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Em swedenborg-angelic-wisdom-concerning-the-divine-love-and-the-divine-wisdom-the-swedenborg-society-a-popular-swedenborg-series-1937
 

Em swedenborg-angelic-wisdom-concerning-the-divine-love-and-the-divine-wisdom-the-swedenborg-society-a-popular-swedenborg-series-1937

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Emanuel Swedenborg, a popular swedenborg series

Emanuel Swedenborg, a popular swedenborg series

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    Em swedenborg-angelic-wisdom-concerning-the-divine-love-and-the-divine-wisdom-the-swedenborg-society-a-popular-swedenborg-series-1937 Em swedenborg-angelic-wisdom-concerning-the-divine-love-and-the-divine-wisdom-the-swedenborg-society-a-popular-swedenborg-series-1937 Document Transcript

    • D·IVINE LOVï~AND WIS:DOM BY EMANUEL SWEDENBORG•• o Lord, how manifold are Thy works 1~ WISDOM hast Thou made them ail. ft Psa1m clv. 24.
    • /-.13 0 ,~- HI "1. Gad is Order itself. "II. He created man from arder, in arder and into arder." III. He created his rational mind according ta the arder of the whole spiritual world, and his body according ta the arder of the whole natural world, on which account man was called by the Ancients a little heaven, and a microcosm (or little world)."IV. Tt is a law of arder that man, from his little heaven, or little spiritual world, ought ta mIe his microcosm, or little natural world, just as Gad from His great heaven, or spiritual world, mIes the macrocosm, or natural world, in each and an things thereof." SWEDENBORG. (True Christian Religion.)
    • A new translation by Mr. H. GoyderSmith, with the Rev. Charles Newalt,B.A., as Consultant, Jrom the Latin,edited Jrom the author s origi1~al edition published at Amsterdam, 1763
    • ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING THE DIVINE LOVE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM FROM THE LATIN OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORGTHE SWEDENBORG SOCIETY (INcoRPoRATEo) SWEDENBORG HODSE 2.0 HART STREET, LONDON, W.C. 1 1937
    • ,
    • CONTENTS PART l Nos.Love is the Life of Man lGod alone, thus the Lord, is Love itself, because He is Life itself; and angels and men are recipients ~lifu 4The Divine is not in space . 7God is Very Man IIBeing and Existence in God Man are distinctly one I4­In God Man infinite things are distinctly one I7There is one God-Man, from Whom aU things are 23The Divine Essence itself is Love and Vvisdom . 28Divine Love is of Divine Wisdom, and Divine Wisdom is of Divine Love 34The Divine Love and Wisdom is substance and is form 40The Divine Love and vVisdom are Substance and Form in itself, thus they are the Very and the Gnly . 44The Divine Love and Wisdom must of necessity be and exist in others created by itself 47AU things in the universe have been created by the Divine Love and Wisdom of God-Man . 52AU things in the created universe are recipients of the Divine Love and Wisdom of God-Man 55AU things that have been created bear a certain likeness to man 6IThe uses of aU created things ascend through degrees from outermost things to man, and through man to God the Creator, from Whom they are . 65The Divine fiUs aU the spaces of the universe, apart from space 69The Divine, apart from time. is in aU time 73In the greatest and the smallest things, the Divine is the same 77 v
    • VI CONTENTS PART II Nos. The Divine Love and Wisdom appear in the spiritual worlel as the Sun 83 Heat and light issue from the Sun which exists from the Divine Love and vVisdom 89 That Sun is not Gad, but is the manifestation of the Divine Love and Wisdom of Gad-Man; it is the same with the heat and light from that Sun. 93 Spiritual heat and light, in going forth from the Lord as the Sun, make one, just as His Divine Love and Wisdom make one. 99 The Sun of the spiritual world is seen at a middle altitude, and afar off from the angels, just as is the natural sun from men lO3 The distance between the Sun and angels in the spiritual world is an appearance proportioned ta their reception of the Divine Love and Visdom lO8 Angels are in the Lord, and the Lord in them; and because.-1.. angels are recipients, the Lord alone is HeavËn. II3 In the spiritual world the east is where the Lord appears as the Sun, and other quartcrs are determined there ­ from . II9 The quarters in the spiritual world are not from the Lord as a Sun, but from the angels according to reception 12 4 Angels turn their faces constantly towards the Lord as a Sun, and thus the south is ta their right, the north ta their left, and the west behind them . 12 9 Ali interior things of the angels, bath of mind and body, are turned towards the Lord as a Sun 135 Every spirit, without exception, in like manner turns towards his own ruling love 14 0 --,-, The Divine Love and Wisdom ema!lating from the Lord as a Sun, and giving heat and light in heaven, are the Divine proceeding, which is the Holy Spirit 14 6 The Lord created the universe and ail things thereof by means of the Sun which is the first Proceeding of the Divine Love and vVisdom 15 1 The sun of the natural world is pure fire, and therefore dead; nature aisa is dead, because it originates from that sun 157 III
    • CONTnas Vll Nos. Creation is not possible without two suns, the one living and the other dead 163 The end of creation exists in outermosts, which end is, that ail things may return to the Creator, and that there may be co~n_c!ion. 167 PART III There are atmospheres, waters and earths in the spiritual world just as in the natural world; but the former are spiritual, the latter natural 173 There are degrees of love and wisdom, and consequently degrees of heat and light, also degrees of atmo­ spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 r Degrees are o!/,twofold order, degrees of ~I ane! degrees of breadt~. . . . . . . . . . 184 Degrees of height ~ of the same nature, and one is from the other in a series, like end, cause, and effect 1 89 The first degree is the ail in ail of the following degrees . 195 Ail perfections increase and ascend with and according ~ees . 199 In.succes~iye ,.9rderl the first degree. is_the highest, and the "third iStlie lowest; but iil simultaneous order the first degree is the inmÜs(:auèf:fhethire!-TIle outermost 20 5 The outermost degree surrounds, contains, and s..:lEP~ts prior degrees . . . . . 20 9 Degrees of (15cigh1: are in fu ness and power in their outermosfâégree 21 7 Degrees of bath kinds are in the greatest and least of created things . 222 I~b&-l..QrdJre_threJLdegr.ees .()Lheight.j!11iI!j!~nd ,!!!cre<lte, and in man are three degrees, finite ana created . 230 Every man has these:three degreeS)of heig.ht. from birth.IJ)q They ,cano pe opened one after the oth~r, and as 1 they are opened man is in the Lord and the Lord in! man . 236 Spiritual lig.!?t fiows in through the three degrees into man, but not _spiE,itu,a,I-h~t, except so far as man shuns evils as sins, and looks to the Lord 24 2
    • T~ Civiii CONTENTS Nos.Man becomes natural and sensual if the higher degree. which is the spiritu~l, is not opened in him 248 (l.) What the natural man is and what the spiritual 251 (II.) The character of the na/urai man in whom the spiritual degree is opened 252 (III.) The character of the natural man in whom the spiritual degree is not opened, but yet not closed 253 (IV.) The character of the natural man in whom the spiritual degree has been absolutely closed. 254 (V.) Lastly, the na/ure of the difference between the life of a merely na/ural man and the life of a beast 255The natura! degree of the human mind regarded in itself is continuous, but, when raised, it has the appearance of being discrete, through correspon ­ dence with the two higher degrees 256Since the natural mind co vers and contains the higher degrees of the human mind, it is reactive; and ,if the !!igp.~r degrees are no):_open~J .i~_ acts lagainst them, but if they are opened, it acts with them. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260The origin of evil cornes from lP.l!.Se of the faculties peculiar to man, termed ra~ity and fr~edom . 264 (l.) .Il bad man equally with a good man enjo)s these two faculties 266 (l l.) A bad man abuses these faculties in confirming eV1l and false things, but a good man lises them in confirming good a1ld true things 267 (l II.) Evils and falsities confirmed in man remain and become !lis love and thence his life . 268 (IV.) Those things wMch belong to Ms love and thence to his liJe are passed on to lhë children 269 (V.) Ali eviliand the falsities from t~. both inh&ritçd and contracted, reside in Me naturàl mind . _.- 270(Evils and falsities exist in everything opposed tO(go9d" and tme-things, because evils apd falsities are diaboliêàl and infernal, and good and truc things are Divine and heavenly . 27 l
    • -- CONTENTS lX Nos. (I.) The naturai mÎ1zd, which is Î1z evils and falsities from them, is a form and image of heU . 273 (I Io) The flatural mind which is a form or image of heU, descends through three degrees . 274 (I II.) The three degrees of the natural mind, which is a form and image of heU, are opposite to the three degrees of the spiritual mind, which is a fornz and image of heavùï":----: . . . 275 (IV.) The natural mind which is a heU is opposed in everything to the spiritual mÎ1zd which ~aheawn 2~ AU things of the three degrees of the natural mind are included in works which are done through acts of the body . 277 PART IV The Lord from Eternity. who is Jehovah, created the "ûniversèJ and aU things thereof from liimself, and d6t from nothing 0 28l The Lord from Eternity, or Jehovah, cou Id not have created(thè Ulîiv~rsè and aU things thereof unless he were man 285 The Lord from Eternity, or Jehovah, brought forth from Himself the sun of the spiritual ",::orld, and from that created( the universe, and all things thereof . 290 In the Lord there are three (attributes), the Divine of Love, the Divine of Wisdom, and the Divine of Use, which are the Lord; and these three are reErjjeI!!ed outside the Sun of the spiritual world, the Ivine of Love by heat, the Divine of Wisdom by light, and the Divine of Use by the atmo~here containing them 0 0 • 0 • 0 • 7- • 0 296 The atmospheres, which are three in number in bath the spiritual and natural worlds, in their ultimates finish in substances and matters of the nature of those in tneir eartp.s 302 There is nothing of the Divine in ~f in the substances Il and matters from which earths are formed, but yet they come from the Divine in itself 0 ­ 305
    • x CONTENTS Nos. Ali uses, which are the ends of creation, have ferms which they receive from substances and matters such as are in the earths . 307 (1.) There is effort in carths to bring forth fOl»!s, or fOlms of uses . ~ 310 (II.) The~è [sacertain likmess to the creation of the ul1iverse in aU forms of uses 313 (JI 1.) There is a certain likeness to man in aU jorms of uses 317 (IV.) There is a certain lilleness to the Infinite and Eternal in aU forms of uses. 318 Ali things in the created universe, viewed in regard ta uses, bear a Iikeness ta man; and this proves that Gad is Man. 319 Ali things created by the Lord are uses; and they are uses in that arder, degree and respect in which they relate ta man, and through man ta the Lord frem Whom they are. 327 Uses for sustaining the body . 331 Uses for perfecting the rational 332 Uses for receiving the spiritual from the Lord 333 Evil uses were not created by the Lord, but originated together with hell . 336 (1.) IV hat is meant by evil uses on the earth. 338 (II.) A il things are in heU that are evû uses, and ~n heaven that are good uses -.- ­ . . 339 (II 1.) There is a continuous infl-;-; fram the spiritual world into the natural wofld 340 (1 V.) Influx fram heU works to produce things thqt are evil uses wherever tllere are things corre­ sponding thereto . 341 (V.) The lowest spiritual separa/edfrom its higher degree works to titis end . 345 (VI.) There are two forms in whic!! the work is effected by influx, the vegetable and the animal form . 346 (VII.) Each of these forms, while it exists, receives the means of propagation 347 In the created universe things visible prove that nature has produced nothing, and does produce nothing, 1[but that the divine produces ail things out..Qf itself, and through the spiritual world. . . . 349_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ---ol
