine Wisdom is of Divine Love (as shown above, n. 34-39),so spiritual heat is of spiritual light, and spiritual light is ofspiritual heat. And because there is such a union it followsthat heat and light, in proceeding from the Lord as a sun, areone. It will be seen, however, in what follows, that they arenot received as one by angels and men.
  • 40 SAPIENTIA ANGELICA IOO. Calor et lux quae a Domino ut Sole procedunt, sunt quae per eminentiam vocantur spirituale; et vocan- tur spirituale in singulari, quia unum sunt: quare in se- quentibus ubi dicitur spirituale, intel1igitur utrumque simul. Ex illo spirituali est, quod totus Hie mundus dicatur spi- ritualis; omnia illius mundi trahunt per illud spiritualesuam originem, et inde quoque denominationem. Quodille calor et ilIa lux dicantur spirituale, est quia Deus vo-catur Spiritus, ac Deus ut Spiritus est id Procedens. Deusex ipsa sua Essentia vocatur Jehovah; sed per illud Pro-cedens vivificat et illustrat angelos caeli et homines eccle-siae: quare etiam vivificatio et illustratio dicitur fieri perSpiritum Jehovae. • IOI. Quod calor et lux, hoc est, spirituale procedensa Domino ut Sole, unum faciant, illustrari potest per ca-lorem et lucem, quae procedunt a sole mundi naturalis.Ilia duo etiam unum faciunt in exeundo a sole ilio. Quodnon unum faciant in terris, non est ex sole illo, sed extellure: haec enim cottidie volvitur circum axem, et quot-annis circumfertur secundum eclipticam; inde apparentiaest quod calor et lux non unum faciant ; media enim ae-state est plus caloris quam lucis, et media hieme est plusIucis quam caloris. Simile est in mundo spirituali; sedtellus ibi non circumvolvitur et circumfertur, verum an-geli plus et minus se convertunt ad Dominum; et qui plusse convertunt plus ex calore et minus ex luce recipiunt; etqui minus se convertunt ad Dominum, plus ex luce et minusex calore recipiunt. Inde est quod caeli, qui ex angelissunt, distineti sint in duo regna, quorum unum vocaturcaeleste. alterum spirituale: angeli caelestes plus recipi-unt ex calore, et angeli spirituales plus ex luce. Secun-dum receptionem caloris et lucis ab illis apparent quoqueterrae, super quibus habitant. Plenaria est corresponden-tia, modo loco motus telluris sumatur mutatio status ange-lorum. I02. Quod etiam omnia spiritualia oriunda per caloremet lucem sui Solis, in se speB:ata similiter unum faciant, atquod ilia spcB:ata ut procedentia ex affeaionibus angelo-rum non faciant unum, videbitur in sequentibus. Quandocalor et lux unum faciunt in caelis, est quasi vernum apudangelos: quando autem non unum faciunt, est vel sicut
  • 4° ANGELIC WISDOM IOO. The heat and light which proceed from the Lord asa sun are what are especially called the spiritual, and they are called the spiritual in the singular number, because they are one;when, therefore, the spiritual is mentioned in the followingpages, it is meant both these together. From that spiritualit is that the whole of that world is called spiritual. Throughthat spiritual, all things of that world derive their origin, andalso their name. That heat and that light are called thespiritual, because God is called a Spirit, and God as a Spiritis the spiritual going forth. God, by virtue of His own veryEssence, is called Jehovah; but by means of this Proceeding, He vivifies and enlightens the angels of heaven and the men otthe Church. Consequently, vivification and enlightenment aresaid to be effected by the Spirit of Jehovah. IOI. That heat and light, that is, the spiritual going forthfrom the Lord as a Sun, make one, may be illustrated by theheat and light which go forth from the sun of the naturalworld. These two also make one in their going out from thatsun. That they do not make one on earth is owing not to thesun, but to the earth. For the earth revolves daily roundits axis, and has a yearly motion following the ecliptic, whichgive the appearance that heat and light do not make one.For in the middle of summer there is more of heat than oflight, and in the middle of winter more of light than of heat.In the spiritual world it is the same, except that there is inthat world no daily or yearly motion of the earth; but theangels turn themselves, some more, some less, to the Lord;those who turn themselves more, receive more {rom heat andless from light, and those who turn themselves less to the Lordreceive more from light and less {rom heat. From this it isthat the heavens, which consist of angels, are divided into twokingdoms, one called celestial, the other spiritual. The celes-tial angels receive more from heat, and the spiritual angelsmore from light. Moreover, the lands they inhabit vary inappearance according to their reception of heat and light. Ifthis change of state of the angels is substituted for the motionof the earth, the correspondence is perfect X02. In what follows it will be seen, also, that all spiritualthings which have originated through the heat and light oftheir sun, make one in like manner when regarded in them-selves, but when regarded as proceeding from the affeaions ofthe angels do not make one. When heat and light make onein the he~vens, it is with the angels as if it were spring; but
  • DE DIVINO AMORE.-N. IQ4.aestivum, vel sicut brumale; non sicut brumale in zonisfrigidis, sed sicut brumale in zonis calidis : receptio enimamoris et sapientiae ex aequo, est ipsum angelicum; quareangelus est angelus caeli secundum unionem amoris etsapientiae apud ilium. Simile est cum homine ecclesiae,si apud ilium amor et sapientia, seu charitas et fides, unumfaciunt.QUOD SOL MUNDI SPIRITUALIS APPAREAT IN MEDIA ALTITUDINE DISTANS AB ANGELIS SICUT SOL MUNDI NATURALIS AB HOMINIBUS. X03. Plerique e mundo ferunt secum ideam de Deoquod sit supra caput in alto, et de Domino quod sit incaelo inter angelos. Quod ferant ideam de Deo, quod sitsupra caput in alto, est quia Deus in Verbo vocatur "AI-tissimus," et dicitur quod habitet U in alto j" quare elevantoculos et manus sursum cum supplicant et adorant; nonscientes quod per" altissimum "-significetur intimum. Quodferant ideam de Domino quod sit in caelo inter angelos,est quia de Ipso non cogitant aliter quam sicut de aliohomine, et quidam sicut de angelo; non scientes quod Do-minus sit Ipse et Unicus Deus, qui regit universum; qui siinter angelos in caelo esset, non potuisset universum subsua intuitione, subque suo auspicio et regimine habere; et sinon coram illis, qui in Mundo spirituali sunt, luceret ut Sol,non potuisset angelis aliqua lux ekse; sunt enim angelispirituales, et ideo non alia lux illorum essentiae convenitquam lux spiritualis. Quod lux in caelis sit, immensumexcedens lucem in terris, videbitur infra ubi de gradibus. x04. Quod itaque Solem, ex quo lux et calor est an-gelis, concernit, apparet ille in elevatione a terris, superquibus habitant angeli, circiter quadraginta quinque gra-duum, quae est media altitudo; et quoque apparet distansab angelis sicut sol mundi ab hominibus. Sol ille in eaaltitudine et in ea distantia apparet constanter, nec dimo-vetur. Inde est, quod non sint angelis tempora distin8:ain dies et annos, nec aliqua progressio diei a mane permeridiem ad vesperam in no8:em; nec progressio anni avere per aestatem ad autumnum in hiemem, sed est per-
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 100-104· 41when they do not make one, it is either like summer or likewinter-not like the winter in the frigid zones, but like the win-ter in the torrid zone. .Thus reception of love and wisdom inlike measure is the very angelic state, and therefore an angel isan angel of heaven according to the union in him of love andwisdom. It is the same with the man of the Church, whenlove and wisdom, that is, charity and faith, make one in him.-THE SUN OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD APPEARS AT A MIDDLE ALTITUDE, FAR OFF FROM THE ANGELS, LIKE THE SUN OF THE NATURAL WORLD FROM MEN. X03. Most people carry with them out of the world anidea of God, as being above the head, on high, and an idea ofthe Lord, as being in heaven among the angels. The ideaof God as being above the head, on high, is held, because, inthe Word, God is called the C( Most High," and is said to "dwellon high ;" therefore in prayer and worship men raise their eyesand hands upwards, not knowing that by "the Most High" issignified the inmost. The idea of the Lord as being in heavenamong the angels, is held because men think of Him as theythink of another man, some thinking of Him as they think ofan angel, not knowing that the Lord is the Very and OnlyGod who rules the universe. If He were among the angels inheaven, He could not have the universe under His gaze andunder His care and government. And unless He shone as asun before those who are in the spiritual world, angels couldhave no light; for angels are spiritual, and therefore no otherthan spiritual light is in accord with their essence. That thereis light in the heavens, immensely exceeding the light on earth,will be seen below where degrees are discussed. I04e As regards the sun, therefore, from which angelshave light and heat, it appears above the lands on which theangels dwell, at an elevation of about forty-five degrees, whichis the middle altitude; it also appears far off from the angelslike the sun of the world from men. The sun appears con-stantly at that altitude and at that distance, and does not moveat all. Hence it is that angels have no times divided into days and years, nor any progression of the day from morning. through mid-day to evening and into night; nor any progres-- sion of the year from spring, through summer to autumn, into winter i but there is perpetual light and perpetual spring; con-
  • 42 SAPIENTIA ANGELICA.petua lux et perpetuum ver: quare loco temporum ibisunt status, ut supra dietum est. xOS. Quod Sol mundi spiritualis appareat in mediaaltitudine, sunt imprimis sequentes causae. Prima, quodsic calor et lux, quae procedunt ab illo Sole, sint in suomedio gradu, et inde in sua aequalitate, et sic in sua justatemperie; nam si Sol supra mediam altitudinem appare-ret, perciperetur plus caloris quam lucis; si infra illam,perciperetur plus lucis quam caloris: ut fit in terris dumsol est supra aut infra medium caeli; dum supra, crescitcalor supra lucem, et dum infra, crescit lux supra calorem ;lux enim manet eadem tempore aestatis et tempore hie-mis, sed calor secundum gradus altitudinis solis augetur etdiminuitur. Secunda causa, quod sol mundi spiritualis inmedia altitudine supra caelum angelicum appareat, est. quiasic perpetuum ver est in omnibus caelis angelicis, ex quo an-geli sunt in statu pacis, nam hic status correspondet tem-pori veris in terris. Tert"a causa est, quod sic angeli faciessuas ad Dominum jugiter possillt vertere, et Ipsum oculis vi-dere; angelis enim in omni conversione corporis eorum estoriens, ita Dominus, ante facies; quod peculiare est in illomundo: hoc non fieret, si Sol istius mundi appareret supraaut infra medium, et minime si supra caput in zenith. :K06. Si Sol mundi spiritualis non appareret distansab angelis, sicut sol mundi naturalis ab hominibus, nonforet universum caelum angelicum, ac sub illo infernum,et sub illis terraqueus noster orbis, sub Domini intuitione,auspicio, omnipraesentia, omniscientia, omnipotentia etprovidentia: comparative sicut sol mundi nostri, ille nisiCaret in tali distantia a tellure, in qua apparet, non potuis-set praesens et potens esse in omnibus terris per caloremet lucem, ita non potuisset succcenturiatam opem Solimundi spiritualis praestare. :K07. Maxime necessarium est, ut sciatur, quod duosoles sint, unus spiritualis et alter naturalis: Sol spiritua-lis pro iBis qui in mundo spirituali sunt, et sol naturalispro illis qui in mundo naturali sunt. Nisi hoc sciatur, nonpotest aliquid juste intelligi de creatione et de homine,de quibus agendum est. EffeB:us quidem possunt videri;sed nisi simul causae effeB:uum videntur, non apparerepossunt effectus quam sicut in nocte.
  • ANGELIC WISDOM:sequently, with the angels, as was said above, in place of timesthere are states. :J:05e The sun of the spiritual world appears in a middlealtitude chiefly for the following reasons :-First, the heat andlight which proceed from that sun are thus at their medium in-tensity, consequently are equally proportioned and thus properlyattempered. For if the sun were to appear above the mid-dle altitude more heat than light would be perceived, if belowit more light than heat; as is the case on earth when the sun·is above or below the middle of the sky j when above, the heatincreases beyond the light, when below, the light increasesbeyond the heat; for light remains the same in summer and inwinter, but heat increases and diminishes according to thedegrees of the suns altitude. Secondly, the sun of the spiritualworld appears in a middle altitude above the angelic heaven,because there is thus a perpetual spring in all the angelic heavens, whereby the angels are in a state of peace j for thisstate corresponds to spring-time on earth. Tltirdly, angels are thus enabled to tum their faces constantly to the Lord, and behold Him with their eyes. For at every tum of their bodies, the angels have the East, thus the Lord, before their faces. This is peculiar to that world, and would Dot be the case if the sun of that world were to appear above or below the middle altitude, and least of all if it appeared overhead in the zenith. Io6. If the sun of the spiritual world did not appear far off from the angels, like the sun of the natural world from men, the whole angelic heaven, and hell under it, and our terraqueous globe under these, would not be under the view, the care, the omnipresence, omniscience, omnipotence, and providence of the Lord; comparatively as the sun of our world, if it were not at such a distance from the earth as it appears, could not be present and powerful in all lands by its heat and light, and therefore could not lend its aid, as a kind of substitute, to the sun of the spiritual world. I07. It is very necessary to be known that there are two suns, one spiritual, the other natural; a spiritual sun for those who are in the spiritual world, and a natural sun for those who are in the natural world. Unless this is known, nothing can be properly understood about creation or man, which are the sub- jeCls here to be treated of. Effe8.s may, it is true, be observed; but unless at the same time the causes. of effe8.s are seen, effe8.s can only appear as it were in the darkness of night.
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS II.-N. 110. 43 QUOD DISTANTIA IN:ER SOLEM ET INTER ANGELOS IN MUNDO SPIRITUALI SIT APPARENTIA SECUNDUM RECEPTIONEM DIVINI AMORIS ET DIVINAE SAP!- ENTIA AB ILLIS. Io8. Omnes fallaciae, quae apud malos et apud sim- plices regnant, oriuntur ex apparentiisconfirmatis. Quam- diu apparentiae manent apparentiae, sunt illae veritates apparentes, secundum quas unusquisque potest cogitare et loqui; at dum acceptantur pro ipsis veritatibus, quod fit dum confirmantur, tunc apparentes veritates fiunt falsitates et fallaciae. Sicut pro exemplo: apparentia est, quod sol cottidie circum tellurem feratur, et quotannis ·secun- dum eclipticam progrediatur; hoc quamdiu non confirma- tur, est veritas apparens, secundum quam quisque patest cogitare et loqui; dicere enim potest, quod sol oriatur et occidat, et per id faciat mane, meridiem~ vesperam et noctem; tum quod sol nunc sit in illis aut in illis gradibus eclipticae seu suae altitudinis, et quod per id faciat ver, aestatem, autumnum et hiemem; at dum confirmatur quod ilIa apparentia sit ipsa veritas, tunc confirmator cogitat et loquitur ex fallacia falsitatem. Simile est cum innu- meris aliis apparentiis, non modo in naturalibus, civilibus, et moralibus, sed etiam in spiritualibus. IOg. Simile est cum distantia Solis mundi spiritualis, qui Sol est primum procedens Divini Amoris et Divinae Sapientiae Domini. Veritas est quod nulla distantia sit; sed quod distantia sit apparentia secundum receptionem Divini Amaris et Divinae Sapientiae in suo gradu ab angelis. Quod distantiae in mundo spirituali sint apparentiae, con- stare potest ex illis quae supra demonstrata sunt, ut ex illis n. 7 ad 9, quod Divinum non sit in spatio; et ex illis n. 6g ad 72, quod Divinum impleat omnia spatia absque spatio: et si non spatia sunt, nec sunt distantiae; vel quod idem, si spatia sunt apparentiae, etiam distantiae. sunt apparentiae, nam distantiae sunt spatii. IIO. Quod Sol mundi spiritualis appareat in distantia ab angelis, .est quia Divinus Amor et Divina Sapientia recipitur in gradu caloris et lucis adaequato ab illis; non
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 1°5-110• 43THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE SUN AND THE ANGELS IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD IS AK APPEARANCE ACCOR DING TO RECEPTION BY THEM OF DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM. xo8. All fallacies which prevail with the evi! and the sIm-ple arise from appearances which have been confinned. Solong as appearances remain appearances they are apparent·truths, according to which every one may think and speak; butwhen they are accepted as real truths, which is done when theyare confirmed, then apparent truths become falsities and falla-cies. For example :-It is an appearance that the sun is bornearound the earth daily, and follows yearly the path of theecliptic. So long as this appearance is not confirmed it is anapparent truth, according to which one may think and speak: forhe may say that the sun rises and sets and thereby causes morn-ing, mid-day, evening, and night; also that the sun is now insuch or such a degree of the ecliptic or of its altitude, and bythis movement causes spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Butwhen this appearance is confirmed as the real truth, then theconfirmer thinks and utters a falsity springing from a fallacy.It is the same with innumerable other appearances, not only innatural, civil, and moral, but also in spiritual affairs. I09. It is the same with the distance of the sun of thespiritual world, which sun is the first proceeding of the LordsDivine Love and Divine Wisdom. The truth is that there is nodistance, but that the distance is an appearance according to thereception of Divine Love and Wisdom by the angels in theirdegree. That distances, in the spiritual world, are appearancesmay be seen from what has been shown above (as in n. 7-9,That the Divine is not in space; and in n. 69-72, That theDivine, apart from space, fills all spaces). If there are nospaces, there are no distances, or, what is the same, if spaces areappearances, distances also are appearances, (or distances are ofspace. IIO. The sun of the spiritual world appears at a distancefrom the angels, because they receive Divine Love and DivineWisdom in the measure of heat and light that is adequate to their states. For an angel, because created and finite, cannot receive the Lord in the first degree of heat and light, such as is in the sun; if he did he would be entirely consumed. The l.ord, therefore, is received b)" the angels in a degree of heat
  • 44 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAenim potest angelus, quia creatus et finitus est, recipereDominum in primo gradu caloris et lucis, qualis est inSole, tunc enim plane consumeretur; quare Dominus re-cipitur ab illis in gradu caloris et lucis eorum amori etsapientiae correspondente. Hoc illustrari potest per hoc:quod angelus ultimi caeli non possit ascendere ad angelostertii caeli; si enim ascendit et intrat caelum illorum,cadit sicut in deliquium, et luc9:atur vita eju~ sicut cummorte; causa est, quia arnor et sapientia ei est in minoregradu, et in simili calor: amoris et lux sapientiae ejus.Quid tunc si angelus ascenderet usque versus Solem etveniret in ignem ejus? Propter differentias receptionisDomini ab angelis, etiam caeli apparent inter se distineti.Supremum caelum. quod vocatur tertium, apparet suprasecundum, et hoc supra primum ; non quod caeli distent,sed quod appareaat distare; Dominus enim aeque prae-sens est apud illos qui in ultimo caelo suot, ut est apudillos qui in tertio; id quod facit apparentiam distantiaeest in subjectis, quae sunt angeli, non in Domino. III. Quod ita sit, aegre potest comprehendi ideanaturali, quia in ilIa est spatium; sed potest comprehendiidea spirituali, quia in ea non est spatium; in hac ideasunt angeli. Hoc usque comprehendi idea naturali potest,quod amor et sapientia, seu quod idem, quod Dominus quiest Divinus Alrlor et Divina Sapientia, non possit progrediper spatia, sed quod sit apud unumquemvis secundum re-ceptionem. Quod Dominus sit praesens apud omnes, do-cet Ipse (apud Mattk., cap. xxviii. 20): et quod mansio-nem faciat apud illos qui amant Ipsum (70n. xiv. 21, [23]). IEI. Sed hoc videri potest sicut superioris sapientiae,quia confirmatum est per caelos et per angelos; at usquesimile est apud homines. Homines quoad interiora mentiseorum ab eadem Sole incalescunt et illustrantur; a caloreejus incalescunt, et a luce ejus illustrantur, quantum aDomino recipiunt amorem et sapientiam. Differentia interangelos et homines est, quod angeli solummodo sub ilioSole sint, homines autem non modo sub illo Sole, sedetiam sub sale mundi: corpora enim hominum, nisi sintsub utroque sole non possunt existere et subsistere; ali-ter corpora angelorum quae sunt spiritualia.
  • 44 ANGELIC WISDOMand light corresponding to their love and wisdom. The follow-ing may serve for illustration. An angel of the outmost heavencannot ascend to the angels of the third heaven; for if he does,and enters their heaven, he falls into a kind of swoon, and hislife, as it were, strives with death; the reason is that he has aless degree of love and wisdom, and in the same degree as hislove and wisdom are the heat of his love and the light of hiswisdom. What, then, would be the result if an angel were toascend even to the SUD, and come into its fire? On account ofthe differences of reception of the Lord by the angels, theheavens also appear separate ~om one another. The highestheaven, which is called the third, appears above th.e second,and the second above the first; not that the heavens are apart,but they appear to be apart, for the Lord is present equallywith those who are in the outmost heaven and with those whoare in the third heaven. That which causes the appearanceof distance is not in the Lord but in the subje&, that is, theangels. ZXL That this is so can hardly be comprehended bynatural ideas, because in such there is space; but by spiritualideas, such as the angels have, it can be comprehended, becausein such there is no space. But even by natural ideas this muchcan be comprehended, that love and wisdom (or what is thesame, the Lord, who is Di~ne Love and Divine Wisdom)cannot advance through spaces, but is present with each oneaccording to reception. That the Lord is present with all, Heteaches in Matthew (xxviii. 20), and that He makes His abodewith those who love Him, in loAn (xiv. 23). X~. As this has been proved by means of the heavens andthe angels, it may seem a matter of superior wisdom; but thesame is true of men. Men, as to the interiors of their minds,are warmed and illuminated by that same sun. They arewarmed by its heat and illuminated by its light in the measurein which they receive love and wisdom from the Lord. Thedifference between angels and men is that angels are under thespiritual sun only, but men are under not only that sun, butalso the SUD of this world; for mens bodies can begin andcontinue to exist only under both suns; but hot so the bodiesof ugels, which are spiritual.
  • DE DI=INO AMOR~, PARS II.-N. 115· 45QUOD ANGELI SINT IN DOMINO, ET DOMINUS IN ILLIS; ET QUIA ANGELI SUNT RECIPIENTES, QUOD SOLUS DOMINUS SIT CAELUK. II3- Caelum vocatur "habitaculum Dei," et quoqueII thronus Dei," et inde creditur quod Deus ibi sit, sicutest rex in suo regno. Sed Deus, hoc est Dominus, inSole supra caelos est, et per praesentiam Ipsius in caloreet luce est in caelis, ut in binis articulis superioribus os-tensum est: et talnetsi Dominus eo nlodo est in caelo,usque est ibi ut in Se, nam (ut mox supra, n. 108-112 de-monstratum "est,) est .distantia inter Solem et caelum nondistantia, sed apparentia distantiae; quare cum distantiailIa est solum apparentia, sequitur quod Ipse Dominus sitin caelo, est enim in amore et,.sapientia angelorum caeli;et quia est in amore et sapientia omnium angelorum, etangeli con!=ttituunt caelum, est in universo caelo. II4- Quod Dominus non modo sit in caelo, sed etiamquod sit ipsum Caelum, est quia amor et sapientia faciuntangelum, et ilIa duo sunt Domini apud angelos; inde se-quitur, quod Dominus sit Caelnm. Angeli enim non suntangeli a proprio illorum; proprium i110rum est prorsussicut proprium hominis, quod est malum. Quod hoc sitproprium angelorum, est quia omnes angeli fuerunt homi-nes, et id proprium a nativitate illis inhaeret: removeturmodo; et quantum id removetur, tantum recipiunt amoremet sapientiam, boc est, Dominum in se. Quisque potestvidere, si modo aliquantum elevat intelleClum, quod Do-minus non possit babitare nisi quam in suo apud angelos,hoc est, in proprio suo, quod est Amor et Sapientia, etprorsus non in proprio angelorum, quod est malum. Indeest. quod quantum removetur malum, tantum Dominus sitin illis, et tantum illi sint angeli. IPSUID angelicum caeliest Divinus Amor et Divina Sapientia. Hoc Divinumvocatur angelicum dum est in angelis. Inde iterum pa-tet, quod angeli sirt angeli a Domino, et non a semet;consequenter etiam taelum. IIS- Sed quomodo Dominus est in angelo, et angelusin Domino, non potest comprehendi, nisi sciatur qualis
  • CONCER.NING DIVINE LOVE.-N. III-lIS.bGELS AilE IN THE LORD, AND THE LOR.D IN THEM; AND BECAUSE ANGELS AIlE RECIPIENTS, TH~ LORD ALONE IS HEAVEN. xq_ Heaven is called "the dwelling-place of God," also,the throne of God," and from this it is believed that God isthere as a king in his kingdom. But God (that is, the Lord) is inthe sun above the heavens, and by His presence in heat andlight, is in the heavens (as is shown in the last two paragraphs).But although the Lord is present in heaven in that manner,still He is there as in Himself: For (as shown just above, n.108-112) the distance between the sun and heaven is notdistance, but appearance of distance; and since that distanceis only an appearance it follows that the Lord Himself is inheaven, for He is in the love and wisdom of the angels of heaven ;and since He is in the love and wisdom of all angels, andangels constitute heaven, He is in the whole heaven. ILfe The Lord not only is in heaven, but is heaven itself;for love and wisdom are what make the angel, and these twowith angels are the Lords j from which it follows that the Lordis heaven. For angels are not angels from what is their own,for what is their own is altogether like what is mans own, whichis evil. An angels selfhood is such because all angels wereonce men, and this selfhood clings to the angels from their birth. It is only put aside, and so far as it is put aside the angels re- ceive love and wisdom, that is, the Lord, in themselves. Any- one, if he will only elevate his understanding a little, can see that the Lord can dwell in angels, only in what is His, that is,in what is His very own, which is love and wisdom, and notat all in the selfhood of angels, which is evil. From this it is, that so far as evil is put away so far the Lord is in them, andso far they are angels. The very angelic itself of heaven is Love Divine and Wisdom Divine. This Divine is called the angelic when it is in angels. From this, again, it is evident that angels are angels from the Lord, and not from themselves ; consequently, the same is true of heaven. XIS- But how the Lord is in an angel and an angel in the Lord cannot be comprehended, unless the na1ure of the con- junaion is known. Conjunaion is of the Lord with the angel and of the angel with the Lord; conjunction, therefore, is reciprocal. On the part of the angel it is as follows. The angel, in like manner as man, has no other feeling than that he
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICA conjunClio est. ConjunCtio est Domini cum angelo, ac angeli cum Domino; quare est conjunCtio reciproca. Est ilIa a parte angeli ut sequitur: angelus non percipit ali- ter quam quod sit in amore et sapientia a se, similiter ut homo, et inde sicut amor et sapientia sint ejus aut sua. Nisi ita perciperet, non foret aliqua ·conjunaio; ita non foret Dominus in ilIo, et HIe in Domino. Nee dari potest, quod Dominus sit in aliquo angelo et homine, nisi ille, in quo cum amore et sapientia est, percipiat et sentiat idsieut suum: per hoc non modo recipitur, sed etiam recep- tus retinetur, et quoque redamatur. Quare per id fit an-gelus sapiens, et manet sapiens. Quis potest velie amareDominum et proximum, et quis potest velIe sapere, nisisentiat et percipiat id quod amat, discit et haurit, sicutsuum? Quis aliter potest retinere illud apud se? Siidnon foret, arnor et sapientia inftuens non aliquam sedemhaberet, transftueret enim nee afficeret; sic angelus nonforet angelus, nec homo foret homo; immo non foret aliudquam sicut est inanimatum. Ex his constare patest, quodreciprocum esse debeat, ut sit conjunetio. II6. Sed quomodo hoc fit, quod angelus percipiat etsentiat ut suum, et sic recipiat et retineat, cum tamen nonejus est, (nam supra diCtum est, quod angelus non sit an-gelus a suo, sed ab illis quae apud eum sunt ex Domino,)nunc dicetur. Res in se talis est. Est apud unumquemvisangelum liberum et rationalitas: haec duo sunt apud illumpropterea ut receptibilis amoris et sapientiae a Dominosit. Sed utrumque, tam liberum quam rationalitas, nonest illius, sed est Domini apud ilIum. At quia ilIa duointime conjuncta sunt vitae ejus, ita intime ut dici queantvitae injunCia, ideo ilia apparent sicut propria ejus. Exillis potest cogitare et yelle, ac loqui et agere; et quodex illis cogitat, vult, loquitur et agit, apparet sicut a se.Hoc facit reciprocum, per quod conjunetio. At usquequantum angelus credit quod amor et sapientia sint in ilia,et sic vindicat ilia sibi ut sua, tantum non est angelicumin illo, et inde. tantum non est conjunB:io ejus cum Do-mino; non enim est in veritate ; et quia veritas cum lueecaeli unum facit, tantum non potest esse in caelo; ex eoenim negat quod vivat ex Domino, et credit quod vivatex se, consequenter quod Divina essentia illi sit. In illis
  • ANGELIC WISDOM is in love and wisdom from himself: consequently as if love andwisdom were his, or his own. Unless he so felt there would beno conjunction, thus the Lord would not be in him, nor he inthe Lor~. Nor can it be possible for the Lord to be in anyangel or man, without the one in whom the Lord is, with loveand wisdom, having a feeling and sense as if they were his own.By this means the Lord is not only received, but also, whenreceived, is retained, and likewise loved in return. And by this,also, the angel is made wise and continues wise. Who can wishto love the Lord and his neighbor, and who can wish to be wise,without a sense and feelinJ! that what he loves, learns, and imbibesis, as it were, his own? Who otherwise can retain it in himself?If this were not so, the inftowing love and wisdom would haveno abiding-place, for it would flow through and not affeB; thusaD angel would not be angel, nor would man be man j he wouldbe merely like something inanimate. From all this it can beseen that there must be an ability to reciprocate that th~re maybe conjunCtion. II6. It shall now be explained how it comes that an angelperceives and feels as his own, and thus receives and retainsthat which yet is not his; for, as was said above, an angelis not an angel from what is his own, but from those thingswhich he has from the Lord. The essence of the matter isthis :-Every angel has freedom and rationality; these two he has to the end that he may be capable of receiving love and wisdom from the Lord. Yet neither of these, freedom nor rationality, is his, they are the Lords with him. But since the two are intimately conjoined to his life, so intimately that they may be said to be joined into it, they appear to be his very own. It is from them that he is able to think and will, and to speak and act; and what he thinks, wills, speaks, and does from them, appears as if it were from himself: This gives him the ability to reciprocate, and by means of this con- junction is possible. But so far as an angel believes that love and wisdom are really in him, and thus lays claim to them for himself as if they were his own, so far the angelic is not in him, and therefore he has no conjunCl:ion with the Lord j for he is not in truth, and as truth makes one with the light of heaven, so far he cannot be in heaven; for he thereby denies that he lives from the Lord, and believes that he lives from him- selL and that he therefore possesses Divine essence. In these two, freedom and rationality, the life which is called angelic and human consists. From all this it can be seen that for the sake
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS II.-N. 119· 47 duobus, libero et rationalitate, consistit vita quae voca-tur angelica et humana. Ex his constare potest, quodangelo sit reciprocum propter conjunCtionem cum Do-mino, sed quod reciprocum in sua facultate speClatum nonsit ejus sed Domini. Inde est, si reciproco illo, a quopercipit et sentit sicut suum quod est Domini, abutitur,quod fit appropriando illud sibi, quod decidat ab angelico.Quod.conjunCtio reciproca sit, docet Ipse Dominus apud 70-hannem (cap~ xiv.. 20-24; cap. xv. 4-6); ac quod conjunttioDomini cum homine, et hominis cum Domino, sit in illisquae Domini sunt, quae vocantur verba Ipsius (7olt. xv. 7). II7. Sunt qui opinantur quod Adamus in tali liberoseu libero arbitrio fuerit, ut a se potuerit amare Deum etsapere, et quod id liberum arbitrium in posteris ejus de-perditum sit; sed hoc est error: homo enim non est Vita,sed recipiens vitae (videatur supra, n. 4-6, 54-60) ; et qui estrecipiens vitae, non potest ex aliquo suo amare et sapere.Quare etiam ille, cum ex suo voluit sapere et amare, de-lapsus est a sapientia et amore, et ejettus est e Paradiso. IIS. Simile quod nunc diCtum est de angelo, dicen-dum est de caelo quod ex angelis consistat, quoniam Divi-num in maximis et minimis est idem (ut supra, n. 77-82,demonstratum est). Simile quod dictum est de angelo e~caelo, dicendum est de homine et ecclesia: nam angeluscaeli et homo ecclesiae unum agunt per conjunClionem;et quoque homo ecclesiae quoad interiora quae mentisejus sunt, est angelus: sed per hominem ecclesiae intelli-gitur homo in quo est ecclesia. ,QUOD IN MUNDO SPIRITUALI OR lENS SIT UBI DOMINUS UT SOL APPARET, ET QUOD RELIQUAE PLAGAE INDE SINT. XIg. Aetum est de Sole mundi spiritualis et ejusessentia, ac de calore et luce ejus, ac de praesentia Do-mini inde : nunc etiam de plagis i11ius mundi agetur.Quod de illo Sole et de illo mundo agatur, est causa quiaagitur de Deo, et de amore et sapientia; et de iBis aliterquam ex ipsa origine agere, foret agere ab effeetibus, etnon a causis: et tamen effectus nihil docent quam effec-
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. II6-IIg. 47of cor~unaion with the Lord, the angel has the ability to re-ciprocate, but that this ability, in itself considered, is not hisbut the Lords. From this it is, that if he abuses this abilityto reciprocate, by which he perceives and feels as his ownwhat is the Lords, which is done by appropriating it to him-sel~ he falls from the angelic state. That conjunction is reci-procal, the Lord Himself teaches (Jokn xiv. 20-24; xv. 4-6) ;also that the conjuntl:ion of the Lord with man and ofman with the Lord, is in those things of the Lord that arecalled His words (Joltn xv. 7). XI7. Some are of the opinion that Adam was in suchliberty or freedom of choice as to be able to love God andbe wise from himself; and that this freedom of choice was lostin his posterity. But this is an error; for man is not life, but isa recipient of life (see above, n. 4-6, 54-60); and he who is arecipient of life cannot love and be wise from anything of hisown; consequently, when Adam willed to be wise and to loveon his own account, he fell from wisdom and love, and was castout of Paradise. II8. What has just been said of an angel is likewise trueof heaven, which consists of angels, since the Divine in great-est and least things is the same (as was shown above, n. 77-82).What is said of an angel and of heaven is likewise true ofman and the Church, for the angel of heaven and the man ofthe Church atl: as one through conjuntl:ion; in fact, a manof the Church is an angel, in respeCt to the interiors whichare of his mind. By a man of the Church is meant a manin whom the Churc~ is.IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD THE EAST IS WHERE THE LORD APPEARS AS A SUN, AND FROM: THAT THE OTHER QUAR- TERS ARE DETERMINED. :0:9. The sun of the spiritual world and its essence, alsoits heat and light, and the presence of the Lord thereby, havebeen treated of; a description is now to be given of thequarters in the spiritual world. That sun and that world aretreated of; because God and love and wisdom are treated of;and to treat of these subjeCls except from their very originwould be to proceed from effeCls, not from causes. Yet from Ieffects nothing but effects can be learned; when effeCls aloneare considered rio cause is brought to light; but causes reveal
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICAtus, et illi soli lustrati non propalant aliquam causam;sed causae propalant effeB:us; et scire effeetus ex causisest sapere; at inquirere causas ab effeClibus non est sa-pere, quia tunc se offerunt fallaciae, quas inquisitor vocatcausas, et hoc est sapientiam infatuare. Causae enimsunt priora, et effeClus posteriora; et ex posterioribus nonvideri possunt priora, sed posteriora ex prioribus. Hieest ordo. Haec causa est, quod de mundo spirituali hicprimum agatur, omnes enim causae ibi sunt; et postea demundo naturali, ubi omnia quae apparent sunt effectus. I~O. Hic nunc dicetur de plagis in Mundo spirituali.Sunt ibi similiter plagae sicut in mundo naturali; sedplagae ~undi spiritualis, sicut ipse mundus est, sunt spiri-tuales; at plagae Mundi naturalis, sicut ipse mundus, sootnaturales; quare tantum differunt ut nihil commune habe-ant. Sunt quatuor plagae in utroque mundo, quae oriens,occidens, meridies et septentrio vocantur. Illae quatuorplagae in mundo naturali suot constantes, determinataea sole in meridie j antrorsum est septentrio, ab uno latereest oriens, ab altero est occidens, quae plagae a meridiecujusvis loci determinantur, solis enim statio in meridieubivis est semper eadem et sic fixa. Aliter in Mundospirituali: ibi plagae determinantur a Sole ibi, qui con-stanter apparet in suo loco, et ubi apparet est oriens.Quare determinatio plagarum in illo Mundo non est sicutin mundo naturali a meridie, sed est ab oriente; antror-sum est occidens, ab uno latere est meridies, ab altero estseptentrio. Sed quod plagae illae non sint a Sole ibi, sedab incolis illius mundi, qui sunt angeli et spiritus, vide-bitur in" sequentibus. X~:J:. Quoniam plagae illae ex origine sua, qui estDominus ut Sol, sunt spirituales, ideo habitationes ange-lorum et spirituum, quae omnes sunt secundum plagasillas, etiam spirituales sunt; et spirituales sunt, quia habi-tant secundum receptiones amoris et sapientiae a Domino.Illi qui in amoris gradu superiori sunt, habitant in oriente,qui in amoris gradu inferiore in occidente, qui in sapien-tiae gradu superiore in meridie, et qui in sapientiae graduinferiore in septentrione. Inde est, quod in Verba peru orientem" in supremo sensu intelligatur Dominus. et insensu respectivo amor in Ipsum, per" occidentem" amorin Ipsum decrescens, per II meridiem" sapientia in luce,
  • ANGELIC WISDOMe.fTe8s. To know effeCts from causes is to be wise; but tosearch for causes from effeCts is not to be wise, because f811aciesthen present themselves, which the investigator calls causes,and this is to tum wisdom into foolishness. Causes are thingsprior, and effe8s are things posterior; and things prior cannotbe seen from things posterior, but things posterior can be seenfrom things prior. This is .order. For this reason the spiritualworld is here first treated ot for all causes are there, and after-wards the natural world, where all things that appear areeffe&. :1:... The quarters in the spiritual world shall now bespoken of: There are quarters there in like manner as in thenatural world, but like that world itsel~ they are spiritual;while the quarters in the natural world, like that world itself;are natural; the difference between them, therefore, is so greatthat they have nothing in common. In each world there arefour quarters, which are called east, west, south, and north.In the natural world, these four quarters are constant, deter-mined by the sun on the meridian; opposite this is north, on oneside is east, on the other, west. These quarters are detenninedby the meridian of each place j for the suns station on themeridian at each point is always the same, and is thereforefixed. In the spiritual world it is different. The quartersthere are detennined by the sun of that world, which appearsconstantly in its own place, and where it appears is the east;consequently the determination of the quarters in that worldis not from the south, as in the natural world, but from theeast; opposite to this is west, on one side is south, and onthe other, north. But that these quarters are not determinedby the SUD, but by the inhabitants of that world, who areangels and spirits, will be seen in what follows. x.:I:. As these quarters, by virtue of their origin, which isthe Lord as a SUD, are spiritual, so the dwelling-places of angelsand spirits, all of which are according to these quarters, arealso spiritual. They are spiritual, because angels and spiritshave their places of abode according to their reception of loveand wisdom from the Lord. Those in a higher degree oflove dwell in the east; those in a lower degree of love in thewest; those in a higher degree of wisdom, in the south; andthose in a lower degree of wisdom, in the north. From thisit is that, in the Word, by CC the east," in the highest sense, ismeant the Lord, and in a relative sense love to Him; by the ,e west," a diminishing love to Him; by ilie CCsouth" wisdom in
  • ,
  • so SAPIENTIA ANGELICA sapientiae ab angelis, dicetur de varietate, ex qua appa: rentia ilIa existit. Dominus est in angelo et angelus in Domino, ut in articulo praecedente ostensum est; sed quia apparet sicut Dominus ut Sol sit extra ilIum, appa- ret etiam quod Dominus videat ilIum e Sole, et quod ille videat Dominum in Sole, quod est paene sicut imago appa- ret in speculo. Quare si ex apparentia ilIa loquendum sit, tunc res talis est; quod Dominus videat et inspiciat unum- quemvis facie ad faciem, sed quod vicissim angeli non ita Dominum: illi qui in amore in Dominum a Domino sunt,vident Ipsum directe, ideo illi sunt in oriente et occidente :illi autem qui plus in sapientia sunt, vident Dominum ob-lique ad dextrum; et qui minus in sapientia sunt, obliquead sinistrum; ideo hi et illi sunt in septentrione et meri-die. Quod hi in obliquo aspettu sint, est quia amor etsapientia ut unum procedunt a Domino, sed non ut unumrecipiuntur ab angelis, ut quoque prius dietum est; etsapientia, quae abundat super amorem, apparet quidem utsapientia, sed usque non est, quia superabundanti sapien-tiae non inest vita ex amore. Ex his patet, unde estdiversitas receptionis, juxta quam habitationes angelorumsecundum plagas in mundo spirituali apparent. x~6. Quod varia receptio amoris et sapientiae faciatplagam in mundo spirituali, constare potest ex eo, quodangelus mutet plagam secundum incrementum et decre-mentum amoris apud ilIum; ex quo patet, quod plaga nonsit a Domino ut Sole, sed quod sit ab angelo secundumreceptionem. Simile est cum homine quoad spiritum ejus.IIIe quoad spiritum est in quadam plaga mundi spiritua-lis, in quacunque plaga mundi naturalis sit; nam ut supradictum est, plagae mundi spiritualis non commune habentcum plagis mundi naturalis: in his est homo quoad cor-pus, in iBis autem quoad spiritum. Xwt. Ut amor et sapientia apud angelum et apud ho-minem unum faciant, sunt paria in omnibus corporis ejus,Oculi, aures et nares sunt paria; manus, lumbi et pedessunt paria; cerebrum in duo hemisphaeria divisum est,cor in binas cameras, pulmo in binos lobos, similiter reli-qua. Ita in angelo et homine est dextrum et sinistrum;et omnes partes dextrae eorum se referunt ad amorem exquo sapientia, et omnes partes sinistrae ad sapientiam ex
  • ANGELIC WISDOM wisdom by the angels, the variety from which that appearance springs shall now be explained. The Lord is in the angel, and the angel in the Lord (as was shown in a preceding article). But on account of the appearance that the Lord as a sun is outside of the angel, there is also the appearance that the Lord sees him from the sun, and that he sees the Lord in the sun. This is almost like the appearan~eof an image in a mirror. Speaking, therefore, according to that appearance, it may be said that the Lord sees and looks at each one face to face, but that the angels, on their part, do not thus behold the Lord. Those who are in love to the Lord from the Lord see Him direCl:ly in front; these, therefore, are in the east and the west; but those who are more in wisdom see the Lord indirealy to the right, and those who are less in wisdom indirectly to the left; therefore the former are in the south, and the latter in the north. The view of these is indireCl: because love and wisdom (as has been said before), although they proceed from the Lord as one, are not received as one by angels; and the wisdom which is in excess of the love, while it appears as wisdom, is not, because in the overplus of wisdom there is no life from love. From all this it is evident whence comes the diversity of reception according to which angels appear to dwell in different quarters in the spiritual world. x26. That this variety of reception of love and wisdom is what gives rise to the quarters in the spiritual world can be seen from the faCt that an angel changes his quarter according to the increase or decrease of love with him; from which it is evident that the quarter is not from the Lord as a sun, but from the angel according to reception. It is the same with man as regards his spirit. In respeCt to his spirit, he is in some quar- ter of the spiritual world, whatever quarter of the natural world he may be in, for quarters in the spiritual world, as has been. said above, have nothing in common with quarters in. the natural world. Man is in the latter as regards his body, but in the former as regards his spirit. ~. In order that love and wisdom may make one in angel or man, there are pairs in all the things of his body. The eyes, ears, and nostrils are pairs; the hands, loins, and feet are pairs; the brain is divided into two hemispheres, the heart into two chambers, the lungs into two lobes, and in like manner the other parts. Thus in angel and man there is right and left:; and all their right parts have relation to the love from which wisdom comes; and all the left parts, to the wisdom which is from love;
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS II.-N. 130. SIamore : seu quod idem, omnes partes dextrae ad bonum exquo verum, et omnes partes sinistrae ad verum ex bono.Haec paria angelo et homini sunt, ut amor et sapientia,seu bonum et verum, unum agant, ac ut unum speetent adDominum. Sed de hac re plura in sequentibus. Id. Ex his videri P9test in qua fallacia et inde falsi-tate sunt illi, qui opinantur quod Dominus ex arbitrio im-pertiatur caelum, seu quod ex arbitrio det ut unus sapiatet amet plus quam alter; cum tamen Dominus aeque vultut sapiat et salvetur unus ac alter; providet enim omni-bus media: quisque sicut .recipit ilIa et vivit secundum ilIa,ita sapit et salvatur, est enim Dominus idem apud unumet apud" alterum: at quod recipientes, qui sunt angeli eth.omines, dissimiles sint ex dissimili receptione et vita.Quod ita sit, constare potest ex illis, quae nunc de plagis,et de habitationibus angelorum secundum illas, diCta suot ;quod nempe ilIa diversitas non sit a Domino, sed a reci-pientibus.QUOD ANGELI FACIEM SUAM JUGITER VERTANTAD Do- MINUM UT SOLEM, ET SIC HABEANT MERIDIEM AD DEXTRUM~ SEPTENTRIONEM AD SINISTRUM, ET OC- CIDENTEM A TERGO. X~9. Omnia quae hie de angelis et de conversione illorum ad Dominum ut Solem, dicuntur, etiam de homine quoad ejus spiritum intelligenda sunt j nam homo quoad suam mentem est spiritus, et si in amore et sapientia est, est angelus: quare etiam post mortem, dum externa sua, quae traxerat ex naturali mundo, exuit, fit spiritus aut·angelus. Et quia angeli jugiter vertunt faciem ad orientem Solis, ita ad Dominum, dicitur etiam de homine, qui in amore et sapientia a Domino est, quod videat Deum, quodspeaet ad Deum, quod habeat Deum ante oculos, per quae intelligitur quod vivat sicut angelus. Talia dicuntur" in mundo, tam quia aClualiter existunt in caelo, quam quia aB:ualiter existunt in spiritu hominis. Quis non videtante se ad Deum, ad quamcunque plagam versa est ejusfacies, dum orat? :1:30. Quod angeli facies suas jugiter vertant ad Do-
  • CONCERNtNG DIVINE LOVE.-H. 126-1 3°. 51)r, what is the same, all the right parts have relation to the goodfrom which truth comes; and aU the left parts, to the truthwhich is from good. Angel and man have these pairs in orderthat love and wisdom, or good and truth, may aa as one, and,as one, may have regard to the Lord. But of this more inwhat follows. ~ From aU this it can be seen in what fallacy and con-sequent falsity those are, who suppose that the Lord bestowsheaven arbitrarily, or arbitrarily allows one to become wise andloving more than another, when, in truth, the Lord is just asdesirous that one may become wise and be saved as another.For he provides means for all; and every one becomes wiseand is saved in the measure in which he accepts these means,and lives in accordance with them. For the Lord is the samewith one as with another; but the recipients, who are angelsand men, are unlike by reason of unlike reception and life.That this is so can be seen from what has just been said ofspiritual quarters, and of the dwelling-places of the angels inaccordance with them; namely, that the diversity is not fromtheLord but from the recipients.ANGELS TURN THEIR. FACES CONSTANTLY TO THE LOR.D AS A SUN, AND THUS HAVE THE SOUTH TO THE RIGHT, THE NORTH TO THE LEFT, AND THE WEST BEHIND THEM. ~. All that is here said of angels, and of their turningto the Lord as a lun, is also to be understood of man, as regardshis spirit. For man in respeCt to his mind is a spirit, and if inlove and wisdom, is an angel; consequently, after death, whenhe has put ofT his externals, which he had derived from thenatural world, he becomes a spirit or an angel. And becauseangels tum their faces constantly toward the sun in the east, thustoward the Lord, it is said also of any man who is in love andwisdom from the Lord, that "he sees God," that "he looks toGod," that "he has God before his eyes," by which is meantthat he lives as an angel does. Such things are spoken of inthe world, because they aChJally have existence both in heavenand in the spirit of man. Who does not look before himself toGod when he prays, to whatever quarter his face may beturned? X3o. Angels turn their faces constantly to the Lard as a
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICA minum ut Solem, est quia angeli in Domino sunt et Domi- nus in illis, et Dominus interius ducit affectiones et cogi- tationes eorum, et vertit· illas jugiter ad Se; inde non possunt aliter quam ad orientem, ubi Dominus ut Sol apparet, spectare. Inde patet, quod angeli non se ad Dominum vertant, sed quod Dominus illos ad Se: cum enim angeli interius cogitant de Domino, tunc non cogi- tant de Ipso aliter quam in se; ipsa cogitatio interior non facit distantiam, sed cogitatio exterior, quae cum visu oculorum unum agit, facit. Causa est, quia cogitatio ex- terior.. est in spatio, non autem interior; et ubi non est in spatio, ut in mundo spirituali, usque est in apparentia spatii. Sed haec parum possunt intelligi ab homine, qui de Deo cogitat ex spatio; Deus enim est ubivis, et non tamen. in spatio: ita est tam intra quam extra angelum ; et inde potest angelus videre Deum, hoc est, Dominum, et intra se et extra se; intra se dum ex amore et sapientia cogitat, extra se dum de amore et sapientia. Sed de his in specie dicetur in transaClionibus de Domini Omnz.prtU- sentia, Omnisc:entia et Omn,potentia. Caveat sibi omnis ne in exsecrabilem illam haeresin labatur, quod Deus Se infuderit hominibus, et quod in il1is sit, et non in Se am- plius; cum tamen Deus est ubivis, tam intra hominemquam extra ilIum; est enim in omni spatio absque spatia (ut supra, n. 7-10, ~72, ostensum est). Nam si foret inhomine, foret non modo dividuus, sed etiam inclusus spa-tio; immo etiam homo tunc potuisset cogitare se Deumesse. Haec haeresis tam abominabilis est, ut in mundospirituali puteat sicut cadaver. qI. Conversio angelo.rum ad Dominum talis est, quodin omni conversione corporis illorum speB:ent ad Dominumut Solem ante see Angelus potest se convertere circum etcircum, et per id videre varia quae circum ilium sunt, sedusque Dominus ut Sol ante faciem ejus jugiter apparet.Hoc potest mirabile videri, sed usque veritas est. Datumetiam est mihi ita Dominum ut Solem videre; ante faciemmeum video Ipsum ; et per plures annos, ad quamcunqueplagam mundi me converteram, Ipsum similiter vidi. q~. Quoniam Dominus ut Sol, ita oriens ante faciesomnium angelorum caeli est, sequitur quod ad dextrumillis sit meridies, ad sinistrum s~ptentrioJ et a terl:(l orcj-
  • ANGELIC WISDOM sun, because they art in the Lord, and the Lord in them; and the Lord interiorly leads their affeCtions and thoughts, and turDs them constantly to Himself; consequently they cannot do other- wise than look towards the east where the Lord appears as a sun i from which it is evident that angels do not tum them- selves to the Lord, but the Lord turns them to HimseU: For when angels think interiorly of the Lord, they only think of Him as being in ·themselves. Real interior thought does not cause distance, but exterior thought, which a& as one with the. sight of the eyes; and for the reason that exterior thought, but not interior, is in space; and when not in space, as in the spirit- ual world, it. is still in the appearance of space. But these things can be little understood by the man who thinks about God from space. For God is everywhere, yet not in space. Thus He is both within and without an angel; consequently an angel can see God, that is, the Lord, both within himself and with- out himself i within himself when he thinks from love and wis- dom, without himself when he thinks about love and wisdom•.But these things will be treated of in detail in treatises on TM Lords Omnijwesenee, Omniscience, and Omnipotence. Let every man guard himself against falling into the detestable false doc- trine that God has infused Himself into men, and that He is in them, and no longer in Himself j for God is everywhere, as well within man as without, for apart from space He is in all space (as was shown above, n. 7-10, 69-72); whereas if He were in man, He would be not only divisible, but also contained in space i yea, man then might even think himself to be God. This heresy is so abominable, that in the spiritual world it stinks like carrion. qx. The turning of angels to the Lord is such, that, at every tum of their bodies they look toward the Lord as a sun in front of them. An angel may tum himself round and round, thereby seeing the various things which surround him, still the Lord as a sun appears constantly before his face. This may leem wonderful, yet it is the truth. It has also been granted to me to see the Lord thus as a sun. I see Him now before my face; and for several years I have so seen Him, to what- ever quarter of the world I have turned. :J:3~ Since the Lord as a sun, consequently the east, is before the faces of all angels of heaven, it follows that the south is to their right i the north, to the left; and the west, behind them; and this, too, at every tum of the body. For, as said before, all quarters in the spiritual world are determin~
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS II.-N. 135· 53dens, ita. etiam in omni conversione corporis eorum; namut prius dictum est, omnes plagae in mundo spirituali de-terminatae sunt ab oriente; quare illi, quibus oriens estante oculos, in ipsis plagis sunt, immo sunt ipsi determi-nationes illarum; nam (ut supra, n. 124-128. ostensum est,)plagae non suot a Domino ut Sale, sed ab angelis secun-dum receptionem. I33. Nunc quia caelum est ex angelis, et angeli sunttales, sequitur quod universum caelum vertat se ad Domi-num, et quod caelum per illam cODversionem regatur aDomino ut unus Homo, quemadmodum etiam caelum inconspeCtu Domini est. Quod caelum in conspeCtu Dominisit sicut unus Homo videatur in opere De Caelo et Inferno(n. Sg-87). Inde etiam sunt plagae caeIi. I3+ Quoniam plagae ita sunt angelo, et quoque uni-verso caelo, quasi inscriptae. ideo angelus scit domum luamet habitationem suam, ubicunque vadit, secus ac homo inmundo. Causa quod homo non sciat domum et habitatio-nem ex plaga in se, est quia cogitat ex spatio, ita ex pIa-gis naturalis mundi, quae non c~mmune habent cum plagismundi spiritualis. At usque avibus et animalibus inest talisscientia, illis enim insitum est scire domos et habitationessuas ex se, ut notum est ex multa experientia; indicium,quod tale sit in spirituali mundo; nam omnia quae exis-tunt in naturali mundo sunt effeClus, et omnia quae existuntin spirituali mundo sunt effectuum illorum causae: natu-rale quod non trahit causam ex spirituali, non existit.QUOD OMNIA INTERIORA TAM MENTIS QUAM CORPORIS ANGELORUM AD DOMINUM UT SOLEM VERSA SINT. I3S. Est angelis intelleCtus et voluntas, et est facieset corpus; et quoque sunt interiora intelleCtus et volunta-tis, tum faciei et corporis. Interiora intelleB:us et volun-tatis, sunt quae interioris eorum affeCtionis et cogitationissunt; interiora faciei sunt cerebra; ac interiora corporissunt viscera, quorum primaria sunt cor et pulmo. Verba,sunt angelis omnia et singula quae hominibus in terris;ex illis est quod angeli sint homines. Externa formaabsque internis illis non facit ut sint homines, sed externa
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 131- 135. S3 from the east; therefore those who have the east before their eyes are in these very quarters, yea, are themselves what determine the quarters j for (as was shown above, D. 124-128) the quar- ters are not from the Lord as a sun, but from the angels accord- ing to reception. qa. Now since heaven is made up of angels, and angels are of such a nature, it follows that aU heaven turns itself to the Lord, and that, by means of this turning, heaven is ruled by the IJord as one man, as in His sight it is one man. That heaven is as one man in the sight of the Lord may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 59-87). Also from this are the quarters of heaven. x34e Since the quarters are thus inscribed as it were on the angel, as well as OD the whole heaven, an angel, unlike man in the world, knows his own home and his own dwelling-place wherever he goes. Man does not know his home and dwelling- place from any spiritual quarter in himself: because he thinks from space, thus from the quarters of the natural world, which have nothing in common with the quarters of the spiritual world. But birds and beasts have such knowledge, for it is implanted in them to know of themselves their homes and dwelling-places, as is evident from abundant observation; a proof that such is the case in the spiritual world j for all things which"have existence in the natural world are effeCts, and all things which have existence in the spiritual world are the causes of these effeCts. There does Dot exist a natural that does not derive its cause from a spiritual. ALL INTERIOR THINGS OF THE ANGELS, BOTH OF KIND AND BODY, AR.E TURNED TO THE LOR.D AS A SUN. qs. Angels have understanding and will. and they have aface and body. They have also the interior things of the under-standing and will, and of the face and body. The interiors ofthe understanding and will are such as pertain to their interioraffeCtion and thought; the interiors of the face are the brains;and the interiors of the body are the viscera, chief among whichare the heart and lungs. In a word, angels have each and aUthings that men on earth have j it is from these things thatangels are men. External form, apart from these internal things,does not make them men, but external form together with,yea, from, internals, for otherwise they would be only images
  • S4 SAPlENTIA ANGELICAforma una cum illis, immo ex illis ; alioqui forent solum ima-gines horninis, in quibus non vita, quia intus non forma vitae. q6. Notum est, quod voluntas et intelleB:us regantcorpus ad nutum, quod enim intelleB:us cogitat, hoc lo-quitur os, et quod voluntas vult, hoc agit corpus; ex qui-bus patet, quod corpus sit forma correspondens intelleB:uiet voluntati j et quia de intelleB:u et voluntate etiam di-citur forma, quod forma corporis correspondeat formaeintellectus et voluntatis; sed qualis una et altera formaest, non hujus loci est describere: sunt etiam innumera-bilia in utraque; ac innumerabilia utrinque unum agunt,quia sibi mutuo correspondent. Inde est, quod mens, seuvoluntas et intelleClus, regat corpus ad nutum; ita pror-sus sicut semet ipsam. Ex his sequitur, quod interioramentis unum agant cum interioribus corporis, et quodexteriora mentis cum exterioribus corporis. De interiori-bus mentis dicetur infra, dum prius de gradibus vitae;similiter tunc de interioribus corporis. q7. Quoniam interiora mentis unum faciunt cum in-terioribus corporis, sequitur quod dum interiora mentis severtunt ad Dominum ut Solem, etiam interiora corporissimiliter faciant; et quia exteriora utriusque, tam mentisquam corporis, ab interioribus eorum pendent, quod etiamilla similiter faciant. Quod enim externum facit, hocfacit ab internis, nam commune trahit omne suum a parti-cularibus, a quibus est. Ex his patet, quod quia angelusvertit faciem et corpus ad Dominum ut Solem, etiamomnia interiora mentis et corporis ejus illuc versa sint.Simile est cum homine, si ille jugiter habet ·Dominumante oculos, quod fit si in amore et sapientia est j tuncnon modo oculis et facie Ipsum speClat, sed etiam totamente et toto corde, hoc est, omnibus voluntatis et in-tellectus, et simul omnibus corporis. q8. Conversio ilIa ad Dominum est aB:ualis conver-sio; est quaedam elevatio: elevatur enim in calorem et lu-cem caeli, quod fit per quod aperiantur interiora; quae cumaperta sunt, inftuit amor et sapientia in interiora mentis, accalor et lux caeli in interiora corporis; inde elevatio, quaeest sicut e nirnbo in aerem, seu ex aere in aetherem: acamor et sapientia cum eorum calore et luce sunt Dominusapud hominem, qui, ut prius diClum est, vertit ilIum ad SeeContrarium est apud illos qui non in amore et sapientia,
  • 54 ANGELIC WISDOM of man, in which there would be no life, because inwardly there would be no form of life. q6. It is well known that the will and understanding rule the body at pleasure, for what the understanding thinks, the mouth speaks, and what the will wills, the body does. From this it is plain that the body is a form .corresponding to the understanding and will. And because form also is predicated of understanding and will, it is plain that the form of the body corresponds to the form of the understanding and will. But this . is not the place to describe the nature of these respeCtive fonns. In each form there are things innumerable; and these, on either side, act as one, because they mutually correspond. It is from this that the mind (that is, the will and understanding) rules the body at its beck, thus as entirely as it rules its own self: From all this it follows that the interiors of the mind act as one with the interiors of the body, and the exteriors of the mind with the exteriors of the body. The intenors of the mind,. likewise the interiors of the body, will be considered further on, when degrees of life have been treated of: q7. Since the interiors of the mind make one with the interiors of the body, it follows that when the interiors of the mind tum themselves to the Lord as a sun, those of the body tum themselves in like manner; and because the exteriors of both, of mind as well as body, depend upon their interiors, they also do the same. For what the external does, it does from internals, the general deriving all it has from the par- ticulars by which it exists. From this it is evident that as an angel twns his face and body to the Lord as a sun, all the in- teriors of his mind and body are turned in the same direCtion. It is the same with man, if he has the Lord constantly before his eyes, which is the case if he is in love and wisdom. He then looks to the Lord not only with eyes and face, but also with all the mind and all the heart, that is, with all things of the will and understanding, together with all things of the body. q8. This turning to the Lord is an aChIal turning, a kind of elevation; for there is an uplifting into the heat and light of heaven, which is done by the interiors becoming opened; and when these are opened, love and wisdom flow into the interiors ofthe mind, and the heat and light ofheaven into the interiors of the body. From this comes elevation, like a rising out of cloud into clear air, or out of air into ether. Moreover, love and wis- dom, with their heat and light, are the Lord with man; and He, as was said before, turns man to Himself: It is the reverse
  • DE DIVINO ·AMORE, PARS II.-N. 141• 5Set magis apud illos qui contra amorem et sapientiam sunt :illorum interiora tam mentis quam corporis clausa sunt ; etcum clausa sunt, exteriora reagunt contra Dominum, nam talis illis natura inest. lode est, quod illi se vertant retroa Domino; ac vertere se retro, est ad infernum. I3g. Conversio ilia aB:ualis ad Dominum est ex amoreet simul sapientia; non ex solo amore, nec ex sola sapi-entia; solus amor est sicut Esse absque suo Existere,arnor cnim existit in sapientia j et sapientia absque amoreest sicut Existere absque suo Esse, sapientia enim existitex amore. Datur quidem amor absque sapientia, sed illearnor est hominis et non Domini; et quoque datur sapien-tia absque amore, sed ilia sapientia est quidem a Domino,sed non habet Dorninum in se ; est enim sicut lux hiema-lis, quae quidem est a sole, sed tamen solis essentia, quaeest calor, non est in ilia.QUOD UNUSQUISQUE SPIRITUS, QUALISCUNQUE SIT, AD AMOREM 8UUM REGNANTEM SIMILITER SE VERTAT. LJO. Quid spiritus et quid angelus primum dicetur.Omnis homo post mortem primum in rnundum spirituum,qui est medius inter caelum et infernum venit, et ibi agitsua tempora seu suos status, et secundum vitam suampraeparatur vel ad caelum vel ad infernum. Quamdiu inilio mundo moratur, vocatur Ule spiritus. Qui ex illomundo elevatus est in caelum, ille vocatur angelus; quiautem dejeetus est in infernum, vacatur satanas vel dia-bolus. Quamdiu iidem in mundo spirituum sunt, vocaturille qui praeparatur ad caelum spiritus angelicus, et quiad infernum spiritus infernalis: spiritus angelicus intereaconjunCtus est cum caelo, ac spiritus infernalis cum inferno.Omnes spiritus, qui in mundo spirituum sunt, adjunBi sunthominibus, quia homines quoad interiora mentis suae simi-liter inter caelum et infernum sunt, et per spiritus illoscommunicant cum caelo vel cum inferno, secundum vitam.Sciendum est, quod aliud sit mundtts spir,·tuum et aliudmundus SPz,·y"tualis~· mundus spirituum est HIe de quo nuncdictum est; mundus autem spiritualis est in complexu etille mundus et caelum et infernum. I4I • Dicetur etiarn aliquid de amoribus, quia agiturde conversione angelorum et spirituum ex suis amoribus
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 136-141• 55with those who are not in love and wisdom, especially with thosewho are opposed to love and wisdom. Their interiors, both ofmind and body, are closed; and when closed, the exteriors re-aCtagainst the Lord, for such is their inherent nature. Conse-quently, such persons turn themselves backward from the Lord jand turning oneself backward is turning to hell. %39- This actual turning to the Lord is from love togetherwith wisdom; not from love alone, nor from wisdom alone; forlove alone is like an esse without its existere, since love has itsexistence in wisdom; and wisdom without love is like an exis-/ere without its esse, since wisdom has its existence from love.Love is indeed possible without wisdom; but such love is mans,and not the Lords. Wisdom also is possible without love;but such wisdom, although from the Lord, has not the Lord init; for it is like the light of winter, which is from the sun; stillthe suns essence, which is heat, is not in it.EvERY SPIRIT, WHATEVER. HIS QUALITY, TURNS IN LIKE KANNER TO HIS RULING LOVE. qe. It shall first be explained what a spirit is, and whatan angel is. Every, man after death comes, in the first place,into the world of spirits, which is midway between heaven andhell, and there passes through his own times, that is, his ownstates, and becomes prepared, according to his life, either forheaven or for hell. So long as one stays in that world he iscalled a spirit. He who has been raised out of that world intoheaven is called an angel; but he who has been cast down intohell is called either a satan or a devil. So long as these continuein the world of spirits, he who is preparing for heaven is calledan angelic spirit; and he who is preparing for hell, an infernalspirit j meanwhile the angelic spirit is conjoined with heaven,and the infernal spirit with hell. All spirits in the world ofspirits are adjoined to men; because men, in respeCt to the inte-riors of their minds, are in like manner between heaven andhell, and through these spirits, communicate with heaven orwith hell according to their life. It is to be observed that the .world of spirits is one th~g, and the spiritual world another;the world of spirits is that which bas just been spoken of; butthe spiritual world includes that world, and heaven and hell. 1fI- Since the subjeCt now under consideration is the turn-Ing of angels and spirits to their own loves by reason of these
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICA ad suos amores. Universum caelum in societates distinc- tum est secundum omnes differentias amorum j similiter infernum j et similiter mundus spirituum: sed caelum est distintium in societates secundum differentias amorum cae- lestium j infernum autem in societates secundum differen- tias amorum infernalium; mundus vero spirituum secun- dum differentias amorum tam caelestium quam infernalium. Sunt duo amores, qui sunt capita omnium reliquorum, seu ad quos se omnes reliqui amores referunt: amor qui caput, seu ad quem omnes amores caelestes se referunt, est amor in Dominum; et amor qui caput, seu ad quem se referunt omnes amores infernales, est amor dominandi ex amoresui. Illi bini amores sunt e diametro sibi oppositi. ~. Quoniam bini illi amores, amor in Dominum, etamor dominandi ex amore sui, sunt sibi prorsus oppositi,et quia omnes qui in amore in Dominum sunt se vertuntad Dominum ut Solem, ut in antecedente articulo osten-sum est, constare potest, quod omnes qui in amore domi-nandi ex amore sui sunt, se vertant retro a Domino.Quod ita ex opposito se vertant, est quia illi qui in amorein Dominum sunt, non plus amant quam duci a semet,et volunt ut ipsi soli dominentur. Dicitur amor dominandiex amore sui, quia datur amor dominandi ex amore faci-endi usus, qui amor, quia unum facit cum amore erga proxi-mum, est amor spiritualis; verum hlc amor non vocaripotest amor dominandi, sed amor faciendi usus. LI3. Quod unusquisque spiritus, qualiscunque sit, adamorem regnantem suum se vertat, est quia amor est vitacujusvis, (ut in Prima parte, n. 1-3, ostensum est,) et vitavertit receptacula sua, quae vocantur membra, organa etviscera, ita totum hominem, ad illam societatem quaein simili amore secum est, ita ubi suus amor est. LI4e Quoniam amor dominandi ex amore sui estprorsus oppositus amori in Dominum, ideo spiritus qui inamore illo dominandi sunt, faciem retro vertunt a Domino,et inde oculis speClant ad occidentem istius mundi; etquia sic in contrario versu quoad corpus sunt, a tergo illisest oriens, ad dextrum iBis est septentrio, et ad sinistrumillis est meridies: a tergo iltis est oriens, quia odio habentDominum; ad dextrum illis est septentrio, quia fallaciaset inde falsitates amant; et ad sinistrum iltis est meridies,quia lucem sapientiae spernunt. Possunt se circum et cir-
  • ANGELIC WISDOMloves, something shall be said about loves. The whole heaven isdivided into societies according to all the 4ifferences of loves; inlike manner hell, and in like manner the world of spirits. Butheaven is divided into societies according to the differences 01heavenly loves j hell, into societies, according to the differencesof infernal loves j and the world of spirits, according to thedifferences of loves both heavenly and infernal. There are twoloves which are the head of all the rest, that is, to which allother loves stand related; the love which is the head of allheavenly loves, or to which they all relate, is love to the Lord;and the love which is the head of all infemalloves, or to whichthey ~ relate, is the love of rule springing from the love of sel£These two loves are diametrically opposed to each other. ~. Since these two loves, love to the Lord and love ofrule springing from love of se~ are wholly opposed to eachother, and since all who are in love to the Lord tum to theLord as a sun (as was shown in the preceding article), it canbe seen that all who are in the love of rule springing from loveof selt turn their backs to the Lord. They thus face in oppo-site direClions, because those who are in love to the Lord lovenothing more than to be led by the Lord, and will that theLord alone shall rule; while those who are in the love of rulespringing from love of se~ love nothing more than to be led bythemselves, and will that themselves alone may rule. This iscalled a love of rule springing from love of self; because thereis a love of rule springing from a love of performing uses, whichis a spiritual love, because it makes one with love towards the neighbor. Still this cannot be called a love of rule, but a love of performing uses. LI3. Every spirit, of whatever quality, turns to his own ruling love, because love is the life of every one (as was shownin Part I., D. 1-3); and life turns its receptacles, called mem-bers, organs, and viscera, thus the whole man, to that societywhich is in a love similar to itselt thus where its own love is. LI4e Since the love of rule springing from love of selfis wholly opposed to love to the Lord, the spirits who are in that love of rule tum the face backwards from the Lord, and there-fore look with eyes to the west in the spiritual world ; and beingthus bodily in a reversed position, they have the east behindthem, the north at their right, and the south at their left. Theyhave the east behind them because they hate the Lord; theyhave t1te north at their right, because they love fallacies andfalsities therefrom i and they have the south at their left, because
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS II.-N. 146. 57cum vertere, sed omnia quae circum se vident, apparentamori suo similia. Sunt omnes illi naturales sensuales;et quidam tales ut opinentur se solos vivere, et spectentalios tanquam imagines: credunt se sapere super omnes,tametsi insaniunt. Lf.S. In mundo spirituali apparent viae, stratae sicutviae in mundo naturali; quaedam ducunt ad caelum, etquaedam ad infernum; sed viae, quae ducunt ad infernumnon apparent Ulis qui ad caelum eunt, nee viae quae du-cunt ad caelum apparent illis qui ad infernum eunt. Spntinnumerae tales viae, sunt enim. quae tendunt ad unam-quemvis societatem caeli, et ad unamquamvis societateminferni; unusquisque spiritus intrat viam quae ducit adsocietatem sui amoris, nec videt vias alia tendentes: indeest, quod unusquisque spiritus, sieut ad amorem suumregnantem "se vertit, etiam progrediatur.QUOD DIVINUS AMOR ET DIVINA SAPIENTIA, QUAE PROCEDUNT A DOMINO UT SOLE, ET FACIUNT CALOREM ET LUCEM IN CAELO, SIT DIVINUM PRO- CEDENS, QUOD EST SPIRITUS SANCTUS. Lf.6. In Dotln·na Novae Hieroso!ymu de Dominoostensum est, quod Deus unus sit Persona et Essentia, inquo trinitas, et quod ille Deus sit Dominus; tum quodTrinitas Ipsius nominetur Pater, Filius et Spiritus Sane-tus, ac quod Divinum a Quo nominetur Pater, DivinumHumanum Filius, ae Divinum Procedens Spiritus SanCtus.Dieitur Divinum procedens, et usque nemo seit unde estquod dicatur procedens; quod non sciatur, est quia hac-tenus ignotum fuit quod Dominus coram angelis appareatut Sol, et quod ex illo Sole procedat calor, qui in sua es-sentia est Divinus Amor, tum lux quae in sua essentia estDivina Sapientia; quamdiu haec ignota fuerunt, non po-tuit aliter sciri, quam quod Divinum procedens essetDivinum per se; quare etiam in Doctrina Trinitatis Atha-nasiana dicitur, quod alia Persona sit Patris, alia Filii, etalia Spiritus SanCl:i. Nunc autem quando scitur quod Do-minus ut Sol appareat, haberi potest justa idea de DivinoProcedente, quod vacatur Spiritus SanB:us, quod sit unumcum Domino, sed quod procedat ab Ipso, sicut calor et
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 142-146. 57they despise the light of wisdom. They may tum In everydireCUon, and yet all things which they see about them appearsimilar to their love. All such are sensual-natural; and someare of such a nature as to imagine that they alone live, lookingupon others as images. They believe themselves to be wiseabove all others, though, in truth, they are insane. Lf.5e In the spiritual world ways are seen, laid out likeways in the natural world; some leading to heaven, and someto hell; but the ways leading to hell are not visible to thosegoing to heaven, nor are the ways leading to heaven visible tothose going to bell. There are countless ways of this kind; forthere are ways which lead to every society of heaven and toevery society of hell. Each spirit enters the way which leadsto the society of his own love, nor does he see the ways leadingin other direCtions. Thus it is that each spirit, as he turDshimself to his ruling love, goes forward in it.DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOlI PROCEEDING FROK TBB LORD AS A SUN AND PRODUCING HEAT AND LIGHT IN HEAVEN, ARE THE PROCEEDING DIVINE, WHICH IS THE HOLY SPIRIT. q6. In TIle Donnne of 1M NefIJ Jerusalem concerning lileLord it has been shown, that God is one in person and essence,in whom there is a trinity, and that that God is the Lord;also, that the trinity in Him is called Father, Son, and HolySpirit; and that the Divine from which, [Creative Divine] iscalled the Father; the Human Divine, the Son; and the Pro-ceeding Divine, the Holy Spirit. The Divine is called " Proceed-ing," but the reason for its being so called is not known. I t isnot known, because until now it has been unknown that theLord appears before the angels as a sun, from which sun pro-ceeds heat which in its essence is Divine Love, together withlight which in its essence is Divine Wisdom. So long as thesethings were unknown, it could not be known that the Pro-ceeding Divine is not a Divine by itself j consequently the Atha-nasian doctrine of the trinity declares that there is one personof the Father, another of the Son, and another of .the HolySpirit. Now, however, when it is known that the Lord appearsas a SUD, a correa idea may be had of the Proceeding Divine,which is caned the Holy Spirit, that it is one with the Lord,but proceeds from Him, as heat and lig~t from a SUD. For the
  • 58 SAPIENTIA ANGELICA lux a sole: quae etiam causa est, quod quantum angeli in amore et sapientia sunt, tantum sint in Divino calore et Divina luee. Absque cognitione quod Dominus in mundo spirituali appareat ut Sol, et quod Divinum Ipsius ita procedat, nusquam aliquis scire potest, quid intelli- gitur per procedere, ut num solum sit communicare ilIa quae Patris et Filii sunt, aut solum illustrare et docere: sed usque sic ex ratione illustrata non est agnoscere id pro Divino per se, et !ocare Deum, ac distinguere, quando etiam notum fuit quod Deus unus sit, et Ille omnipraesens. Lf.7.· Supra ostensum est quod Deus non sit in spatio, et quod per id sit omnipraesens» tum quod Divinum sit idem, ubivis, sed quod apparens varium Ejus sit in ange- lis et hominibus ex varia receptione. Nunc quia Divinum procedens a Domino ut Sole est in luce et calore, ac lux et calor inftuunt primum in universalia recipientia, quae in mundo vocantur atmosphaerae, et hae sunt recipientia nubium; constare potest, quod quemadmodum interiora, quae sunt intelleaus apud hominem aut angelum, talibus nubibus circumvelata sunt, ita sit receptaculum Divini procedentis. Per nubes intelliguntur nubes spiritualesquae sunt cogitationes, quae si ex veris sunt, concordantcum Divina Sapientia, si autem ex falsis, discordant;quare etiam cogitationes ex veris in mundo spirituali,quando ad visum sistontur, apparent sicut nubes candidae,et cogitationes ex falsis sicut nubes atrae. Ex his con-stare potest, quod Divinum procedens sit quidem in omnihomine, sed quod ab ilio varie obveletur. Lf.S. Quoniam ipsum Divinum per calorem et lueemspiritualem in angelo et in homine est praesens, ideo dici-tur de illis qui in veris Divinae Sapientiae et in bonisDivini Amoris sunt, dum afficiuntur illis, et ex affeaionecogitant ex iltis de illis, quod inca/escant Deo, quod fitetiam quandoque ad perceptionem et sensationem, ut dumpraedicator ex zelo loquitur. De iisdem etiam dicitur,quod illustrentur a Dea, quia Dominus per Divinum suumprocedens non modo accendit volunl:atem calore spirituali,sed ~tiam illustrat intelleCtum luce spirituali. Lf.9. Quod Spiritus SanB:us sit idem cum Domino, etquod sit ipsa Veritas, ex qua homini est illustratio, patetex his locis in Verbo:
  • ANGELIC WISDOMsame reason angels are in Divine heat and Divine light just sofar as they are in love and wisdom. Without knowing thatthe Lord appears as a sun in the spiritual world, and that HisDivine thus proceeds, it can in no way be known what is meantby U proceeding," whether, for instance, it is simply communi-cating those things which are the Fathers and the Sons, orsimply enlightening and teaching. Yet since it has been knownthat GOd is one, and is omnipresent, it is not in accord withenlightened reason to recognize the Proceeding Divine as aDivine by itself; and to call it God, and thus divide God. Lf.7. It has been shown above that God is not in space,and that He is therefore omnipresent; also that the Divine isthe same everywhere, but that its apparent variety is in angelsand men from difference of reception. Now since the Proceed-ing Divine, from the Lord as a sun, is in light and heat, andlight and heat flow first into universal recipients, which in theworld are called atmospheres, and these are the recipients ofclouds, it can be seen that as the interiors pertaining to theunderstanding of man or angel, are veiled by such clouds, so ishe a receptacle of the Proceeding Divine. By clouds are meantspiritual clouds, which are thoughts. These, if from troths, arein accordance, but if from falsities, are at variance with DivineWisdom; consequently, in the spiritual world thoughts fromtruths, when presented to the sight, appear as shining whiteclouds, but thoughts from falsities as black clouds. From allthis it can be seen that the Proceeding Divine is indeed in everyman, but is variously veiled by each. Lf.8. As the Divine itself is present in angel and man byspiritual heat and light, those who are in the troths of DivineWisdom and in the goods of Divine Love, when affeCted bythese, and from affeCtion think from them and about them, aresaid to glow with love to God; this sometimes becomes soevident as to be perceived and felt, as when a preacher speaksfrom zeal. These same are also said to be enlightened by God,because the Lord, by his Proceeding Divine, not only kindlesthe will with spiritual heat, but also enlightens the understand-ing with spiritual light. qg. From the following passages in the W oni it is plainthat the Holy Spirit is the same as the Lord, and is truth itsel~from which man has enlightenment. JeftS aid, .. When the spirit of truth is come, he will guide you into an truth; he shall Dot speak of himself; but whataoever he shall __ heard. that shall he speak" UtJlm uL 13). .