    • CONTENTS Xl PART V Nos.Twa receptacles and dwellings of His Own, called Will and Understanding, have been çreated and farmed by the Lord in man; the WUD for His Divine Love, and the Understanding for His Divine Vhsdam . .;.. 358The Will and the Understanding, which are the recep­ tacles of love and wisdam, are in the brains, in the whale and every part of them, and fram them in the body, in the whalc and evcry part of it . 362 (J.) Love and wisdom, and the will and the under­ standing therefrom, make the very life of man 363 (II.) The life of ma1l is in its beginnings in the brains and in its derivatives in the body . 365 (II J.) Such as life is in its beginnings, such it is in the whole and every part 366 (IV.) By means of Ihose beginnings life is in the whole from every part, and in every part from the whole 367 (V.) Such as the love is, such is Ihe wisdom, and therefore such is the man 368There is a carrespandence of the will with the heart, and of the understanding Vith the lungs 371 (J.) A Il things of the mind have reference 10 Ihe will and tenderstanding, and ail 1Mngs of the body to the heart and lungs . 372 (II.) There is a correspondence of the will and understanding with the heart and lungs, and from this a correspondence of ail things of the mind with ail things of Ihe body. 374 (II J.) The will corresp01lds to the heart . 378 (JV.) The understanding corresponds 10 the lungs 382 (V.) By means of Ihis correspondence many secrels concerning the will and underslanding, and therefore also concerning love alld wisdom, may be disclosed 385 (V J.) Mans mind is his spirit, and the spirit is the man. The body is the external through which the mind or spirit feels and acts in its world . 386
    • Xli CO:-fTENTS Nos. (VII.) The union of mans spiril with the body is by the correspondence of his will and under­ standing wilh his heart anèf lûngs, and separation cames through non-êorrespon­ dence . 390The correspondence of the heart with the will and the understanding with the lungs makes known ail that is possible to be known of the will and under ­ standing. or of love and wisdom, and thus of mans soul . 394 (1.) Love or the will is mans very life . 399 (II.) Love or the will strives continually towards the human form and all things thereof 400 (III.) Love or the will can do nothing through its human form except by mar.r.iagB. wiJh .wi~il01Jl gr Ut.e undefstanding. . 401 (IV.) Love or the will prepares a home or bed chamber for ils future wife, which is wisdom or the understanding . . . 402 (V.) Love or the will also prepares allthe things in its own human form sa that it may act together with wisdom or the undèY­ standing . 403 (VI.) After the nuptials, the jirst union cames through the affection of knowing, from which springs an affection for truth 404 (VII.) The second uniOlt cames through the affection of u~~anding from which springs~perception of truth . . . . 404 {VIII.) The third union cQ;;;;s through the affection for seeing truth, from which springs thought 404 (IX.) Love or the will cames into sensitive and active life through these three unions . 406 (X.) Love or the will introduces wisdom or the understanding into allthings of its hotse 408 (XI.) Love or the will does nothing except in tl1lion with wisdom or the understandùlg 409 {XII.) Love or the will ?A·nites itself ta wisdom or the understanding, and makes the union reciprocal . 4 ro
    • CONTENTS xiii Nos. (X II J.) Wisdom or the understanding, from .power given it by love, can be raised, and can receive such things as are of heavenly light, and perceive them . 413 (XIV.) Love 01 the will cati be ra.ised likewise and can receive such things as are of heavenly heat, provided it loves wisdom, its partner, in that degree 41 4 (XV.) Otherwise love 01 the will dmws wisdom 01 the understanding back from its eleva­ tion, so that it ma) act in 1(j~ison with itsélf . 4 16 (XVI.) Love 01 the will is purifted by wisdom in the understandin.g if theY are t-èiiSëd together . 419 (X V Il.) Love or the will is d~filed in and b)! the understanding if they are not raiseâ together 421 (X Il Ill.) Love p~!Jjf!:.ed by wisdom in the under­ standing becomes spirftual and celestial 422 (X 1X.) Love defiled in and by the understanding, becomes natural, sensual and corporcal 42 4 (XX.) The facully of understanding, caUed rationality, and the fa.culty of acting, caUcd frecdom, stillremain . 42 5 (XXI.) Spiritual and celestiallove is love towards the neighbml.r and to the Lord, and natural an.d sensual love is love of. the world and of self . 426 (XX Il.) jt is the same with charity and faith, and thcir union, as with will and under­ standing, and their union 42 7What mans initial forrn is at conception 43 2
    • ,
    • ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE PART 1 LOVE IS THE LIFE OF MAN I. Man knows that love exists, but not what it is. He knows that there is such a thing from everydaY,speech, as when it is said that:" }Ie. loves me; the king loves his people and ûië peoplëlove their king; iilwsband loves his wife and the mother her children, and vice vërsa"; lhêD. again that: this or that man loves his country, his fellow-citizens, his neighbour; in a similar way when removed from the idea of person, that he loves this or that thing. But although love is so universally talked about, hardly an.y: one .gl~s what love is. When he thinks about it, then because he· is unable to form any reasoned idea of what it really is, he declares either that it is not anything, or only something which fiows in from sight, hearing, touch, and conversation, and so affecting him. He is absolutely unaware 1h;J.L it is his ~~J.iie; not merely the general life of his ( whole body, and of his every thought, but of every particular of them. A wise man can perceive this, when it is said : JLYQlLif!k~~ affection which comes from love, can you think or do anything ? Or when that affection cools, do not thought,)J SëèCIl,and· aêi:îÔ~y-ë;9!d to the like extent ? 1
    • 1-3] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM And when it glows, in the same degree do not they hecomewarm ? Bu t the sensible man perceives this not from the refiection that love is the life of man, but from experience that it is so. 2. No one knows what the life of man is unless he knows that it is ~e. If this be not known, one may believe that the life of man is only feeling and acting, another that it is thinking; when yet thought is the first effect, and feeling and action the second effect of life. It is said that thought is the first effect of life, but there is thought inner and more interior, as also thought which is outer and more exterior. ~Vhat is ac.!;Jally~ fu§.t effect of life is inmost thougtlt, WhlCh is the( erc n of ends. But 01 these later, when the degrees Ole are considered. 3. ~me idea concern~g love--that it is the life of man-may be gathered trom the heat 0!.Jliê1iiill the world. This heat is welT"KnownJ:Q..1>e,t 1 as it were.l... the comïifOiîlife OI:.arr the vegetation of the earth. For, when the warmth of spring cornes, plant life of every kind rises up from the soil, decks itself with foliage, then with blossom, and at length with fruit, and just as if it were alive. But when, in autumn and winter, the heat is withdrawn, these signs of its life are strippedI~ from it, ctOO wither away. So it is with love in man, for h~t and lo~ mutually correspond. Vhèrefore aISO love is Wârm. 2
    • [4,5GaD ALONE, lHUS THE LORD, IS LOVEITSELF, BECAUSE HE IS LIFE ITSELF;AND AN GELS AND MEN ARE RECIPIENTS OF LIFE 4. This will be fully explained in the treatiseson Divine Providence and on Life. Here wemerely observe that the Lord, who is God of theuniverse, is Uncreate and Infinite, but man andangel are created and finite. And, because He isUncreate and Infinite, the Lord is Being Itself,which is called J ehovah, and is Life l tself or Lifein Himself. Since the Divine is one and indivisible,the creation of any one directly from the Uncreate,the Infinite, Being Itself and Life ItselLis. impos-sible, but must be from things created and finite,so formed that the Divine can be in them. Sincemen and angels are such, they are redpients oflife. Consequently if any man al10w himself tobe led away by his own reasoning into the ideathat he is not a recipient of life, but is Life, nothing )can restrain him from the thought that he is God.The man, who feels that he is Life, and thencecornes to believe it, deceives himself; for, in theinstrumental cause, he fails to perceiv_e the originalcause otherwise than as one with it. That the Lordis Life in Himself, He Himself teaches in John,As the Father hath life in HimselJ, so also hath He iligiven to the Son to have li~ lfimself (v. 26) ;and that He is Lire Itself ( 0 n Xf.25; xix. 6).Now since life and love are one, as appears fromwhat was statedin Nos. I and 2, it fol1ows thatthe Lord, because He is Life l tself, is Love l tself. ., 5. But in order that this may sink into the B 3
    • 5, 6] DIVINE LovE AND WISDOM mind, it must be known of a surety that the Lord, because He i~.l-ove jn .it? very essence, that 1s ~ Love, a ears before the an efS-ii11leaVen __a!>_ the Sup, and t at from that Sun proceed heat and light; that the heat therefromJn..J.i..t~_!?~e is love, and the ligllt therefrom in its essence ( is ~; andtJ1aITIïë angels, jusfult1îëIi1ëasuE.e thatiliëy receive that ïIl1lfltuaI1ïe31 and hglit,3[.e themselves èXàmples -0 ove anawisdom, yet not from themselves, but from the Lord. This spiritual heat and light not only flow into angels and affect them, but also flow into men and affect)J them rccisel as the 6ecome red ients. Tllljj J become recipients accor mg to thelr love oftliè Lord and of the nelghbour. Hns Sün ltself, or tlïe Divine Love, cannot create any one by its own heat and light directly from itself, since one so created would be Love in its essence, which Love is the Lord Himself; but it can create from substantial and material things so formed as to Q.e caE~Je of receivLI~g--.that v~y heat and light; as, DY -comparison, the sun of our worIa, by its heat and light, is unable to produce germinations directly in the earth, but only out of earthy substances, in which it can be present through its heat and light, and cause vegetation. In the work on HEAVEN AND HELL (n. rr6-I40) it may be seen that the Lords Divine Love is manifest in the spiritual world as the Sun, and from it streams spiritual heat and light giving love and wisdom to the angels. 6. Since, then, man is not Life, but a recipient of life, it follows that the conception of man from the father is not a conception of life, but only..ni ~L..<l-lld pllrest forIILCapable...!lf receiving life, 4
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [6,7to which, as to a nucleus or starting-point in thewomb, are added successively substances andmatters adapt~çL.iIl_19_rm_tfL!h~_re~Etion of lifein its own order and degree. THE DIVINE IS NOT IN SPACE 7. It is impossible to grasp by a merely natural idea that the Divine, or God, is not in space, although everywhere present and with every man in the world, every angel in heaven, and everyspirit under heaven, but it is possible by a spiritualidea. The reason is that in the natural idea thereis space; for it is fashioned of such things as arein the world, in every one of which, as the eyesees them, is space. Everything great and smallthere, everything there which has length, breadth,and height is of space. In short, every measure,figure, and form there is spatial. That is why itis said to be impossible to grasp, by a natural idea,the fact that the Divine is JlQti.n.MJ~c..~L along~hthe deç!<lratiQn 1patjt is ~v~here present. Butthe fact remains that a man can understand thisby the power of natural thought, if only he permit~of spirituallight to enter in. On this accountsomething shill first De saw of the idea andspiritual thought therefrom. The spiritual ideadraws nothing whatever from space, but derivesits aU fram state. State is predicated of love,life, wisdom, the affections and joy therefrom;in general terms, of good and of truth. The trulyspiritual idea of these things has nothing in commonwith space. l t is higher and regards spatial ideasbeneath it as the sky surveys the earth. Yet sinceangels and spirits see with their eyes in like manner 5