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS II.-N. 15 2 • 59 JesUI dixit, II guando .• venerit Spiritus Veritatls, ducet VOl ia omDem veritatem; nOD •• 10quetur a se ipso, sed quaecunque audiverit, loquetur" (joj. xvi. 13). ullle Me glorificabit, quia ex Meo acctpiet, et annuntiabit vobls " (7.,4- xvi. 14, IS). Quod apud discipulos et in lllis erit (7006. [xiv. 17;] xv. 26). Jesus dixit, .. gu&e Ego loquor Yobis, spiritus .. et vita lunt" (7-.6. vi. 63) ;ex his patet, quod ipsa Veritas, quae a Domino procedit,dicatur Spiritus sanaus; quae quia in luce est, illustrate ISO. Illustratio, quae attribuitur Spiritui Sanao, estquidem in homine a Domino, sed usque fit mediis spiriti-bus et angelis; at qualis ilIa mediatio est, non patest ad-hue describi j solum quod angeli et spiritus nequicquampossint illustrare hominem a se, quia illi illustrantur simi-liter ac homo a Domino; et quia illi similiter illustrantur,sequitur quod omnis illustratio sit a solo Domino: quodsit mediis angelis aut spiritibus, est quia homo qui inillustratione est, ponitur tunc in medio talium angelorumet spirituum, qui illustrationem a solo Domino plus quamalii recipiunt.QUOD DOMINUS UNIVERSUM ET OMNIA EJUS MEDIO SOLE, QUI EST PRIMUM PROCEDENS DIVINI AMaRIS ET DIVINAE SAPIENTIAE, CREAVERIT. ISI. Per Dominum intelligitur Deus ab aeterno seuJehovah, qui Pater et Creator vacatur, quia unus est cumIlia, ut in Dollrina Novae HiI,osolymae de Domino osten-sum est: quare in sequentibus, ubi etiam de Creationeagitur, Dominus nominatur. xp. Quod omnia in universo a Divino AlIore et aDivina Sapientia creata sint, in Parte Prima plene osten-sum est (in specie, n.. 52, 53) ; hic nunc quod medio Sole.qui est primum procedens Divini Amaris et Divinae Sapi-entiae. Nemo qui potest videre effeetus ex causis, et deina causis effeaus in suo ordine et in serie, potest negarequin sol sit primum creationis, subsistunt enim ab illoomnia ilia quae in ejus mundo sunt; et quia subsistuntab illo, etiam exstiterunt ab ilIo; unum concludit ettestatur alterum; sunt enim omnia sub ejus intuitu, quiaposuit ut sint; ac tenere sub illo est continue ponere;
  • CONCERlUNG DIVDlB LOVE.-N. 147-1 52 • 59 .. He sball glorify :Ue; for be shall recelye of Mine, and abal1 abow it, unto you" VoAa xvi. 14, 15). That He will be with the disciples and In them LltI"" [zlv. 17;] xv. 16). JeBa8 said, U The words that I speak unto YOIl, tIaey are spirit and the, are life" UolIII vL 63). From these passages it is evident that the Truth itself which proceeds from the Lord, is caUed the Holy Spirit; and because it is in light, it enlightens. qo. Enlightenment, which is attributed to the Holy Spirit, is indeed in man from the Lord, yet it is effeCled by spirits and angels as mediums. But the nature of that mediation cannot yet be desaibed; only it may be said that angels and spirits can in no way enlighten man from themselves, because they, like man, are enlightened by the Lord; and as they are enlightened in like manner, it follows that aU enIighteD~ent is from the Lord alone. It is effeCled by angels or spirits as mediums, because the man when he is enlightened is placed in the midst of angeL and spirits who, more than others, receive enlightenment from the Lord alone. THE LORD CREATED THB UNIVERSE AND ALL THINGS THERE- OF BY MEANS OF THE SUN WHICH IS THE FIRST PRO- CEEDING OF DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM. I5~. By c the Lord" is meant God from eternity, that is, Jehovah, who is called Father and Creator, because He is one with Him, as has been shown in Tile DoBri1le of tile NeflI JertUtJJem eoneernmg tile LordI· consequently in the following pages, where also creation is treated o~ He is caUed the Lord. :KS-- That all things in the upiverse were created by Di- vine Love and Divine Wisdom was funy shown in Part I., (particularly in n. 52, 53); here now it is to be shown that this was done by means of the sun, which is the first proceeding of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom. No one who is capable of seeing effed:s by causes, and afterwards from causes effed:s in their order and sequence, can deny that the sun is the first of creation, for all the things that are in its world have perpetual existence from it; and because they have perpetual existence from it, their existence was derived from it. The one involves and is proof of the other; for all things are under the suns view, since it determined that they should be, and to hold under its view is to detennine perpetually; there- fore it is said that subsistence is perpetual existence. Ii; more-
  • 60 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAquare etiam [I]dicitur, quod subsistentia sit perpetua ex-istentia. Si etiam. aliquid subtraheretur prorsus a solisinftuxu per atmosphaeras, hoc illico dtssolveretur; atmo-sphaerae enim, quae sunt puriores et puriores, et a soleaB:uatae in potentia, omnia in nexu continent. Nuncquia subsistentia universi et omnium ejus est a sole, patetquod sol [2]sit primum creationis a quo. Dicitur, a sole, sedintelligitur a Domino per solem, nam sol etiam a Dominoest creatus. IS3. Sunt bini sales, per quos omnia a Domino ere-ata sunt; Sol mundi spiritulis et sol mundi naturalis. PerSolem mundi spiritualis a Domino sunt omnia creata, nonautem per solem mundi naturalis, nam hie sol est langeinfra ilIum Solem j est in media distantia; supra illum estmundus spiritualis, et infra ilIum est muodus naturalis ; etsol mundi naturalis creatus est, ut succenturiatam opemferat; de q1Ja ope in sequentibus dicetur. I54e Quod universum et omnia ejus media Sale mundispiritualis a Domino creata sint,. est quia ille Sol est pri-mum procedens Divini Amoris et Divinae Sapientiae, etex Divino Amore et ex Divina Sapientia sunt omnia, utsupra (n. 52-82) demonstratum est. Sunt tria quae inomni creato, tam maximo l3l quam minimo sunt ; finis, causaet effeetus. Creatum, in quo ilIa. tria non sunt, non datur.Haec tria in maximo seu in universo in hoc ordine existunt ;in Sale, qui est primum procedens Divini Amaris et Divi-nae Sapientiae, est finis omnium; in mundo spirituali suntcausae omnium; et in mundo naturali sunt effeaus omnium:quomodo autem haec tria in primis et in ultimis sunt, insequentibus dicetur. Nunc quia non datur creatum, inquo ilIa tria non sunt, sequitur quod universum et omniaejus, a Domino per Solem, ubi est finis omnium, creatussint. ISS. Ipsa creatio nOD potest ad captum trahi, si nona cogitatione removeantur spatium et tempus; at si haecremoventur, comprehendi potest. Remove, si potes, autquantum pates, et tene mentem in idea abstraeta a spatia e~ tempore, ac percipies maximum spatii et minimum spatii nihil differre; et tunc non pates habere nisi simi- lem ideam de creatione universi, <luam de creatione sinl?u-
  • .60 ANGELIC WISDOMover, any thing were to be withdrawn entirely from the sunsinflux through the atmospheres, it would insta~tly be dissipated;for the abnospheres, which are purer and purer, and are ren-dered active in power by the sun, hold all things in connec9:ion.Since, then) the perpetual existence of the universe, and ofevery thing ,pertaining to it, is from the sun, it is plain that thesun is the first of creation, from which [is all else]. The sunis spoken of as creating, but tllis means the Lord, by means ofthe sun; for the sun also is created by the Lord. I53. There are two suns through which all things, have beencreated by the Lord, the sun of the spiritual world and the sun of the natural world. All things were created by the Lordthrough the sun of the spiritual world, not through the sun of natural world, since the latter is far below the former; it isin middle distance; above it is the spiritual world, and below-it is the natural world. This sun of the natural world wascreated to render aid, as a kind of substitute j this aid will bespoken of in what follows. I54e The universe and all things thereof were created bythe Lord, the sun of the spiritual world serving as a medium,because that sun is the first proceeding of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, and from Divine Love and Divine Wisdom all things are (as was pointed out above, n. 52-82). In everything created, greatest as well as least, there are these three,end, cause and effec9:. A created thing in which these three are not, is impossible. In what is greatest, that is, in the uni-verse, these three exist in the following order; in the sun, whichis the first proceeding of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, isthe end of all things; in the spiritual world are the causes of allthings; in the natural world are the effec9:s of all things. How these three are in things first and last shall be shown in what follows. Since, then, no created thing is possible in which these three are not, it follows that the universe and all things thereof were created by the Lord through the SUD, - wherein is the end of all things. ISS- Creation itself cannot be brought within mans com- prehension unless space and time are removed from thought; but if these "are removed, it can be comprehended. Removing these if you can, or as much as you can, and keeping the mind in ideas abstracted from space and tiQIe, you will perceive that there is no difference between the maximum of space and the minimum of space; and then you cannot but have a similar idea of the creation of the universe as of the creation of the
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS II.-N. 157. 61 larium In universo; et quod diversitas in creatis existat ex eo, quod infinitain Deo Homine mnt, et inde indefi- nita in Sole qui est primum procedens ab Ipso, et haec in- definita existunt sicut in imagine in universo creato. lode est, quod non possit dari alicubi unum idem cum altero. Inde est varietas omnium, quae sistitur coram oculis una cum spatio in mundo naturali, et in apparentia spatii in mundo spirituali: ac varietas est communium et est sin-gularium. Haec sunt quae in Prima Parte sunt demon-strata: ut, Quod in Deo Homine Infinita distinCte unumsiDt (D. 17-22): Quod omnia in universo a Divino Amoreet Divina Sapientia creata sint (n. 52. 53): Quod omniain universo creato sint Divini Amoris et Divinae Sapien-tiae Dei Hominis recipientia (n. S4~): Quod Divinumnon sit in spatia (n. 7-10): Quod Divinum impleat omniaspatia absque spatia (n. 69-72): Quod Divinum in maxi-mis et minimis sit idem (n. 77-82). :1:56. Creatio universi et omnium ejus non dici potestfaCta a spatio ad spatium, nec a tempore ad tempus, itaprogressive et successive, sed ab Aeterno et ab Infinito;non ab aeterno temporis, quia hoc non datur, sed ab Ae-terno non temporis, hoc enim est idem cum Divino; necab infinito spatii, quia hoc nee datur, sed ab Infinito nonspatii, quod etiam est idem cum Divino. Scio quod haectranscendant ideas cogitationum quae sunt in naturaliluce, sed non transcendunt ideas cogitationum quae suntin spirituali luce, in his enim nihil spatii et temporis est:immo nec plane transcendunt in luee naturali; nam cumdicitur, quod infinitum spatii non detur, hoc quisque exratione affirmat; simile est cum aeterno, hoc enim estinfinitum temporise Si dicitur ,." aeternu"" hoc compre-henditur a tempore; non autem ab aete11UJ, nisi removeaturtempus.QUOD SOL MUNDI NATURALIS SIT PURUS IGNIS, ET INDE MORTUUS; ET QUOD NATURA, QUIA EX ILLO SOLE DUCIT ORIGINEM, SIT MORTUA. ~57. Ipsa creatio ne hilum potest adscribi soli Mundinaturalis, sed omnis Soli mundi spiritualis; quoniam sol
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 153-157. 61pertfcu1ars therein; you will also perceive that diversity inaeated things springs from this, that there are infinite things inGod-Man, consequently things without limit in the sun whichis the first proceeding from Him j these countless things arepresented as in an image, in the created universe. From thisit is that no one thing can anywhere be precisely like another.From this comes that variety of all things which is presented tosight, in the natural world together with space, but in the spirit-ual world with appearance of space; and it is a variety both of .generals and of particulars. These are the things which havebeen pointed out in Part I., where it is shown that in God-Maninfinite things are one distinaIy (n. 17-22); that all things inthe universe were created by Divine Love and Divine Wisdom,(n. 52, 53); that all things in the created universe are recipientsof the Divine Love and of the Divine Wisdom of God-Man(n.54-60); that the Divine is not in space (n. 7-10); that the Di-vine apart from space fills all spaces (n. 69-72); that the Divineis the same in things greatest and least (n. 77-82). IS6. The creation of the universe, and of all things thereotcannot be said to have been wrought from space to space, orfrom time to time, thus progressively or successively, but frometernity and from infinity j not from eternity of time, becausethere is no such thing, but from eternity not of time, for thisis the same with the Divine; nor from infinity of space, becauseagain there is no such thing, but from infinity not of space,which also is the same with the Divine. These things, I know,transcend the ideas of thoughts that are in natural light, butthey do not transcend the ideas of thoughts that are in spiritualJight, for in these there is nothing of space and time. Neitherdo they wholly transcend ideas that are in natural light; for.hen it is said that infinity of space is not possible, this is com-firmed by every one from reason. It is the same with eternity,for this is infinity of time. If you say "to eternity," it is com-prehensible from time; but CC from eternity" is Dot comprehen-sible, unless time is removed.THE SUN OF THB NATURAL WORLD IS PURE FIRE, CONSE- QUENTLY DEAD; NATURE ALSO IS DEAD, BECAUSE IT DElUVES ITS ORIGIN FROM THAT SUN. IS7. Creation itself cannot be ascribed in the least to theSUD of the natural world, but must be wholly ascribed to the SUD
  • 62 SAPIENTIA ANGELICA mundi naturalis est plane mortuus, at Sol mundi spiritua- lis est vivus; est enim primum procedens Divini Amoris et Divinae Sapientiae; et quod mortuum est, non agit quicquam a se, sed agitur: quare adscribere illi aliquid creationis, foret sicut adscribere instrumento, quod per manus artificis agitur, opus quod artifex facit. Est sol mundi naturalis purus ignis, a quo omne vitae abstra·aumest; at Sol mundi spiritualis est ignis in quo Vita Divinaest. Idea angelica de igne solis mundi naturalis, et deigne Solis mundi spiritualis, est haec: quod Vita Divinasit intus in igne Solis mundi spiritualis, at extus in ignesolis mundi naturalis. Ex eo videri potest, quod aCtua-litas solis naturalis non sit a se, sed a vi viva procedente aSole mundi spiritualis; quare si vis viva hujus Solis retra-heretur seu auferretur, sol ille collaberetur. lnde est, quodcultus solis sit omnium cultuum Dei infimus, est enimprorsus mortuus sicut ipse sol; quare Hie cultus in Verbavocatur "abominatio." . :1:58. Quoniam sol mundi naturalis est purus ignis, etinde ille mortuus, ideo etiam calor inde procedens estmortuus, similiter lux inde procedens est mortua: pariteratmosphaerae, quae vocantur aether et aer, ac in sinu suorecipiunt et deferunt calorem et lucem solis illius, suntmortuae. Quoniam haec sunt mortua, sunt etiam omniaet singula telluris, quae subjacent, et vocantur terrae,mortua. Sed usque omnia et singula circumcintia suntspiritualibus, quae e Sole mundi spiritualis procedunt etproftuunt; a quibus nisi circumcincta forent, terrae nonpotuissent actuari, et producere formas usuum, quae suntvegetabilia, nec formas vitae, quae sunt animalia ; nec sub-ministrare materias, per quas homo existat et subsistat. :1:59. Nunc quia natura inchoat a sole illo, et omneid quod ex illo existit et subsistit, vocatur naturale, se-quitur quod natura cum omnibus et singulis ejus sit mor-tua. Quod natura appareat in homine et in animali sicutviva, est ex vita quae comitatur et aCtuate :1:60. Quoniam infima naturae quae faciunt terras suntmortua, et ilia non sunt mutabilia et varia secundumst~tus affectionum et cogitationum, ut in mundo spirituali.sed immutabilia et fixa, ideo ibi spatia sunt, et spatiorumdistantiae sunt. Talia sunt, quia creatio ibi desiit, et in
  • 62 ANGELIC WISDOMof the spiritual world; because the sun of the natural world isaltogether dead; but the sun of the spiritual world is living; forit is the first proceeding of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom;and what is dead does not aCl: at all from itsel~ but is actedupon; consequently to ascribe to it anything of creation wouldbe like ascribing the work of an artificer to the tool which ismoved by his hands. The sun of the natural world is pure firefrom which everything of life has been withdrawn; but the sunof the spiritual world is fire in which is Divine Life. Theangelic idea of the fire of the sun of the natural world, and ofthe fire of the sun of the spiritual world, is this; that in thefire of the sun of the spiritual world the Divine Life is within,but in the fire of the sun of the natural world it is without.From this it can be seen that the aauating power of the naturalSUD is not from itsel~ but from a living force proceeding fromthe sun of the spiritual world; consequently if the living forceof that sun were withdrawn or taken away, the natural sunwould collapse. For this reason the worship of the sun is thelowest of all the forms of God-worship, for it is wholly dead"as the sun itself is, and therefore in the Word it is called c abomination. " I58. As the sun of the natural world is pure fire, andtherefore dead, the heat proceeding from it is also dead heat,likewise the light proceeding from it is dead; so also are theatmospheres, which are called ether and air, and which receivein their bosom and carry down the heat and light of that sun;and as these are dead so are each and all things of the earth whichare beneath the atmospheres, and are called soils, yet these,one and all, are encompassed by what is spiritual, proceeding andflowing forth from the sun of the spiritual world. Unless theyhad been so encompassed, the soils could not have been stirredinto activity, and have produced forms of uses, which are plants,Dor forms of life, which are animals; nor could have suppliedthe materials by which man begins and continues to exist. I59. Now since nature begins from that sun, and all thatsprings forth and continues to exist from it is called natural, itfollows that nature, with each and every thing pertaining thereto,is dead. It appears in man and animal as if alive, becauseof the life which accompanies and actuates it. I60. Since these lowest things of nature which form soilsare dead, and are not changeable and varying according tostates of affeCtions and thoughts, as in the spiritual world, butunchangeable and fixed, therefore in nature there are spaces and
  • DE DIVINO AMOR.E, PARS II.-N. 163. 63Bua quiete subsistit. Inde patet, quod spatia sint proprianaturae; et quia spatia ibi non sunt apparentiae spatio-rum secundum status vitae, ut in mundo spirituaIi, possuntilIa etiam vocari mortua. x6J:. Quoniam tempora similiter stata et constantiasunt, etiam ilIa sunt propria naturae, nam tempus diei estconstanter viginti quatuor horarum, et tempus anni estconstanter [I]trecentorum sexaginta quinque dierum acquartae partis diei. Ipsi status lucis et umbrae, ac calo-ris et frigoris, qui variant ilIa, constanter etiam re-deunt. Status qui redeunt quovis die, soot mane, merl-dies, vespera et nox; et quovis anno, sunt ver, aestas,autumnus et hiems. Status anni etiam constanter variantstatus dierum. Omnes hi status, quia non sunt statusvitae, ut in mundo spirituali, sunt quoque mortui; namin mundo spirituali est continua lux: et continuus calor,ac lux correspondet statui sapientiae, et calor statui amo-ris apud angelos, ex quo horum status sunt vivie x6-. Ex his videri potest fatuitas illorum, qui omnianaturae adscribunt. Illi qui pro natura se confirmarunt, in-duxerunt sibi statum, ut non amplius velint elevare men-tem supra naturam; quare mens eorum clauditur supe-rius et aperitur inferius, et sic fit homo naturalis sensualis,qui est spiritualiter mortuus; et quia tunc non cogitat nisiquam ex talibus quae hauserat ex sensibus corporis, seu perillos e mundo, etiam corde negat Deum. Tunc quia rupta estconjunCtio cum caelo, fit conjunCtio cum inferno, remanentesolum facultate cogitandi et volendi; facultate cogitandiex rationalitate, ac facultate volendi ex libero, quae duaefacultates sunt cuivis homini a Domino, nec auferuntur.Illae duae facultates sunt aeque diabolis ac sunt angelis;sed diaboli applicant illas ad insaniendum et ad malefacien-dum, at angeli ad sapiendum et ad benefaciendum.QUOD ABSQUE BINO SOLE, UNO VIVO ET ALTERO MOR- TUO, NON DETUR CREATIO. x63. Universum in genere distinaum est in duosmundos, spiritualem et naturalem. In mundo spiritualisunt angeli et spiritus; in mundo naturali sunt homines.
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-H. 158-163. 63spacial distances. There are such things, because creation hasthere terminated, and abides at rest. From this it is evidentthat spaces are a property of nature i and because in naturespaces are not appearances of spaces according to states of life,as they are in the spiritual world, these also may be called dead. x6x. Since times in like manner are settled and constant,they also are a property of nature; for the length of a day is con-stantly twenty-four hours, and the length of a year is constantlythree hundred and sixty-five days and a quarter. The very·states of tight and shade, and of heat and cold, which causethese periods to vary, are also regular in their return. Thestates which recur daily are morning, noon, evening, and night;those recurring yearly are spring, summer, autumn, and winter.Moreover, the annual states modify regularly the daily states.All these states are likewise dead because they are not states oflife, as in the spiritual world; for in the spiritual world there iscontinuous light and there is continuous heat, the light corre-sponding to the state of wisdom, and the heat to the stateof love witll the angels; consequently the states of these areJiving. x~ From all this the foolishness of those who ascnDe allthings to nature· can be seen. Those who have confirmedthemselves in favor of nature have brought themselves to sucha state that they are DO longer willing to raise the mind abovenature; consequently their minds are shut above and openedbelow. Man thus becomes natural-sensual, that is, spirituallydead; and because he then thinks only from such things as hehas imbibed from his bodily senses, that is, through the sensesfrom the world, be at heart even denies God. Then becauseconjunction with heaven is broken, conjunaion with hell takesplace, the capacity to think. and will alone remaining; thecapacity to think, from rationality, and the capacity to wiD, fromfreedom j these two capacities every man has from the Lord, norare they ever taken away. These two capacities devils have, thesame as angels; but devils devote them to insane thinking andevil doing, but angels to becoming wise and doing good.WITHOUT A DOUBLE SUN, ONE LIVING AND TRB OTHBR. DEAD, NO CUATION IS POSSIBLE. ~63. The universe in general is divided into two worlds,the spiritual and the natural. In the spiritual world are angels
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICADuo illi mundi prorsus similes quoad externam faciem sunt, ita similes ut non distingui possint, at quoad inter- nam faciem prorsus dissimiles sunt. Ipsi homines qui inmundo spirituali sunt, qui ut diCtum est, vocantur angeliet spiritus, sunt spirituales; et quia spirituales sunt, spiri-tualiter cogitant et spiritualiter loquuntur: at hominesqui in naturali mundo suot, naturales sunt, et ideo natu-raliter cogitant et naturaliter loquuntur; ac cogitatio etloquela spiritualis cum cogitatione et loquela naturali ni-hil commune habet. Ex eo patet, quod duo illi mundi,spiritualis et naturalis, inter se prorsus distintli sint, adeout nullo modo simul esse possint. x6~ Nunc quia duo illi mundi ita distinCli sunt, ne-cessum est ut bini soles sint, unus ex quo omnia spiritu-alia sunt, et alter ex quo omnia naturalia: et quia omniaspiritualia in sua origine sunt viva, et omnia naturalia exsua origine mortua, ac soles sunt origines, sequitur quodunus Sol vivus sit, et quod alter sol mortuus sit: tum quodipse sol mortuus per Solem vivum a Domino creatus sit. x65. Quod sol mortuus creatus sit, est ob causam utin ultimis omnia fixa, stata et constantia sint, ac ut indeexistant quae perennatura et perduratura sunt: ita nonaliter fundatur creatio. Orbis terraqueus, in quo, superquo et circum quem, talia sunt, est sicut basis et firma-mentum, nam est ultimum opus, in quod omnia desinunt,et super quo quiescunt. Quod etiam sit sicut matrix, exqua effetlus, qui sunt fines creationis, producuntur, insequentibus dicetur. x66. Quod omnia a Domino per Solem vivum creatasint, et nihil per solem mortuum, constare patest ex eo,quod vivum disponat mortuum ad sui obsequium, et formetillud ad usus, qui sunt fines ejus; non autem vicissim.Cogitare quod omnia a natura sint, et quod ab ilIa etiamsit vita, non potest nisi quam orbatus ratione; is non scitquid vita. Natura non potest disponere vitam ad quic-quam, est enim natura in se prorsus iners. Quod mortuumin vivum, seu vis mortua in vim vivam, seu quod idem,naturale in spirituale, agat, est prorsus contra ordinem, etinde id cogitare est contra sanae rationis lumen. Potestquidem mortuum, seu naturale, multis modis ab externis
  • ANGELIC WISDOMand spirits, in the natural world men. In external appearancethese two worlds are entirely alike, so alike that they cannotbe distinguished; but internally they are entirely unlike. Themen themselves in the spiritual world, who (as was said above)are called angels and spirits, are spiritual, and, being spiritual,they think spiritually and speak spiritually. But the men ofthe natural world are natural, and therefore think naturally andspeak naturally j and spiritual thought and speech have nothingin common with natural thought and speech. From this itis plain that these two worlds, the spiritual and the natural, areentirely distinct from each other, so that they can in no respeCl:be together. I6+ Now as these two worlds are so distinCl, it is neces-sary that there should be two suns, one from which all spiritualthings are, and another from which all natural things are.And as all spiritual things in their origin are living, and allnatural things from their origin are dead, and these origins aresuns, it follows that the one sun is living and the other dead jalso, that the dead sun itself is created by the Lord throughthe living sun. x6S. A dead sun was created to this end, that in outmostsall things may be fixed, settled, and constant, and thus theremay be fonns of existence which shall be pennanent and durable.In this and in no other way is creation founded. The terra-queous globe, in which, upon which, and about which, suchthings exist, is a kind of base and support; for it is the outmostwork [ulJimum ojnu], in which all things terminate, and uponwhich they rest. It is also a kind of matrix, out of whicheffeCl:s, which are ends of creation, are produced, as will beshown in what follows. I66. That every thing was created by the Lord throughthe living sun, and nothing through the dead sun, can be seenfrom this, that what is living disposes what is dead in submis-sion to itsel~ and fonns it for uses, which are its ends; but thereverse never occurs. Only a person bereft of reason and whois ignorant of what life is, can think that all things are fromnature, that life even comes from nature. Nature cannot dis-pense life to anything, since nature in itself is wholly inert.For what is dead to aa upon what is living, or for dead force toaa upon living force, or, what is the same. for the natural to aelupon the spiritual, is entirely contrary to order, therefore so tothink is contrary to the light of sound reason. What is dead,that is, the natural, may indeed in many ways be perverted or
  • I DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS II.-N. 16g. 6Saccidentibus perverti aut mutari, at usque non patestagere in vitam; sed vita in illud secundum induCtam mu-tationem formae agit. Hoc idem est cum influxu physicoin spirituales animae operationes; qui quod non detur,quia non dabilis, notum est.QUOD FINIS CREATIONIS EXISTAT IN ULTIMIS, QUI EST, UT OMNIA REDEANT.AD CREATOREM, AC UT SIT CONIUNCTIO. ~67. Primum aliquid dicetur de finibus. Suot tria quae sequuntur in ordine, quae vocantur finis primus, finis medius et finis ultimus; et quoque vocantur finis, causa et effeCtus. Ilia tria simul erunt in omni re, ut sit aliquid ; nam finis primus absque fine medio, et simul ultimo, non datur; seu quod idem est, finis salus absque causa et effeClu non datur; pariter nee datur causa sola absque fine ex quo, et absque effeCtu in quo; pariter nec datur effeaus solus, seu effeCtus absque causa et ejus fine. Quodita sit, potest comprehendi si cogitatur quod finis absque effeCtu seu separatus ab effeClu non sit aliquid existens,quare non est nisi quam vox. Nam finis ut aCtualiter sitfinis, erit terminatus, et terminatus est in effeClu, in quo primum vocatur finis quia est finis. Apparet sicut agensseu efficiens per se existat; sed hoc est apparentia ex eoquod sit in effe8:u; sed si separatur ab effeB:u. momentodisparatur. Ex his patet, quod tria ilia, finis, causa eteffeClus erunt in omni re, ut sit aliquid. x68. Porro sciendum est, quod finis sit omne in causa,et quoque omne in effeClu: inde est. quod finis, causa eteffe8:us, dicantur finis primus, medius et ultimus. Sed utfinis sit omne in causa, erit aliquid ex fine in "quo erit ; acut sit omne in effe8:u, erit aliquid ex fine per causam, inquo erit; finis enim non patest in se solo esse, sed erit inaliquo existente a se, cui quoad omne luum inesse potestet agendo efficere, usque dum subsistit. Id in quo sub-sistit est finis ultimus, qui vocatur effeClus. x6g. In universo creato, t.am in ejus maximis quamin ejus minimis, sunt tria ilia, nempe finis, causa et etreCtus.
  • CONCER.NING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 164-168. 65changed by external accidents, but it cannot atl upon life;on the contrary life aas into it, according to the inducedchange of form. It is the same with physical influx into thespiritual operations of the soul; this, it is known, does notoccur, for it is not possible.THE END OF CREATION HAS EXISTENCE IN OUTMOSTS, WHICH END IS THAT ALL THINGS MAY RETURN TO THE CRE:- ATOR. AND THAT THERE MAY BE CONJUNCTION. x67. In the first place, something shall be said about ends.There are three things which follow in order, called first end,middle end, and last end; they are also called end, cause, andeffeCt These three must be together in every thing, that itmay be anything. For a first end without a middle end, andat the same time a last end, is impossible; or, what is the same,an end alone, without a cause and an effeCt is impossible.Equally impossible is a cause alone without an end from whichand an effeCt in which it is, or an effect alone, that is, an effeCtwithout its cause and end. That this is so may be compre-hended if it be observed that an end without an effeCt, that is,separated from an effea, is a thing destitute of existence, andtherefore a mere term. For in order that an end may aauallybe an end it must be terminated, and it is terminated in itseffeCt, wherein it is first called, because it is first, an end. Itappears as if the agent or the efficient exists by itself j but thisso appears from its being in the effeCt; but if it is separatedfrom the effeCt it instantly vanishes. From all this it is evidentthat these three, end, cause, and effeCt, must be in every thingto make it anything. . x68. It must be known further, that the end is everythingin the cause, and everything in the effeCt; from this it is thatend, cause, and effeCt, are called first end, middle end, and lastend. But that the end may be everything in the cause, theremust be something from the end in the cause wherein the endmust be; and that the end may be everything in the effeCt,there must be something from the end through the cause, inthe effeB:, wherein the end must be. The end cannot be initself alone, but must be in something having existence from it,in which it can dwell as to all that is its own, and by aB:ing,come into effeCt, until it has permanent existence. That inwhich it has permanent existence is the last end, which iscalled effeCt.
  • 66 SAPIENTIA ANGELICA Quod tria ilIa in universi crea~i maximis et minimis sint,est quia in Deo Creatore, qui est Dominus ab aeterno,suot tria ilia. Sed quia Infinitus est, et infinita in Infinitosunt distincte unum (ut supra, D. 17-22, demonstratumest), ideo quoque tria ilia in Ipso, et tria in infinitis IpsiusdistinB:e unum sunt. Inde est, quod universum·, quodcreatum est ab Ipsius Esse, et quoad usus spectatum estimago Ipsius, obtinuerit tria ilia in omnibus et singulissuis. . I70. Finis universalis seu omnium creationis est, utconjunClio aeterna Creatoris sit cum universo creato; etilIa non datur nisi subjetta sint, in quibus Divinum Ipsiuspotest esse sicut in se, ita in quibus potest habitare etmanere; quae subjecta, ut sint habitacula et mansionesIpsius, erunt recipientia Amoris et Sapientiae Ipsius sicuta se, ita qui se sicut a se elevaturi sint ad Creatorem, etse conjunauri cum Ipso. Absque hoc reciproco non da-tur conjunB:io. Haec subjeCla sunt homines, qui se sicuta se elevare et conjungere possunt. Quod homines taliasubjeCla sint, et quod recipientes Divini sint sicut a se,supra pluries demonstratum est. Per illam conjunctionemest Dominus praesens in omni opere ab Ipso creato: namomne creatum est finaliter propter hominem; quare ususomnium quae creata sunt, ascendunt per gradus ab ulti-mis ad hominem, et per hominem ad Deum Creatorem aquo, ut supra (n. 65-68) ostensum est. I7I.. Creatio ad ultimum hune finem v~dit continueper tria ilIa, quae sunt finis, causa, et effeaus, quia inDomino Creatore tria ilIa sunt. ut mox supra diCtum est;et Divinum est in omni spatio absque spatio (n. 69-72),et in maximis et minimis idem (n. 77-82): ex quo patet,quod universum creatum in communi progressione adfinem ultimum, sit finis medius respective; ex tellure enima Domino Creatore elevantur continue formae usuum insuo ordine usque ad hominem, qui quoad corpus etiaminde est: homo dein elevatur per receptionem amoris etsapientiae a Domino; ac ut amorem et sapientiam reci-piat, media omnia provisa sunt; ae talis est faCtus ut re-cipere possit, si modo velit. Ex nunc di8:is videri potest,tametsi adhue non nisi quam communiter, quod finis crea-
  • 66 AHGBLIC WISDOK xfi9. These three, namely, end, cause, and effed:, are inthe created universe, both in its greatest and least parts. Theyare in the greatest and least parts of the created universe,because they are in God the Creator, who is the Lord frometernity. But since He is Infinite, and in the Infinite infinitethings are one distinClly (as was shown above, n. 17-22), there-{ore also these three in Him, and in His infinites, are one dis..tinaIy. From this it is that the universe, which was created(rom His Esse, and which, regarded as to uses, is His image,possesses these three in all its parts, both general and par-ticular. I70. The universal end, that is, the end of all things ofcreation, is that there may be an eternal conjunaion of theCreator with the created universe j and this is not possible unless there are subje& wherein His Divine can be as in Itself, thus in which it can dwell and abide. In order that thesesubjeCts may be dwelling-places and mansions of Him, theymust be recipients of His love and wisdom as of themselves;such, therefore, as will elevate themselves to the Creator as ofthemselves, and conjoin themselves with Him. Without thisability to reciprocate no conjunction is possible. These sub-jeCts are men, who are able as of themselves to elevate andconjoin themselves. That men are such subjeCl:s, and that theyare recipients of the Divine as of themselves, has been pointedout above many times. By means of this conjunClion, theLord is present in every work created by Him; for everythinghas been created for man as its end; consequently the uses ofall created things ascend by degrees from outmosts to man,and through man to God the Creator from whom [are allthings] (as was shown above, n. 65-68). I7x. To this last end creation progresses continually,through end, cause, and effeCl:, because these three are in theLord the Creator (as was said just above) j also the Divine apartfrom space is in all space (n. 6g-72) j and is the same in things greatest and least (n. 77-82) j from which it is evident that the created universe, in its general progression to its last end, isrelatively the middle end. For out of the earth forms ofuses are continually raised by the Lord the Creator, in theirorder up to man, who as to his body is also from it. There-after, man is elevated by the reception of love and wisdomfrom the Lord j and for this reception of love and wisdom,all means are provided; and he has been so made as to beable to receive, if he will. From what has now been said it
  • DE DIVINO AMORE~ PARS II.-N. 172• 67tionis existat in ultimis; qui est ut omnia redeant adCreatorem, ac ut sit conjunCl:io. x,__ Quod tria ilIa, finis, causa et effeaus sint in om-nibus et singuIis, quae creata, sunt, constare etiam potestex eo, quod omnes effeCl:us, qui vocantur fines ultimi, fiante novo fines primi in continua serie a Primo, qui est Do-minus Creator", usque ad ultimum, qui est conjunCtio homi-nis cum Ipso. Quod omnes fines ultimi e novo fiant finesprimi, patet inde, quod non detur aliquid tale iners etmortuum, ut nihil efficientis sit in illo. Etiam ex arenaexspirat tale, quod confert opem ad aliquid producendum,ita ad aliquid efficiendum.·
  • CONC~R.NING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 16g-1 72 • 67can be seen, though as yet only in a general manner, that theend of creation has existence in OUOllost things; which end is,that all things may return to the Creator, and that there maybe conjunaion. X7~ That these three, end, cause, and effe8:, are in eachand everything created, can also be seen from this, that alleffeCls, which are called last ends, become anew first ends inuninterrupted succession from the First, who is the Lord theCreator, even to the last end, which is the conjunClion of manwith Him. That all last ends become anew first ends is plainfrom this, that there can be nothing so inert and dead as tohave no efficient power in it. Even out of sand there is a kindof exhalation, such as gives power to produce, and therefore toefteCl something.
  • 68 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAQUOD IN llUNDO SPIRITUALI SINT ATKOSPHAERAE, AQtJAE ET TERRAE, QUEMADMODUM: IN MUNDO NATURALI j SED QUOD ILLAE SINT SPIRITUALES, HAE AUTEM NATURALES. X73. Quod mundus spiritualis et muodus naturalis similes sint, cum sola differentia, quod omnia et singula mundi spiritualis sint spirituali" ac omnia et singula mundi naturalis sint naturalia, in antecedentibus dictum est, etin opere De Caelo et Inferno ostensum. Quoniam duo illi mundi similes sunt, ideo in utrisque sunt atmosphaerae,aquae et terrae, quae sunt communia, per quae et ex quibusomnia et singula cum infinita varietate existunt. I7~ Quod atmosphaeras, quae aetheres et aeres vo-cantur, attinet, sunt illae in utroque mundo, spirituali etnaturali, similes, cum differentia, quod illae in mundo spi-rituali sint spirituales, et illae in mundo naturali sint natu-rales. Spirituales Bunt, quia a Sole, qui est primum pIO-cedens Divini Amoris et Divinae Sapientiae Domini,existunt, et ab Ipso recipiunt in se Divinum ignem qui estamor, et Divinam lucem quae est sapieritia, et utrumquedeferunt ad caelos ubi sunt angeli; et faciunt praesentiamSolis illius in maximis et in minimis ibi. Atmosphaeraespirituales sunt substantiae discretae, seu minimae formae,oriundae a Sole; et quia singillatim recipiunt Solem, indeignis Solis in tot substantias seu formas divisus, et ab illisquasi involutus, ac per involutiones temperatus, fit calor,adaequatus tandem amori angelorum in caelo, ac spirituumsub caelo: similiter lux Solis. Atmosphaerae naturalesin eo sunt similes atmosphaeris spiritualibus, quod etiamsint substantiae discretae et minimae formae, oriundae asole mundi naturalis, quae quoque singillatim recipiuntsolem, et ignem ejus in se recondunt, ac ilIum temperant,
  • 68 ANGELIC WISDOMIN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD THERE AR.E ATMOSPHERES, WATERS AND EARTHS, JUST AS IN THE NATURAL WORLD; ONLY THE FOR.KER. AU SPIllITUAL, WHILE THE LATTER. ARE NATURAL. X73. It has been said in the preceding pages, and shownin the work on He.vm and Hell, that the spiritual world islike the natural world, with the difference only that each andevery thing of the spiritual world is spiritual, and each andevery thing of the natural world is natural. As these t-Oworlds are alike, there are in both, atmospheres, waters, andearths, which are the generals through and from which eachand all things have their existence with infinite variety. x7+ As regards the atmospheres, which are called ethersand airs, they are alike in both worlds, the spiritual and thenatural, except that they are spiritual in the spiritual world, andnatural in the natural world. The fonner are spiritual, becausethey have their existence from the sun which is the first proceed-ing of the Divine Love and Divine Wisdom of the Lord, andfrom Him receive within them the Divine fire which is love,and the Divine light which is wisdom, and carry these down tothe heavens where the angels dwell, and cause the presence ofthat sun there in things greatest and least. The spiritual at-mospheres are divided substances, that is, minute fonns, origin-ating from the sun. As these each singly receive the sun, itsfire, distributed among so many substances, that is, so manyforms, and as it were enveloped by them, and tempered by.these envelopments, becomes heat, adapted finally to the loveof angels in heaven and of spirits under heaven. . The same istrue of the light of that sun. In this the natural atmospheresare like spiritual atmospheres, that they also are divided sub-stances or minute forms originating from the sun of the naturalworld; these also singly receive the sun and store up its fire in
  • DE DIVINO AMOREt PARS III.-N. 177. 6g ac ut calorem deferunt ad tellurem ubi sunt homines; et similiter lucem. X75. Differentia inter atmosphaeras spirituales et inter atmosphaeras naturales est, quod atmosphaerae spirituales sint receptacula Divini ignis et Divinae lucis, ita amoris etsapieJ1tiae, intus enim in se ilIa continent: ast atmosphae-rae naturales non sunt receptacula Divini ignis et Divinaelucis, sed sunt receptacula ignis et lucis sui solis, qui in seest mortuus, ut supra ostensum est; quare intus in illis non est aliquid ex Sole mundi spiritualis, sed usque ambiun- tur ab atmosphaeris spiritualibus quae ex ilia Sole sunt.Quod haec differentia sit inter atmosphaer!ls spirituales etinter atmosphaeras naturales est ex sapientia angelica. x76. Quod atmosphaerae sint in mundo spirituali,aeque ac in mundo naturali, constare potest ex eo, quodangeli et spiritus aeque respirent, tum aeque Ioquantur, etquoque audiant sicut homines in mundo naturali, ac respi-ratio fit per atmosphaeram uitimam quae aer vocatur, si-militer loquela et auditus: tum ex eo, quod angeli etspiritus aeque videant, sicut homines in mundo naturali;ac visus non datur nisi quam per atmosphaeram aere puri-orem: tum ex eo, quod angeli et spiritus aeque cogitentet afficiantur sicut homines in mundo naturali, ac cogita-tio et affe8:io non dantur nisi mediis atmosphaeris adhucpurioribus: et tandem ex: eo, quod omnia corporis ange-lorum et spirituum, tam externa quam interna, contine-antur in nexu, externa ab atmosphaera aerea, ac internaab atmosphaeris aethereis. Quod absque illarum atmo-sphaerarum circumpressione et aClione formae corporisinteriores et exteriores diffiuerent, patet. Quoniam angelisunt spirituales, ac omnia et singula corporis eorum conti-nentur in nexu, forma et ordine per atmosphaeras, sequi-tur quo~ atmosphaerae illae sint spirituales; ac spiritualessunt, quia oriuntur a Sole spirituali, qui est primum pro-cedens Divini Amaris et Divinae Sapientiae Domini. x77. Quod in mundo spirituali etiam aquae sint, etquoque terrae sint, sicut in mundo naturali, cum differentiaquod aquae et terrae mundi spiritualis sint spirituales,supra diaum est, et in opere De Caelo et Inferno osten-sum; quae quia spirituales sunt, aCl:uantur et modificanturper calorem et lucem Solis spiritualis mediis atmosphaeris
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 173- 1 77. 69 themselves, and temper it, and carry it down as heat to earth, where men dwell. The same is true of natural light. x75. The difference between spiritual and natural atmo- spheres is that spiritual atmospheres are receptacles of Divine fire and Divine light, thus of love and wisdom, for they enclosct these interiorly within them; while natural atmospheres are receptacles, not of Divine fire and Divine light, but of the fire and light of their own sun, which in itself is dead, as was shown above; consequently there is nothing interiorly in them from the sun of the spiritual world, although they are envi.roned by spiritual atmospheres from that sun. This difference between spiritual and natural atmospheres has been learned from the wisdom of angels. I76. That there are atmospheres in the spiritual, just as in the natural, world, can be seen from this, that angels and spirits breathe, and also speak and hear just as men do in the natural world; and respiration, speech, and hearing are aU effeCled by means of a lowest atmosphere, which is called air; it can be seen also from this, that angels and spirits, like men in the natural world, have sight, and sight is possible only by means of an atmosphere purer than air; also from this, that angels and spirits like men think and are moved by affeClion, and thought and affeCtion are not possible except by means of still purer atmospheres; and finally from this, that all parts of the bodies of angels and spirits, external as well as internal, are held together in conneClion by atmospheres, the external by air and the internal by ethers. Without the surrounding pressure and action of these atmospheres the interior and exterior forms of the body would evidently dissolve away. Since angels are spiritual, and each and all things of their bodies are held to- gether in conneClioD, form, and order by means of atmospheres, it follows that these atmospheres are ~piritual; they are spirit- ual, because they arise from the spiritual sun which is the first proceeding of the Lords Divine Love and Wisdom. " x77. That there are also waters and lands in the spiritual as well as in the natural world, with the difference that these waters and lands are spiritual, has been said above and has been shown in the work on Heaven and HeO; and because these are spiritual, they are moved and modified by the heatand light of the spiritual sun, the atmospheres therefrom serv- ing as mediums, just as waters and lands in the natural world are moved and modified by the heat and light of the sun of · their world, its atmospheres serving as mediums.
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICA7°inde, prorsus sicut aquae et terrae in mundo naturali per ca-lorem et lucem solis sui mundi mediis atmosphaeris ejus. x78. Atmosphaerae, aquae et terrae hie dicuntur, quiailia tria suot eommunia, per quae et ex quibus omnia etsingula cum infinita varietate existunt. Atmosphaeraesunt vires a8:ivae, aquae sunt vires mediae, et terrae suntvires passivae, ex quibus omnes effeaus existunt. Quodilia tria tales vires sint in sua serie, est unice ex vita, quae·a Dom~no ut Sole procedit, et quae facit ut sint aCtivae.QUOD GRADUS AMORIS ET SAPIENTIAE SINT, ET INDE GRADUS CALORIS ET LUCIS, TUM GRADUS ATKO- SPHAERARUM. I7g. Nisi sciatur quod gradus sint, tum quid sunt, etquales, non comprehendi possunt sequentia, quoniam inomni re creata sunt gradus, ita in omni forma; quare inhac Parte Sapimtiu AngeliclU de gradibus agetur. Quodgradus amoris et sapientiae sint, manifeste constare potestex angelis trium caelorum. Angeli tertii eaeli [dexcel1untamore et sapientia prae angelis secundi caeli, et hi praeangelis ultimi caeli, in tantum, ut non possint simul esse;gradus amoris et sapientiae distinguunt et separant illos.Inde est, quod angeli inferiorum caelorum non ascenderepossint ad angelos superiorum caelorum j et si Hlis daturut ascendant, tunc non vident illos, nee aliquid quod estapud illos. Causa quod non videant ilIas. est quia amoret sapientia illorum est in superiori gradu, qui perceptio-nem transcendit: unusquisque enim angelus est suusamor et sua sapientia, ac amor una cum sapientia est insua forma homo, quia Deus, qui est ipse Amor et ipsaSapientia, est Homo. Datum est mihi aliquoties videre,quod angeli ultimi caeli ascenderint ad angelos tertiicaeli; et cum illuc enisi sunt, audivi illos conquestos, quodnon videant aliquem, et usque erant in medio illorum. Etpostea instructi sunt, quod illis inconspicui fuerint, quiaamor et sapientia eorum imperceptibiles iBis essent, et quodamor et sapientia faciant ut angelus appareat ut homo. I80. Quod gradus amoris et sapientiae dentur, adhucmanifestius patet ex amore et sapientia angelorum re-
  • ANGELIC WISDOM7° ~78. Atmospheres, waters, and lands are here mentioned,because these three are the generals, through and from whicheach and all things have their existence in infinite variety.The atmospheres are the aelive forces, the waters are themediate forces, and the lands are the passive forces, from whichall effeCts have existence. These three forces are such in theirseries solely by virtue of the life which proceeds from the Lordas a sun, and which makes them active. .THERE AR.E DEGItEES 0., LOVE AND WISDOM, CONSEQUENTLY DEGREES OF HEAT AND LIGHT, ALSO DEGllEES OF ATKO- SPHERES. ~7g. The things which are to follow cannot be compre-hended unless it be known that there are degrees, also whatthey are, and what their nature is, because in every createdthing, thus in every form, there are degrees. This Part ofAngelie Wudom will therefore treat of degrees. That there aredegrees of love and wisdom can be clearly seen from the faathat there are angels of the three heavens. The angels of thethird heaven so far exce1 the angels of the second heaven in loveand wisdom, and these, the angels ofthe lowest heaven, that theycannot be together. The degrees of love and wisdom distin-guish and separate them. It is from this that angels of thelower heavens cannot ascend to angels of higher heavens, or ifallowed to ascend, they do not see the higher angels or any-thing that is about them. They do not see them because thelove and wisdom of the higher angels is of a higher degree,transcending the perception of the lower angels. F or each angelis his own love and his own wisdom; and love together withwisdom in its form is a man, because God, who is Love itselfand Wisdom itsel~ is a Man. It has sometimes been permittedme to see angels of the lowest heaven who have ascended tothe angels of the third heaven; and when they had made theirway thither, I have heard them complaining that they did notsee anyone, and all the while they were in the midst of thehigher angels. Afterwards they were instntCled that thoseangels were invisible to them because their love and wisdomwere imperceptible to them, and that love and wisdom are whatmake an angel to appear as a ~an. ~ That there must be degrees of love and wisdom isstill more evident when the love and wisdom of angels are
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, lARS III.-N. 182. 71spective ad amorem et sapientiam hominum. Quod sapi-entia angelorum respeB:ive sit ineffabiHs, notum est; quodetiam sit hominibus, quando in naturali amore sunt, in-comprehensibilis, videbitur in sequentibus. Causa quodineffabilis et incomprehensibilis appareat, est quia in supe-riori gradu est. I8I. Quoniam gradus amoris et sapientiae sunt, etiamgradus caloris et lucis sunt. Per calorem et lucem intel-liguntur calor et lux spirituales, quales sunt angelis incaeIis, et quales sunt hominibus quoad interiora quae suntmentis eorum, nam hominibus similis calor amoris est; etsimilis lux sapientiae est, quae sunt angelis. In caelis itaest: qualis et quantus est angelis amor, talis et tantus estillis calor; similiter lux quoad sapientiam: causa est,quia amor in calore est, et sapientia in luce apud illos, utprius ostensum est. Simile est in terris apud homines,cum differentia tamen, quod angeli sentiant calorem ilIum,ac videant lucem illam, non autem homines; ex causaquia homines in calore et luce naturali sunt, et tamdiu nonsentiunt calorem spiritualem, nisi quam per quoddam amo-ris jucundum, ac vident lucem spiritualem nisi quam perperceptionem veri.. Nunc quia homo, dum in naturalicalore et luce est, nihil scit de calore et luce spiritualiapud se, et hoc non sciri potest quam per experientiame mundo spirituali, ideo de calore et de luce, in quibussunt angeli ac caeli illorum, hie imprimis dicetur. Indeet non aliunde datur in hac re illustratio. I82. Sed gradus caloris spiritualis non possunt ab ex-perientia describi, quia amor, cui calor spiritualis corre-spondet, non ita cadit sub ideas cogitationis; sed graduslucis spiritualis possunt describi, quia lux cadit, est enimhaee cogitationis. Ex gradibus lucis usque comprehendipossunt gradus caloris spiritualis, sunt enim in parili gradu.Quod itaque lucem spiritualem, in qua sunt angeli, attinet,hane datum est oculis meis videre. Lux apud angelos su-periorum caelorum tam candida est, ut non describi possit,ne quidem per candorem nivis, et quoque tam rutilans,ut nee describi possit, ne quidem per jubar solis mundi.Verba, lux ilIa millenis vicibu~ excedit lucem meridianam interris. At lux apud angelos inferiorum caelorum aliquan-tum potest per comparationes describi, sed usque excedit
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 178-182. 71compared with the love and wisdom of men. It is known thatthe wisdom of angels, when thus compared, is ineffable; alsoit will be seen in what follows that to men who are in naturallove, this wisdom is incomprehensible. It appears ineffableand incomprehensible because it is of a higher degree. :J:SL As there are degrees of love and wisdom, so thereare degrees of heat and light. By heat and light are meantspiritual heat and light, such as angels in the heavens have,and such as men have as to the interiors of their minds; formen have the same heat of love and light of wisdom that theangels do. In the heavens, such and so much love as theangels have, such and so much is their heat j and the same istrue of their light as compared with their wisdom i the reason is,that with them lov:e is in heat, and wisdom in light (as wasshown above). It is the same with men on earth, with thedifference, however, that angels feel that heat and see that light,but men do not, because they are in natural heat and light;and while they are in the natural heat and light spiritual heatis not felt except through a certain enjoyment of love, andspiritual light is not seen except through perception of truth.Now since man, so long as he is in natural heat and light,knows nothing of the spiritual heat and light within him, andsince knowledge of these can be obtained only ~rough ex-perience from the spiritual world, the heat and light in whichthe angels and their heavens are, shall here be especially spokenof: From this and from no other source can enlightenment onthis subjeCt be had. IS. But degrees of spiritual heat cannot be describedfrom experience, because love, to which spiritual heat corre-sponds, does not come thus under ideas of thought; but degreesof spiritual light can be described, because light pertains tothought, and therefore falls into ideas of thought. Yet degreesof spiritual heat can be comprehended by their relation to thedegrees of light, for the two are in like degree. With respect:then to the spiritual light in which angels are, it has been grantedme to see it with my eyes. With angels of the higher heavens,the light is so glistening white as to be indescribable, even bycomparison with the shining whiteness of snow, and so glowingas to be indescribable even by comparison with the beams ofthis worlds SUD. In a word, that light exceeds a thousand timesthe noonday light upon earth. But with angels of the lowerheavens, the light can be described in a measure by comparisons,although it still exceeds the most intense light of our world.
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICAsummam lucem nostri mundi. Quod lux angelorum supe-riorum caelorum non describi possit, est causa, quia luxillorum unum facit cum sapientia illorum; et quia sapientiaillorum est respeaive ad sapientiam hominum ineffabilis, itaquoque est lux. Ex his paucis constare potest, quod gra-dus lucis dentur; et quia sapientia et amor in simili gradusunt, consequitur quod similes gradus caloris dentur. :1:83- Quoniam atrnosphaerae sunt receptacula et con-tinentia caloris et lucis, sequitur quod totidem gradusatmosphaerarum sint, quot sunt gradus caloris et lucis, etquoque quod totidem, quot sunt gradus amoris et sapien-tiae. Quod plures atmosphaerae sint, et illae inter se pergradus distinctae, patuit mihi a pluri experientia in mundospirituali; ex hac imprimis, quod angeli inferiorum caelo-rum in regione angelorum superiorum non possint respi-rare, et quod appareant sibi trahere animam sicut solentviventia quae ab aere in aetherem elevantur, aut sicutviventia quae ab aquis in aerem; etiam spiritus infra cae-los apparent sicut in nimbo. Quod plures atmosphaeraesint, et illae per gradus inter se distinB:ae, videatur supra(n. 176).QUOD GRADUS DUPLICIS GENERIS SINT, GRADUS ALTI- TUDINIS ET GRADUS LATITUDINIS. :1:8.-.. Scientia graduum est sicut clavis ad aperiendumcausas rerum, et ad intrandum in illas. Absque ilia scientiavix aliquid causae potest sciri; objeB:a enim et subjeCtautriusque mundi absque ilia apparent ita univoca, sicut nihilillis inesset praeter tale quod oculo conspicitur; cum ta-men id respe8:ive ad ilIa quae interius latent, est sicutunum ad millia, immo ad myriades. Interiora quae nonpatent, neutiquam retigi possunt, nisi sciantur gradus:vadunt enim exteriora ad interiora, et per haec ad intima,per gradus; non per gradus continuos, sed per gradus dis-cretos. Gradus continui vocantur decrementa aut decres-centiae a c;rassiori ad tenuius, seu a densiori ad rarius; velpotius sicut incrementa et increscentiae a tenuiori ad cras-sius, seu a rariori ad densius, prorsus sicut est lucis ad
  • ANGELIC WISDOMThe light of angels of the higher heaveus is indescribable, be-cause their light makes one with their wisdom i and becausetheir wisdom, compared to the wisdom of men, is ineffable, thusalso is their light. From these few things it can be seen thatthere must be degrees of light; and because wisdom and loveare of like degree, it follows that there must be like degrees ofheat. x8,. Since atmospheres are the receptacles and con.. tainants of heat and light, it follows that there are as many· degrees of atmospheres as there are degrees of heat and light j also that there are as many as there are degrees of love and wisdom. That there are several atmospheres, and that these are distinel from each other by means of degrees, has been manifested to me by much experience in the spiritual world; especially from this, that angels of the lower heavens are not able to breathe in the region of higher angels, and appear to themselves to gasp for breath, as living creatures do when they are raised out of air into ether, or out of water into air. More- over, spirits below the heavens appear in a kind of cloud. That there are several atmospheres, and that they are dis-.tina from each other by means of degrees, may be seen above (n. 176). .DEquES ARE OF A TWOFOLD KIND, DEGREES OF HEIGHT AND DEGREES OF BREADTH. :1:8.-.. A knowledge of degrees is like a key to lay openthe causes of things, and to give entrance into them. Withoutthis knowledge, scarcely anything of cause can be known; forwithout it, the obje& and subje& of both worlds seem per-featy simple, as though there were nothing in them beyondthat which meets the eye j when yet compared to the thingswhich lie hidden within, what is thus seen is as one to thousands,yea, to tens of thousands. The interiors which are not opento view can in no way be discovered except through a know-ledge ofdegrees. F or things exterior advance to things interior,and through these to things inmost by means of degrees; notby continuous but discrete degrees. "Continuous degrees" isa term applied to the gradual lessenings or decreasings fromgrosser to finer, or from denser to rarer; or better, perhaps, togrowths and inereasings from finer to grosser, or from rarer todenser; precisely like the gradations of light to shade, ot of
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N. 18S- 73 umbram, aut caloris ad frigus. At gradus discreti suot prorsus alii; sunt sicut priora, posteriora, et postrema; ac sicut finis, causa et effeCtus. Hi gradus discreti dicuntur, quia prius per se est, posterius per se, et postremum per se, sed usque simul sumpti unum faciunt. Sunt atmo- sphaerae a summa ad imum, seu a sole ad tellurem, quae vocantur aetheres et aeres, discreti in tales gradus ; et sunt sicut simplicia, congregata ex illis, ac iterum ex his congregata, quae siroul sumpta vocantur compositum. Hi gradus sunt discreti, quia distincte existunt, ac intelligun- tur per gradus altitudinis; illi autem gradus sunt continui, quia continue increscunt, ac intelliguntur per gradus lati- tudinis. :1:85- Omnia et singula quae in mundo spirituali, et quae in mundo naturali existunt, ex gradibus discretis et simul ex gradibus continuis coexistunt, seu ex gradibus altitudinis et ex gradibus latitudinis. Ilia dimensio quae. consistit ex gradibus discretis, vocatur altitudo; et ilIa quae ex gradibus continuis, vocatur latitudo: situs eorum respeCtive ad visum oculi non mutat denominationem. Absque cognitione horum graduum, non sciri aliquid pot- est de discrimine inter tres caelos, nec de discrimine inter amorem et sapientiam angelorum ibi, nee de discrimine inter calorem et lucem in quibus sunt, nee de discrimine inter atmosphaeras quae ambiunt et continent. Tum abs- que cognitione horum graduum, nihil sciri potest de. discrimine facultatum interiorum quae mentis sunt apud homines, ita nec de statu illorum quoad reformationem et regenerationem; nec de discrimine facultatum exterio- rum, quae corporis sunt, tam apud angelos quam apud homines; et prorsus nihil de discrimine inter spirituale et naturale, et inde nihil de correspondentia: immo nihil de ullo discrimine vitae inter homines et bestias, et de discri- mine inter bestias perfeCtiores et imperfeCliores; nee de discriminibus inter formas regni vegetabilis, et inter mate- rias regni mineralis. Ex quibus constare potest, quod illi, qui hos gradus ignorant, non ex aliquo judicio possint videre causas; vident modo effe8:us, et judicant causas ex illis, quod fit plerumque ex induetione effeetibus continua: cum tamen causae non producunt effeaus per continuum, sed per discretum; aliud enim est causa, et aliud est effeaus;
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOYE.-N. 183-185. 73heat to cold. But discrete degrees are entirely different: theyare like things prior, subsequent and final i or like end, cause,and effect These degrees are called discrete, becaWte the prioris by itself; the subsequent by itself; and the final by itself; yettaken together they make one. The atmospheres, which arecalled ethers and airs, from highest to lowest, that is, from thesun to the earth, are separated into such degrees; they are likesimples, coUe8:ions of simples, and again colleCtions of these,which taken together are called a composite. Such degreesare discrete, because each has a distin8: existence, and thesedegrees are what are meant by c« degrees of height j" but theformer degrees are continuous, because they increase contin-uously, and these degrees are what are meant by "degrees ofbreadth." :J:85e Each and an things which have existence in thespiritual world and in the natural world, have conjoint existencefrom discrete degrees and at the same time continuous degrees,that is, from degrees of height and from degrees of breadth.That dimension which consists of discrete degrees is calledheight, and that which consists of continuous degrees is calledbreadth; their position relatively to the sight of the eye notaltering the designation. Without a knowledge of these degreesnothing can be known of how the three heavens differ from eachother; nor can anything be known of the differences of love andwisdom of the angels there; nor of the differences of heat andlight in which they are; nor of the differences of atmosphereswhich environ and contain these. Nor without a knowledge ofthese degrees can anything be known of the differences amongthe interior powers of the minds of men, thus nothing of theirstate as regards reformation and regeneration: nor anything ofthe differences among the exterior powers of the bodies bothof angels and men j and nothing whatever can be known of thedistinCl:ion between spiritual and natural, thus nothing of corre-spondence. Nor, indeed, can anything be known of any differ-ence between the life of men and that of beasts, or between themore perfeCt and the _ perfe8: animals. i neither of the differ-sees among the forms of the vegetable kingdom, nor among thematters of the mineral kingdom. From which it can be seen that they who are ignorant of these degrees cannot by any judg- ment see causes; they see only effe8s, and from these judge ofcauses, which is done for the most part by an inducuon whichis continuous with effeCla. But causes produce effed:s not con-tinuously but discretely; for cause is one thing, and effed: is
  • 74 SAPIENTIA ANGELICA est discrimen sicut inter prius et posterius, aut sieut interformans et formatum. I86. Ut adhuc melius comprehendatur quid et quales sunt gradus discreti, et quae differentia illorum est a gra- dibus continuis, sint caeli angelicr pro exemplo. Sunt tres eaeli, et illi distinai per gradus altitudinis; quare unum caelum est sub altero; nec communicant inter se aliter quam per influxum, qui fit a Domino per caelos in suo ordine ad infimum, et non vicissim. At unumquodvis caelum per se non per gradus altitudinis, sed per gradus latitudinis distin8:um est; illi qui in medio sunt, seu in centro, in sapientiae luee sunt, at qui in peripheriis usque ad terminos sunt in sapientiae umbra: ita decrescit sapi- entia usque ad ignorantiam sicut lux decrescit in umbram, quod fit per continuum. Simile est apud homines: interi- ora quae mentis eorum sunt, distinB:a sunt in totidemgradus in quot sunt caeli angelici, ae unus eorum gradus est supra alterum; quare interiora hominum quae mentiseorum sunt, distinB:a sunt per gradus discretos seu alti-tudinis. Inde est, quod homo possit in infimo gradu esse,tum in superiori, et quoque in supremo, secundum gradumsapientiae ejus; et quod cum solum in infimo gradu est,superior gradus clausus sit; et quod is aperiatur, sicutrecipit sapientiam a Domino. Sunt etiam apud hominem,sicut in caelo, gradus continui seu latitudinis. Quod homocaelis similis sit, est quia HIe quoad interiora mentis suaeest caelum in minima forma, quantum in amore et in sa-pientia est a Domino. Quod homo quoad interiora mentissuae sit caelum in minima forma, videatur in opere DeCaelo et Inferno (n. 51-58). I8,. Ex his paucis constare potest, quod qui non scitaliquid de gradibus discretis seu altitudinis, nec scire ali-quid possit de statu hominis quoad ejus reformationem etregenerationem, quae fiunt per receptionem amoris etsapientiae a Domino, et tunc per aperitionem graduuminteriorum mentis ejus in sua ordine; nee scire potest ali-quid de influxu per caelos a Domino, nee aliquid deordine in quem creatus est; si enim aliquis de Illis non exgradibus discretis seu altitudinis, sed ex gradibus conti-nuis seu latitudinis, cogitat, tunc non potest quicquam deillis videre quam ab effeClibus, et nihil ex causis; et ex
  • 74 ANGELIC WISDOManother. The difference between the two is like the differencebetween antecedent and consequent, or between that which formsand that which is formed. :1:86. That it may be still better comprehended what discretedegrees are, what their· nature is, and how they differ from con-tinuous degrees, the angelic heavens may serve as an example.There are three heavens, and these are separated by degrees ofheight; therefore the heavens are one below another, nor dothey com~unicatewith each other except by influx, which pro-ceeds from the Lord through the heavens in their order to thelowest; and not contrariwise. Each heaven by itse~ however,is divided not by degrees ~f height but by degrees of breadth.Those who are in the midst, that is, the centre, are in the lightof wisdom; but those who are around about, even to the bound-aries, are in the shade of wisdom. Thus wisdom grows less andless even to ignorance, as light decreases to shade, which takesplace continuously. It is the same with men. The interiorsbelonging to their minds are separated into as many degrees asthe angelic heavens; and these degrees are one above another;therefore the interiors of men which belong to their minds areseparated by discrete degrees, that is, degrees of height. Con-sequently one may be in the lowest degree, then in a higher,and even in the highest degree, according to the degree of hiswisdom j moreover, when he is in the lowest degree only, thehigher degree is shut, but it is opened as he receives wisdomfrom the Lord. There are also in a man, as in heaven, con-tinuous degrees, that is, degrees of breadth. A man is like theheavens because as regards the interiors of his mind, he is aheaven in least form, in the measure in which he is in love andwisdom from the Lord. That man as regards the. interiors othis mind is a heaven in least form may be seen in the workon Heaven and Hell (n. 51-58). I8,. From these few considerations it can be seen, thatone who knows nothing about discrete degrees, that is, degreesof height, can know nothing about the state of man as regardshis reformation and regeneration, which are effeCl:ed throughthe reception of love and wisdom from the Lord, and thenthrough the opening of the interior degrees of his mind in theirorder. Nor can he know anything about influx from the Lordthrough the heavens nor anything about the order into whichhe has been created. For if anyone thinks about these, notfrom discrete degrees or degrees of height but from continuousdegrees 01" degrees of breadth, he is DO~ able to perceive any-
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N. 189. 75solis effeClibus videre, est ex fallacHs, unde errores, unuspost alterum; qui per induCliones ita multiplicari possunt,ut tandem enormes falsitates dicantur veritates. :1:88. Non scio an haaenus aliquid innotuerit de gra-dibus discretis seu altitudinis, sed solum de gradibus con-tinuis seu latitudinis; et tamen non aliquid causae in suaveritate potest innotescere absque cognitione graduumutriusque generis. Ideo de illis in tota hac Parte agen-dum est: nam finis hujus opusculi est, ut detegantur cau-sae, et ex iltis videantur effeCtus, et sic discutiantur tene-brae, in quibus homo ecclesiae est de Deo, deque Dominoet in genere de Divinis quae spiritualia vocantur. Hocpossum memorare, quod angeli in maestitia sint proptertenebras in tellure: dicunt, quod vix ullibi videant lucem;et quod homines fallacias arripiant et illas confirment, etper id multiplicent falsitates super falsitates; et ad con-firmandum illas indagent per ratiocinia ex falsis et exveris falsificatis talia, quae propter tenebras de causis etpropter ignorantiam de veritatibus, discuti nequeunt.Maxime lamentantur super confirmationibus de fide sepa-rata a charitate, et super justificatione per illam; tum deideis de Deo, de angelis et spiritibus, et de ignorantiaquid amor et sapientia.QUOD GRADUS ALTITUDINIS SINT HOMOGENEI, AC UNUS AB ALTERO IN SERlE, SICUT SUNT FINIS, CAUSA ET EFFECTUS. :1:89. Quoniam gradus latitudinis seu continui suntsicut lucis ad umbram, caloris ad frigus, duri ad molle,densi ad rarum, crassi ad tenue, et sic porro, et hi gradusab experientia sensuali et oculari sunt noti, et non itagradus altitudinis seu discreti, ideo de his in hac Parteimprimis agendum est, nam absque horum graduum cogni-tione non videri possunt causae. Notum quidem est,quod finis, causa et effetlus sequantur in ordine sicut prius,posterius et postremum; tum quod finis producat causamet per causam effeCtum, ut finis existat; et quoque pluraalia de iltis: attamen ilIa scire, et non per applicationesad existentia videre, est modo scire abstraCla j quae non
  • CONCEIlNING DIVINE LOVB.-~. 186-189. 75thing about them from causes, but only from effe&; and to~ from effeCls only is to see from fallCCies, from which comeerrors, one after another; and these may be so multiplied byinductions that at length enormous falsities are called truths. x88. I am not aware that anything has been known hithertoabout discrete degrees or degrees of height, only continuousdegrees or degrees of breadth have been known; yet nothingof the real truth about cause can become known without aknowledge of degrees of both kinds. These degrees thereforeshall be treated of in the whole of this Part j for it is the objeCt ofthis little work to uncover causes, that effeCts may be seen fromthem, and thus the darkness may be dispelled in which the manof the church is in respeCt to God and the Lord, and in respeCtto Divine things in general which are called spiritual things.This I may mention, that the angels are in grief for the dark-ness on the earth; saying that they see light hardly anywhere,and that men eagerly lay hold of fallacies and confirm them,thereby multiplying falsities upon falsities i and to confirm falla-cies men search out, by means of reasonings from falsities andfrom truths falsified, such things as cannot be overturned, owingto the darkness in respeCt to causes and the ignorance respeCt-ing truths. The angels lament especially over confirmationsrespeCting faith separate from charity and justification thereby;they also grieve over mens ideas about God, angels and spirits,and their ignorance of what love and wisdom are.DEGREES OF HEIGHT AilE HOMOGENEOUS, AND ONE IS FIlOM THE OTHER. IN SUCCESSION LIKE END, CAUSE AND EFFECT. ~89. As degrees of breadth, that is, continuous degrees,are like gradations from light to shade, from heat to cold, fromhard to soft, from dense to rare, from gross to fine, and so forth ;and as these degrees are known from sensual and ocular ex-perience, while degrees of height, or discrete degrees, are not,the latter kind shall be treated of especially in this Part; for with-out a knowledge of these degrees, causes cannot be perceived.It is known indeed that end, cause, and effeCt follow in order,like prior, subsequent, and final i also that the end begets thecause, and, through the cause, the effeCl, that the end may haveexistence; also about these. many other things are known;and yet to know these things, and not to see them in their
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICAdiutius manent, quam dum in cogitatione sunt analyticaex metaphysica. Inde est, quod tametsi finis, causa eteffe8:us vadunt per gradus discretos, usque tamen de illisgradibus parum si quicquam in mundo scitur. Sola enimcognitio abstraaorum, est sicut quoddam aereum, quodavolat: sed si abstra8:a applicantur ad talia quae inmundo sunt, sunt sicut id quod oculis in tellure conspici-tur, et in memoria permanet. :1:90. Omnia quae in mundo existunt, de quibus trinadimensio praedicatur, seu quae vocantur composita, exgradibus altitudinis seu discretis consistunt. Sed exemplaillustrent. Ab experientia oculari notum est, quod unus-quisque musculus in corpore humano consistat ex mini-mis fibris, et quod hae fasciculatim compositae sistant fibrasmajores, quae motrices vocantur, et quod ex harum mani-pulis existat compositum, quod vocatur musculus. Simileest cum nervis: in Ulis ex fibris minimis compaginanturmajores, quae sicut filamenta apparent; ex his congrega-tis compaginatur nervus. Simile est in reliquis compagi- I Inationibus, confasciationibus et congregationibus, ex qui-bus sunt organa et viscera; sunt enim haec compositionesex fibris et vasis per similes gradus varie conformatis.Simile etiam est in omnibus et singulis regni vegetabiIis,et in omnibus et singulis regni mineralis: in !ignis suntcompaginationes filamentorum in triplici ordine ; in metal-lis et lapidibus sunt conglobationes partium etiam in tri-plici ordine. Ex his patet, quales sunt gradus discreti,quod nempe unum ab altero, et per alterum tertium, quodvocatur compositum; et quod unusquisque gradus abaltero discretus sit. :Kg:l:. Ex his concludi potest ad ilIa, quae coram ocu-lis non apparent, quia similis res cum his est; ut cumsubstantiis organicis, quae sunt receptacula et habitaculacogitationum et affeetionum in cerebris; cum atmosphae-ris; cum calore et luce; et cum amore et sapientia.Atmosphaerae enim sunt receptacula caloris et lucis; accalor et lux sunt receptacula amoris et sapientiae; quarecum atmosphaerarum gradus sunt, etiam similes gradussunt caloris et lucis, et similes amoris et sapientiae: nonenim alia ratio horum est quam illarum. :1:92. Quod gradus illi sunt homogenei J hoc est, eJus-
  • ANGELIC WISDOMapplications to existing things is simply to know abstraaions,which remain in the memory only so long as the mind is inanalytical ideas from metaphysical thought. Although there-(ore end, cause, and effeCt advance according to discrete de-grees, little if anything is known in the world about thesedegrees. For a mere knowledge of abstraClions is like an airysomething which flies away; bqt when abstraaions are appliedto such things as exist in the world, they become like what isseen with the eyes on earth, and is fixed in the memory. 1:90. All things which have existence in the world, otwhich threefold dimension is predicated, that is, which are calledcompounds, are composed of degrees of height, that is, discretedegrees; as examples will make clear. It is known from ocu-lar experience, that every muscle in the human body consistsof exceedingly minute fibres, and these put together into littlebundles form larger fibres, called motor fibres, and groups ofthese form the compound called a muscle. It is the same withnerves; in these from minute fibres larger fibres are composed,which appear as filaments, and these massed together composethe nerve. The same is tnle of the rest of the combinations, bundlings and groupings out of which the organs and visceraare made up; for these are compositions of fibres and vesselsvariously put together according to like degrees. It is the samealso with each and every thing of the vegetable and mineral kingdoms. In woods there are combinations of filaments in threefold order. In metals and stones there is a massing together of parts, also in threefold order. From all this the nature of discrete degrees can be seen, namely, that the first exists by the second, and through the second forms the third which is called the composite; and that each degree is discreted from the others• . 1:91:. From these examples a conclusion may be formed especnng those things which are not visible to the eye, for with hose it is the same. Thus, it is the same with the organic. ubstances which are the receptacles and abodes of thoughtsand affeaions in the brains; with atmospheres; with heat andlight j and with love and wisdom. F or atmospheres are re-ceptacles of heat and light; and heat and light are receptaclesof love and wisdom; consequently, as there are degrees ofatmospheres, there are also like degrees of heat and light, andof love and wisdom; (or the same principle applies to the latteras to the former. xg2e That these degrees are homogeneous, that is, of the
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N. I¢. 77dem indolis et naturae, constat ex nunc ditlis. Fibraematrices musculorum, minimae, majore8 et maximae, suothomogeneae; fibrae nerveae, minimae, majores et maxi-mae, sunt homogeneae j filamenta lignea a minimis adeorum compositum sunt homogenea. Partes lapideae etmetallicae cujusvis generis, similiter. Substantiae organi-cae, quae sunt receptacula et habitacula cogitationum etaffeetionum, a simplicissimis ad congregatum commune,quod est cerebrum, sunt homogeneae. Atmosphaerae apuro aethere ad aerem sunt homogeneae. Gradus caloriset lucis in serie secundum gradus atmosphaerarum sunthomogenei; et inde quoque gradus amoris et sapientiaesunt homogenei. Ilia quae non ejusdem indolis et natu-rae sunt, heterogenea sunt, et non concordant cum homo-geneis; ita non possunt gradus discretos simul cum illissistere, sed modo cum suis, quae ejusdem indolis et natu-rae sunt, cum quibus sunt homogenea. I93- Quod "haec in suo ordine sint, sicut fines, causaeet effeB:us, patet ; nam primum, quod est minimum, agitsuam causam per medium, et suum effeB:um per ultimum. :l:M. Sciendum est, quod unusquisque gradus ab alterodistinCl:us sit per velamina propria, et omnes gradus simuldistineti sint per velamen commune: et quod velamen com-mune communicet cum interioribus et cum intimis in suoordine. Inde est omnium conjunClio et unanima aCtio.QUOD GRADUS PRIMUS SIT OMNE IN OMNIBUS GRADUUII SEQUENTIUM. :1:95- Causa est, quia gradus cujusvis subjeCti et cu-jusvis rei homogenei sunt; ac homogenei sunt·, quia pro-duB:i a gradu primo: nam formatio illorum talis est, quodprimum per confasciculationes aut conglobationes, verbo,per congregationes, producat alterum, et per hoc tertium;ac unumquodvis discernit ab altero per circumduB:umvelamen. Inde patet, quod primus gradus sit principalisac unice regnans in sequentibus; proinde quod primusgradus sit omne in omnibus graduum sequentium. xg6. Dicitur quod tales sint gradus inter set sed in-telligitur quod tales sint substantiae in suis gradibus.