    • 7-9] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM as do men in the world, and abjects cannat be seen except in space, therefore in the spiritual world, where angels and spirits dwell, there appear ta be spaces similar ta those on the earth. Yet the spaces there are appearances only; for they are not fixed and constant as on earth; they can be lengthened and shortened, changed and varied; and because they cannat be sa deterrnined by measure, they cannat be comprehended there by any natural idea, but by th~iritual idea alone ;1 which is no other regardmg3atial distances tnanJ ~Cflli:taiïCës oIgoëi""d---ano. orfruth; -and tfiëiel are!l1inities and likenesses in accordance wlth t1lelr states. --~ 8. From this it is evident that man cannat grasp by a merely natural idea the fact that the Divine is everywhere, yet not in space, but that angels and spirits perceive it clearly; with the consequence that man also may do sa, if only he admit sorne ray of spiritual light into his thought. The reason why man can understand is because it is not rus body which thinks, but his spirit; thus not his natural, but his spiritual. 9. But there are many who do not understand this, because they love the natural, and will not raise the thoughts of their understanding upwards into spirituallight; and they, who will not do this, cannat think except in terrns of space, even of Gad; and ta think sa of Gad is ta think from the extension of nature. This must be said by way of introduction, because without the knowledge and without sorne perception that the Divine is not is space, it is impossible ta understand anything concerning the Divine Life, which is Love and 6
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [<)-IIWisdom, the subjects here treated; and thereafterlittle if anything about Divine Providence, Omni­presence, Omniscience, Omnipotence, Infinity, andEtemity, which are to be treated in succession. 10. It has been said that spaces appear in thespiritual world exactly as in the natural world,consequently also distances, but that these areappearances according ta spiritual affinities oflove and wisdom, or, of good and truth. It is onthis account that the Lord, notwithstanding thatHe is everywhere present in the heavens with theangels, appears high above them, as the Sun; andbecause reception of love and wisdom causesaffinity with Him, it is for that reason that thoseheavens appear nearer ta Him where the angelsare, by virtue of their reception, in doser affmity,than those with whom the affinity is more remote.From this also it is that the heavens, which arethree in number, are distinguished one fromanother; likewise the societies of which eachheaven is composed; furthermore, that the heUsunder them are distant according to their rejectionof love and wisdom. And so it is with men, inwhom and with whom the Lord is present through­out the entire universe; and this solely for thereason that the Lord is not in space. GOD IS VERY MAN II. In aU the heavens there exists no other ideaof Gad than that of MAN. The reason is, thatheaven as a whole and in part is in form like Man,and the Divine, which is with the angels, makesheaven, and thought runs agreeably to the form 7
    • II) DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMof heaven; wherefore it is impossible for theangels to think otherwise concerning God. Henceit is that aIl those in the world, associated withheaven, think in like manner concerning God,when thinking inwardly in themselves, or in spirit.From this fact that God is Man, every angel andspirit is a man in perfect form. This results fromthe form of heaven, which is like to itself in greatestand least things. (That heaven as a whole andin part is in form like Man may be seen in thework on HEAVEN AND HELL, n. 59-87: and thatthought runs agreeably to the form of heaven,n. 203, 204.) Tt is known from Genesis (i. 26, 27),that men were created in the image and likenessof God; and again that God was seen as a Manby Abraham, and by others. The ancients, wiseand simple alike, thought of God no otherwisethan as of a Man; and when at length they beganto worship many gods, as at Athens and at Rome,they worshipped themall as men. What is heresaid may be illustrated by the following, previouslypublished in a certain small treatise : The Gentiles, especially the Africans, who acknowledge and worship one Gad, the Creator of the universe, entertain concerning Gad the idea of Man; they say that no one can have any other idea of Gad. When they learn that there are many who cherish the idea of Gad as some­ thing cloud-like in mid-air, they inquire where such people are; and on being told that they are among Christians, say it is impossible. But they are told in reply, that the idea arises from the fact that in the Ward, Gad is called a Spirit, and their idea of a spirit is of a particle of cloud; not knowing that every spirit and angel is a man. An examination, nevertheless, was made ta 8
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [II- 13 ascertain if the spiritual idea of such persons was like their natural idea, and it was found to be different with those who acknowledge the Lord interiorly as God of heaven and earth. l once heard an eIder from among the Christians say that no one can have an idea of the Divine Ruman; and l saw him taken to various Gentile peoples, and successively to such as were more and more interior, and from them to their heavens, and at length to the Christian heaven. Everywhere he was granted a communication of their interior perception concerning God, and he observed that they had no other idea of God but the idea of a Man, which is the same as the idea of the Divine Ruman (see c.L.]. n. 74). 12. The common idea of God in Christendomis as of a Man, because the Athanasian Doctrineof the Trinity describes Rim as a Person; butthose of higher degree, the wise, prodaim thatGod is invisible, for they cannot understand howGod, as Man, could have created heaven andearth, then filled the universe with Ris presence,and many things, which cannot sink into theunderstanding, so long as it is not known thatthe Divine is not in space. Those, on the contrary,who approach the Lord alone, think of the DivineRuman, thus of God as Man. 13. Row important it is to have a right con­ception of God is evident from this, that the ideaof God forrns the inmost of thought with all whohave religion, for everything of religion and ofworship regards God; and it is quite impossiblefor communication with the heavens to be granted,unless there be a right idea of God, because, 9
    • 13, 14] DIVINE LOVE AND WI5DOMuniversally and singly, He is in aU the things ofreligion and of worship. Hence every people inthe world is assigned a place in the spiritual worldaccording ta its idea of Gad as Man; for in thisand no other is the idea of the Lord. That thestate of life after death with a man is accordingta the idea of Gad in which he has confirmedhimself, is evident from its converse, namely, thatthe denial of Gad, and, in Christendom, the denialof the Lords Divinity, make tell. *BEING AND *EXISTENCE IN GOD MAN ARE DISTINCTLy ONE 14. Where Being is, there Existence is; the oneis not presented without the other; for Being I5through Existence, and not apart from it. Thisthe rational mind comprehends when it thinks,whether there can be granted any Being whichdoes not EXIsT, or, any Existence except fromBeing; and since the one is presented with theother and not without it, it follows that they areone, but distinctly one. They are one distinctlylike love and wisdom: besides love is Being, andwisdom is Existence, for love is not given unlessin wisdom, nor wisdom unless from love; whereforewhen love is in wisdom, then it EXIsTs. Thesetwo are one of such a nature that they may indeedbe separated in thought, but not in operation, andit is on this account that they are said ta bedistinctly one. Being and Existence in Gad Manalso are distinctly one like soul and body. Thesoul is not presented without its body, nor the • ct Esse" and "Existerc." ro
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [14-17body without its sou!. The Divine Soul of GodMan is what is understood by the Divine Being,and the Divine Body what is understood by theDivine Existence. That the soul can exist without .the body, and think and be wise, is an error flowingfrom delusions, for the soul of every man is in aspiritual body, as soon as it has cast off the materialcoverings which it carried about in the world. 15. Being is not Being unless it Exists, becauseprior to this it is not in a form, and, if not in aform, it has no quality, and that which has noquality is not anything. That which exists fromBeing makes one with it, because it is from Being.Hence there is unition and each is the othersmutually and reciprocally, besides being in every­thing of the other as in itself. 16. From these things it is evident that Godis Man, and thereby God Existing; not Existingfrom Himself, but in Himself. He who exists inHimself, He is God from whom aIl things are. IN GOD MAN INFINITE THINGS ARE DISTINCTL y ONE 17. It is weIl known that God is infinite, for Heis called the Infinite; but He is called the Infinitebecause He is infinite. He is not Infinite from thisfact alone, viz. that He is very Being andExistence in Himself, but because there areinfinite things in Him. An Infinite without infinitethings in Himself is Infinite only in name. Theinfinite things in Him cannot be said to be infinitely n* II
    • 17-1 9] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMmany, or infinitely aIl, on account of the naturalidea respecting many and ail; for the natural ideaof infinitely many is limited, and the idea ofinfinitely ail, though not limited, is drawn fromlimited things in the universe. Wherefore, onaccount of his natural ideas, man is unable, byany refinement and approximation, to come into aperception of the infinite things in God; but anangel, in the spiritual idea, by these means is ableto rise above the degree of man, yet never so faras to that perception. 18. That there are infinite things in God, anyone may convince himself, who believes that Godis Man; and because He is Man, He has a Body,and ail that pertains to it. Thus He has a face,breast, abdomen, loins, and feet; for withoutthese He would not be Man; and, since He hasthese, He has also eyes, ears, nose, mouth, andtongue; then also the inward parts of man, theheart and lungs, and their connections; all ofwhich, taken together, make man to be man. Increated man these are many, and, observed in theircombinations, innumerable; but in God Man theyare infinite; nothing whatever is wanting; henceHis infinite perfection. That a comparison isdrawn between Man Uncreated, that is God, andcreated man, is because God is Man; and HeHimself says that the man of this world wascreated after His image and likeness (Gen. i. 26, 27). 19. The fact that there are infinite things inGod is made more clearly evident to the angelsfrom the heavens in which they dwell. Heaven,considered in its entirety, is composed of myriadsof myriads of angels, and collectively is in form 12
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [19- 22like a Man; every society of heaven, whetherlarge or smaU, likewise; hence also an angel isa man, for an angel is a heaven in least form.That this is sa may be seen in the work onHEAVEN AND HELL (n. 51-87). Heaven, as awhole, in part, and in the individual, is of sucha form by virtue of the Divine which the angelsreceive; for an angel is a man in perfect formjust sa far as he is a recipient from the Divine.This is why the angels are said to be in God, andGod in them; also that God is their aU. Howmany things there are in heaven cannat be writtendown; and because the Divine is what makesheaven, and those myriads of things, too numerousto express in words, are from the Divine, it isclearly evident that there are infinite things inVery Man, who is Gad. 20. The like may be shown to be the case fromthe created universe, provided that this is regardedfrom uses and their correspondences, but beforethis can be understood sorne preliminary explana­tions must be given. 2r. Because there are infinite things in God Manwhich are visible in heaven, in angel and in manas in a mirror, and, because God-Man is not inspace (see above, n. 7-10), it can, to sorne extent,be seen and understood, in what manner Gad canbe Omnipresent, Omniscient, and AU Provident,and how, as Man, He could create aU things, and,as Ma)], He is able to keep the things created byHimself in their order to eternity. 22. The fact that infinite things are distinctlyone in Gad-Man may also be manifest, as in amirror, from man. In man there are many and 13