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 190-1 g6. 77same charaCter and nature, appears from what has just beensaid. The motor fibres of muscles, least, larger, and largest,are homogeneous. Nerve fibres, least, larger, and largest, arehomopneous. Woody filaments, from the least to the com-posite formed of these, are homogeneous.. So likewise areparticles of stones and metals of every kind. The organicsubstances which are receptacles and abodes of thoughts andaffeaiODS, from the most simple to their general aggregatewhich is the brain, are homogeneous. The atmospheres, frompure ether to air, are homogeneous. The degrees of heatand light in series, following the degrees of atmospheres, arehomogeneous, therefore the degrees of love and wisdom arehomogeneous. Things which are not of the same charaaerand nature are heterogeneous, and do not hannonize withthings homogeneous j thus they cannot form discrete degreeswith them, but only with their own, which are of the samecharaBer and nature and with which they are homogeneous. :1:93. That these things in their order are like ends, causes,and effe&, is evident; for the first, which is the least, efTeBuatesits cause by means of the middle, and its effea by means of the~t . X9.-.. It should be known that each degree is made dis-tina from the others by coverings of its own, and that all thedegrees together are made distinct by means of a general cover-ing; also, that this general covering communicates with interiorsand inmosts in their order. From this there is conjunction ofall and unanimous aCtion.THE FIllST DEGR.EE IS THE ALL IN EVERY THING OF THE SUBSEQUENT DEGREES. K95e This is because the degrees of each subje8: and ofeach thing are homogeneous; and they are homogeneous becausebegotten from the first degree. F or their formation is suchthat the first, by combinations or accretion&, in a word, by mass-ing of parts, begets the second, and through this the third; anddiscretes each from the other by a covering drawn around it;ttom which it is clear that the first degree is chief and solelysupreme in the subsequent degrees; consequently that in allthings of the subsequent degrees, the first is the all. :1:96. When it is said that degrees are such in resped toeach other, the meaning is that substances are such in their
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICALocutio per gradus est locutio abstraCl:a, quae est univer-salis, ita applicabilis cuivis subjeCto aut rei, quae in ejus-cernodi gradibus sunt. :1:91. Applicatio fieri potest ad omnia ilIa, quae inpraecedente articulo recensita sunt, ut ad musculos, nervos,materias et partes utriusque regni, vegetabilis et minera-lis, ad substantias organicas quae sunt subjeCl:a cogitatio-num et affectionum in homine, ad atmosphaeras, ad caloremet lucem, et ad amorern et sapientiam. In omnibus estprimum unice regnans in sequentibus, immo est unicum inillis; et quia est unicurn in illis, est omne in illis. Quod itasit, etiam patet ex his quae nota sunt, nempe quod finis sitomne causae, et quod per causam sit omne effeCl:us; acideo finis, causa et effeetus dicuntur finis primus, medius etultimus j tum quod causa causae sit etiam causa causati;et quod nihil essentiale in causis sit quam finis, et nihilessentiale in motu quam conatus: tum quod substantiaunica sit, quae in se substantia est. :1:98. Ex his clare potest videri, quod Divinum, quodest substantia in se, seu unica et sola, sit ex qua suntomnia et singula quae creata sunt, ita quod Deus sit oronein omnibus universi, secundum ilia quae in Parte Primabldemonstrata sunt: ut, Quod Divinus Amor et DivinaSapientia sit substantia et forma (n. 40-43): Quod DivinusAmor et Divina Sapientia sit substantia et forma in se, itaipsum et unicurn (n. 44-46): Quod omnia in universo aDivino Amore et Divina Sapientia creata sint (n. [2]52-60):Quod inde universum creatum sit imago Ipsius (n. 61-65) :Quod solus Dominus sit caelum, ubi angeli (n. 113-118).QUOD OMNES PERFECTIONES CRESCANT ET ASCENDANT CUM GRADIBUS ET SECUNDUM ILLOS. :1:99. Quod duplicis generis gradus sint, gradus lati-tudinis et gradus altitudinis, supra (n. 184-188) ostensumest; et quod gradus latitudinis sint sicut lucis vergentisad umbram, aut sicut sapientiae ad ignorantiam; at quodgradus altitudinis sint sicut finis, causa et effeCtus, autsicut prius, posterius et postremum. De his gradibus dici-tur quod ascendant aut descendant, sunt enim altitudinis;de illis autem dicitur quod crescant aut decrescant, sunt
  • ANGBLIC WISDOMdegrees. This manner of speaking by degrees is abstraa, thatis, universal, which makes the statement applicable to every sub-jeCt or thing which is in degrees of this kind. . :1:97. This can be applied to all those things which havebeen enumerated in the preceding article, to the muscles, thenerves, the materials and parts of both the vegetable and mineralkingdoms, to the organic substances which are the subjeCl:s ofthoughts and affections in man, to atmospheres, to heat andlight, and to love and wisdom. In all these, the first is solelysupreme in the subsequent things; yea, it is the sole thing inthem, and because it is the sale thing in them, it is the all inthem. That this is so is clear also from these well-known truths ;that the end is the all of the cause, and through the cause is the ,all of the effeCt; and thus end, cause, and effeCt are called first, middle, and last end. Further, that the cause of the cause is also the cause of the thing caused; and that there is nothingessential in causes except the end, and nothing essential in motion excepting conatus; also, that the substance that is substance in itself is the sole substance. :1:98. From all this it can clearly be seen that the Divine, which is substance in itsel~ that is, the one only and sole sub- stance, is the substance from which is each and every created thing; thus that God is the All in all things of the universe, according to what has been shown in Part First, as follows. Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are substance and form (n. 40-43) j Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are substance and fonn in itself; therefore the Very and the Only (n. 44-46); all things in the universe are created by Divine Love and Divine Wisdom (n. 52-60); consequently the created universe is His image (n. 61-65) j the Lord alone is heaven where angels are (n. 113-118).ALL PERFECTIONS INCREASE AND ASCEND ALONG WITH DEGREES AND ACCORDING TO THEM. :I:!}ge That degrees are of two kinds, degrees of breadthand degrees of height has been shown above (n. 184-188); alsothat degrees of breadth are like those of light verging to shade,or of wisdom verging to ignorance; but that degrees of heightare like end, cause and effeCt, or like prior, subsequent, and final.Of these latter it is said that they ascend or descend, for theyue .of height i but of the former that they increase or decrease,
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N. 201. 79 enim latitudinis. Hi gradus ab illis tantum differunt, ut nihil commune habeant; quare distinCle percipiendi sunt, ac minime confundendi. • 00. Quod omnes perfeCliones crescant et ascendant cum gradibus et secundum illos, est quia omnia praedicata sequuntur sua subje8:a, ac perfeCtio et imperfettio suot praedicata communia; praedicantur enim de vita, de viri- bus, et de formis. Perfellio vitae est perfeCtio amoris et sapientiae ; et quia voluntas et intelleetus sunt receptacula illorum, est per- fectio vitae etiam perfeetio voluntatis et intellectus, et inde affeCl:ionum et cogitationum j et quia calor spiritualis est continens amoris, et lux spiritualis est continens sapientiae, etiam perfeCl:io horum referri potest ad perfectionem vitae. PerfeElio vz,rium est perfeCtio omnium quae per vitam actuantur et moventur,.in quibus tamen non vita est.Tales vires sunt atmosphaerae quoad aetualitates; et quo- que tales vires sunt substantiae organicae interiores etexteriores apud hominem, tum etiam ~pud animalia omnis generis. Tales etiam vires sunt omnia in Mundo naturall quae a sole ibi immediate et mediate aClivitates sortiuntur. Perfeilio formarum et perfeB:io virium unum faciunt,nam quales vires sunt, tales sunt formae; cum sola diffe-rentia quod formae sint substantiae, vires autem (I]suntaCl:ivitates illarum ; quare similes gradus perfettionis suntutrisque. Formae quae non simul vires sunt, etiam per·fectae sunt secundum gradus. ~O:J:. Hie non dieetur de. perfeCl:ionibus vitae, virium etformarum crescentibus aut decrescentibus secundum gra-dus latitudinis seu continuos, quia hi gradus in Mundo notisunt; sed de perfettionibus vitae, virium et formarum as-cendentibus aut descendentibus secundum gradus altitudi-nis seu discretos, quia hi gradus in mundo non noti sunt.At quomodo perfeCtiones secundum hos gradus ascenduntac descendunt, parum potest cognosci a visibilibus inmundo naturali, sed clare a visibilibus in Mundo spirituali.Ex visibilibus in mundo naturali modo detegitur, quod quointerius speCtantur, eo mirabiliora occurrant: ut pro exem-plo, in oculis, in auribus, in lingua, in musculis, in corde,pulmone, hepate, pancreate, renibus, et in reliquis visceri-bus j tum in seminibus, fructibus et ftoribus; et quoque in ,
  • CONCEllNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 197-201 • 79 for they are o( breadth. These two kinds of degrees differ so much that they have nothing in common; they should therefore be perceived as distinct, and by no means be confounded. ~oo. All perfeClions increase and ascend along with degrees and according to them, because all predicates follow their sub-. jeCls, and perfeCtton and imperfeCtton are general predicates; for they are predicated of life, of forces, and of fonns. Per/ellion of life is perfeClion of love and wisdom; and because the will and understanding are receptacles of love and . wisdom, perfeClion of life is also perfeaion of will and under- standing, consequently of affeClions and thoughts; and because spiritual heat is the containant of love, and spiritual light is the containant of wisdom, perfeClion of these may also be referred to perfection of life. Per/ellion of forces is perfeCtion of all things which are aCl:uated and moved by life, in which, however, there is DO life. Abnospheres as to their active powers are such forces; the interior and exterior organic substances with men, and with animals of every kind, are such forces; all things in the natural world which are endowed with active powers both immediately and mediately from its sun are such forces. Perfellion offorms and perfeCtion of forces make one, for as the forces are, such are the fonns; with the difference only, that forms are substances but forces are their activities j therefore like degrees of perfeClion belong to both. Forms which are not at the same time foroees are also perfeCl according to degrees. SO~. The perfeClions of life, forces, and fonns which in- crease or decrease according to degrees of breadth, that is, con- tinuous degrees, wiD not be discussed here, because there is a knowledge of these degrees in the world; but only perfeCtions of life, forces, and forms which ascend or descend according to degrees ofheight, that is, discrete degrees; because these degrees are not known in the world. Of the mode in which perfeClions ascend and descend according to these degrees little can be learned from things visible in the natural world, but this can be seen clearly from things visible in the spiritual world. From things visible in the natural world it is found that the more they are looked into the more do wonders present them- selves; as, (or instance, in the eyes, ears, tongue; in muscles, heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, kidneys, and other viscera; also, in seeds, fruits and flowers; and in metals, minerals and stones. That wonders increase in all these the more they are looked into is weD known; yet such wonders have not led men to see
  • 80 SAPIENTIA ANGELICA metallis, mineris et lapidibus. Quod in his et in illis mira- biliora, quo interius spe8:antur, occurrant, notum est: at- tamen ex ilUs parum innotuit, quod ilia interius perfeCliorasint secundum gradus altitudinis seu discretos; ignorantiahorum graduum id celavit. At quia iidem gradus in mundospirituali perspicue exstant, est enim totus ille mundus, asupremo ad infimum, in illos distinCl:e discretus, ideo ex-inde potest illorum cognitio hauriri: ex quibus dein con-cludi potest ad perfeCl:iones virium et formarum, quae insimilibus gradibus sunt in mundo naturali. •••• In mundo spirituali sunt tres caeli secundumgradus altitudinis ordinati. In supremo caelo sunt angeliin omni perfettione prae angelis in medio caelo; et inmedio caelo sunt angeli in omni perfeCiione prae angeli~infimi caeli. Perfeetionum gradus sunt tales, ut angeliinfimi caeli non possint ad primum limen perfeCl:ionumangelorum medii caeli ascendere, nee hi ad primum limenperfeCtionum angelorum supremi caeli. Hoc apparet pa-radoxon, sed usque est veritas. Causa est, quia consociatisunt secundum gradus discretos, et non secundum graduscontinuos. Per experientiam mihi notum faCtum est, quodtale discrimen affectionum et cogitationum, et inde loque-lae, sit inter angelos superiorum et inferiorum caelorum,ut nihil commune habeant j et quod c9mmunicatio fiatsolum per correspondentias, quae existunt per influxumimmediatum Domini in omnes caelos, et per inftuxummediatum per caelum supremum in infimum. Haec dis-crimina, quia talia sunt, non possunt naturali, lingua ex-primi, ita non describi; cogitationes enim angelorum noncadunt in ideas naturales, nam sunt spirituales. Exprimiet describi solum possunt ab ipsis per eorum linguas, vo-ces et scripturas, et non per humanas. Ex eo est quoddicatur, quod in caelis ineffabilia audita et visa sint. Dis-crimiua ilIa aliquantum comprehendi possunt per haec:quod cogitationes angelorum supremi seu tertii caeli sintcogitationes finium, et cogitationes angelorum medii seusecundi caeli sint cogitationes causarum, ac cogitationesangelorum infimi seu primi caeli sint cogitationes effeCl:uum.Sciendum est, quod aliud sit ex finibus cogitare, et aliudde finibus; tum quod aliud sit ex causis cogitare, et aliudde causis; ut et quod aliud sit ex effeClibus cogitare, et
  • ·80 ANGELIC WISDOM that· the objeCls are interiorly more perfeCt according to degrees of height or discrete degrees; this has been concealed by igno- rance of these degrees. But since these degrees stand out con- spiciously in the spiritual world (for the whole of that world from highest to lowest is distinClly discreted into these degrees), from that world knowledge of these degrees can be drawn i and afterwards conclusions may be drawn therefrom respeCl:ing the perfections of forces and forms which are in similar degrees in. the natural world. . . . . In the spiritual world there are three heavens, disposed according to degrees of height. In the highest heaven are angels superior in every perfeCtion to the angels in the middle heaven; and in the middle heaven are angels superior in every perfeCl:ion to the angels of the lowest heaven. The degrees of perfeCtions are such, that angels of the lowest heaven cannot attain to the first threshold of the perfeCtions of the angels of the middle heaven, nor these to the first threshold of the per- feCtions of the angels of the highest heaven. This seems Uke a paradox, yet it is truth. The reason is that they are consociated according to discrete, Dot according to continuous degrees. I have learned from observation that the difference between the affeCtions and thoughts, and consequently the speech, of the angels of the higher and the lower heavens, is such that they have nothing in common; and that communication takes place only through correspondences, which have existence by imme- diate influx of the Lord into all the heavens, and by mediate influx through the highest heaven into the lowest. Such being the nature of these differences, they cannot be expressed in natural language, therefore not described j for the thoughts of angels, being spiritual, do not fall into natural ideas. They can be expressed and described only by the angels themselves, in their own languages, words, and writings, and not in those which are human. This is why it is said that in the heavens unspeakable things are heard and seen. These differences may be in some measure comprehended when it is known that the thoughts of angels of the highest or third heaven are thoughts of ends j the thoughts of angels of the middle or second heaven thoughts of causes, and the thoughts of angels of the lowest or first heaven thoughts of effeCls. It is to be observed, that it is one thing to think from ends, and another to think about ends; that it is one thing to think from causes, and another to think about causes; and that it is one thing to think from effeCl:s, and another to think about effeCts. Angels of the lower heavens think about
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N. 204. 81 aliud de effe8:ibus. Angeli inferiorum caelorum cogitantde causis et de finibus, sed angeli superiorum caelorum excausis et ex finibus; et ex bis cogitare est superioris sapi-entiae, at de Utis est inferioris. Cogitare ex finibu~ estsapientiae, ex causis est intelligentiae, et ex effeetibus estscientiae. Ex his patet, quod omnis perfeClio ascendat etdescendat cum gradibus et secundum illos. •oa- Quoniam interiora horninis quae ejus voluntatiset intellectus sunt, similia sunt caelis quoad gradus, estenim homo, quoad interiora quae mentis ejus sunt, caelumin minima forma, ideo etiam illorum perfeCl:iones similessunt. Sed illae perfecciones non apparent alicui hominiquamdiu in mundo vivit, tunc enim in infimo gradu est;et ex infima gradu non possunt cognosci gradus superio-res; sed post mortem cognoscuntur: nam tunc homo inilium gradum venit, qui ejus amori et sapientiae corre-spondet, fit enim tunc angelus, ac ineffabilia naturali suobornini cogitat et loquitur. Est enim tunc elevatio om-nium ejus mentis non in ratione simplici, sed in rationetriplicata. In hac ratione sunt gradus altitudinis, in iliaautem gradus latitudinis. Sed in gradus illos non aliiascendunt et elevantur, quam qui in mundo in veris fue-runt, et ilia applicuerunt vitae. • 04- Apparet sicut priora sint minus perfeCl:a quamposteriora, seu simplicia quam composita; sed usque pri-ora ex quibus sunt posteriora, seu simplicia ex quibus suntcomposita, perfeEtiora sunt. Causa est, quia priora seusimpliciora suot nudiora, ac minus obvelata substantiis etmateriis vitae expertibus; et sunt sicut diviniora; quarepropiora sunt Soli spirituali, ubi Dominus. Ipsa enimperfeccio est in Domino, et inde in Sole, qui est primumprocedens Divini Amaris et Divinae Sapientiae Ipsius; etinde in illis quae proxime succedunt, et sic ordine usquead infima, quae sicut distant, imperfeCliora sunt. Nisitalis perfeaio eminens foret in prioribus et simplicibus,non potuisset homo, nee ullum animal, ex semine existere,et postea subsistere; nee potuissent semina arborum etfruticum vegetari et prolificare: omne enim prius quoprius, et omne simplex quo simplicius, quia est perfeClius,est immunius a damnis.
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-H. 202-204. 81causes and about ends, but the angels of the higher heavensfrom causes and from ends; to think from these is a mark ofhigher wisdom, but to think about these is the mack of lowerwisdom. To think from ends is of wisdom, to think from causesis of intelligence, and to think from effeCls is of knowledge.From all this it is clear that all perfeclion ascends and descendsalong with degrees and according to them. •oa- Since the interior things of man, Which are of hiswill and understanding, are like the heavens in respeCl to degrees(for man, as to the interiors of his mind, is a heaven in leastfonn), their perfecuons also are like those of the heavens.But these perfeClions are not apparent to anyone so long ashe lives in the world, because he is then in the lowest degree;and from the lowest degree the higher degrees cannot be appre-hended; but they are apprehended after death, because manthen enters into that degree which corresponds to his love andwisdom, for he then becomes an angel, and thinks and speaksthings ineffable to his natural man; for there is then an elevationof all things of his mind, not in a single, but in a threefold ratio.Degrees of height are in threefold ratio, but degrees of breadthare in single ratio. But into degrees of height none ascend andare elevated except those who in the world have been in truths,and have applied them to life. so4- It seems as if things prior must be less perfed: than things posterior, that is, things simple than things composite;but things prior out of which things posterior are formed, that is, things simple out of which things composite are formed,are the more perfd The reason is that the prior or the simpler are more naked and less covered over with substances and matters devoid of life, and are, as it were, more Divine, consequently Dearer to the spiritual sun where the Lord is; for perfeCtion itself is in the Lord, and from Him in that SUD which is the first proceeding of His Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, and from that in those things which come immedi- ately after; and thus in order down to things lowest, which are less perfed: as they recede. Without such preeminent perfeCtion in things prior and simple, neither man nor any kind of animal could have come into existence from seed, and afterwards con- tinue to exist j nor could the seeds of trees and shrubs vege- tate and bear fruit. For the more prior anything prior is, or the more simple anything simple is, the more exempt it is from injury, because it is more perfeB:.
  • 82 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAQUOD IN ORDINE SUCCESSIVO PRIMUS GRADUS FACIAT SUPREMUM, AC TERTIUS INFIMUM j AT QUOD IN ORDINE SIMULTANEO PRIMUS GRADUS FACIAT IN- TIMUM, AC TERTIUS EXTIMUM. set5. Est orda successivus et ardo simultaneus. Ordosuccessivus horum graduum est a supremo ad infimum,seu a summo ad imum. In hoc ordine sunt caeli angelici ;caelum tertium ibi est supremum, secundum est medium,ac primum est infimum; situs eorum inter se talis est.In simili ordine successivo sunt ibi status amoris et sapi-eatiae apud angelos, tum etiam caloris et lucis, ut et at-mosphaerarum spiritualium; in simili ordine sunt omnesperfeCtiones formarum et virium ibi. Cum gradus altitu-dinis seu discreti in ordine successivo sunt, tunc illi com-parari possunt columnae divisae in tres gradus, per quosfit ascensus et descensus; in CUjU8 superiore mansione suotperfectissima et pulcherrima; in media minus perfeCta etpulchra; in infima autem adhuc minus perfecta et pulc;:hra.Ordoautem simultaneus, qui ex similibus gradibus con-sistit, in alia apparentia est. In hoc aunt suprema ordinissuccessivi, quae ut diCtum est, perfettissima et pulcherrimasunt in intimo, inferiora in medio, et infima in ambitu.Sunt sicut in solido ex tribus illis gradibus constante; incujU8 medio seu centro sunt partes subtilissimae, circum-circa illud partes minus subtiles, et in extremis, quaeambitum faciunt, sunt partes ex illis compositae, et indecrassiores. Est sicut columna ilIa, de qua nunc supra,subsidens in planum; cujus supremum facit intimum, acmedium facit medium, ac infimum facit extremum. set6. Quoniam supremum ordinis successivi fit inti-mum ordinis simultanei, ac infimum fit extimum, ideo inVerbo per U superius" significatur interius, et per U infe-rius Jt significatur exterius; simile per U sursum" et U de-orsum," tum per U altum" et U profundum." ..". In omni ultimo sunt gradus discreti in ordinesimultaneo. Fibrae motrices in omni musculo, fibrae inomni nervo, tum fibrae et vascula in omni viseere etorgana, suot in tali ordine. Intime in iBis sunt simplicis-sima quae perfeCl:issima; extimum est compositum exillis. Similis orda graduum istorum est in omni semine,
  • 82 ANGELIC WISDOMIN SUCCIrSSIVE ORDER THE FIltST DEGREE MAKES THE HIGH- EST, AND TIlE THIRD THE LOWEST; BUT IN SIMUL- TANEOUS ORDER THE FIRST DEGREE MAKES THB INNERMOST, AND THE TRIRD THE OUTERMOST. S05e There is successive order and simultaneous order.The successive order of these degrees is from highest to lowest,or from top to bottom. The angelic heavens are in this order;the third heaven is the highest, the second is the middle, andthe first is the lowest; such is their relative situation. In likesuccessive order are the states oClove and wisdom with the angelsthere, also states of heat and light, and of the spiritual atmo-spheres. In like order are all the perfe8ions of the forms andforces there. When degrees of height, that is, discrete degrees,are in successive order, they may be compared to a columndivided into three stories, through which ascent and descentare made. In the upper rooms are things most perfeCt and mostbeautiful; in the middle rooms, things less perfeCt and beauti-ful; in the lowest, things still less perfeCt and beautiful. Butsimultaneous order, which consists of like degrees, has anotherappearance. In it, the highest things of successive order, whichare (as was said above) the most perfeCt and most beautiful, arein the inmost, the lower things are in the middle, and the low-est in the circumference. They are as if in a solid body com-posed of these three degrees: in the middle or centre are thefinest parts, round about this are parts less fine, and in the ex-tremes which constitute the circumference are the parts com-posed of these aad which are therefore grosser. It is like thecolumn mentioned just above subsiding into a plane, thehighest part of which fonns the innermost of the plane, themiddle forms the middle, and the lowest the outermost. __6. As the highest of successive order becomes the in-nennost of simultaneous order, and the lowest becomes the out-ermost, so in the Word, "higher" signifies inner, and "lower"signifies outer. "Upwards" and "downwards," and "high"and "deep" have a similar meaning. --1. In every outmost there are discrete degrees in simul-taneous order. The motor fibres in every muscle, the fibresin every nerve, also the fibres and the little vessels in all visceraand organs, are in such an order. Innermost in these are themost simple things, which are the most perfeCl j the outermostis a composite of these. There is a like order of these degrees
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N.209. 83inque omni fructu, tum etiam in omni metallo et lapide ; par-tes horum tales sunt, ex quibus totum. Partium intima, me-dia et extima sunt in illis gradibus ; sunt enim successivaecompositiones, seu confasciationes et conglobationes a sim-plicibus, quae sunt primae eorum substantiae seu materiae. • 08. Verbo, tales gradus sunt in omni ultimo, ita inomni effeau: nam omne ultimum consistit ex prioribus,et haec a suis primis; ac omnis effeCl:us consistit ex causa,et haec ex fine, et finis est omne causae, et causa estomne effeCl:us (ut supra demonstratum est) ; ac finis facitintimum, causa medium, et effeCtus ultimum. Quod similesit cum gradibus amoris et sapientiae, caloris et lucis,tum cum formis organicis affeCl:ionum et cogitationumapud hominem, in sequentibus videbitur. De serie horumgraduum in ordine successivo et in ordine simultaneoaCl:um etiam est in Dotlrina NovtU Hierosolymae de Scrip-lura Sacra (n. 38 et alibi); ostensum est quod similesgradus in omnibus et singulis Verbi sint.QUOD GRADUS ULTIMUS SIT COMPLEXUS, CONTINENS ET BASIS GRADUUM PRIORUM• • 09. Do8:rina graduum, quae in hac Parte traditur, haCl:enus i1lustrata est per varia quae in utroque mundo ex- istunt; ut per gradus caelorum ubi sunt angeli, per gradus caloris et lucis apud illos, et per gradus atmosphaerarum, et per varia in corpore humano, et quoque in regno animali et minerali. Sed do8:rina ilIa est amplioris extensionis: extensio ejus non modo est ad naturalia, sed etiam ad civilia, moralia et spiritualia, et ad omnia et singula eo- fum. Causae quod dotlrina graduum ad talia etiam se extendat, sunt binae: prima, quia in omni re, de qua ali- quid praedicari potest, est trinum, quod vocatur finis, causa et effeCtus, et haec tria inter se sunt secundum gra- dus altitudinis: altera est, quod omne civile, morale et spirituale non sit aliquid abstraCl:um a substantia, sed quod sint substantiae, nam sicut amor et sapientia non sunt res abstraCl:ae, sed quod sint substantia, (ut supra, n. 40--43, demonstratum est,) ita similiter omnes res, quae civiles,·morales et spirituales vocantur. Hae quidem possunt abstraCle a substantiis cogitari, sed usque in se non sunt abstraetae. Sicut pro exemplo, affeCtio et cogitatio, cha-
  • r CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE~-N. 205-209. 83 in every seed and in every fruit, also in every metal and stone; their parts, of which the whole is composed, are of such a ~ature. The innermost, the middle, and the outermost elements of the parts exist in these degrees, for they are successive composi- tiODS, that is, bundlings and massings together from simples that are their first substances or matters. ~8. In a word, there are such degrees in every outmost, thus in every effect:. For every outmost consists of things prior, and these of their primes. And every effeCl consists of cause, and this of end; and end is the all of cause, and cause is the all of effeCl (as was shown above); and end makes the inmost, cause the lniddle, and effeCl the outmost. The same is true of degrees of love and wisdom, and of beat and light, also of the organic fonns of affeaiODS and thoughts in man (as will be seen in what follows). The series of these degrees in successive order and in simultaneous order has been tteated of in Tile Dollrine of tile New Jerusalem coneerning tile Sacred Scripture (n. 38, and elsewhere), where it is shown that there are like degrees in each and all things of the Word. THE OUTMOST DEGR.EE IS THE COMPLEX, CONTAINANT AND BASE OF THE PR.IOR. DEGREES. ~09. The doCtrine of degrees which is taught in this Part, has hitherto been explained by various things which exist in both worlds; as by the degrees of the heavens where angels dwell, by the degrees of heat and light with them, and by the degrees of atmospheres, and by various things in the human body, and in the animal and mineral kingdoms. But this doc- trine has a wider range; it extends not only to natural, but also to civil, moral, and spiritual things, and to each and all their details. There are two reasons why the doCbine of degrees extends also to such things. First, in every thing of which any- thing can be predicated there is the trine which is called end, cause, and effeCl, and these three are related to one another according to degrees of height. And seumd/y, things civil, moral, and spiritual are not something abstract from substance, but are substances. For as love and wisdom are not abstract things, but substance (as was shown above, n. 40-43), so in like manner are all things which are called civil, moral, and spiritual. These may be thought of abstraCl:ly from substances, yet in themselves they are not abstraa; as for example, affec-
  • SAPIENTI~ ANGE;LICA ritas et fides, voluntas et intellectus; cum his enim simile est, sicutest cum amore et sapientia, nempe quod non dentur extra subjeCla, quae sunt substantiae, sed quod sint status subjeCiorum seu substantiarum; quodsint mutationes illorum, quae sistunt variationes, videbi-tur in sequentibus. Per substantiam etiam intelligiturforma, nam sub~tantia absque forma non datur. _IO. Ex eo quod de voluntate et intelleau, dequeaffectione et cogitatione, tum de charitate et fide, abstraClea substantiis, quae sunt illorum subjeCla, cogitari potuis-set, et cogitatum sit, faaum est quod justa idea de illisperierit, quae est quod sint status substantiarum seu for-marum: prorsus sicut sunt sensationes, et aCliones, quaenee sunt res abstraCtae ab organis sensoriis et motoriis;abstraCtae seu separatae ab iBis non sunt nisi quam entiarationis j sunt enim sicut visus absque oculo, auditus abs-que aure, gustus absque lingua, et sic porro. _II. Quoniam omnes res civiles, morales et spiritua-les similiter per gradus progrediuntur, sicut res naturales,non solum per gradus continuos, sed etiam per gradusdiscretos, et progressiones graduum discretorum se ha-bent sicut progressiones finium ad causas, et causarum adeffeCtus, volui rem praesentem, quae est, quod gradusultimus sit complexus, continens et basis graduum prio-rum, illustrare et confirmare per supradicta; nempe perilIa quae sunt amoris et sapientiae, voluntatis et intellec-tus, affectionis et cogitationis,. ac charitatis et fidei. ~I~. Quod gradus ultimus sit complexus, continenset basis graduum priorum, constat m~l1ifeste ex progres-sione finium et causarum ad effeetus. Quod effe8:us sitcomplexus, continens et basis causarum et finium, a ra..tione illustrata potest comprehendi; sed Don ita clare,quod finis cum omnibus ejus, et causa cum omnibus ejus,aCl:ualiter sint in effeetu, ac quod effectus sit plenus com-plexus eorum. Quod res talis sit, a praediB:is. in hacParte constare patest, ex illis imprimis, quod unum sitab altero in serie triplicata j et quod effeCtus non sit aliudquam finis in suo ultimo; et quia ultimum est complexus,sequitur quod ultimum sit continens, et quoque basis. ~I3. Quod amorem et sapientiam attinet: est amorfinis, sapientia causa per quam, ac usus est effectus; acusus est complexus, continens et basis sapientiae et amo-
  • AHGBLIC WISDOMdon ud thought, charity aad faith, will. aDd understanding;for it is the same with these as with love and wisdom, in thatthey are not poeible outside of subjeCts which are substances,:>ut are states of subjeCl:s, that is, substances. That they arecllanges of th~ presenting variations, wi~ be seen in whatfonows. By substance is .also meant form, for substance is notp08lible apart from fonn. .:1:0. From its being possible to think of will and under-standing, affeaion and thought, and charity and faith, abstractlyfrom the substances which are their subjeCts, and from theirhaving been so regarded, it has come to pass, that a correa: ideaof these things, as being states of substances or fonns, has per-ished. It is altogether as with sensations and aClions, whichare Dot things abstraCl from the organs of sensation and mo-tion. AbstraCl:ed, that is, separate, from these they are merefigments of reason; they are like sight apart from the eye,bearing apart from the ear, taste apart from the tongue, and80 forth. • :0:. Since aU things civil, moral, and spiritual advancethrough degrees, just as natural things do, not only throughOODtinuous but also through discrete degrees j and since theprogressions of discrete degrees are like progressions of ends tocauses, and of causes to effe&t, I have chosen to explain andconfirm the present point, that the outmost degree is the com-plex, containaot, and base of prior degrees, by the things abovementioned, that is, by what pertains to love and wisdom, towill and understanding, to alfeCUon and thought, and to charityand faith• .x.. That the outmost degree is tile complex, containant,aod base of prior degrees, is dearly seen from progression ofends and causes to etfeCls. That the effeCt is the complex,contaiuant, and base of causes and ends can be comprehended by enlightened realiOB; but it is not so clear that the end withall things thereo~ and the cause with all things thereof; areaCtually in the effeCt. and that the effea: is their full complex.That such is the case can be seen from what has been saidabove in this Part, particularly from this, that one thing is from the other in a threefold series, and that effeCt is nothing else thaa the end in its outmost. And since the outmost is the com- plex, it follows that it is the containant and also the base. ~ As regards love and wisdom :-Love is the end, wis- dom the instrumental cause. and use is the effea:; and use is the complex, containant, and base of wisdom and love; and use
  • DE DIVINO AMOR.E, PARS III.~N. 21 5. 85 ris; atque usus est talis complexus et tale continens, ut omnia amoris et omnia sapientiae aCtualiter.illi insint; est simultaneum eorum. Sed probe sciendum est, quod omnia amoris et sapientiae, quae homogenea et concordanti~ sunt, usui insint, secundum ilIa, quae supra (in articulo n. 18g-194) dicta et ostensa suot. _Lj.. In serie similium graduum sunt quoque affeClio, cogitatio et aCtio; quia omnis affeCl:io se refert ad amorem, cogitatio ad sapientiam, et actio ad usum. In serie similium graduum sunt charitas, fides, et bonum opus; nam chari- tas est affeCt:ionis, fides est cogitationis~ et bonum opus est aCl:ionis. In serie similium graduum sunt etiam voluntas, intelleClus, et exercitium ; nam voluntas est amoris et inde affectionis, intelleCl:us est sapientiae et inde fidei, et exer- citium est usus et inde operis. Sicut itaque usui insunt omnia sapientiae et amaris, ita aCtioni insunt omnia cogi- tationis et affectionis, bono operi omnia fidei et charitatis, et sic porro; sed omnia homogenea, hoc est concordantia. -:1:5- Quod ultimum cujusvis seriei, quod est usus, actio, opus et exercitium, sit complexus et continens om- nium priorum, nondum est notum. Apparet sicut in usu, aB:ione, opere et exercitio, non plus insit quam tale quod est in motu; sed usque illis omnia priora a8:ualiter insunt, et tam plene ut nihil desit: sunt in illis inclusa, sicut vinum in suo vase, et sicut utensilia in sua domo. Quod haec non appareant, est quia solum exterius spectantur, et exterius spectata sunt modo aCl:ivitates et motus. Est sicut cum brachia et manus se movent, ac nescitur quod mille fibrae motrices ad quemlibet motum eorum concurrunt; et quod mille fibris motricibus millia cogitationis et affectionis correspondeant, quae fibras motrices excitant; quae quia intime agunt, coram aliquo sensu corporis non apparent. Hoc notum est, quod nihil agatur in corpore aut per illud, nisi quam ex voluntate per cogitationem; et quia utraque agit, non potest non quin omnia et singula voluntatis et cogitationis aCl:ioni insint; non separari possunt. Inde est, quod ex faCtis seu operibus judicetur ab aliis de homi- nis cogitatione voluntatis, quae vocatur intentio. Hoc mihi notum factum est, quod angeli ex solo faCto seu opere horninis percipiant et videant omne voluntatis et cogitatio-, nis ejus qui facit ; angeli tertii caeli ex voluntate finem prop- ter quem; ac angeli secundi caeli causam per quam finis
  • CONCERNDIG DIVINE LOVE.-H. 210-21 5, 85is such a complex and such a containant, that all thinp of loveand all things of wisdom are actually in it; it is where they areall at once and together. But it should be borne in mind thatall things of love and wisdom, which are homogeneous andconcordant, are present in use, in accordance with the princi-ples enunciated and explained above (in chapter, D. 18g-194). -LIe Affeaion, thought, and aCtion are also in a series oflike degrees, because all affeaion has relation to love, thoughtto wisdom, and aCl:ion to use. Charity, faith, and good worksare in a series of like degrees, for charity is of affeCtion, faithof thought, and good works of aCtion. Will, understand-ing, and doing are also in a series of like degrees; for will is oflove and so of affeaion, understanding is of wisdom and so offaith, and doing is of use and so of work. As, then, all thingsof wisdom and love are present in use, so all things of thoughtand affeaion are present in aCtion, all things of faith and charityin good works, and so forth; but all are homogeneous, thatis, concordant. _IS- That the outmost in each series, that is to say, use,aCtion, work, and doing, is the complex and containant of allthe prior, has not yet been comprehended. There seems to benothing more in use, in aelion, in work, and in doing thansuch as there is in motion; yet all the prior are aaually present in these, and so fully that nothing is lacking. They are con-tained therein like wine in its cask, or like furniture in a house.They are not apparent, because they are regarded only exter- nally; and regarded externally they are simply aCtivities and motions. It is like the movement of the anns and hands: man is not conscious that a thousand motor fibres concur in every motion of them, and that to the thousand motor fibres correspond thousands of things of thought and affection, by which the motor fibres are excited. As these act deep within, they are not apparent to any bodily sense. This much is knOWD, that nothing is dODe in or through the body except from the will through the thought; and because both of these act, it must needs be that each and all things of the will and thought are present in the action. They cannot be separated; consequently from ones deeds or works others judge of the thought of his will, which is called his intention. It has been made known to me that angels, from ones deed or work alone, perceive and see every thing of the will and thought of the doer; angels of the third heaven perceiving and seeing from his will the end for which he acts, and angels of the second heaven the cause through
  • 86 SAPIENTIA 4NGELICAagit. Exinde est quod in Verbo U opera" et U faaa" totiesmandentur, ae dicatur quod homo ex illis cognoscatur. • :1:6. Ex sapientia angelica est, quod nisi voluntas etintelletus, seu affeaio et cogitatio, tum charitas et fides,indant ac involvant se operibus seu faClis, quando possi-bile est, non sint nisi quam sicut aerea quae transeunt,aut sicut imagines in aere, quae pereunt; et quod Illaetunc primum maneant apud hominem, ae fiant ejus vitae,quando homo operatur et facit ilia. Causa est, quia ulti-mum est complexus, continens et basis priorum. Tale ae-reum et talis imago est fides separata a bonis operibus, etquoque tale est fides et charitas absque suis exercitiis; cumsola differentia, quod qui fidem et charitatem ponunt, sciantet possint velIe facere bona, non autem illi qui in fide sepa-rata a charitate sunt.QUOD GRADUS ALTITUDINIS IN SUO ULTIMO SINT IN PLENO ET IN POTENTIA• • :1:7. In praecedente articulo ostensum est, quod gra-dus ultimus sit complexus et continens graduum priorum.Inde sequitur, quod gradus priores in suo ultimo sint inplena; suot enim in suo effeClu, et omnis efTeClus est cau-sarum plenum. • :1:8. Quod gradu5 illi ascenden·tes et descendentes,qui etiam vocantur priores et posteriores, tum gradu8 alti-tudinis et discreti, in suo ultimo sint in sua potentia, con-firmari potest ab omnibus illis, quae in praecedentibul asensibilibus et perceptibilibus ad confirmationes allata sunt.Sed hie solum ilia confirmare vola per conatus, vires etmotus in subjettis mortuis et in subjeetis vivis. Notumest, quod conatus ex se nihil agat, sed per vires sibi cor..respondentes, et quod per eas sistat motum; et quod indesit, quod conatul sit omne in viribus, et per vires in motu;et quia motus est gradus conatus ultimus, quod per iliumagat 8uam potentiam. Conatus, vis et motus non aliterconjunCli sunt quam secundum gradus altitudinis, quorumconjunClio non est per continuum, sunt enim discreti, sedper correspondentias. Nam conatus non est vis, nee visest motus; sed vis producitur a conatu, est enim vis c:o-natus excitatus, et motus producitur per vim: quare non
  • .utGEUC WISDOM.hich the end operates. It is from this that works aad deedsare so often commanded in the Word, and that it is said thata man is known by his works. • :1:6. It is according to angelic wisdom that will and under-standing, that is, affeCtion and thought, as well as charity andfaith, unless clothed and wrapped in works or deeds, wheneverpossible, are only like something airy which passes away, or likephantoms in air which perish j and that they first become per-manent in man and a part of his life, when he exercises anddoes them. The reason is that the outmost is the complex,containant, and base of things prior. Such an airy nothing andsuch a phantom is faith separated from good works; such alsoare faith and charity without their exercise, with this differenceonly, that those who profess faith and charity know what is goodand can will to do it, but not so those who are in faith separatedfrom charity.THE DEGIlEES OF HEIGHT ARE IN FULNESS AND IN POWER. IN THEIR OUTMOST DEGR.EE• •"7. In the preceding chapter it is shown that the outmostdegree is the complex and containant of prior degrees. It fol-lowl that prior degrees are in their fulness in their outmost degree,for they are in their effea, and every effeCl: is the fulness ofcauses. • :1:8. That these aseending and descending degrees, alsocalled prior and posterior, likewise degrees of height or discretedegrees, are in their power in their outmost degree, may beconfirmed by all those things which have been adduced in thepreceding chapters as confinnations from objeCts of sense andperception. Here, however, I choose to confirm them only bythe conatus, forces and motioos in dead and living subjeCts.It is known that conatus does nothing of its~ but a& throughforces corresponding to it, thereby producing visible motion;consequently that conatus is the all in forces, and through forcesis the all in motion; and since motion is the oubnost degree ofconatus, through motion conatus exerts its power. Conatus,force, and motion are no otherwise conjoined than according todegrees of height, conjunCtion of which is not by continuity, forthey are discrete, but by correspondences. For conatus is not(orcel nor is force motion, but force is produced by conatus,because force is conatus excited, and through force motion is
  • ,
  • 88 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAvivam experientiam aliquoties ostensum est; et diaumquod inde sit quod inaugurationes in ministerium fiant perimpositionem manuum, et quod per tangere manu signi6-cetur communicare, praeter alia similia. Ex his conclusumfaCl:um est, quod omne charitatis et fidei in operibus sit,et quod charitas et fides absque operibus sint sicut iridescircum solem, quae evanescunt et a nube dissipantut.Quare toties in Verbo dicuntur U opera," et dicitur II facere,"et quod salus hominis ab ilUs pendeat; etiam qui facitvocatur sapiens, et qui non facit vocatur stultus. At sci-endum est, quod per U opera" hie intelligantur usus quiaB:ualiter flunt; in illis enim et secundum illos est omnecharitatis et fidei: cum usibus est ilIa correspondentia,quia correspondentia ilIa est spiritualis, sed fit per substan-tias et materias, quae sunt subjeB:a. . .~I. Hie duo arcana, quae per supradiB:a in intellee-tum cadunt, revelari possunt. Primum arcanum est, quodVerbum in sensu litterae sit in suo pleno et in sua poten-tia. Suot enim tres sensus secundum tres gradus in Verbo ;sensus caelestis, sensus spiritualis, et sensus naturalis.Quoniam illi sensus secundum tres gradus altitudinis inVerbo sunt, et conjunClio illorum fit per correspondentias,ideo ultimus sensus, qui est naturalis, et vocatur sensuslitterae, non modo est complexus, continens et basis sen-8uum interiorum eorrespondentium, sed etiam est Verbumin ultimo sensu in suo pleno et in sua potentia. Quod itasit, multis ostensum et confirmatum est in Dollrina NOlJUHieroso!ymtU de Scnptu,a Sac,a (n. 27-35, 36-49, 50-61,62-6g). Alterlltll arca,,"m est, quod Dominus in mundumvenerit, ae susceperit Humanum, ut in potentiam subju-gandi inferna, ae in ordinem redigendi omnia tam in caelisquam in terris, Se mitteret. Hoc Humanum superinduxitHumano suo priori. Humanum quod in mundo superin-duxit, fuit sieut humanum hominis in mundo, utrumquetamen Divinum, et inde infinite transcendens humana finitaangelorum et hominum. Et quia plene glorificavit Huma-num naturale usque ad ultima ejus, ideo cum toto Corporeresurrexit, secus ac ullus homo. Per assumptionem hujusHumani induit omnipotentiam Divinam non modo subju-gandi inferna, ac in ordinem redigendi caeIos; sed etiaminferna in aeternum subjugata tenendi, et salvandi homi-nes. Haec potentia intelligitur, per quod sedeat ad dex-
  • 88 ANGELIC WISDOMit is so has been shown repeatedly by living experience, aDd ithas been said that it is from this that induCtions into the minis-try are performed by the laymg on .of hands, and that "touchingwith the hand" signifies communicating; with other like things.From all this the conclusion is formed, that the all of charityand faith is in works, and that charity and faith without worksare like rainbows about the SUD, which vanish away and are lostin the clouds. On this account "works" and "doing works"are so often mentioned in the Word, and it is said that a manssalvation depends upon these; moreover, he that doeth is calleda wise man, and he that doeth not is called a foolish man. Butit should be remembered that by "works" here are meant usesactually done; for the all of charity and faith is in uses andaccording to uses. There is this correspondence of works withuses, because the correspondence is spiritual, but it is carriedout through substances and matters, which are subjects. "I. Two arcana, which are brought within reach of theunderstanding by what precedes, may here be revealed. First,The Word is in its fulness and in its power in the sense of theletter. F or there are three senses in the Word, according to thethree degrees i the celestial sense, the spiritual sense, and theDatural sense. Since these senses are in the Word according to the three degrees of height, and their conjunction is etfeCledby correspondences, the outmost sense, which is the natural and is called the sense of the letter, is not only the complex, contain- ant and base of the corresponding interior senses, but moreover in the outmost sense the Word is in its fulness and in its power. This is abundantly shown and proved in TIte Dollrine of 1M New Jerusalem concerning tile Saered Scripture (n. 27-35, 36-49, 50-61, 62-69). Sectmtl/y, The Lord came into the world, and took upon Him a Human, in order to put Himself into the power of subjugating the hells, and of reducing all things to order both in tile heavens and on the earth. This Human He put on over His former Human. ThiS Human which He put on in the world was like mans human in the world. Yet both Humans are Divine, and therefore infinitely transcend the finite humans of angels and men. And because He fully glorified the natural Human even to its outmOlts, He rose again with the whole body, differently from any man. Through the assumption of this Human the Lord put on Divine Omnipotence not only for subjugating the hells, and reducing the heavens to order, but also for holding the hells in subjection to eternity, and saving mankind. This power is meant by His "sitting at the right
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N.223. 89tram potentiae et virtutis Dei. Quoniam Dominus perassumptionem Humani naturalis Se fecit Divinum Verumin ultimis, ideo vacatur Verbum, ac dicitur quod VerbumCaro factum sit; ac Divinum Verum in ultimis est Ver-bum quoad sensum litterae. Hoc Se fecit per impletionemomnium Verbi de Ipso in Mose et Propltetis. Unusquis-que enim homo est 8uum bonum et 8uum verum; homonon aliunde est homo: Dominus autem per assumptionemHumani naturalis est ipsum Divinum Bonum et DivinumVerum, seu quod idem, est Ipse Divinus Amor et DivinaSapientia, tam in primis quam in ultimis. Inde est, quod incaelis ingelicis appareat ut Sol, post adventum Ipsius inmundum in fortiori jubare et in majori splendore, quam anteadventum Ipsius. Hoc arcanum est, quod per doClrinamgraduum potest sub intelleClum cadere. De omnipotentiaIpsius ante adventum in mundum, in sequentibus dicetur.QUOD UTRIUSQUE GENERIS GRADUS SINT IN OMNIUM: MAXIMIS ET MINIMIS QUAE CREATA SUNT. ~~. Quod omnium maxima et minima ex gradibusdiscretis et continuis, seu altitudinis et latitudinis consis-tant, non potest illustrari per exempla ex visibilibus, quiaminima non exstant coram oculis, et maxima quae exstant,non distinCta in gradus apparent. Quapropter hanc remnon licet nisi quam per universalia demonstare. Et quiaangeli in sapientia ex universalibus sunt, et inde in scien-tia de singularibus, licet de his effata illorum proferre. ~3. Angelorum effata de hac re sunt haec: quodnon detur tam minimum, in quo non sint gradus utrius-que generis; ut, non minimum in aliquo animali; nonminimum in aliquo vegetabili; nee minimum in aliquominerali; nee minimum in aethere et aere; et quia aetheret aer sunt receptacula caloris et lucis, quod non deturminimum caloris et lucis; et quia calor spiritualis et luxspiritualis sunt receptacula amoris et sapientiae, quod necdetur minimum horum,-in quibus non utriusque generisgradus sunt. Ex angelorum effatis etiam est, quod mini-mum affeClionis, ac minimum cogitationis, immo quod mini-mum ideae cogitationis, consistat ex utriusque generis
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 221-223. 8ghand of the power and might of God." Because the Lord, bythe assumption of a natural Human, made Himself Divine Truthin outmosts, He is called "the Word," and it is said that "theWord was made flesh;" Divine Truth in outmosts being theWord in the sense of the letter. This the Lord made Himself byfulfilling all things of the Word concerning Himself in Moses andthe Prophets. For while every man is his own good and hisown truth, and man is a man on no other ground, the Lord, bythe assumption of a natural Human, is Divine Good itself andDivine Truth its~ or what is the same, He is Divine Love itselfand Divine Wisdom itself: both in Firsts and in Lasts. Conse-quently the Lord, since His advent into the world, appears as asun in the angelic heavens, in stronger radiance and in greatersplendor than before His advent. This is an arcanum which isbrought within the range of the understanding by the doanneof degrees. The Lords omnipotence before His advent intothe world will be treated of in what follows.THERE ARE DEGREES OF BOTH KINDS IN THE GREATEST AND IN THE LEAST OF ALL CREATED THINGS. ~~. That the greatest and the least of all things consistof discrete and continuous degrees, that is, of degrees of heightand of breadth, cannot be illustrated by examples from visibleobje8:s, because the least things are not visible to the eyes, andthe greatest things which are visible seem undiStinguished intodegrees; consequently this matter does not allow of demonstra-tion otherwise than by universals. And since angels are inwisdom from universals, and from that in knowledge of particu-lars, it is allowed to bring forward their statements concerningthese things. , ~3. The statements of angels on this subje8: are as follows:There can be nothing so minute as not to have in it degrees ofboth kinds; lor instance, there can be nothing so minute in anyanimal, or in any plant, or in any min~ral, or in the ether orair, as not to have in it these degrees; and since ether and airare receptacles of heat and light, and spiritual heat and spirituallight are the receptacles of love and wisdom, there can be nothingof heat and light or of love and wisdom so minute as not to havein it degrees of both kinds. Angels also declare that the minutestthing of an affeaion or of a thought, nay, that the minutest thingof an idea of thought, consists of degrees of both kinds, and that
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICAgradibus, et quod minimum, quod non ex illis consistit f sitnihil; non enim habet formam, ita non quale~ nec aliquemstatum qui mutari et variari potest, et per id existere.Angeli confirmant id per hoc verum, quod infinita in Deo~reatore, qui est Dominus ab aeterno, distinCl:e unum sint ;ac quod infinita in infinitis Ipsius; et quod in infinite infi-nitis sint gradus utriusque generis, qui etiam in Ipso dis-~inCl:e unum sunt; et quia ilia in Ipso sunt, et ab Ipsoomnia creata sunt, et quae creata sunt, in quadam imaginereferunt ilIa quae in Ipso sunt, sequitur quod non deturminimum finitum, in quo non tales gradus sunt. Quodilli gradus aeque in minimis ac in maximis sint, est quiaDivinum in maximis et minimis est idem. Quod in DeoHomine infinita distinCle unum sint, videatur supra (n.17-22); et quod Divinum in maximis et minimis sit idem(n. 77-82); quae adhuc illustrata sunt (n. ISS, 16g, 171). ~. Quod non minimum amoris et sapientiae, neeminimum affeClionis et cogitationis, et nec minimum ideaecogitationis, detur in quo non suot utriusque generis gra-dus, est quia amor et sapientia sunt substantia et forma (utsupra, n. 40-43, ostensum est) ; similiter affeClio et cogitatio.Et quia non datur forma, in qua non illi gradus sunt, ut su-pra dietum est, sequitur quod similes gradus illis sint ; sepa-rare enim amorem et sapientiam, tum affeB:ionem et cogi-tationem a substantia in forma, est annihilare ilia, quianon dantur extra sua subjeCla, sunt enim horum status abhomine percepti in variatione, qui sistunt ilia. ~5. l{axima, in quibus utriusque generis gradus sunt,est universum [Xlin totq suo complexu; est mundus natu-ralis in suo complexu; estque mundus spiritualis in suo;est quodvis imperium, et quodvis regnum in suo com-plexu; est omne civile, omne morale et omne spiritualeeorum, in suo complexu; totum regnum animale, totumregnum vegetabile, et totum regnum minerale, quodlibetin suo complexu; sunt omnes atmosphaerae utriusqueMundi simul sumptae, tum calores et luces earum. Pari-ter minus communia, ut homo in suo complexu, omneanimal in suo, omnis arbor et omne virgultum in suo, tumomnis lapis et omne metallum in suo. Horum formae suntsimiles quoad id, quod ex utriusque generis gradibus con-sistant: causa est, quia Divinum, a quo creata suot, in
  • ANGELIC WISDOM a minute thing not consisting of these degrees would be nothing; for it would have no form, thus no quality, Dor any state which could be changed and varied, and ~by this means have existence. Angels confinn this by the truth, that infinite things in God the Creator, who is the Lord from eternity, are one distin8ly; and that there are infinite things in His infinites; and that in things infinitely infinite there are degrees of both kinds, which also in Him are one distinctly; and because these things are in Him, and all things are created by Him, and things created repeat in an image the things which are in Him, it follows that there can- not be the least finite in which there are Dot such degrees. These degrees are equally in things least and greatest, because the Divine is the same in things greatest and in things least. That in God-Man infinite things are one distinctly, see above (n. 17-22); and that the Divine is the same in things greatest and in things least (n. 77-82) j which positions are further illustrated (n. 155, 169, 171). ~q. There cannot be the least thing of love and wisdom,. or the least thing of affeCtion and thought, or even the least thing of an idea of thought, in which there are not degrees of both kinds, for the reason that love and wisdom are substance and fonn (as was shown above, D. ~43), and the same is true of affection and thought; and because there can be no form in which these degrees are not (as was said above), it follows that in these there are like degrees; for to separate love and wisdom, or affection and thought, from substance in form, is to annihilate them, since they are not possible outside of their subjects; for they are states of their subjects perceived by man variously, which states present them to view. ~5. The greatest things in which there are degrees of both kinds, are the universe in its whole complex, the natural world in its complex, and the spiritual world in its complex; every empire and every kingdom in its complex; also, all civil, moral and spiritual concerns of these in their complex; the whole animal kingdom, the whole vegetable kingdom, and the whole mineral kingdom, each in its complex; all atmospheres of both worlds taken together, also their heats and lights. Like- wise things less general, as man in his complex; every animal in its complex, every tree and every shrub in its complex; also every stone and every metal in its complex. The fonns of these are alike in this, that they consist of degrees of both kinds i the reason is that the Divine, by which they are created, is the same in things greatest and least (as was shown above, n. 77-82).
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N. 229· 91maximis et minimis est idem Cut supra, D. 77-82, demon-stratum est). Horum omnium singularia et singularissimasunt communibus et communissimis similia in eo, quodsint formae utriusque generis [l]graduum. • ~. Ex eo quod maxima et minima sint formae utri-usque generis graduum, est connexio eorum a primis adultima, similitudo enim ilIa conjungit. Sed usque nondatur aliquod minimum quod idem est cum altero; per idest omnium singularium e~ singularissimorum distinaio.Quod non aliquod minimum in aliqua forma, aut inter ali-quas formas, quod est idem, detur, est quia in maximissunt similes gradus, et maxima ex minimis consistunt:quando tales gradus in maximis sunt, et secundum illosperpetua discrimina a summo ad imum, et a centro ad pe-ripherias, sequitur quod non dentur aliqua minora et mini-ma illorum, in quibus similes gradus suot, quae idem sunt. ~~7. Ex sapientia angelica etiam est, quod perfeaiouniversi creati sit ex similitudine communium et particu-larium, seu maximorum et minimorum quoad illos gradus :tunc enim speClat unum alterum ut 8uum simile, cum quoad omnem usum conjungi potest, ac omnem finem sisterein effeB:u. ~d. Verum haec possunt ut paradoxa videri, quiaper applicationes ad visibilia non sunt ostensa; sed usqueabstraCla, quia universalia, solent melius comprehendiquam applicata, haec enim perpetuae varietatis sunt, acvarietas obscurat. ~~9. Traditur a quibusdam quod substantia tam sim-plex detur, ut non sit forma a minoribus formis, et quodex ilIa substantia per coacervationes existant substanti-ata seu composita, et tandem substantiae quae materiaevocantur. Sed usque tales simplicissimae substantiae nondantur. Quid enim est substantia absque forma? Esttale de quo non aliquid praedicari potest; et ex ente, dequo nihil praedicari potest, non potest aliquid per coacer-vationes conftari. Quod innumerabilia sint in omniumprimis substantiis creatis, quae sunt minima et simpIi-cissima, videbitur in sequentibus, ubi de formis agetur.
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 224-229. 91. The particulars and the veriest particulars of all these are like generals and the largest generals in this, that they are forms of both kinds of degrees. ~6. On account of things greatest and least being fonns of both kinds of degrees, there is connection between them from first to last; for likeness conjoins them. Still, there ee.n be no least thing which is the same as any other; consequently all particulars are distinct from each other, likewise all veriest particulars. In any fonn or in different fonns there can be no least thing the ,same as any other, for the reason that in larger forms there are like degrees, and the larger are made up of leasts. From there being such degrees in the larger fonns, and con- tinuous differences in accordance with these degrees, from top to bottom and from centre to circumference, it follows that their lesser or least constituents, in which there are like degrees, can no one of them be the same as any other. ~7. It is likewise a matter of angelic wisdom that from this likeness between generals and particulars, that is, between things greatest and least in respect to these degrees, comes the perfection of the created universe; for thereby one thing regards another as its like, with which it can be conjoined for every use, and bring every end into effect. • d. But these things may seem paradoxical, because they are not explained by application to visible things; yet things abstract, being universals, are oft~n better comprehended than things applied, for these are of perpetual variety, and variety obscures. ~9. Some contend that there can be a substance so simple as not to be a form from lesser fonns, and out of that substance, accumulated into masses, substantiated or composite things arise, and finally substances called material. But there can be no such absolutely simple substances: For what is substance with- out form? It is that of which nothing can be predicated; and out of mere being of which nothing can be predicated, no process of heaping up can make anything. That there are things innumerable in the first created substances of all things, that is, in things most minute and simple, will be seen in what follows, where forms are treated o£
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICAQUOD TRES GRADUS ALTITUDINIS INFINITI ET INCRE- ATI SINT IN DOMINO, ET QUOD TRES GRADUS FINITI.ET CREATI SINT IN HOMINE. -30. Quod in Domino tres gradus altitudinis infinitiet increati sint, est quia Dominus est ipse Amor et ~psaSapientia, ut in antecedentibus demonstratum est; et quiaDominus est ipse Amor et ipsa Sapientia, ideo quoque estipse Usus; nam amor pro fine habet usum, quem producitper sapientiam; amor enim et sapientia absque usu nonhabent terminum aut finem, seu non habent 8uum domici-lium; quapropter non potest dici quod sint et existant, J?isisit usus in quo. Haec tria constituunt tres gradus altitu-dinis in subjeCl:is vitae. Sunt haec tria sicut finis primus,finis medius qui vacatur causa, et finis ultimus qui vocatureffeCl:us. Quod finis, causa et effectus constituant tres gra-dus altitudinis, supra ostensum est et multis confirmatum. ~3I. Quod tres illi gradus in homin,e sint, constare pot-est ex elevatione mentis ejus usque ad gradus amoris et sa-pientiae, in quibus sunt angeli secundi et tertii caeli ; amnesenim angeli fuerunt nati homines, et homo quoad interioraquae mentis ejus sunt, est caelum in minima forma; quotitaque caeli sunt, tot gradus altitudinis sunt apud hominema creatione. Homo etiam est imago et similitudo Dei;quare illi tres gradus inscripti sunt homini, quia in Deo Ho-mine" hoc est, in Domino sunt. Quod illi gradus in Do-mino infiniti et increati sint, et quod illi in homine finiti etcreati sint, constare potest ex illis, [d quae in Parte Prima de-monstrata sunt : ut ex his, quod Dominus sit Amor et Sa-pientia in Se; et quod homo sit recipiens amoris et sapien-tiae a Domino; tum quod de Domino nihil nisi quam Infini-tum dici queat, et quod de homine nihil nisi quam finitum. -3~. Illi tres gradus apud angelos nominantur cae-testis, spiritualis, et naturalis; ac illis gradus caelestisest gradus amoris, gradus spiritualis est gradus sapientiae,et gradus naturalis est gradus usuum. Causa quod ilBgradus ita nominentur, est quia caeli in duo regna distinetisunt, ac unum regnum nominatur caeleste, et alterumspirituale, quibus accedit tertium regnum, in quo sunthomines in mundo, quod est regnum naturale. Etiamangeli, ex quibus regnum caeleste consistit, in amore
  • 92 ANGELIC WISDOMIN THE LORD THE THREE DEGREES OF HEIGHT AR.E INFI- NITE AND UNCREATE, BUT IN MAN THEY ARE FINITE AND CREATED. qO. In the Lord the three degrees of height are infinite and uncreate, because the Lord is Love itself and Wisdom itself (as has been already shown) j and because the Lord is Love itself _nd Wisdom itsel~ He is also Use itsel£ For love has use forits end, and brings forth use by means of wisdom; for without use love and wisdom have no boundary or end, that is, no homeof their own, consequently they cannot be said to have being andexistence unless there be use in which they may be. These threeconstitute the three degrees of height in subjects of life. Theyare three, like first end, middle end which is called cause, and lastend which is called effect. That end, cause and effect constitutethree degrees of height has been shown above and abundantlyproved. qx. That in man there are these three degrees can beseen from the elevation of his mind even to the degrees of loveand wisdom in which angels of the second and third heavensare; for all angels were born men; and man, as regards theinteriors pertaining to his mind, is heaven in least form; there-fore there are in man, by creation, as many degrees of heightas there are heavens. Moreover, man is an image and likenessof God-; consequently these three degrees have been inscribed on man, because they are in God-Man, that is, the Lord. Thatin the Lord these degrees are infinite and uncreate, and in manfinite and created, can be seen from what was shown in Part First jnamely, from this, that the Lord is Love and Wisdom in Him-self; and that man is a recipient of love and wisdom from the Lord;also, that of the Lord nothing but what is infinite can be predi-cated, and of man nothing but what is finite. • 3~ These three degrees with the angels are called Celes-tial, Spiritual, and Natural; and for them the celestial degreeis the degree of love, the spiritual the degree of wisdom, andthe natural the degree of uses. These degrees are so calledbecause the heavens are divided into two kingdoms, one calledthe celestial, the other the spiritual, to which is added a thirdkingdom wherein are men in the world, and this is the naturalkingdom. Moreover, the angels of whom the celestial kingdomconsists are in love; the angels, of whom the spiritual kingdomconsists are in wisdom; while men in the world are in uses;
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-H. 233· 93 sunt; ae angeli ex quibus regnum spirituale consistit, insapientia sunt j at homines in mundo in usibus sunt; acideo ilia regna conjunCia sunt. Quomodo intelligendum estquod homines in us{bus sint, in Parte sequente dicetur. -33- Ex caeto dictum est mihi, quod in Domino abaeterno, qui est Jehovah, ante assumptionem Humani inmundo, fuerint bini gradus priores aB:ualiter, et tertiusgradus in potentia, quales etiam sunt apud angelos; sedquod post assumptionem humani in mundo, etiam tertiumgradum, qui naturalis vocatur, superinduerit, et quod perid factus sit Homo similis homini in mundo, cum discri-mine tamen, quod hie gradus, sicut priores, infinitus etincreatus sit, et quod illi gradu5 in angelo et in hominefiniti et creati sint, Divinum enim, quod impleveratomnia spatia absque spatio (n. 69-72), etiam ad ultimanaturae penetravit; sed ante assumptionem Humani fuitDivinus inftuxus in naturalem gradum mediatus per cae-los angelicas, sed post assumptionem immediatus ab Ipso;quae causa est, quod omnes ecclesiae in mundo ante ad-ventum Ipsius repraesentativae spiritualium et caelestiumfuerint, sed post adventum Ipsius faaae sint naturales spir-ituales etcaelestes, et quod repraesentativus cultus sit abo-titus: quae etiam causa fuit, quod Sol caeli angelici, qui estut supra diCtum est, primum procedens Divini Amoris et Di-vinae Sapientiae Ipsius, post assumptionem Humani efful-seritjubare et splendore eminentiori, quam ante assumptio-nem. Hoc quoque intelligitur per haec apud Esaiam ,- In die illo •• erit lux Lunae sicut lux Solis, et lux Solis erit septupla aleut lux septem dierum" (xu. [JJ6);haec diCta sunt de statu caeli et ecclesiae post adventumDomini in mundum. Ac in Apocalypsi.- Visa est facies Filii hominis ,. sieut 101 fulget in sua potentia Jt (i. 16);et alibi (ut Esai. Ix. 20; 2 Sa",. niU. 3. 4; MattA. xvii. I, 2).Illustratio hominum mediata per caelum angelicum, quaefuit ante adventum Domini, comparari patest luci lunae,quae est lux solis mediata; quae quia post adventumIpsius facta est immediata, dicitur apud Esaiam, quod"lux lunae erit sicut lux solis jn et apud Davidme,
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N.230-2 33. 93therefore these kingdoms are conjoined. How it is to be under- -33-stood that men are in useS will be shown in the next Part. It has been told me from heaven, that in the Lordfrom eternity, who is Jehovah, before His assumption of aHuman in the world, the two prior degrees existed actually,and the third degree potentially, as they do also with angels ibut that after the assumption of a Human in the world, He puton also the third degree, called the natural, thereby becomingMan, like a man in the world; but with the difference, that inthe Lord this and the prior degrees are infinite and uncreate,while in angel and in man they are finite and created. For theDivine which, apart from space, had filled all spaces (n. 69-72),penetrated even to the outmosts of nature; yet before the as-sumption of the Human, there was a Divine influx into thenatural degree mediate through the angelic heavens, but afterthe assumption immediate from Himsel£ This is the reasonwhy all Churches in the world before His Advent were repre-sentative of spiritual and celestial things, but after His Adventbecame spiritual-natural and celestial-natural, and representa-tive worship was abolished. This also was the reason why thesun of the angelic heaven, which, as was said above, is the firstproceeding of His Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, after theassumption of the Human shone out with greater effulgence andsplendor than before. And this is what is meant by these wordsin naia": .. In that day the light of the moon shall be as the light of the lun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days" (xxx. 26).This is said of the state of heaven and of the Church after theLords coming into the world. Again, in ~e Apocalypse: The countenance of the Son of Man Uwas as the sun ahineth in his strength tt (i. 16);and elsewhere (as in IsaiaA Ix. 20; J Sa",. miL 3,4; Matt. xviL I, J).The mediate enlightenment of men through the angelic heaven,which existed before the coming of the Lord, may be com-pared to the light of the moon, which is the mediate lightof the sun ; and because after His coming this was made imme-diate, it is said in IsaiaA that "the light of the moon shall be asthe light of the sun"; and in David..