    • 22,23J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM innumerable things, as said above; but man feels them as a one. From sensation he knows nothing of his brain, heart, and lungs, of his liver, spleen, and pancreas; nor of the countless things in his eyes, ears, tongue, stomach, generative organs, and in the remaining parts; and because he knows nothing of them from sensation, he is, to himself, as indeed one. The reason is, that aIl these things are in such a form, as that not one can be lacking ; for it is a form receptive of life from God-Man (as shown above, n. 4-6). From the order and con­ nection of aIl things in such a form, the sensation and thence the idea, is presented as if they were not many and innumerable, but really one. From this it may be inferred that the man and innumer­ able things, which in man seem to make a one, are in Very Man who is God distinctly, nay rather most distinctly, one. THERE IS ONE GOD-MAN, FROM WHOM ALL THINGS ARE 23. AlI things of human reason unite and, as it were, concentrate in this, that there is one God, the Creator of the universe; wherefore a man endowed with reason, from ordinary intelli­ gence, neither does nor can think otherwise. Tell any sane man that there are two Creators of the universe, and you will find a repugnance on his part toward you, possibly from the mere sound of the phrase in his ear; from which it appears that ail things of human reason unite and concen­ trate in this, that God is one. There are two reasons for this. First, the very capability of 1 thinking rationally is not mans, but Gods with 14rul
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [23, 24him; human reason in its general nature dependsupon this: and this general nature of reasoncauses man ta see as from himself that Gad is one.Secondly, by means of that power, man either isin the light of heaven, or he draws thence thegeneral nature of his thought; and it is a universalof the light of heaven that God is one. It isdifferent if man has perverted the lower parts ofhis understanding by that capability. He doesindeed possess the capability, but. by the twistgiven to those lower parts. he turns it another way.and thereby his reason becomes unsound. 24. Every one, though he may be unaware ofit, thinks of a company of men as a man; sa hesees at once what is meant by saying that theking is the head and his subjects the body, andthat this or that man is such a part of the generalbody, that is, the kingdom. The like holds goodwith the spiritual body as with the body politic.The spiritual body is the church. whose head isGad-Man. From this it is evident what kind of aman the church would look like, if one shouldthink not of one God, Creator, and Sustainer ofthe universe, but of severa!. Thus viewed, itwould appear as one body with many heads, notas a Man, but a monster. If it be said that withthese heads there is one essence, and thus togetherthey make one head, the resu1tant idea cannat beother than of one head with several faces, or ofone face with several heads. Thus the churchwould be presented ta view mis-shapen; when yetthe one Gad is the head, and the church is thebody, which acts at the bidding of its Head, andnot from itself, as is also the case in man. Hencealso it is that there can only be one king to a 15
    • 24- 26J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMkingdom. Several would rend it asunder, but onecan hold it together. 25. So would it be with the church scatteredthroughout the whole universe, which is called acommunion, because it is as one body under oneHead. It is known that the head controIs thebody under it at will; for understanding and willhave their home in the head, and by them thebody is put into motion, so long and so far as thebody is only obedient. As the body can do nothingexcept from the understanding and will in thehead, so the man of the church can do nothingexcept from God. It appears as if the body actsfrom itself, as if the hands and feet move themselves,and as if the mouth and tongue in speaking vibrateof themselves, when yet not a whit is from them­selves, but from the affection of the will andthence the thought of the understanding in thehead. Think then, if there were several heads toone body, and each and any head were under thejurisdiction of its own understanding and will,whether it could continue to exist. Among severalheads, singleness of mind such as results from onehead would be impossible. As in the church, sois it in the heavens. Heaven consists of myriadsof myriads of angels; unless these one and alllooked to the one God, they would fall away fromone another, and heaven would be dissolved.Consequently if an angel of heaven merely thinksconcerning several gods, he is there and thenseparated; for he is cast out to the utmostboundary of the heavens, and sinks downward. 26. Because the whole heaven and everythingtherein relate to one God, angelic speech is of such r6
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [26-28a nature that, through a certain harmony flowingfrom the concord of heaven, it finishes in a singlecadence; a sign that it is impossible to think ofGod otherwise than as one; for speech is fromthought. 27. Who will not perceive, whose reason issound, that the Divine is indivisible? and more­over that severa! Infinites, Uncreates, Omnipotents,and Gods are impossible? If another, not giftedwith reason, should argue that these may bepossible, provided they have one and the sameessence, and that by this means one Infinite,Uncreate, Omnipotent, and God, results, is notone and the same essence one identity? And oneidentity is not given to severa!. If it should besaid that one is from the other, then he who isfrom the other is not God in himself. And yetGod in Himself is the God from whom all thingsare. (See above, n. I6.)THE DIVINE ESSENCE ITSELF IS LOVE AND WISDOM 28. If you gather up aIl the things that youhave come to know, and submit them to the insightof your mind, and if, in sorne elevation of spirit,you search out what is the universal of them aU,you can come to no other conclusion than that itis Love and Wisdom. For these are the twoessentials of all things of mans life. Everythingof that life, civil, moral, and spiritual, depends onthese two, and, without these is nothing. It isthe same with all things of the life of the collectiveMan, who is, as was said above, a society larger I7
    • 28-3 0 ] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM or smaller, a kingdom, an empire, a church, and also the angelic heaven. Take away love and wisdom from these, and consider if they be any­ thing, and you will perceive that, apart from these as their origin, they are nothing. 1 1 1 29. Love together with Wisdom in its veryl essence is in God. This no one can deny; for r God loves all men from Love in Himself, and He leads aIl men from Wisdom in Himself. The created universe, also, looked at from its arrangement or order, is so full of wisdom and love that you may say that an things in the aggregate are that very wisdom. For things limitless are in such order, successively and simultaneously, that taken together they make a one. l t is from this cause and no other, that they can be held together and preserved for ever. 30. It is because the very Divine Essence is Love and Wisdom that man has two faculties of life, from one of which he has understanding, and from the other, will. The faculty from which he has understanding draws everything it has from the influx of wisdom from God; and the faculty from which he has will draws everything it has from the influx of love from God. The fact that a man is not truly wise and does not rightly love does not take away the faculties, but merely closes them up; and so long as they remain closed, they may be called understanding and will, but essen­ tially are not. If, therefore, these two faculties were taken away, all that is human would perish -thinking and expressing ones thought, willing and acting from ones will. From this it is clear that the Divine dwells with man in these two 18
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [3 0 -33faculties, the ability ta become wise and the powerta love. That in man there is the possiblity ofloving (and of being wise), though he may not bewise and love as he might, has been made knownta me by much experience, which you will seeelsewhere in abundance. 31. It is because the very Divine Essence isLove and Wisdom, that aU things in the universebear reference ta good and ta truth; for everythingwhich cornes from love is caUed good, and every­thing which cornes from wisdom is caUed truth.But of these things more later. 32. And again, because the very Divine Essenceis Love and Wisdom, the universe and everythingtherein , alike animate and inanimate, continuetheir existence from heat and light; for heatcorresponds ta love, and light ta wisdom. Forwhich reason also spiritual heat is love, andspirituallight is wisdom. But of these, also, morelater. 33. From the Divine Love and the DivineWisdom, which make the very Essence that is Gad,spring aU man s affections and thoughts; theaffections from the Divine Love and the thoughtsfrom the Divine Wisdom. Each and ail the thingsof man are nothing else than affection and thought.These are like fountains of ail things of his life.AH the joys and delights of his life are from them,the joys from the affection of his love, and thedelights from thought thence. Now because manis created ta be a recipient, and is a recipient tathe extent that he loves Gad, and from love taGad is wise; in other words, sa far as he is affectedby those things which are from Gad and thinks 19
    • 33-35] DIVINE LOVE AND WI5DOMfrom that affection, it follows that the DivineEssence, which is the Creator, is Divine Love andDivine Wisdom.DIVINE LOVE IS OF DIVINE WISDOM, AND DIVINE WISDOM IS OF DIVINE LOVE 34. That the Divine Being and Divine Existenceare distinctly one may be seen above (n. I4-I6).And because the Divine Being is Divine Love, andthe Divine Existence is Divine Wisdom, these arelikewise distinctly one. They are said to bedistinctly one, because love and wisdom are twodistinct things; for love 15 in wisdom, and wisdomEXI5T5 in love; and because Wisdom derives itsExistence from love (see n. I4), therefore alsoDivine Wisdom is Being. From this it follows, thatLove and Wisdom taken together are the DivineBeing, but when taken distinctly Love is calledDivine Being, and Wisdom, Divine Existence.Such is the angelic idea of Divine Love and DivineWisdom. 35. Since there is such a union of Love andWisdom, and of Wisdom and Love in God-Man,there is one Divine Essence. For the Divine Essenceis Divine Love because it is of Divine Wisdom,and is Divine Wisdom because it is of Divine Love;and since there is such a union of these, therefore,also the Divine Life is one. Life is the DivineEssence. Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are onebecause the union is reciprocal, and reciprocalunion causes oneness. But of reciprocal unionmore will be said elsewhere. 20