  • 94 SA.PIENTIA ANGELICA •• Florebit in die Ipsius justus. et multa pax usque dum DOD luna" (Psalm. lxxii.· 7) ;hoc etiam de Domino. ~3+ Quod Dominus ab aeterno, seu Jehovah, tertiumilIum gradum per assumptionem Humani in mundo super-induerit, erat ex causa, quia in ilium non potuit intrarenisi quam per naturam similem naturae humanae, ita non nisiquam per conceptionem a Divino suo, et per nativitatem avirgine; sic enim potuit naturam, quae in se est mortua,et usque receptaculum Divini, exuere, ac Divinum induere. Hoc intelligitur per binos status Domini in mundo, qui vo-cantur status exinanitionis et status glorificationis, de qui-bus in Dollrt:na Novae Hieroso/ymae de Domino atium est. . ~35. Haec de triplici ascensu graduum altitudinis ingenere ditia sunt; sed quia illi gradus dantur in maximiset minimis, ut in mox praecedente articulo dietum est, deillis non potest hic aliquid in specie dici: solum hoc, quodtales gradus in omnibus et singulis amoris, et inde talesgradus in omnibus et singulis sapientiae, et ex illis talesgradus in omnibus et singulis usuum sint; sed quod omnesilli in Domino sint infiniti, in angelo autem et in hominefiniti. At quomodo gradus illi sunt in amore, in sapientia,et in usibus, non potest describi et evolvi nisi in serie.QUOD TRES ILLI GRADUS ALTITUDINIS IN QUOVIS HO- MINE A NATIVITATE SINT, ET QUOD SUCCESSIVE POSSINT APERIRI, ET QUOD SICUT APERIUNTUR, HOMO IN DOMINO SIT, ET DOMINUS IN ILLO. ~36. Quod tres gradus altitudinis in quovis hominesint, haClenus non innotuit: causa est, quia illi gradusnon cogniti fuerunt; et quamdiu illi gradus latuerunt, nonpossunt alii gradus sciri, quam gradus continui; et cumhi gradus solum sciuntur, credi potest quod amor et sa-pientia apud hominem modo per continuum crescant. .Atsciendum est, quod apud unumquemvis hominem a nati-vitate tres gradus altitudinis seu discreti sint, unus supraaut intra alterum: et quod unusquisque gradus altitudi-nis seu discretus etiam habeat gradus latitudinis seu con-tinuos, secundum quos ille crescit per continuum; namutriusque generis gradus in omnium maximis et minimis
  • 94 ANGELIC WISDOM •• In his days shall the righteous flourish, and abundance of peace uti! there is DO longer any moon It (baii. 7). This also is said of the Lord. ~34e It was by the assumption of a Human in the worldthat the Lord from eternity, that is, Jehovah, put on this thirddegree, for the reason that He could enter into this degree onlyby means of a nature like human nature, thus only by meansof conception from His Divine and by birth from a virgin; forin this way He could put off a nature which, although a recep-tacle of the Divine, is in itself dead, and could put on the Divine.This is meant by the Lords two states in the world, which arecalled the state of exinanition and the state of glorification, whichare treated of in The Do&lrine of tIze New 7 erusalem concern-ing lAe Lord. ~35. Of the threefold ascent of the degrees of height thismuch has been said in general; but these degrees cannot herebe discussed in detail, because (as was said in the precedingchapter) there must be these three degrees in things greatestand· least ; this only need be said, that there are such degrees ineach and all things of love, and therefrom in each and all thingsof wisdom, and from both of these in each and all things of use.In the Lord all these degrees are infinite; in angel and manthey are finite. But how there are these three degrees in love,in wisdom, and in uses cannot be described and unfolded exceptin series. .THESE THREE DEGR.EES OF HEIGHT ARE IN EVERY MAN FROM »IRTH,· AND CAN BE OPENED SUCCESSIVELY; AND, AS THEY ARE OPENED, MAN IS IN THE LORD AND THE LORD IN MAN. ~36. It has not been understood heretofore that there arethree degrees of height in every man, for the reason that thesedegrees have not been known about, and so long as they re~mained unnoticed, none but continuous degrees could be known;and when none but continuous degrees are known, it may besupposed that love and wisdom increase in man only by con-tinuity. But it should be known, that in every man from hisbirth there are three degrees of height, or discrete degrees, oneabove or within another; and that each degree of height, ordiscrete degree, has also degrees of breadth, or continuous de-grees, according to which it increases by continuity. For there
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N. 239· 9Ssunt, ut supra (n. 222-229: ostensum est: non enim potestdari unius generis gradus absque altero. ~37. Tres illi gradus altitudinis nominantur naturalis,spiritualis et caelestis, ut supra (n. 232) diCtum est. Homodum nascitur, primum venit in gradum naturalem, et hieapud ilIum crescit per continuum secundum seientias acse£Wldum intelleClum per illas aequisitum, usque ad sum~mum intelleClus quod vacatur rationale. Sed usque per idnon aperitur alter gradus, qui vocatur spiritualis ; hie aperi-tur per amorem usuum ex intelleClualibus, sed per amo-rem usuum spiritualem, qui amor est amor erga proximum :hie gradus similiter potest crescere per gradus continuumusque ad ejus summum, et crescit per cognitiones veri etboni, seu per veritates spirituales. At, usque per has nonaperitur tertius gradus, qui vocatur caelestis, sed .hie aperi-tur per eaelestem amorem usus, qui amor est amor in Domi-num; et amor in Dominum non aliud est, quam praeceptaVerbi mandare vitae, quae in summa sunt fugere mala quiainfernalia et diabolica, ac facere bona quia caelestia et Divina.Tres illi gradus ita sucessive apud hominem aperiuntur. ~38. Homo, quamdiu in mundo vivit, non scit aliquidde [I)aperitione illorum graduum apud se; causa est, quiatunc in gradu naturali, qui est ultimus, est, et ex ilio tunecogitat, vult, loquitur et agit; et spiritualis gradus, qui estinterior, cum naturali gradu non communicat per continuum,sed per correspondentias, et communieatio per eorrespon-dentias non sentitur. At usque dum homo naturalem gra-dum exuit, quod fit cum moritur, tunc venit in ilium gradum,qui apud ilium in mundo apertus fuit; in spiritualem illeapud quem spiritualis gradus apertus fuit, in caelestem illeapud quem caelestis gradus. IIIe qui in spiritualem gradumpost mortem venit, non amplius naturaliter eogitat, vult, lo-quitur et agit, sed spiritualiter ; et qui in eaelestem, ille se-cundum suumgradum cogitat, vult, loquituret agit. Et quiaeommunicatio trium graduum inter se datur solum per eor-respondentias, ideo diserimina amoris, sapientiae et ususquoad gradus illos talia sunt, ut non commune per aliquodcontinuum inter se habeant. Ex his patet, quod homini tresgradus altitudinis sint, et quod successive possint aperiri. ~39. Quoniam tres gradus amoris et sapientiae etinde usus dantur apud hominem, sequitur quod tres gra-
  • CONCER.NING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 234-2 38. 9Sare degrees of both kinds in things greatest and least of allthings (as was shown above, n. 222-229); for no degree of onekind is possible without degrees of the other kind. ~37. These three degrees of height are called natural,spiritual, and celestial (as was said above, n. 232). When manis born he comes first into the natural degree, and this growsin him, by coptinuity, with his growth in knowledge .and inunderstanding acquired by means of knowledge, even to theheight of the understanding which is called the rational. Yetnot by this means is the second or spiritual degree opened.This degree is opened by means of a love of uses conformableto what the understanding has acquired, but a spiritual love ofuses, which is love towards the neighbor. This degree maygrow in like manner by continuous degrees to its height, andit grows by means of knowledges of truth and good, that is, byspiritual truths. Yet even by such truths the third or celestialdegree is not opened: for this degree is opened by means of thecelestial love of use, which is love to the Lord; and love tothe Lord is nothing else than committing to life the precepts ofthe Word, the sum of which is to shun evils because they arehellish and devilish, and to do good because it is heavenly anddivine. In this manner these three degrees are successivelyopened in man. ~38. So long as man lives in the world he knows nothingof the opening of these degrees within him, because he is then inthe natural degree, which is the outmost, and from this he thinks,wills, speaks, and a8s; and the spiritual degree, which is inte-rior, communicates with the natural degree, not by continuity butby correspondences, and communication by correspondencesis not sensibly felt. But when man puts off the natural degree,which he does at death, he comes into that degr.ee which hasbeen opened within him in the world; one in whom the spiritualdegree has been opened coming into that degree, and one withinwhom the celestial degree has been opened coming into thatdegree. One who comes into the spiritual degree after deathno longer thinks, wills, speaks, and a8s naturally, but spiritually;and one who comes into the celestial degree thinks, wills, speaks,and acts according to that degree. And as there can becommunication between degrees only by correspondences, thedifferences of love, wisdom, and use, as regards these degreesare such as to have no common ground by means of anythingcontinuous. From all this it is plain that man has three degreesof height that may be successively opened in him.
  • SAPIENTIA ANGELICA dus voluntatis ac intelleB:us et inde conclusi, et sic deter- minationis ad usum, dentur apud ilIum; nam voluntas est receptaculum amoris, et intelleB:us receptaculum sapien- tiae, ac conclusum ~st usus ex illis. Ex quibus patet, quod apud unumquemvis hominem sit voluntas et intel- lectus naturalist spiritualis et caelestis in pbtentia a nati- vitate, et in actu dum aperiuntur. Verbo, mens hominis, quae consistit ex voluntate et int.ellectu, ex creatione et inde ex nativitate est trium graduum, ita quod homini sit mens naturalis, mens spiritualis et mens caelestis, et quod homo per id elevari possit in sapientiam angelicam, ac illam possidere quando in mundo vivit ; sed usque in illam non ve- nit nisi quam post mortem, si fit angelus, et tunc loquitur ineffabilia et naturali homini incomprehensibilia. Cognovi hominem mediocriter doctum in mundo, et post mortem vidi ilium et locutus sum cum illo in caelo, et clare percepi quod locutus sit sicut angelus, et quod ilia quae locutus est, homini naturali imperceptibilia essent. Causa erat,.quia in mundo praecepta Verbi applicuerat vitae, et coluerat Do- minum, et inde a Domino in tertium gradum amoris et sa- pientiae elevatus est. Interest ut haec elevatio mentis hu- manae sciatur, inde enim pendet intelleClus sequentium. ~40. Sunt binae facultates a Domino apud hominem, per quas homo distinguitur a bestiis. Una facultas est, quod possit intelligere quid verum est, et quid bonum; haec facultas vocatur rationalitas, et est facultas ejus in- telleClus: altera facultas est quod possit facere verum et bonum; haec facultas vocatur libertas, et est facultas ejus voluntatis: homo enim potest ex rationalit·ate sua cogitare quicquid lubet, tam cum Deo quam contra Deum, I et cum proximo et contra proximum; et quoque potest velIe et facere, quae cogitat; sed cum videt malum et timet poenam, potest ex libero desistere a faciendo., Homo ex binis illis facultatibus est homo, et distinguitur a bestiis. Binae illae facultates sunt homini a Domino, et con- tinue sunt ab Ipso, nec ei auferuntur; nam si auferrentur, periret humanum ejus. In his binis facultatibus est Domi- nus apud unumquemvis hominem, tam apud bonum quam apud malum; sunt illae mansio Domini in humano genere : inde est quod omnis homo tam bonus quam malus vivat in aeternum. At mansio Domini propior apud hominem est, sicut homo mediis illis facultatibus aperit gradus 5uperiores ;
  • 96 ANGELIC WISDOM -ag. Since man is endowed with three degrees of loveand wisdom, and therefore of use, it follows that there must bethree degrees, of will, of understanding, and of result there-from, thus of determination to use; for will is the receptacle oflove, understanding the receptacle of wisdom, and result is use from these. From this it is evident that there are in everyman a natural, a spiritual, and a celestial will and understanding,potentially by birth and a&a11y when they are opened. In aword, the mind of man, which consists of will and understanding,is, from creation and therefore from birth, of three degrees, sothat man has a natural mind, a spiritual mind, and a celestialmind, and can thereby be elevated into and possess angelic wis-dom while he lives in the world; but it is only after death, andthen only ifhe becomes an angel, that he enters into that wisdom,and his speech then becomes ineffable and incomprehensible tothe natural man. I knew a man of moderate learning in theworld, whom I saw after death and spoke with in heaven, and Iclearly perceived that he spoke like an angel, and that the thingshe said.would be inconceivable to the natural man; and for thereason that in the world he had applied the precepts of theWord to life and had worshipped the Lord, and was thereforeraised up by the Lord into the third degree of love and wisdom. It is important that this elevation of the human mind should beknown about, for upon it depends the understanding of whatfollows. . . qo. There are in man from the Lord two capacitieswhereby he is distinguished from beasts. One of these is theability to understand what truth is and what good is; this iscalled rationality, and is a capacity of his understanding. Theother is an ability to do what is true and good; this is calledfreedom, and is a capacity of his will. For man by virtue ofhis rationality is able to think whatever he pleases, either with oragainst God, either with or against the neighbor; he is also ableto will and to do what he thinks; but when he sees evil andfears punishment, he is able, by virtue of his freedom, to abstainfrom doing it. By virtue of these two capacities man is man,and is distinguished from beasts. Man has these two capacitiesfrom the Lord, and they are from Him every moment; nor arethey taken away, for if they were mans human would perish.In these two capacities the Lord is with every man, good andevil alike; they are the Lords abode in the human race: fromthis it is that all men live forever, the good as well as the evil.But the Lords abode is nearer in man as man by the agency
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N.242• 91per aperitionem enim illorum venit in gradus superioresamoris et sapientiae, sic propius ad Dominum. Ex hisconstare potest, quod sicut illi gradus aperiuntur, ita homoin Domino sit, et Dominus in illo. &II. Di~um est supra, quod tres gradus altitudinis .sint sicut finis, causa et effeClus, et quod secundum illasgradus succedant amor, sapientia et usus; quare hic pau-cis dicetur de amore quod sit finis, de sapientia quod sitcausa, et de usu quod sit effeClus. Quisque qui rationemsuam, dum ilIa in luce est, consulit, potest videre quodamor hominis sit finis omnium ejus, nam quod amat, hoccogitat, hoc concludit, et hoc facit, consequenter pro finehabet; homo etiam ex ratione sua videre potest, quodsapientia sit causa, nam ille, seu ejus arnor qui est finis,in intelleB:u conquirit media, per quae ad finem suum per-veniat; ita consulit sapientiam suam, ac media ilia faci-unt causam per quam. Quod usus sit effectus absqueexplicatione patet. Sed amor apud unum hominem nonest idem qui apud alterum; ita nec sapientia apud unumest eadem quae apud alterum; proinde nec usus; et quiatria ilIa homogenea sunt, (ut supra, n. 18g--194, ostensumest,) sequitur, quod qualis apud hominem est amor, talisapud ilIum sit sapientia, et quod talis sit usus. Dicitursapientia, sed intelligitur id quod intelleB:us ejus est.QUOl) LUX SPIRITUALIS INFLUAT PER TRES GRADUS APUD HOMINEM, SED NON CALOR SPIRITUALIS, NISI QUANTUM HOMO FUGIT MALA UT PECCATA, ET SPECTAT AD DOMINUM. [I]~~ Ex supra demonstratis constat, quod a Solecaeli, qui est primum procedens Divini Amaris et DivinaeSapientiae, (de quo in Secunda Parte attum est,) procedatlux et calor; a Sapientia Ipsius lux, et ab Amore Ipsiuscalor; et quod lux sit receptaculum sapientiae, et calor re-ceptaculum amoris; et quod quantum homo in sapientiamvenit, tantum in Divinam illam Iucem veniat, et quantumin amorem, tantum in Divinum ilium calorem. Hx suprademonstratis etiam constat, quod tres gradus lucis et tresgradus caloris sint, seu tres gradus sapientiae et tres gra-dus amoris, et quod illi gradus apud hominem formatisint, ut homo receptaculum Divini Amaris et Divinae Sa-
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-H. 239-24 2• 97of these capacities opens the higher degrees, for by the openingof these man comes into higher degrees of love and wisdom,thuS nearer to the Lord. From this it can be seen that asthese degrees are opened man is in the Lord and the Lord inhim. ~. It was said above, that the three degrees of heightare like end, cause, and effeCt, and that love, wisdom, and usefollow in succession according to these degrees; therefore afew things shall be said here about love as being end, wisdomas being cause, and use as being effeCt. Whoever consults hisreason, if it is enlightened, can see that the end of all things ofman is his love; for what he loves that he thinks, decides upon,and does, consequently that he has for his end. One can alsosee from his reason that wisdom is cause; for a man, that is,mans love,which is his end, searches in his understanding for itsmeans through which to attain its end, thus consulting its wis-dom, and these means constitute the instrumental cause. Thatuse is effeCt is evident without explanation. But one mans loveis not the same as anothers, neither is one mans wisdom thesame as anothers; so is it with use. And since these three arehomogeneous (as was shown above, n. 189-194), it follows thatsuch as is the love in man, such is the wisdom and such is theuse. By wisdom is here meant what pertains to mans under-standing.SPIRITUAL LIGHT FLOWS IN WITH MAN THROUGH THREE DEGREES, BUT NOT SPIRITUAL HEAT, EXCEPT SO FAR. AS ONE SHUNS EVILS AS SINS AND LOOKS TO THE LORD. ~ It is evident from what has been shown above thatfrom the sun of heaven, which is the first proceeding of Di-vine Love and Divine Wisdom (treated of in Part Second),light and heat proceed-from its wisdom light, and from its loveheat; also that light is the receptacle of wisdom, and heat oflove; also that so far as man comes into wisdom he comes intothe Divine light, and so far as he comes into love he comes intothe Divine heat. And further, that there are three degrees oflight and three degrees of heat, that is, three degrees of wisdomand three degrees of love, and that these degrees have beenfonned in man in order that he may be a receptacle of the Di-vine Love and the Divine Wisdom, thus of the Lord. It is now
  • 98 SAPIENTIA ANGELICA pientiae, ita Domini, esset. Hic nunc demonstrandum est, quod lux spiritualis inftuat per tres illos gradus apud hominem, sed non calor spiritualis, nisi quantum homofugit mala ut peccata, et speB:at ad Dominum; seu quodidem, quod homo recipere possit sapientiam usque ad ter-tium gradum, sed non amorem, nisi fugiat mala ut pee-cata, et speClet ad Dominum; seu quod adhuc idem, quodintelleB:us horninis elevari possit in sapientiam, non au-tern voluntas ejus, nisi quantum fugit mala ut peccata. ~. Quod intelleB:us possit elevari in lucem caeli, seuin sapientiam angelicam, et quod voluntas ejus non possit .elevari in calorem caeli seu in amorem angelicum, nisi fugiatmala ut peccata, et speB:et ad Dominum, evidenter mihi pa-tuit ab experientia in rnundo spirituali. Pluries vidi et per-cepi, quod spiritus simplices, qui modo sciverunt quod Deussit, et quod Dominus natus sit Homo, et vix aliquid prae-terea, arcana sapientiae angelicae plene intellexerint, paenesicut angeli ; nee solum illi, sed etiam plures ex diabolicaturba. At intellexerunt quando audiverunt, non autemquando secum cogitaverunt; nam cum audiverunt, intrabatlux a superiori, cum autem secum cogitaverunt, tunc non alialux potuit intrare, quam quae correspondebat calori seuamori illorum. Quare etiam postquam audiverunt illa ar-cana, et perceperunt ilIa, dum averterunt aures, nihil retinu-erunt; immo illi qui e diabolica turba erant, tunc respueruntilia et prorsus negaverunt. Causa erat, quia ignis amoris illo-rultl et lux ejus quae fatua erant, induxerunt tenebras, perquas lux caelestis e superiori intrans exstinguebatur. ( I ] A f + Simile fit in mundo. Homo qui non plane sta-pidus est, et qui non ex fastu propriae intel1igentiae con-firrnaverat falsa apud se, ille dum audit loquentes de realtiore, aut dum legit talia, si in aliqua affeCtione sciendiest, tunc intelligit ilia, et quoque retinet, et postea pot-est confirmare ilia.. Simile potest tam malus quam bonus.Etiam malus, tametsi corde negat Divina quae ecclesiaesunt, usque potest intelligere ilIa, et quoque loqui et prae-dicare ilIa, tum scripta doCte confirmare ilia; at vero cumsibi reliB:us cogitat, ex amore suo infernali contra ilIa cogi-tat, et negat ilIa. Ex quo patet, quod intellectus pos-sit in luce spirituali esse, tametsi non voluntas in calorespirituali. Ex quo etiam sequitur, quod intelleCtus nonducat voluntatem, seu quod sapientia non producat arno-rem, sed quod solum doceat et monstret viam; docet
  • ANGELIC WISDOM:to be shown that spiritual light ftows in through these three de-grees in man, but not spiritual heat, except so far as man shunsevils as sins and looks to the Lord-or, what is the same, thatman is able to receive wisdom even to the third degree, but notlove, unless he shuns evils as sins and looks to the Lord; or whatis still the same, that mans understanding can be raised intowisdom, but not his will, except so far as he shuns evils as sins. &13- That the understanding can be raised into the lightof heaven, that is, into angelic wisdom, while the will cannot beraised into the heat of heaven, that is, into angelic love, unlessman shuns evils as sins and looks to the Lord, has been madeplainly evident to me from experience in the spiritual world.I have frequently seen and perceived that simple spirits, whoknew merely that God is and that the Lord was born a man,and who knew scarcely anything else, clearly apprehended thearcana of angelic wisdom almost as the angels do; and not these simple on~s alone, but many also of the infernal crew. These, while they listened, understood, but not when they thought within themselves; for while they listened, light entered from above, but when they thought within themselves, no light could enter except that which corresponded to their heat or love; consequently when they had listened to and perceived the arcana, as soon as they turned their ears away they remembered nothing, those belonging to the infernal crew even rejecting these things with disgust and utterly denying them, because the fire of their love and its light, being delusive, induced dark- ness, by which the heavenly light entering from above was extinguished. ~44e The same thing happens in the world. A man not altogether stupid, or who has not confirmed himself in falsities from the pride of self-intelligence, hearing others speak on some exalted matter, or reading something of the kind, if he is in any affection of knowing, understands these things and retains them, and may afterwards confirm them. Either a bad or a good man may do this. A bad man, though in heart he denies the Divine things pertaining to the Church, can still under- stand them, and also speak of and preach them, and in writing learnedly prove them; but when left to his own thought, from his own infernal love he thinks against them and denies them. From which it is obvious that the understanding can be in spiritual light even when the will is not in spiritual heat; and from this it follows that the understanding does not lead the will, or that wisdom does not beget love, but simply teaches
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N. 247· 99quomodo homo viCturus est, et monstrat quam viam itu-rus. Et quoque sequitur, quod voluntas ducat intellec-tum, ac efficiat ut secum unum agat; et quod amor qui estvoluntatis id vocet sapientiam in intelleClu, quod concor-dat. In sequentibus videbitur, quod voluntas per se absqueintelleClu nihil agat, sed omne quod agit, in conjunClionecum intelleCtu agat ; at quod voluntas adsciscat intelleClumin consortium secum, per inftuxum, non autem vicissim. ~4S. Nunc dicetur qualis est inftuxus lucis in tres gra-dus vitae, quae mentis sunt, apud hominem. Formae,quae sunt receptacula caloris et lucis, seu amoris et sapi-entiae apud ilium, et quae, ut diClum est, in triplici ordine,seu trium graduum sunt, a nativitate sunt diaphanae, aclucem spiritualem transmittunt, sicut vitrum crystallinumlucem naturalem. Inde est quod homo quoad sapientiamusque in tertium gradum possit elevari. At usque formaeillae non aperiuntur~ nisi dum calor spiritualis se conjun-git luci spirituali, seu amor sapientiae; per hanc conjunc-tionem formae illae diaphanae secundum gradus aperiuntur. Hoc simile est cum luce et calore solis Mundi quoad vegetabilia super tellure. Lux hiemalis, quae aeque can,-dida est cum luce aestiva, non aperit aliquid in semine autin arbore ; sed cum calor vernalis se conjungit luci, tunc ape-rit: similis res est, nam lux spiritualis correspondet luci naturali, et calor spiritualis correspondet calori naturali. ~46. Calor ille spiritualis non aliter comparatur, quam per fugere mala ut peccata, et tunc speClare ad Dominum. Nam quamdiu homo in malis est, etiam in amore illorum est, est enim in concupiscentia ad ilIa, ac amor mali et concupis- centia est in amore opposito amori et affeClioni spirituali ; ac ille amor seu concupiscentia non potest removeri quam per fugere mala ut peccata; et quia homo non potest fugere ilIa a se sed a Domino, ideo speClabit ad Ipsum. Quum itaque fugit ilIa a Domino, tunc amor mali et calor ejus removetur, et loco ejus infertur amor boni et calor ejus, per quem aperi- tur gradus superior. Dominus enim a superiori inftuit, et aperit ilIum, et tunc conjungit amorem seu calorem spiritua- leln sapientiae seu luci spirituali ; ex qua conjunClione homo spiritualiter florere incipit, sicut arbor tempore veris. ~47. Per inftuxum lucis spiritualis in omnes tres gra- dus mentis, homo distinguitur a bestiis; ac homo prae bestiis potest analytice cogitare, videre vera non solum
  • CONCER.NING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 243-247. 99and shows the way,-teaching how a man ought to live, andshowing the way in which he ought to go. It further followstJ1at the will leads the understanding, and causes it to act asone with itself; also that whatever in the undentanding agreeswith the love which is in the will, that man calls wisdom.. Inwhat follows it will be seen that the will does nothing by itselfapart from the understanding, but does all that it does in conjunc-tion with the understanding; moreover, that it is the will thatby influx takes the understanding into partnership with itself;and not the reverse. qS. The nature of the influx of light into the three degreesof life in man which belong to his mind, shall now be shown.The forms which are receptacles of heat and light, that is, oflove and wisdom in man, and which (as was said) are in three-fold order or of three degrees, are transparent from birth,transmitting spiritual light as crystal glass transmits naturallight; consequently in respea to wisdom man can be raisedeven to the third degree. Nevertheless, these forms are notopened except when spiritual heat conjoins itselfto spiritual light,that is, love to wisdom; by such conjunaion these transparentforms are opened according to degrees. It is the same with lightand heat from the sun of the world in their aCtion on plantsgrowing on the earth. The light of winter, which is as brightas that of summer, opens nothing in seed or in ttee, but whenvernal heat conjoins itself to it then the light becomes effeaive.There is this similarity because spiritual light corresponds tonatural light, and spiritual heat to natural heat. q6. This spiritual heat is obtained only by shunning evilsas sins, and at the same time looking to the Lord; for so longas man is in evils he is also in the love of them, for he lustsafter them; and love of evil, or lust, abides in a love contraryto spiritual love and affection; and such love or lust can beremoved only by shunning evils as sins j and because man cannotshun evils from himsel~ but only from the Lord, he must look tothe Lord. When he shuns evils from the Lord, the love of eviland its heat are removed, and the love of good and its heat areintroduced in their stead, whereby a higher degree is opened;for the Lord flowing in from above opens it, and then conjoinslove, that is, spiritual heat, to wisdom or spiritual light, fromwhich conjunction man begins to flourish spiritually, like a treein spring-time. ~7. By the influx of spiritual light into all three degreesof the mind man is distinguished from beasts; and, as contrasted
  • 100 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAnaturalia sed etiam spiritualia, et cum videt ilia potestagnoscere ilIa, et sic reformari et regenerari. Facultasrecipiendi lucem spiritualem, est quae intelligitur per ratio-nalitatem, de qua supra, quae cuivis homini a Domino est,et quae ei non aufertur; nam si auferretur, non potuissetreformari. Ex facultate ilIa, quae vocatur rationalitas, estquod homo non solum possit cogitare, sed etiam ex cogita-tione Ioqui, secus ac bestiae; et dein ex altera facultateejus, quae vocatur libertas, de qua etiam prius, potest facereilIa quae ex intelleau cogitat. Quia de binis his faculta-tibus, rationalitate et libertate, quae hornini propriae sunt,supra (n. 240) atturn, ideo plura de illis hic non dicentur.QUOD HOMO, SI NON APUD ILLUM SUPERIOR GRADUS, QUI EST SPIRITUALIS, APERITUR, FIAT NATURA- LIS ET SENSUALIS. ~48. Supra ostensum est, quod tres gradus mentishumanae sint, qui vocantur naturalis, spiritualis et caeles-tis, et quod illi gradus apud ilium successive possint ape-riri: tum ostensum est, quod primum aperiatur gradusnaturalis, ac postea, si fugit mala ut peccata, et speClatad Dominum, aperiatur gradus spiritualis, et demum cae-lestis. Quoniam illi gradus successive aperiuntur secun-dum vitam hominis, sequitur quod bini superiores gradusetiam non aperiri possint, et quod homo tunc in gradunaturali, qui est ultimus, maneat. Notum etiam est inmundo, quod homo naturalis et homo spiritualis sit, seuhomo externus et homo internus; sed non notum est,quod homo naturalis fiat spiritualis per aperitionem alicu-jus gradus superioris apud ilium, et quod aperitio fiat per vi-tam spiritualem, quae est vita secundum praecepta Divina :et quod absque vita secundum ilia, homo maneat naturalis. ~49. Sunt tria genera hominum naturalium: unumgenus est illorum, qui nihil sciunt de praeceptis Divinis;alterum illorum, qui sciunt quod sint, sed nihil cogitantde vita secundum ilia; et tertium i1lorum, qui contem-nunt et negant ilia. Quod /Jrimum genus, quod est illo-rum, qui nihil sciunt de praeceptis Divinis, concernit, illinon possunt aliter quam manere naturales, quia a se ipsisnon possunt doceri: omnis homo de praeceptis Divinisdocetur ab aliis qui ilIa sci.nt ex reliCTjon p . pt n"" npr
  • 100 ANGELIC WISDOM:with beasts, can think anaIytica11y, and perceive both natural andspiritual truths; and when he perceives them he can acknow-ledge them, and thus be reformed and regenerated. This capa-city to receive spiritual light is what is meant by rationality(referred to above), which every man has from the Lord, andwhich is not taken away from him, for if it were taken away hecould not be refonned. From this capacity, called rationality,man, unlike the beasts, is able not only to think but also to speak~om thought; and afterwards from his other capacity, calledfreedom (also referred to above), he is able to do those thingswhich he thinks from his understanding. As these two capaci-ties, rationality and freedom•. which are proper to man, have beentreated of above (n. 240), no more will be said ab~ut them here.UNLESS THE HIGHER DEGR.EE, WHICH IS THE SPIRITUAL, IS OPENED IN MAN, HE BECOMES NATURAL AND SENSUAL. q8. It was shown above that there are three degrees of thehuman mind, called natural, spiritual, and celestial, and that thesedegrees may be successively opened in man; also, that thenatural degree is first opened; afterwards, if man shuns evilsas sins and looks to the Lord, the spiritual degree; and lastly,the celestial. Since these degrees are successively openedaccording to mans life, it follows that the two higher degreesmay remain unopened, and then man continues in the naturaldegree, which is the outmost. Moreover, it is known in theworld that there is a natural and a spiritual man, or an externaland an internal man; but it is not known· that a natural manbecomes spiritual by the opening of a higher degree in him,and that such opening is effeaed by a spiritual life, which is alife conformed to the Divine precepts ; and that without a lifeconformed to these man remains natural. q9. There are three kinds of natural men: the first con-sists of those who know nothing of the Divine precepts; thesecond, of those who know that there are such precepts, butgive no thought to a life according to them; and the third, ofthose who despise and deny these precepts. In respea to thefirst class, which consists of those who know nothing of theDivine precepts, since they cannot be taught by themselves theymust needs remain natural. Every man is taught respeCtingthe Divine precepts, not by immediate revelations, but by otherswho know them from religion, on which subjea see Tile Doc-
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N. 251. 101 revelationes immediatas; de qua re videatur in Dollrina Novae Hierosolymae til Sc".iptura Sacra (n. 114-118). Qui ex altero genere sunt, qui sciunt quod praecepta Divina sint, sed nihil cogitant de vita secundum ilia, iIli quo-. que manent naturales, nec curant alia quam quae Mundi et corporis sunt; hi post mortem fiunt famulitia et servitia secundum usus quos praestare possunt illis qui spirituales sunt; nam naturalis homo est famulus et servus, ac spiritu- alis homo est herus et dominus. Qui ex tertio genere sunt, qui praecepta Divina contemnunt et negant, illi non modo manent naturales, sed etiam fiunt sensuales secundum con- temptum et negationem. Sensuales sunt infimi naturales, qui non possunt supra apparentias et fallacias sensuum cor- poris cogitare ; hi post mortem sunt in inferno. ~so. Quia in mundo nescitur quid spiritualis et OOquid naturalis homo, et a multis vacatur is spiritualis qui mere na- turalis est, et vicissim, ideo de his 9istinCle dicendum est: (i.) Quid IumuJ "at*ralis, et 9uid IumuJ sjJir,·tusl,s. (H.) {Jualis est IIol1UJ naturalis apud flU", spiritllalls gradus apertus est. (iii.) Qua/is est 110",0 natura/,s, a/Jutl ,U4111 s/J;r~#alu grad," 110II apwtlU nt, sed "fJIU no" occillnu. (iv.) Qualis A01IIO ""t*ral,s est, a/Jud fuem spiritw/;s gradus prorsus o&&luslls est. (v.) Demum fJuale tliscrimm est ,,,,ter vita", ",ere nat*- raw Aom,,,is et Intw fI,~a", lJestiae. ~5I. (i.) Quid homo "att4ralis, et t}uid homo spiritua- lis.-Homo non est homo ex facie et corpore, sed ex intel- lectu et voluntate ; quare per hominem naturalem et homi- nem spiritualem intelligitur intelleCtus et voluntas ejus, quod vel naturales vel spirituales sint. Naturalis homo quo- ad intelleetum· suum et voluntatem 8uam est sicut mundus naturalis, et quoque vocari potest mundus seu microcos- mus; et spiritualis homo quoad intelleClum suum et vo- luntatem suam, est sicut mundus spiritualis, et quoque ocari potest ille mundus seu caelum. Exinde patet quod naturalis homo, quia in quadam imagine est mundus na- turalis, amet ilia quae mundi na£uralis sunt ; et quod spi- ritualis homo, quia in quadam imagine est mundus spiritu- alis, amet ilIa quae hujus mundi seu caeli sunt. Spiritualis homo quidem etiam amat mundum naturalem, sed non aliter quam sicut herus 8uum famulum, per quem praestat usus: secundum usus etiam naturalis homo fit sicut spiri-
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 248-251. 101trine of tile New Jerusalem concerning tile Sacred Scriptures(n. 114-118). Those of the second class, who know that thereare Divine precepts but give no thought to a life according tothem, also remain natural, and care about no other concernsthan those of the world and the body. These after death be-come mere menials and servants, according to the uses whichthey are able to perfonn for those who are spiritual; for thenatural man is a menial and servant, and the spiritual man isa master and lord. Those of the third class, who despise anddeny the Divine precepts, not only remain natural, but alsobecome sensual in the measure of their contempt and denial.Sensual men are the lowest natural men, and are incapable ofthinking above the appearances and fallacies of the bodilysenses.After death they are in hell. -50. As it is unknown in the world what the spiritual manis, and what the natural, and as one who is merely natural isby many called spiritual, and conversely, these subje& shallbe separately discussed, as follows: (i.) WAat tlte natural man is, and what tlte sp-ritual man. (H.) Tlte cltaraller of tlte natural man ,·n whom tlte spirz"tual degree IS opened. (iii.) Tile cltaraller of lite natural man ,n Whom tile spiritual degree is not ojJened and yet not closed. (iv.) Tlte cltarafler oj the natural man in wAo", tile spiritual degree s entirely closed. (v.) Lastly, Tlte nature of tile difference between tlte life tif a man merely natural and tlte life of a beast. ~5J:. (i.) What tile natura/man is, and wAat tile sJ?iritualman.-Man is not man from face and body, but from ·under-standing and will j therefore by the natural man and the spirit-ual man is meant that mans understanding and will are eithernatural or spiritual. The natural man in respea to his under-standing and will is like the natural world, and may be calleda world or microcosm; and the spiritual man in respea to hisunderstanding and will is like the spiritual world, and may becalled a spiritual world or heaven. From which it is evidentthat as the natural man is in an image a natural world, so heloves those things which are of the natural world; and that asthe spiritual man is in an image a spiritual world, so he lovesthose things which are of that world, or of heaven. The spirit-ual man loves also the natural world, but not otherwise thanas a master loves his servant through whom he perfonns uses.
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N. 254. 103parum genuini veri sciverunt. Causa est, quia gradus iIleaperitur per conjunCtionem amoris et sapientiae, seu calo-ris cum luce: solus amor seu solus calor spiritualis nonaperit ilIum, nec sola sapientia seu sola lux spiritualis;sed utraque in conjunEtione. Quapropter si genuina vera,ex quibus sapientia seu lux, non sciuntur, amor non valetilium gradum aperire, sed solum tenet ilIum in potentia,ut aperiri possit; quod intelligitur per quod non occlusussit. Hoc fit simile sicut in regno vegetabili, quod solus ca-lor non det seminibus et arboribus vegetationem, sed calorin conjunClione cum luce hoc operatur. Sciendum est,quod omnia vera sint lucis spiritualis, ac omnia bona [Ilsintcaloris spiritualis, et quod bonum per vera aperiat gradumspiritualem; nam bonum per vera operatur usum, ac usussunt bona amoris, quae essentiam suam trahunt ex con-junClione boni et veri. Sors illorum, apud quos gradusspiritualis non apertus est, et usque non occlusus, postmortem est, quod quia usque naturales sunt et non spiri-tuales, in infimis caeli sint, ubi aliquando dura patiuntur;vel quod sint in caelo aliquo superiori in terminis, ubiquasi in luce vesperae sunt; nam, ut supra dictum est, incaelo et in unaquavis societate ejus lux decrescit e medioad terminos, et (:I]in medio sunt qui in Divinis veris suntprae aliis, ac in terminis, qui in paucis veris: ac in paucisveris sunt, qui non plus sciunt ex religione, quam quodDeus sit, et quod Dominus passus sit pro illis; tum quodcharitas et fides sint essentialia ecclesiae, et non sataguntscire quid fides et quid charitas; cum tamen fides est insua essentia veritas, ac veritas est multiplex, et charitasest omne opus muneris, quod homo facit ex Domino; quodtunc facit ex Domino, cum fugit mala ut peccata. Estprorsus sicut prius diClum est, quod finis sit omne causae,et effeccus omne finis per causam: finis est charitas seubonum. causa est fides seu verum, ac effeccus suot bonaopera seu usus. Ex -quo patet, quod ex charitate nonplus possit inferri operibus, quam quantum charitas con-ju.nB:a est veris quae fidei vocantur. Per haec intrat chari-tas in opera, et qualificat ilIa. ~S4e (iv.) Qttolis est naturalis k011to, apud quem spir,e-tllalis gradus prorsus ocellI-sus est.-Gradus spirituatis occlu-ditur apud illos qui in malis sunt quoad vitam, et magisapud illos qui ex malis in falsis sunt. Hoc simile est sicut
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 25 2- 2 54. 103degree is not opened, and yet not closed, in the case of thosewho have led somewhat of a life of charity and yet have knownlittle of genuine truth. The reason is, that this degree is openedby conjunction of love and wisdom, or of heat with light; loveor spiritual heat alone not opening it~ nor wisdom or spirituallight alone, but both in conjunction. Consequently, when gen..uine truths, out of which wisdom or light arises, are unknown,love is inadequate to open that degree; it only keeps it in the pos..sibility of being opened: this is what is meant by its not beingclosed. Something like this is seen in the vegetable kingdom, inthat heat alone does not cause seeds and trees to vegetate, butheat in conjunction with light effe& this. It is to be known thatall truths are of spiritual light and all goods are of spiritual heat,and that good opens the spiritual degree by means of truths;for good, by means of truths, effects use, and uses are goods 01love, which derive their essence from a conjunction of goodand truth. After death, those in whom the spiritual degree isnot opened and yet not closed, since they are still natural andnot spiritual, are in the lowest parts of heaven, where theysometimes suffer hard things; or they are in the outskirts insome higher heaven, where they are as it were in the light ofevening: for (as was said above) in heaven and in every societythere the light decreases from the middle to the outskirts,and those who are pre-eminent in divine truths are in the middle.while those who are in few truths are in the outskirts. Thoseare in few truths who know from religion only that there is aGod, and that the Lord suffered for them, and that charity andfaith are essentials of the Church, not troubling themselves toknow what faith is or what charity is; when yet faith in itsessence is truth, and truth is manifold, and charity is all thework of his calling which man does from the Lord: he does thisfrom the Lord when he shuns evils as sins. It is just aswas said above, that the end is the all of the cause, and theeffeCl: the all of the end by means of the cause; the end ischarity or good, the cause is faith or truth, and effe& are goodworks or uses; from which it is plain that from charity no morecan be carried into works than the measure in which charity isconjoined with the truths of faith. By means of these truthscharity enters into works and qualifies them. ~54e (iv.) The &llartUl~r of tile natural man in wlwm tilespiritual degree is wlwlly elos~tl.-The spiritual degree is closedin those who are in evils as to life, and still more in those whofrom evils are in falsities. It is the same as with the fibril of a
  • 104 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAcum fibrilla nervi, quae a minimo taCtu alicujus heterogeneise eontrahit; similiter omnis fibra motrix musculi, immoipse musculus, ut et totum corpus a taEtu duri aut frigidi;ita quoque substantiae seu formae gradus spiritualis apudhominem a malis et inde falsis, haec enim sunt hetero-genea. Gradus enim spiritualis, quia in forma caeli est,non admittit nisi bona, ac vera quae ex bono sunt; haecsunt ei homogenea; at mala et falsa quae mali sunt, eiheterogenea. Hie gradus contrahitur, et per contraCtio-nem occluditur, imprimis apud illos qui in mundo examore sui in amore dominandi sunt, quoniam hie amoroppositus est amori in Dominum. Occluditur etiam apudillos qui ex amore mundi in vesana cupiditate possidendialiorum bona sUJlt; sed non in tantum. Causa quod illiamores claudant gradum spiritualem, est quia sunt ori-gines malorum. ContraCtio seu occlusio illius gradus estsicut retorsio spirae in oppositum: quae causa est, quodpostquam ille gradus occlusus est, refteEtat lucem caeli;inde pro luce caeli ibi est caligo; proinde veritas, quae inluce caeli est, fit nausea. Apud hos non modo ipse illegradus occluditur, sed etiam superior regio gradus natu-ralis, quae vocatur rationalis; usque dum ima regio gra-dus naturalis solum stet aperta, quae vocatur sensualis;haec enim proxima est mundo et sensibus externis cor-poris, ex quibus ille homo postea cogitat, loquitur et ra-tiocinatur. Naturalis homo, qui sensualis factus est permala [I]et inde falsa, ille in mu~do spirituali in luee caelinon apparet sicut homo, sed sicut monstrwn, etiam eumretracco naso: quod intraCto naso, est quia nasus corre-spondet pereeptioni veri, Ille etiam non sustinet radiumlucis caeli; est illis in suis cavernis non alia lux, quamsicut lux ex prunis seu ignitis carbonibus, Ex his patet,quinam et quales sunt illi, apud quos spiritualis gradusocclusus est. ~55e [(v.)] Quale discrimen est inter vitam natura/ishom,nis et inter vitam lJestiae.. de hoc discrimine in se-quentibus, ubi deVita, in specie dicetur; hic solum, quoddiserimen sit, quod homini sint tres gradus mentis, seu tresgradus intelleetus et voluntatis; et quod illi gradus suc-cessive possint aperiri; qui quia diaphani sunt, quod homoquoad intellectum possit elevari in lueem eaeli, ae viderevera, non solum civilia et moralia, sed etiam spiritualia, I
  • ANGELIC WISDOM nerve. which contra&; at the slightest touch of any thing hete- rogeneous j so every motive fibre of a muscle, yea, the muscle itselt and even the whole body shrinks from the touch of what-,ever is hard or cold. So the substances or fonns of the spirit- ual degree in man shrink from evils and their falsities, because they are heterogeneous. For the spiritual degree, being in the form of heaven, admits nothing but goods, and truths which are from good; these are homogeneous to it: but evils, and falsities which are from evil, are heterogeneous to it. This degree is con- tracted, and by contraction closed, especially in those who in the world are in love of ruling from love of sel~ because this love is opposed to love to the Lord. It is also closed, but not so much, in those who from love of the world are in the insane greed of possessing the goods of others. These loves shut the spiritual degree, because they are the origins of evils. The contraction or closing of this degree is like the turning back of a spiral in the opposite direCtion; for which reason, that degree after it is closed, turns back the light of heaven; conse- quently there is darkness there instead of heavenly light, and truth, which is in the light of heaven, becomes nauseous. In such persons, not only does the spiritual degree itself become closed, but also the higher region of the natural degree which is called the rational, until at last the lowest region of the natural degree, which is called the sensual, alone stands open; this being nearest to the world and to the outward senses of the body, from which the man afterwards thinks, speaks, and reasons. The natural map who has become sensual through evils and their fillsities, in the spiritual world in the light of heaven does nat appear as a man but as a monster, even with nose ~rawn back; (the nose is drawn in because the nose corresponds to the percep- tion of truth;) moreover, he cannot bear a ray of hea~enly light. Such have in their caverns no other light than what resembles the light from live coals or from burning charcoal. From all this it is evident who and of what character are those in whom the spiritual degree is closed. ~55. (v.) Tile nature of tile difference between the lift of a man merely natural and tile tile life 0/ a beast.-This difference will be particularly discussed in what follows, where Life will be treated of: Here it may be said that the difference is that man has three degrees of mind, that is, three degrees of understand- ing and will, which degrees can be opened successively; and as these are transparent, man can be raised as to his understanding into the light of heaven and see truths, not only civil and moral,
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N. 25 6. lOSet ex pluribus visis concludere vera in ordine, ac sic in-telleB:um perficere in aeternum. At bestiis non sunt binigradus superiores, sed sunt modo gradus naturales, quiabsque gradibus superioribus in nulla facultate cogitandlsunt de aliqua re civili, morali et spirituali. Et quia gra-dus illorum naturales non sunt apertibiles et inde eleva-biles in Iucem superiorem, non possunt cogitare in ordinesuccessivo, sed in ordine simultaneo, quod non est cogi-tare, sed ex scientia amori eorum correspondente agere;et quia non possunt analytice cogitare, ac cogitationeminferiorem a quadam superiore videre, ideo non possuntloqui, sed convenienter scientiae amoris eorum sonare.At usque sensualis homo, qui est infime naturalis, a bestianon differt nisi per quod possit memoriam implere scien-tificis. et ex il1is cogitare et loqui ; quod trahit ex facultatecuivis bomini propria. quae est quod possit intelligere ve-rum si velit ; haec facultas distinguit. Sed usque plures perabusum hujus facultatis se inferiores bestiis reddiderunt.QUOD GRADUS NATURALIS MENTIS HUMANAE IN SE SPECTATUS SIT CONTINUUS, SED QUOD PER CORRE- SPONDENTIAM CUM BINIS GRADIBUS SUPERIORIBUS, DUM ELEVATUR, APPAREAT SICU1 SIT DISCRETUS. q6. Hoc tametsi aegre potest comprehendi ab illisqui nondum in seientia graduum altitudinis sunt, usquetamen revelandum est, quia sapientiae angelicae est, quaesapientia quamvis ab homine naturali non potest eo modo,quo ab angelis, eogitari, potest tamen comprehendi intel-leau, dum hie usque ad gradum lueis, in qua sunt angeli,elevatur; intelle8:us enim potest eo usque elevari, ac se-cundum elevationem illustrari. Sed illustratio mentisnaturalis non ascendit per gradu5 discretos, sed increscitper gradum continuum; tunc sieut increscit, ita ab inte-riori ex luce graduum binorum superiorum illustratur.Quomodo hoc fit. comprehendi potest ex perceptioDegraduum altitudinis.. quod unus sit supra alterum, et quodgradus naturalist qui est ultimus.. sit quasi velamen com-mune duorum superiorum graduum; tunc sicut naturalisgradus elevatur ad gradum superioris, ita superior ab in-teriori agit in exteriorem naturalem, ac ilium ilillminat.
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 255, 256. 105 but also spiritual, and from many truths seen can form conclu-" sions about truths in their order, and thus perfea the under- standing to eternity. But a beast has only the natural de- gree, not the two higher degrees; and without the higher degrees it has no capacity to think on any subjeCt, civil, moral, or spiritual. And since the natural degree of beasts is in- capable of being opened, and thereby raised into higher light, they are unable to think in successive order, but only in simul.. taneous order, which is not thinking, but aaing from a knowl- edge corresponding to their love. And because they are unable to think analytically, and to view a lower thought from any higher thought, they are unable to speak, but are able only to utter sounds in accordance with the knowledge pertain- ing to their love. Yet the sensual man, who is in the lowest sense natural, differs from the beast only in this, that he can fill his memory with information, and think and speak therefrom; this power he gets from a capacity proper to every man, of being able to understand truth if he chooses; it is this capacity that makes the difference. But many, by abuse of this capa- city, have made themselves lower than beasts. THE NATURAL DEGREE OF THE HUMAN MIND R.EGARDED IN ITSELF IS CONTINUOUS, BUT BY CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE TWO HIGHER DEGREES IT APPEARS WHEN IT IS ELEVATED AS IF IT WERE DISCRETE.- ~56. Although this is hardly comprehensible, so long as there is no knowledge of degrees of height, it must nevertheless be revealed, because it is a part of angelic wisdom; and while the natural man is unable to think about this wisdom in the same way as angels do, nevertheless his understanding, when raised into the degree of light in which angels are, can apprehend it; for his ·understanding can be elevated even to that extent, and enlightened according to its elevation. But this enlightenment of the natural mind does not ascend by discrete degrees, but increases in a continuous degree, and as it increases, that mind is enlightened from within by the light of the two higher degrees. How this occurs can be comprehended from a perception of degrees of height, as being one above another, while the natural degree, which is the lowest, is a kind of general covering to the two higher degrees. Then, as the natural degree is raised towards a degree of the higher kind, the higher a& from within
  • 106 SAPIENTIA ANGELICA Fit quidem illuminatio ab interiori ex luce graduum supe-riorum; at ilia a gradu naturali, qui circumtegit et ambit,recipitur per continuum, ita lucidius et purius secundumascensum ; hoc est, gradus naturalis illustratur ab interioreex luee graduum superiorum discrete, sed in se continue.Ex his patet, quod homo, quamdiu in mundo vivit, et per idin naturali gradu est, non possit elevari in ipsam sapientiam,qualis ilia est apud angelos, sed modo in lucem superioremusque ad angelos, ac recipere illustrationem ab illorumluce, quae ab interiori inftuit ac illuminate Sed haec nonpossunt adhue clarius describi ; potest melius comprehendiab effeEtibus, nam effeB:us ponunt causas, dum hae afiquan-tum prius sciuntur, in se in luee, et sic illustrant. -57- Effettus sunt: (I.) Quod mens naturalis possitusque ad lucem caeli, in qua sunt angeli, elevari, ac natu-raliter percipere quae angeli spiritualiter, ita non tamplene; sed usque non potest mens naturalis bominis ele-vari in ipsam Iucem angelicam. (2.) Quod homo pernaturalem suam mentem elevatam ad lucem caeli cumangelis possit cogitare, immo loqui; sed tunc inftuit cogi-tatio et loquela angelorum in cogitationem et loquelamnaturalem horninis, et non vicissim; quare angeli cumhomine loquuntur lingua naturali, quae est hominis ver-nacula.. (3.) Quod hoc fiat per influxum spiritualem innaturalem, et non per aliquem influxum naturalem inspiritualem. (4.) Quod sapientia humana, quae est natu-ralis quamdiu homo in mundo naturali vivit, nullatenu9possit elevari in sapientiam angelicam, sed modo in quan-dam imaginem ejus j causa est, quia elevatio mentis natu-ralis fit per continuum, sieut ab umbra ad lucem, seu acrassiori ad purius. At usque homo, apud quem gradusspiritualis apertus est, in illam sapientiam venit quandomoritur, et quoque in illam venire potest per sopitionemsensationum corporis, et tunc per inftuxum e superiori inmentis hujus spiritualia. (5.) Mens naturalis horninis con-sistit ex substantiis spiritualibus, et simul ex substantiisnaturalibus: ex substantiis ejus spiritualibus fit cogitatio,non autem ex substantiis naturalibus; hae substantiaerecedunt cum homo moritur, non autem substantiae spi-rituales; quare eadem illa mens post mortem, dum homofit spiritus seu angelus, in simili forma manet in qua fuitin mundo. (6.) Substantiae illius mentis naturales, quae,
  • • 106 ANGELIC WISDOM upon the outer natural and illuminates it. This illumination is effeCled, indeed, from within, by the light of the higher degrees, but the natural degree which envelops and surrounds the higher receives it by continuity, thus more lucidly and purely in pro.. portion to its ascent; that is, from within, by the light of the higher degrees, the natural degree is enlightened discretely, but in itself is enlightened continuously. From this it is evident that so long as man lives in the world, and is thereby in the natural degree, he cannot be elevated into very wisdom, such wisdom as the angels have, but only into. higher light, even up to angels, and can receive enlightenment from their light that flows-in from within and illuminates. But these things cannot as yet be more clearly described; they can be better compre- hended from effe& j for effeCts present causes in themselves in clear light, and thus illustrate them, when there is some pre- vious knowledge of causes. ~57. The effe& are these: (I.) The natural mind may be raised up to the light of heaven in which angels are, and may perceive naturally, thus not so fully, what the angels perceive spiritually; nevertheless, mans natural mind cannot be raised into angelic light itself: (2.) By means of his natural mind, raised to the light of heaven, man can think, yea, speak with angels; but the thought and speech of the angels then flow into the natural thought and speech of the man, and not conversely; so that angels speak with man in a natural language, which is the mans mother tongue. (3.) This is effeCled by a spiritual influx into the natural man, and not by any natural influx into the spiritual man. (4.) Human wisdom, which so long as man lives in the natural world is natural, can by no means be raised into angelic wisdom, but only into some image of it. The reason is, that elevation of the natural mind is effeCled by continuity, as from shade to light, or from grosser to purer. Still the man in whom the spiritual degree has been opened comes into that wisdom when he dies; and he may also come into it by a sus- pension of bodily sensations, and then by an influx from above into the spiritual parts of his mind. (5.) Mans natural mind consists of spiritual substances together with natural substances ; thought comes from its spiritual substances, not from its natural substances j these recede when the man dies, while its spiritual substances do not. Consequently, after death, when man be- comes a spirit or angel, the same mind remains in a fonn like that which it had in the world. (6.) The natural substances of that mind, which recede (as was slid) by death, constitute the
  • DE DIVINO AMORE, PARS III.-N.259. 1°7 5ut diaum est, per mortem recedunt, faciunt involucrumcutaneum corporis spiritualis, in quo sun~ spiritus et an-geli. Per involucrum tale, quod desumptum est ex mundonaturali, subsistunt corpora ilIorum spiritualia, naturaleenim est ultimum continens: inde est, quod non sit ali-quis spiritus et angelus, qui non fuerat natus homo. Haecarcana sapientiae angelicae hic adducuntur, ut sciatur,qualis est mens naturalis apud hominem, de qua ulteriusin sequentibus et~am agitur. ~58. Omnis homo nascitur in facultatem intelligendivera usque· ad intimum gradum, in quo sunt angeli tertiicaeli; intelleetus enim humanus assurgens per continuumcircum binos superiores gradus recipit lucem sapientiaeillorum graduum, eo modo quo supra (n. 256) diCtum est.lnde est, quod homo possit rationalis fieri secundum eleva-tionem; si elevatur ad gradum tertium, fit Ule rationalisex tertio gradu; si eleyatur ad gradum secundum, fit illerationalis ex secundo gradu; et si non elevatur, est HIerationalis in primo gradu. Dicitur quod fiat rationalis exillis gradibus, quia naturalis gradus est commune recepta-culum lucis illorum. Quod homo non fiat rationalis usquead summum, sicut potest fieri, est quia amor, qui estvoluntatis, non similiter ut sapientia quae est intelleaus,potest elevari. Amor qui est voluntatis elevatur solum perfugere mala ut peccata, et tunc per bona charitatis, quaesunt usus, quae homo ex Domino dein praestat. Quare siamor qui est voluntatis non simul elevatur, sapientia quaeest intelleClus, utcunq~e ascenderit, usque ad amorem suumrelabitur. lnde est, quod homo, si non amor ejus in gra-dum spiritualem simul elevatur, usque non sit rationalis nisiin ultimo gradu. Ex his constare potest, quod rationalehominis sit in apparentia sicut trium graduum ; rationale. excaelesti, rationale ex spirituali, et rationale ex naturali;tum quod rationalitas, quae est facultas quod possit ele-vari, sive elevetur sive non, usque apud hominem sit. ~59. Dictum est quod omnis homo nascatur in facul-tatem illam, seu in rationalitatem; sed intelligitur omnishomo apud quem externa, per aliqua contingentia, vel inutero, vel post nativitatem ex morbo, vel ex inflieto capitivulnere, vel ex vesano amore erumpente et relax~nte repa-gula, non laesa sunt: apud hos rationale non potest elevari ;vita enim, quae,est volunt"atis et intelleaus, apud hos non
  • CONCERNING DIvINE LOVE.-N. 257-2 59. 107 cutaneous covering of the spiritual body which spirits and angels have. By means of such covering, which is taken from the natural world, their spiritual bodies maintain existence; for the natural is the outmost containant: consequently there is .no spirit or angel who was not born a man. These arcana of an- gelic wisdom are here adduced that the quality of the natural mind in man may be known, which subjeCl is further treated of in what follows. ~58. Every man is born into a capacity to understand truths to the inmost degree in which the angels of the third heaven are; for the human understanding, rising up by contin- uity around the two higher degrees, receives the light of their wisdom, in the manner stated above (n. 256). Therefore man has the ability to become rational according to his elevation; if raised to the third degree he becomes rational from that degree, if raised to the second degree he becomes rational from that degree, if not r$ed he is rntional in the first degree. It is said that he becomes rational from those degrees, because the natural degree is the general receptacle of their light. The reason why man does not become rational to the height that he might is, that love, which is of the will, cannot be raised in the same manner as wisdom, which is of the understanding. Love, which is of the will, is raised only by shunning evils as sins,and then by goods of charity, which are uses, which the manthereafter performs from the Lord. Consequently, when love,which is of the will, is not at the same time raised, wisdom, whichis of the understanding, however it may have ascended, fallsback again down to its own love. Therefore, if mans love isnot at the same time with his wisdom raised into the spiritualdegree, he is rational only in the lowest degree. From all thisit can be seen that mans rational is in appearance as if it wereof three degrees, a rational from the celestial, a rational from thespiritual, and a rational from the natural; also that rationality,which is the capacity whereby man is elevated, is still in manwhether he be elevated or not. ~59. It has been said that every man is born into that capacity, namely, rationality, but by this is meant every man.whose externals have not been injured by accident, either in thewomb, or by some disease after birth, or by a wound inflicted onthe head, or in consequence of some insane love bursting forthand breaking down restraints. In such the rational cannot be elevated; for life, which is of the will and understanding, has in such no bounds in which it can rest, so disposed that it
  • 108 SAPIENTIA ANGELICAhabet terminos, in quos desinat, ita dispositos, ut secundumordinem possit ultimos aCtus agere; agit enim secundumdeterminationes ultimas, sed non ex illis. Quod nee daripossit apud infantes et pueros, videatur infra (n. 266 fin.).QUOD MENS NATURALIS, QUIA EST CONTEGENS ET CON- TINENS GRADUUM SUPERIORUM MENTIS HUMANAE, SIT REAGENS; ET QUOD SI NON APERIUNTUR GRA- DUS SUPERIORES, AGAT CONTRA ILLOS; AT 51 APERIUNTUR, AGAT CUM ILLIS• • 60. In praecedente articulo ostensum est, quod mensnaturalis, quia in ultimo gradu est, circumtegat et inclu-dat mentem spiritualem et mentem caelestem, quae su-periores sunt quoad gradus. Hic nunc demonstrandum"enit, quod mens naturalis reagat contra mentes superio-res seu interiores. Causa quod reagat, est quia circumte-git, includit et continet illos, et hoc absque reaClione nonpotest fieri; nam nisi reageret, interiora seu inclusa re-laxarent se, ac truderent se foras, et sic dilaberentur.Foret sicut nisi tunicae circum corpus humanum [Ilin re-aClione essent, viscera, quae interiora corporis sunt, seejicerent, et sic diffiuerent; ac foret sicut membrana cir-cumtegens fibras motrices musculi, non reageret contravires fibrarum istarum in aCtionibus, desineret non modoactio, sed etiam textus interiores omnes r~solverentur.Simile est cum omni ultimo gradu graduum altitudinis:consequenter cum mente naturali respective ad gradussuperiores; nam, ut supra diCtum est, sunt tres gradusmentis humanae, naturalis, spiritualis et caelestis, et mensnaturalis est in ultimo gradu. Quod mens naturalis rea-gat contra mentem spiritualem, est quoque causa, quiamens naturalis consistit non modo ex substantiis mundispiritualis, sed etiam ex substantiis mundi naturalis, ut.supra (n. 257) dietum est; ac substantiae mundi naturalisex sua natura reagunt contra substantias mundi spiritua-lis; substantiae enim mundi naturalis in se sunt mortuae,et aguntur ab extra a substantiis mundi splritualis; et quaemortuae sunt, et ab extra aguntur, ex sua natura resistunt,et sic ex sua natura reagunt. Ex his constare potest, quod homo naturalis reagat contra hominem spiritualem,
  • loS ANGELIC WISDOMcan produce outmost a& according to order; {or life aas inaccordance with outmost determinatioDS, but not from them.That there can be no rationality in iniants and children, may beseen below (n. 266, at the end).THE NATURAL MIND, SINCE IT IS THE COVEItING AND CON- TAINANT OF THE HIGHER DEGREES OF THE HUMAN MIND, IS REACTIVE; AND IF THE HIGHER DEGREES ARE NOT OPENED IT ACTS AGAINST THEM, BUT IF THEY ARE OPENED IT ACTS WITH THEM. ~60. It has been shown in the preceding chapter that asthe natural mind is in the outmost degree, it envelops and en-closes the spiritual mind and the celestial mind, which, in resped:to degrees, are above it. It is now to be shown that the naturalmind rea8s against the higher or interior minds. It reactsbecause it covers, includes, and contains them, and this cannotbe done without reaCtion j for unless it rea8:ed, the interior orenclosed parts would become loosened and escape and fall apart,just as the viscera, which are the interiors of the body, wouldpush forth and fall asunder if the coverings which are about the body did not reaa against them; so, tpo, unless the mem- brane investing the motor fibres of a muscle reacted against the forces of these fibres in their activities, not only would action cease, but all the inner tissues would be scattered. It is the same with every outmost degree of the degrees of height; consequently with the natural mind as compared with higher degrees; for, as was said above, there are three degrees of the human mind, the natural, the spiritual, and the celestial, and the natural mind is in the outmost degree. Another reason why the natural mind reacts against the spiritualtDind is, that the natural mind consists not only of substances of the spiritual world but also of substances of the natural world (as was said above, D./257), and substances of the natural world from their very nature rea8: against the substances of the spiritual world; for substances of the natural world are in themselves dead, and are aaed upon from without by substances of the spiritual world; and substances which are dead, and which are acted upon from without, from their nature resist, and thus from their nature react. From aU this it can be seen that the natural man rea& against the spirit- ual man, and that there is combat. It is the same thing whether the terms "natural and spiritual man" or "natural and spiritual mind" are used.
  • DE DIVINO AMORE. PARS III.-N. 262. log et quod pugna sit. Idem est, si dicatur homo naturalis et spiritualis, sive dicatur mens naturalis et spiritualis. • 6:1:. Ex his constare potest, quod si mens spiritualis occlusa sit, mens naturalis continue agat contra ilIa quae mentis spiritualis sunt, ac timeat quod aliquid inde influat, quod suos status perturbet. Omne id quod per mentem spiritualem inftuit, est e caelo, nam mens spiritualis est in forma caelum; et omne quod in mentem naturalem influit, est e mundo, nam mens naturalis est in forma mundus; ex quo sequitur, quod mens naturalis, quando mens spiri- tualis occlusa est, reagat contra omnia caeli, nee in se admittat ilia, nisi quantum ei [inserviunt] pro mediis ad sibi comparandum et ad possidendum ilIa quae Mundi sunt; et quando ilIa quae caeli sunt, et inserviunt pro mediis naturali menti ad suos fines, tunc media ilia, tam- etsi apparent caelestia, usque fiunt naturalia; finis enim qualificat ilIa, fiunt enim sicut scientifica naturalis hominis, in quibus intus nihil vitae est. Sed quia caelestia non ita possunt conjungi naturalibus, ut unum agant, ideo separant se, ac caelesti.a apud mere naturales homines se reponunt· ab extra in circuitu circum naturalia quae intra sunt. Inde est, quod homo mere naturalis possit loqui et praedicare . caelestia, et quoque, per aC1:us simulare ilIa, tametsi intus cogitat contra ilIa; hoc facit cum solus est, iliud autem cum in coetu est. Sed de his plura in sequentibus. ~6~. Mens seu homo naturalis ex reaClione sibi con- ·nata agit contra ilIa quae mentis seu hominis spiritualis -sunt, cum se et mundum super omnia amat ; tunc etiam jucundum sentit in malis omnis generis, ~. in adulteriis, in defraudationibus, in vindictis, inque blasI!hfmationibus, et in similibus aliis; et quoque tunc naturam ut creatricem universi agnoscit; et omnia per rationale suum confirmat ; et post confirmationes bona et vera caeli et ecclesiae vel pervertit, vel suffocat, vel refteCtit, et tandem ilIa vel fu- git, vel aversatur, vel odio habet. Hoc in spiritu suo, et tantum in corpore, quantum ex spiritu suo cum aliis abs- que timore jaCturae famae propter honorem et lucrum, audet loqui. Quando homo talis est, tqnc mentem spiri- tualem successive arC1:ius et arClius occludit; confirmatio-.nes mali per falsa imprimis occludunt. Jnde est quod malum et falsum confirmatum post mortem non exstirpari possit; exstirpatur modo in mundo per paenitentiam.
  • CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE.-N. 260-263. 109 .6:1:. From this it is obvious that when the spiritual mindis closed the natural mind continually acts against the thingsof the spiritual mind, fearing lest anything should flow in there-from to disturb its own states. Everything that flows in throughthe spiritual mind is from heaven, for the spiritual mind inits fonn .is a heaven; while everything which flows into thenatural mind is from the world, for the natural mind in its formis a world. From which it follows that when the spiritual mindis closed, the natural mind rea& against all things of heaven,giving them no admission except so far as they are serviceableto it as means for acquiring and possessing the things of theworld. And when the things of heaven are made to serve thenatural mind as means to its own ends, then those means, thoughthey appear heavenly, become natural; for the end qualifiesthem, and they become like the knowledges of the natural man,in which interiorly there is nothing of life. But as thingsheavenly cannot be so joined to things natural that the two aaas one, they are separated, and in men merely natural, thingsheavenly arrange themselves· from without,. encompassing thenatural things which are within. From this it is that a merelynatural man can speak and preach about heavenly things, andeven simulate them in his actions, though inwardly he thinksagainst them; the latter he does when alone, the former when incompany. But of these things more in what follows. • 6~. By virtue of the reaction which is in him from birth,the natural mind, or man, when he loves himself and the worldabove all things, acts against the things which are of the spirit-ual mind or man. Then also he has a sense of enjoyment inevils of every kind, as adultery, fraud, revenge, blasphemy, andother like things; he then also accepts nature as the creatorof the universe; and all these things he confirms by means ofhis rational faculty; and after confirmation he either pervertsor suffocates or repels the goods and truths of heaven and theChurch, and at length either shuns them or turns his back uponthem or hates them. This he does in his spirit, and in the bodyjust so far as he dares to speak with others from his spirit with-out fearing the loss of reputation as a means to honor andgain. When man is such, he gradually shuts up the spiritualmind closer and closer. Confirmations of evil by means offalsities especially close it up; therefore evil and falsity whenconfirmed cannot be uprooted after death; they are uprootedin the world only by means of repentance. • 63- But when the spiritual mind is open the state of the
  • 110 SAPIENTIA ANGELICA . .63- At prorsus alius status est mentis naturalis, cummens spiritualis aperta est: disponitur tunc mens natura-lis ad obsequium mentis spiritualis, et subordinatur; agitenim mens spiritualis a superiori seu ab interiori in men-temnaturalem, ac removet ilIa quae ibi reagunt; et adap-tat sibi ilIa, quae secum similiter agunt; inde successivetollitur reaCtio superans. Sciendum est, quod in maximiset minimis universi, tam vivis quam mortuis, sit aCtio etreaCtio; inde est omnium aequilibrium: hoc tollitur cumaCtio superat reactionem, et vicissim. Simile e·st cummente naturali et cum mente spirituali. Quando mensnaturalis ex sui amoris jucundis, et ex suae cogitationisamoenis, quae in se sunt mala et falsa, agit, tunc reaCtiomentis naturalis removet ilIa quae mentis spiritualis sunt,ac obstipat fores ne intrent, et facit ut actio fiat ex talibusquae cum reaCtione ejus concordant. Ita fit aCtio et re-actio mentis naturalis, quae opposita est aCtioni et reacti-oni mentis spiritualis. Inde fit occlusio mentis spiritualissicut retorsio spiraea At si aperitur mens spiritualis, tuncinvertitur actio et reaCtio mentis naturalis: agit enim mensspiritualis a superiori aut interiori, et simul per ilIa quaead obsequium ejus disposita sunt in mente naturali ab in-teriori aut exteriori, et retorquet spiram, in qua est aCtioet reactio mentis naturalis; est enim haec mens ex nati-vitate in opposito contra ilIa quae mentis spiritualis sunt ;hoc trahit per hereditatem a parentibus, ut notum est.Talis est mutati