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [3 6-3 8 36. There is also a union of love and wisdom inevery Divine work, from which it has perpetuity,or rather, eternal duration. If there be more ofDivine Love than of Divine Wisdom. or more ofDivine Wisdom than of Divine Love, in anycreated work, the excess passes off. It wouldcontinue to exist only in the measure in whichthe two are equally present. 37. The Divine Providence partakes equally ofDivine Love and Divine Wisdom in reforming,regenerating, and saving men. Were there.moreof the one Divine attribute than the other, mancould not be reformed, regenerated and saved.Divine Love wills to save aH, but it can do so onlythrough Divine Wisdom; and aIl the laws by whichsalvation is effected are laws of Divine Wisdom.Love cannot transcend those laws, because DivineLove and Divine Wisdom are one. and ad in union. 38. In the Word, Divine Love and DivineWisdom are understood by " righteousness" and" judgment," Divine Love by "righteousness,"and Divine Wisdom by "judgment." For thisreason " righteousness" and " judgment" in theWord are predicated of God. Thus, in David:Righteousness and Judgment are the support of Thythrone (Ps. lxxxix. 14).Jehovah shall bring forth righteousness as the light, and judgment as the noonday (Ps. xxxvii. 6).In Hosea: l will betroth thee unto Me for ever ... in righteousness and judgment (ii. 19). In Jeremiah: l will raise unto David a righteous branch, who shall reign as king, . . . and shall execute judgment and righteousness in the earth (xxiii. 5). 21
    • 38 ,39] DIVlNE J_OVE AND WISDOMIn Isaiah: He shall sit upon the throne of David, and ttpon his kingdom, to establish it . . . in judgment and in righteous1MsS (ix. 7).Jehovah shall be exalted, ... because He hath fllled the earth with judgment and righteousness (xxxiii. 5)·In David: When l shall have learned the judgments of thy righteousness (Ps. cxix. 7).Seven times a day do l praise Thee because of the judgments of thy righteousness (Ps. cxix. 164).The same is understood by " Life" and" Light "in John, In Him was Life, and the Life was theLight of men (i. 4).By " Life " here is meant the Lords Divine Love,and by " Light " His Divine Wisdom. The samemeaning applies to " life " and " spirit " in John :Jesus said, The words whiclt l speak unto you arespirit and are life (vi. 63). 39. In man love and wisdom appear as twoseparate things, but yet in themselves are onedistinctly, because such as is the quality of manslove, such is his wisdom, and such as is the qualityof wisdom such is his love. Wisdom which doesnot make one with its love appears to be wisdom,and yet is not. Love which does not make onewith its wisdom appears to be the love of wisdom,though it is not. For indeed, the one derives itsessence and its life reciprocally from the other.The reason why wisdom and love with man appearas two separate things is that the faculty of under­standing with him is capable of being elevatedinto the light of heaven, but not so the ability tolove, except so far as he acts according to whathe perceives from his understanding. Anything ofseeming wisdom, therefore, which does not make 22
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [39.40one with the love of wisdom. goes swiftly back tothe love which does ; and this may be a love notof wisdom, but rather of insanity. For indeed, aman may know from wisdom that he ought to dothis or that, but continually neglect to do it,because he does not like it. But so far as hewillingly obeys wisdoms behests, so far he is animage of God. THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM IS SUBSTANCE AND IS FORM 40. The idea, entertained by the great mass ofpeople concerning love and wisdom, is of somethingas it were transitory and fioating in thin air orether; or like a breath from something of thekind. Scarcely any one thinks that they are reallyand actually substance and form. Those whorecognise that they are substance and form stillthink of love and wisdom outside the subject andas fiowing forth from it; and, notwithstandingthat it is transitory and fioating. still they caUsubstance and form that which they think ofoutside the subject and fiowing from it; notknowing that love and wisdom are that verysubject, and that what is perceived outside it andas transitory and fioating is only an appearancein itself. There are several reasons why this hasnot hitherto been seen. One is, that appearancesare the first things out of which the human mindforms its understanding. They can only be dispersedby an investigation of their cause. If the causebe deeply hidden, that investigation is only possibleif the mind be kept a long time in spiritual light,and this it cannot do for long, by reason of the 23
    • 40 , 4 1 ] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMnatural light which is constantly drawing it back.The truth is, however, that love and wisdom arereal and actual substance and form, which con­stitute the subject itself. 41. As this is contrary to appearance, it willseem unworthy of belief, unless it be proved.This can only be achieved through such things asman can take in through his bodily senses; bythese it shail be proved. Man possesses five bodilysenses, known as touch, taste, smell, hearing, andsight. The subject of touch is the skin, withwhich a man is encompassed. The very substanceand form of the skin cause it to feel whatever isapplied to it. The sense of touch is not in thethings applied, but in the substance and form ofthe skin, which are the subject. The sense itselflies only in the disposition of the subject to thethings applied. It is the same with taste. Thissense lies only in the disposition of the substanceand forrn of the tongue; the tongue is the subject.Similarly with smell: it is weil known that scentaffects the nostrils and is in the nostrils, and is adisposition of them due to scented particlestouching them. So with hearing: it appears tobe in the place where the sound cornes from, butis actually in the ear, and is a disposition of itssubstance and form. That hearing is distant fromthe ear is an appearance. In like manner sight :when a man sees objects at a distance, it seemsto him as if vision were there; yet ail the whileit is in the eye, which is the subject, and is in thesame way a disposition of it. It is distant onlyby the inference of a mans judgment concerningspace from the things which are in between, orfrom the diminution and consequent indistinctness 24
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [4 1 ,4 2of the object, an image of which is producedinteriorly in the eye according to the angle ofincidence. Rence it is evident that sight does notgo out from the eye to the object, but that animage of the object enters the eye, and disposesits substance and form. For it is exactly the samewith sight as with hearing; hearing does not goout from the ear striving to catch sound, butsound enters the ear, and affects it. From theseconsiderations it can be established, that thedisposition of substance and form which causessense is not a something separate from the subject,but only causes a change in it, the subject remainingsubject then, as before and afterwards. Renee itfollows that the five senses are not any transitorything issuing from their organs, but that they arethe organs seen in their substance and form, andthat when they are affected sense is produced. 42. It is the same with love and wisdom, with this one difference only, that substances and forms, which are love and wisdom, are not visible directly to the eyes, as are the organs of the external senses. But yet no one can deny that substances and forms are those things of love and of wisdom which are caHed thoughts, perceptions, and affections, and that they are not transitory and floating things having existence out of nothing, or withdrawn from real and actual substance and form, which are subjects. For in the brain are.substances and forms innumerable, in which every interior sense pertaining to the understanding and will has its seat. AH the affections, perceptions, and thoughts there are not exhalations from these substances, but are actually and really subjects, which send forth nothing from themselves, but 25
    • . -- - - - - 42 -45J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM only undergo changes in accordance with the things which ftow against them and affect them. This may be confirmed from things previously stated about the external senses. Of the things thus ftowing against and affecting them more will be said later. 43. From these things it may, for the first time, be seen that Divine Love and Divine Wisdom in themselves are substance and form, for they are very Being and Existence; and unless they were Being and Existence of such a nature as are substance and form, they would be only a figment of the imagination, which in itself is nothing. THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM ARE SUBSTANCE AND FORM IN ITSELF, THUS THEY ARE THE VERY AND THE ONLY 44. That Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are substance and form has been proved just above ; and that Divine Being and Existence is Being and Existence in itself, has also been stated above. One cannot say "from" itself, because this1: involves a beginning, and also a beginning from something within it which is Being and Existence in itself. But Very Being and Existence in itself is from eternity, and, moreover, is uncreate, and i everything created must be from an Uncreate., 1 What is created is also finite, and the finite cannot exist except from the Infinite. 45 He, who with sorne degree of thought can follow the argument and understand Being and 26
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [45, 46 Existence in itself, will certainly fol1ow on and understand that it is the Very and the Only That is named the Very which alone 15, and that the Only from which al1 else is. Now because the Very and the Only is substance and form, it must be very and only substance and form. And because that is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, it must be very and only Love, and very and only Wisdom. Consequently it is very and only Essence, as weIl as very and only Life, for Love and Wisdom is Life. 46. From these things it may be evident how sensually, that is, how from the senses of the body and from their unenlightenment in spiritual matters, do those think, who declare that Nature is from herself. They think from sight. They cannot think from their understanding. Thought from sight closes the understanding, but thought from the understanding opens the sight. They can form no idea of Being and Existence in itself, and that it is Eternal, Uncreate, and Infinite; nor can they picture Life except as a transitory something dissolving into nothingness; nor think in any other way of Love and Wisdom, and certainly not that aIl the things of Nature come from them. Neither can it be seen that aIl things of nature come from them, unless nature is regarded from Uses in their succession and their order, and not from any of its forms, which are merely objects of sight. For there are no uses except from life, and their succession and order from wisdom and love. On the other hand forms are the containants of uses. For which reason, if the fonus alone are regarded, nothing of life can be seen in nature, still less of. love and wisdom, and so nothing of God. 27
    • 47, 48JTHE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM MUSTOF NECESSITY BE AND EXIST IN OTHERS CREATED BY ITSELF 47. The essential of love is not to love itself,but others, and through love to be united withthem. The essence of alliove is union, nay rather,its life, and is called pleasantness, agreeableness,delight, sweetness, bliss, happiness. and felicity.Love consists in this, that its own should beanothers. To feel anothers joy as ones own,that is loving. But, feeling ones happiness inanother, and not his in oneself, is not loving. Thisis self-love, whereas the other was love of theneighbour. These two kinds of love are diametricallyopposed. Either conjoins the other, and it doesnot seem that loving ones own, that is, oneself inanother, disjoins; when yet it separates so utterly,that as much as any one may have loved anotherin this way, just so much will he hate him. Forthat union dissolves of itself gradually, and then,step by step, love turns to hatred. 48. Who that is capable of discerning theessential character of love cannot see this? Forwhat is loving oneself alone and not sorne one elsewho will return love for love? Tt is surely separa­tion rather than binding together. Loves unionis reciprocal. There can be no reciprocity in selfalone, and if there is thought to be, it cornes froman imagined reciprocity in others. From thesethings it is evident that Divine Love must be andexist in others, whom it may love, and by whom itmay be loved; for with such a reciprocity in ail love,it will be greatest, that is, infinite, in Love itself. 28
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [49-5 1 49. With respect ta Gad: Loving and beingloved reciprocaUy cannot be granted to others, inwhom is anything of infmity, or of the essence andlife of love in itself, or of the Divine; for if any ofthese infinite qualities were in them, He wotùd notbe loved by others, but would love Himself. Indeedthe Infinite or Divine is one only, and if this werein others, it would be Itself, and the very love ofself, of which not a whit can be attributed to Gad;for this is the direct opposite of the Divine Essence.And sa it must be imputed in others, in whom isnothing of the Divine in itself. l t will be seenlater that it may be in beings created by theDivine. But, ta this end, there must be InfiniteWisdom making one with Infinite Love; that is,there must be the Divine Love of Divine Wisdom,and the Divine Wisdom of Divine Love. (Seeabove, n. 34-39.) 50. Upon the perception and consideration ofthis mystery depends the perception and knowledgeof aU things of existence or of creation, besides aUthings of subsistence or preservation by Gad; thatis ta say, of aU the works of Gad in the createduniverse, of which the following pages treat. SI. But let me beg you not ta obscure yourideas with time and space; for as much as timeand space enter into your ideas when you readthe following, sa far will it be unintelligible; forthe Divine is not in time and space. This will beseen clearly in the continuation of this work,especially concerning Eternity, Infinity, and Omni­presence. 29
    • 52]ALL THINGS IN THE UNIVERSE HAVEBEEN CREATED BY THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM OF GOD-MAN 52. So fuU of Divine Love and Divine Wisdomis the universe in greatest and least, and in firstand last things, that it may be said to be DivineLove and Wisdom in an image. That this is so,is clearly established by the correspondence of aUthings of the universe with aU things of man.Each and every thing in the created universe,that has existence, corresponds accordingly witheach and every thing of man, so that it maybe said, he also is a kind of universe. Thecorrespondence of his affections, and thence ofhis thoughts, is with aU things of the animalkingdom; of his will, and thence of his under ­standing, with all things of the vegetable kingdom ;and of his outermost life, with aU things of themineraI kingdom. That such is the correspondence,does not appear to any one in the natural world,but to every one, who turns ms mind to it, in thespiritual world. In that world are aU thingsexisting in the natural world in its three kingdoms,and they are correspondences of affections andthoughts, from the will and from the understandingrespectively, also of the outermost things of life,of those who are there; and all these things aroundthem present just such an appearance as in thecreated universe, except that they are in lesserform. Thus the angels see clearly that the createduniverse is an image representative of God-Man,and that it is His Love and Wisdom which arepresented in the universe in image. Not that it isGod-Man, but from Him; for nothing whatever 3°
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM (52-54in the created universe is substance and forrn initself, or life in itself, or love and wisdom in itself ;nor, indeed, is man a man in himself, but everythingis from Gad, who is Man, Wisdom and Love, andForm and Substance, in Himself. That which isin itselJ, is uncreate and infinite; but that whichis from Him is created and finite, because it.holdsnothing within it which is in itself; and thisexhibits an image of Him, from whom it is andexists. 53. Being and Existence may be applied tathings created and finite, ta substance and forrn,also life, likewise love and wisdom, but aIl theseare created and finite. The reason why theseterms may be applied is not that they have anythingDivine of their own, but that they are in theDivine and the Divine in them. For everythingcreated is, in itself, inanimate and dead, but isquickened and made to live, when the Divine isin it and it is in the Divine. 54. The Divine is the same in one subject as inanother, but one created subject differs fromanother; for no two things can be alike andtherefore each thing is a varied receptacle. On whichaccount the Divine is made visible in its image indiverse ways. lts presence in opposites will bediscussed later. 31
    • ...55, 56]ALL THINGS IN THE CREATED UNIVERSEARE RECIPIENTS OF THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM OF GOD-MAN 55. lt is known that each and ail things of theuniverse are created by God; on this account theuniverse with each and ail things of it is caIledin the Word, the work of the hands of Jehovah.The world in its entirety is said to be created outof nothing, and concerning nothing the idea ischerished of absolute void; when yet, from absolutevoid, nothing is or can be made. This is anestablished truth. The universe, therefore, which isan image of God, and hence full of God, could notbe created except in God from God; for God isBeing itself, and whatever is must be from Being.To create what is, from nothing which is not, isutterly contradictory. But still that which is createdin God from God is not continuous from Him; forGod is Being in ltself, and in created things thereis not any Being in itself. If there were, it wouldbe continuous from God, and thus be God. Theangelic idea of this is something of this nature:What is created in God from God is like that in aman, which he had drawn out of his life, but fromwhich the life has been withdrawn; which is suchas accords with his life, but still is not his life.The angels adduce in confirmation many thingswhich exist in their heaven, where they are inGod, they say, and God is in them, yet still theyhave nothing of God which is God, in their ownbeing. More will be presented later in confirmation.Let this suffice for present information. 56. Every created thing, by virtue of this origin, 32
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [56-58is of such a nature, that it may be a recipient ofGod, not by continuity, but by contiguity. Bythe latter, and not the former, it is possible to beconjoined, for it is accordant because it was createdby God in God; and because thus created, is ananalogue, and through that conjunction is like toan image of God in a mirror. 57. This is why angels are not angels fromthemselves, but by virtue of that conjunction withGod-Man ; and that conjunction is according to thereception of Divine Good and Truth, which are God,and appear to proceed from Him, though reaily theyare in Him. This reception is according to theway in which they apply to themselves the lawsof order, which are Divine truths, in the exerciseof that freedom of thinking and willing accordingto reason, which they have from the Lord as if itwere their own. By this they have reception ofDivine Good and Truth as if from themselves, andby this there is reciprocation of love; for, as wassaid above, there cannot be love unless it bereciproca1. The like is true of men on the earth.From the things now stated for the first time, itmay be seen that ail things of the created universeare recipients of the Divine Love and Wisdom ofGod-Man. 58. Before the attempt can be made to explainto the comprehension, that aH those other thingsof the universe, which are not classed with angelsand men, are also recipients of the Divine Love andWisdom of God-Man, as for instance those justbelow men in the animal kingdom, lower still inthe vegetable kingdom, and lowest of aIl in themineraI kingdom, a great deal must be said about 33
    • 58-60] "DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMdegrees-degrees of life and of the recipients oflife. Conjunction with the things of these kingdomsis according to their use; for all good uses originatenowhere else than through a like conjunction withGod, but different according to degree. This con­junction, in its descent becomes successively ofsuch a nature that nothing of freedom is in them,because there is nothing of reason, and, therefore,nothing of the appearance of life, but all throughthe descent they are recipients (of the Divine Love and Wisdom). Because recipients. they are also re-agents; and, for as much as they arere-agents, are receptac1es. After the origin of evilhas been disc1osed, we shall speak of the conjunctionwith uses which are not good. 59. From these things it may be evidentthat the Divine is in each and aU things of thecreated universe, and thence that the createduniverse is the work of the hands of J ehovah, asit is said in the Word; that is, the work of theDivine Love and Wisdom, for these are understoodby" the hands of Jehovah." And notwithstandingthe presence of the Divine in each and aUthings of the universe. there is, in their beingnothing of the Divine in itself; for the createrluniverse is not God, but from God; and since itis from God, an image of Him is in it, as it might bethe refiection of a man in a mirror, wherein the manindeed appears, but yet nothing of the man is in it. 60. 1 have heard many talking round about mein the spiritual world, saying they are perfectlywilling to acknowledge that the Divine is in eachand every thing of the universe, because they seetherein the wonderful works of God, and for which 34
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [60,61reason the more interiorly they are examined, themore wonderful they are. Yet, when they haveheard that the Divine actuaily enters into eachand every thing of the created universe, they weredispleased; a sure token that while asserting it,they do not believe it. They were asked, therefore,if they cannat see this merely from the marveilousfacu1ty, inherent in every seed, of producing itsown plant form, even to new seeds; also that inevery single seed the idea of the infinite and eternalis present, since there is in them a striving tomultiply and fructify to infinity and eternity.Then again, consider any animaIs, even the smailest.They have organs of the senses, brains, heart,lungs, and ail the rest, with arteries, veins, fibres,muscles, and motions from them; not ta mentiontheir amazing instinct, concerning which wholevolumes of writings exist. AIl these marvels arefrom God; but the forms, with which they areclothed, are from material substances of the earth.From these proceed plants, and, in their order, men.That is why it is said of man, That he was created out of the ground, and that he is the dust of the earth, and that the soul of lives was breathed into him (Gen. ii. 7), from which it is clear that the Divine is not mansown, but is adjoined to him.ALL THINGS THAT HAVE BEEN CREATED BEAR A CERTAIN LIKENESS TO MAN 61. This may be demonstrated from each andail things of the animal, vegetable, and mineraIkingdoms respectively. A relation to man in each C ~
    • 6rJ DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMand aU things of the animal kingdom is plain fromthese considerations: AnimaIs of every kind havelimbs by which they move, organs by which theyfeel, and viscera by which these are put in motion.These they have in common with man. They havealso appetites and affections similar to thosenatural to man. At birth they have knowledgecorresponding to their affections, in sorne of whichappears something like the spiritual. This is moreor less plain to the eye in the case of beasts, birds,bees, silkworms, ants, etc. From these facts it isthat altogether natural men assert that livingcreatures of this kingdom are like them, apartfrom speech. A relation to man in each and aUthings of the vegetable kingdom is plain from theseconsiderations: They spring forth from seed, andfrom that advance successively through theirvarious stages of growth; they have somethingresembling marriage, and later on prolification.Their vegetable soul is use, of which they areforms. There are, besides, many other features,which bear relation to man, and which have alsobeen described by certain authors. A relation taman in each and aU things of the mineral kingdomappears only in the endeavour to produce such formsas may bear that relation, which forms are, as wehave said, those of the vegetable kingdom, and in thisway to fulfil uses. For when first the seed faUsinto the bosom of the earth, she warms it, and outof herself gives it power, drawn from everydirection, to shoot up, and present itself in a formrepresentative of man. There is an endeavour ofsuch a kind also in its solid parts, as witness coralsin the depths of the ocean, and ftowers in mines,where they originate from mineraIs and also metals.The endeavour towards vegetating, and fulfiUing 36
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [61-64uses by this means, is the one most remote fromthe Divine to be found in created things. 62. As there is an endeavour of the earthsmineraIs towards vegetation, so there is anendeavour of plants towards vivification; thencecome inseets of different kinds corresponding tothe odours emanating from plants. This is notdue to the heat of this worlds sun, but to lifeftowing through it according to the recipients, aswill be seen in what foilows. 63. That this relation of aU things of the createduniverse to man exists may be known indeed fromwhat has been adduced, but only visualisedvaguely. Yet in the spiritual world this is seenclearly. AU the things of the three kingdoms arethere, and in the midst of them the angel. He seesthem aU around him, and he knows also that theyare symbols of himself; nay rather, when theinmost of his understanding is opened, he recogniseshimself, and sees his likeness in them, almost asin a mirror. 64. From these and many other things inagreement, which we have no space for here, itmay be known for a certainty, that God is Manand the created universe His image; for thegeneral relation of ail things is to Him, just asthere is a particular relation to man. 37
    • 65JTHE USES OF ALL CREATED THINGSASCEND THROUGH DEGREES FROM OUTER­MOST THINGS TO MAN, AND THROUGHMAN TO GOD THE CREATOR, FROM WHOM THEY ARE 65. Outermost things, as said above, are eachand all of the things of the mineral kingdom.They include matter of different kinds, of stony,saline, oily, mineraI, metallic substance, coveredover with soil composed of vegetable and animalelements reduced to the finest mould. Hiddenwithin them lie the end as weil as the beginningof ail uses which originate from life. The end ofail uses is the endeavour to beget uses; thebeginning is energy in action from that endeavour.These pertain to the mineraI kingdom. Middlethings are each and ail things of the vegetablekingdom. They comprise grasses, herbs, plants,shrubs, and trees, of every kind. Their uses are toserve each and ail of the animal kingdom, asmuch those not fuily formed as the perfecto Theynourish, delight, and vivify them; nourishingtheir bodies with their own substances, delightingtheir senses with their own savour, fragrance, andbeauty, and giving life to their affections. Theendeavour towards these uses enters into themfrom life also. F irst things are each and all thingsof the animal kingdom. The lowest of that orderare cailed worms and insects; the middle, birdsand beasts; and the highest, men; for in eachof the kingdoms are lowest, middle and highest ;the lowest are for the use of the middle, and themiddle for the use of the highest. Thus the uses 38
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [65---67of all created things ascend in order from outermostthings up to man, who is flrst in order. 66. There are three degrees of ascent in thenatural world, and three also in the spiritualworld. AlI animaIs are recipients of life; the moreperfect are recipients of life of three degrees ofthe natural world, the less perfect of two degreesof that world, and the imperfect of one ofits degrees. But man alone receives the life ofthe three degrees, not only of the natural, but alsoof the three degrees of the spiritual world, and,indeed, because he can be elevated above nature, isdifferent from any other animal. He can thinkanalytically and rational1y of civil and moralthings, which are within nature, and also ofspiritual and celestial things above nature; infact he can be elevated into wisdom so far as tosee God. But we must treat of the six degrees,through which the uses of all created things ascendin their order to God the Creator, in their properplace. From this summary it can be seen thatthere is an ascent of all created things towards theFirst, who alone is Life, and, that the uses of allthings are the very recipients of life and thence theforms of the uses are so also. 67. It shall also be described briefiy how manascends, that is, is elevated from the outermostdegree to the first. He is born into the outermostdegree of the natural world; from that he israised by means of things learnt into the seconddegree; and as he in this way perfects his under­standing, he is raised to the third degree, and thenbecomes rational. The three degrees of ascent inthe spiritual world are above the three natural 39
    • ......... 67,68J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM degrees in him, and are not visible until he has put off the earthly body. When this is put off, the first spiritual degree is opened to him, afterwards the second, and finally the third, but only with those who become angels of the third heaven; these are they who see God. Those become angels of the second and outermost heaven in whom the corresponding degrees can be opened. Every spiritual degree in man is opened according to his reception of Divine Love and Wisdom from the Lord. Those who receive sorne measure thereof come into the first or outermost spiritual degree ; those who receive more, into the second or middle spiritual degree; and those who receive much,. into the third or highest degree. But those who receive nothing of the Divine Love and Wisdom remain in the natural degrees, and draw no more from the spiritual degrees than the ability to think and thence speak, to will and thence act, but not with perception. 68. Regarding the elevation of the interiors of man, which belong to his minci, this also should be known. There is reaction in everything created by God. In Life alone is action, and reaction is produced by the action of Life. This reaction appears as if it were in the thing created from the fact that it emerges when acted upon. Thus in man it seems as if it were his, because he feels that life is his own completely, when yet he is only a recipient of life. That is why man, from his own hereditary evil, reacts against God. On the other hand, so far as he believes that ail his life is from God, and every good of life is from the action of God, and every evil of life from mans reaction, just so does reaction partake of action, and 40
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [68,69man acts with God as if from himself. Theequilibrium of aH things is from action togetherwith reaction, and everything must be in equi­librium. These things have been pointed out lestman should believe that he ascends to God fromhimself, and not from the Lord.THE DIVINE FILLS ALL THE SPACES OF THE UNIVERSE, APART FROM SPACE 69. Nature has two properties, SPACE and TIME.In the natural world man forms from these hisconsidered ideas, and from them his understanding.Should he remain in them and not lift his mindabove, it is impossible for him to perceive anythingspiritual and Divine anywhere; for he surroundsthem with ideas which draw (their quality) fromspace and time, and to the extent he does this, sothe illumination of his understanding becomesaltogether natura1. To think from this sort ofreasoning about spiritual and Divine things, isjust as if from the darkness of night one were tothink of those things which are visible only indaylight. This is the source of Naturalism. Buthe who has the wit to raise his mind above thoseconsidered ideas, limited by space and time, passesout of darkness into light, and discerns spiritualand Divine things, and at length is sensible ofwhat is in them and from them. Then from thatlight he dispels the darkness of his naturalillumination, and removes its errors from thecentre of his understanding to the sides. Everyman, possessed of understanding, can, and alsoactuaHy does, think above these properties ofnature; and then affirrns and sees that the Divine, 4I
    • 69, 70] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMbecause omnipresent, is not in space. He is alsoable to affirrn and see the things mentioned above ;but, if he denies the Divine Omnipresence, andascribes ail things to nature, he has no desire tobe elevated, although he is able. 70. These two properties of nature mentionedabove, namely space and time, are laid aside byail who die and become angels ; for they thenenter into spiritual light, in which the abjects ofthought are truths, and the abjects of sight resemblethose in the natural world, but are correspondentto their thoughts. These truths, of which they think,draw absolutely nothing from space and time; butwhat they see does indeed appear just as in spaceand time, but the angels never think from these(properties). The reason is, that spaces and timesthere are not fixed as in the natural world, but arechanged according ta the states of their life. Onthis account, instead of space and time enteringinto the ideas of their thought, they think ofstates of life, such things as relate ta states oflove instead of spaces, such as have reference tastates of wisdom instead of times. From this itis that spiritual thought and also speech therefromdiffer sa completely from natural thought andspeech, as ta have nothing in common except safar as the interiors of things are concerned, whichthings are ail spiritual: of which difference morewill be said elsewhere. Now, since the angels haveno thoughts of space and time, but, instead, ofstates of life, it is clear that they do not knowwhat is meant by saying that the Divine fillsspaces, for they have no idea of spaces; but theyunderstand perfectly clearly when, without anysuch idea, it is said that the Divine fiUs aU things. 42
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [7 1 ,7 2 71. Ta show that the man of altogether naturaloutlook has the idea of space in his contemplationof spiritual and Divine things, and the man ofspiritual vision has no such idea, let this serve foran example. The formers thoughts come throughideas acquired from the abjects of his sight, ail ofwhich have form partaking of length, breadth,­and height, and shape determined by them, eitherangular or round. These are manifestly present inthe ideas of his thought about things visible onearth, and, also, about invisible things, as, forinstance, civil and moral affairs. It is true he isunconscious of these things, but they are con­stantly there attendant on them. How differentthe spiritual man, especiaIly an angel of heaven !His thought has no trace of form and shape,deriving anything from the length, breadth, andheight of space, but is wholly from the state of athing arising from the state of its life. So, he thinksof the good of a thing from the good of its life insteadof the length of space, he thinks of the truth of athing from the truth of its life instead of breadth, andof their degrees instead of height. Thus he thinksfrom the correspondence, which the spiritual and thenatural bear ta each other. l t is from this correspon­dence in the Ward that length indicates the good ofa thing, breadth the truth of a thing, and height thedegrees of them. From this it is evident that anangel of heaven is absolutely unable ta think other­wise, when it concerns Divine Omnipresence, thanthat the Divinefllls all thingsapartfromspace. Whatan angel thinks, that is truth, because Divine Wisdomis the light "vhich illuminates his understanding. 72. This is the basic thought concerning God;for without it, the things ta be related concerning c* 43
    • 72 ,73] DIVINE LOVE AND WI5DOMthe creation of the universe by God-Man, HisProvidence, Omnipotence, Omnipresence, andOmniscience, can certainly be understood, but justas surely cannot be retained in the mind; becausethe altogether natural man, while he understandsthose things, is continually slipping back into hislifes love, which is that of his will. This lovedissipates them and plunges his thought in space,from which cornes the illumination, which he stylesrational, quite uriaware that his denials are themeasure of his irrationality. That such is the case,may be confirmed by the idea entertained con­cerning this truth, GOD 15 MAN. l beg you to readcarefuIly, n. II-13 above, and what has beenwritten after; then you will understand that it isso. But if you allow your thought to fail backinto the natural illumination which draws itsquality from space, will not these truths appearparadoxical? And if you let it fall far, you willreject them. This is the reason for saying that theDivine fills aIl the spaces of the universe, and foravoiding saying that God-Man does so. For if thiswere said, the merely natural iilumination wouldnot favour it, but it would support the principlethat the Divine fills them, because it agrees withthe teachings of the theologians, that God isomnipresent, and hears and knows ail things.(More on this matter may be seen above, n. 7-10.)THE DIVINE, APART FROM TIME, 15 IN ALL TIME 73. As the Divine, apart from space, is in aIlspace, so in the same way, apart from time, it isin ail time; for not a thing peculiar to nature can be 44
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [73predicated of the Divine, and space and time arepeculiar to nature. Space in nature is measurable,time likewise. Time is measured by days, weeks,months, years, and centuries; and days by hours,weeks and months by days, years by the fourseasons, and centuries by years. Nature derivesthis measurement from the seeming circuit androtation of the sun of the world. But in the spiritualworld it is quite different. There the progressionsof life appear in like manner in time, for they livewith one another there, just as men do in theworld, which is impossible without an appearanceof time. But time is not divided into seasonsthere as it is in the world, for their Sun is constantin the east, immovable. It is indeed the DivineLove of the Lord which, to them, is visible as theSun. Rence there are no days, weeks, months,years, centuries for them, but they have insteadstates of life, by which a distinction is made,which cannot be cal1ed a distinction into times,but into states. From that it results that angelsdo not know what time is, and, when mentioned,perceive instead state. When state determines time,time is only an appearance, for joy makes timeseem short, and sadness makes it seem long. Itis c1ear, then, that time there is nothing else thanquality of state. This explains why hours, days,weeks, months, and years, are used in the Wordto indicate states, and their progressions, both inseries and in the aggregate; and when times arepredicated of the church, by its morning is under­stood its first state, by noonday its fulness, byeventide its dec1ine, and by night its end. Thefour seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter,have a like meaning. 45
    • 74-7 6] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM 74. From these considerations it is evident thattime makes one with thought from affection; forfrom that is the quality of mans state. Manyinstances can be adduced to show, that distancesin progressions through spaces in the spiritualworld coincide with progressions of time. Forexample, ways there are actuaUy shortened orlengthened according to the desires, which thethought has from affection. Hence it is also thatthe expression" spaces of time" derives its origin.On the other hand in cases, such as in sleep,where thought does not connect with the mansown affection, time is not noticeable. 75. Since times, peculiar to the world of nature,are in the spiritual world pure states, which thereappear progressive, because angels and spirits arefinite, it may be evident that they are notprogressive in God, because He is Infinite, andinfinite things in Him are one, as has been shownabove (n. 17-22): from which it foUows, that theDivine, apart from time, is in aU time. 76. The man, who does not understand and isunable to think from any perception concerningGod apart from time, certainly cannot form anidea of Eternity other than temporal: and then hecannot help being bewildered in thinking of Godfrom eternity; for he thinks from a beginning,and that is solely of time. His crazy thought leadsto this, that God thus existed from Himself ; thencehe faUs easily into the origin of nature from herself ;and from this idea he can only be set free by aspiritual or angelic idea of eternity. which iswithout time. and when without time, is Eternaland Divine likewise; the Divine is Divine in 46
    • DIVINE LovE AND WISDOM [7 6-7 8itself, and not from itself. The angels declare thatthey can indeed understand Gad from eternity, butnature fram eternity by no method of thinking,still less nature from herself, and not at all naturein herself. For that which is in itself is very Beingfram which ail things are; and Being in itself isvery Life, which is the Divine Love of the Divine.Wisdom and the Divine Wisdom of the DivineLove. This is the angels Eternity, detached fromtime, in the same way as is the Uncreate from thecreated, or the Infinite from the finite, of whichin truth, no ratio is possible.IN THE GREATEST AND THE SMALLEST THINGS, THE DIVINE IS THE SAME 77. This follows from the two preceding divisions:The Divine, apart from space, is in ail space, and,apart from time, in all time. Moreover spaces aregreater and greatest, smailer and smailest; andsince spaces and times coincide, as was said above,it is the same with times. In these the Divine isthe same, because the Divine neither changes noris subject ta change, as is the case with everythingof space and time, or of nature. It is invariable,immutable; consequently, everywhere and everthe same. 78. l t appears as if the Divine were not thesame in one man as in another. For instance, inthe wise and the simple, in the aged and the young,it seems quite different. But this is a false impres­sion. It is the man who is different, not the Divinein him. Man is a recipient, and it is the recipientor receptacle which varies. A wise mans reception 47
    • 78- 80] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMof the Divine Love and Wisdom is more adequateand therefore fuller than that of a simple man; andan old man, provided he is wise also, will receive more than a child or young man; but always the Divine is the same in the one as in the other. Similarly, there is a false impression that the Divineis different with the angels of heaven and men on earth, because the angels have ineffable wisdom, and men so little. But the seeming variation is not in the Lord; it is in the subjects, qualified by their reception of the Divine. 79. That in greatest and smallest things theDivine is the same may be made c1ear from heavenand the angel there. The Divine in the wholeheaven and in the angel is the same; on whichaccount the whole heaven may present the appear­ance as of one ange!. 50 it is with the church andso with a man of the church. The whole heavenand the whole church together are the greatestthings in which is the Divine; the smallest is anangel of heaven and a man of the church. Severaltimes 1 have seen an entire society of heaven asone man-angel. 1 was told that this man-angelappearance may be as a man, large as a giant or assmall as a child; and this is due to the fact that theDivine is the same in greatest and smallest things. 80. The Divine is also the same in thegreatest and least of all created things, whichare not living; for it is in the good of theiruse. But why they are not living, is thatthey are not forms of life, but forms of uses; andthe form differs according to the excellence of theuse. But how the Divine is in them will be toldlater, in the part where creation is discussed. 48
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [81,82 81. Remove space, absolutely deny a vacuum;then refiect upon the Divine Love and Wisdom,as very Essence with space withdrawn and vacuumdenied. Having done that, consider them fromspace, and you will perceive that the Divine is thesame in greatest as in smailest things; for greatand small is not permissible in Essence withdrawnfrom space, but identity only. 82. And here a word shail be said about vacuum.Once l heard angels in conversation with Newtonon this subject. They said they could not endurethe idea of vacuum as nothing, because in theirworld, which is spiritual, and within or above thespaces and times of the natural world, they feel,think, are affected, love, will, breathe, yea speakand aet, just in the same way. Yet nowhere invacuum as nothing can one do these things, sincenothing is nothing, and of nothing not anything ispredicable. Newton replied that he knew thatthe Divine which Is fiils ail things. He shudderedat the idea of nothing in regard to vacuum, becausethat idea is destructive of aU things. He urgesthose who talk with him on the matter to bewareof the idea of nothing, comparing it to a swoon,because any real aetivity of the mind is impossiblein nothing. 49
    • PART II THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM APPEAR IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD AS THE SUN 83. There are two worlds, the spiritual and thenatural. The spiritual world receives nothingwhatever from the natural, nor the natural worldfrom the spiritual. They are absolutely separate,and communicate only by correspondences, thenature of which has been abundantly shownelsewhere. To il1ustrate this by an example;Heat in the natural world corresponds to the goodof charity in the spiritual world, and light in thenatural world corresponds to the truth of faith inthe spiritual world. Who does not see that heatand the good of charity, and that light and thetruth of faith are absolutely separate things?From the first intuition they appear as distinctas if they were two absolutely different things.They seem so, if one refiects upon what the goodof charity has in common with heat, and the truthof faith with light; when nevertheless, spiritualheat is that good, and spirituallight is that truth.Although these things are thus separate in them­selves, they yet make one by correspondence, andin this way; while man is reading in the Wordof heat and light, the spirits and angels, in associa­tion with him, understand, for heat charity, andfor light faith. This example is adduced to let it 50
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [83- 85be known, that the two worlds, the spiritual andthe natural, are so separated as to have nothingin common; but yet are so created as to havecommunication, nay rather to be conjoined, bycorrespondences. 84. Since these two worlds are thus separated,it is quite evident that the spiritual world is underanother sun than that of the natural world. Forthere is heat and light in the spiritual world justin the same way as in the natural, except that theheat and light there are spiritual; and spiritualheat is the good of charity, and spiritual light isthe truth of faith. Now since heat and light cannotderive their origin elsewhere than from a sun, it isperfectly plain that the spiritual world has adifferent sun from the natural world, and also,that the sun of the spiritual world, in its essence,is such that spiritual heat and light can exist fromit, and that the sun of the natural world, in itsessence, is such that natural heat can exist fromit. Every spiritual thing having reference to goodand truth can spring from no other source thanthe Divine Love and Wisdom; for aU good is oflove, and all truth is of wisdom; that they haveno other origin, every discerning man can see. 85. Hitherto the existence of any other sun thanthat of the natural world has been unknown. Thereason is that mans spiritual has passed into hisnatural to such an extent that he had no knowledgeof anything spiritual, and did not know that aspiritual world had been provided, in which spiritsand angels dwell, a different world altogether fromthe natura!. Since now the spiritual world hasIain unknown among men of the world so completely SI
    • 85-87] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMas to have vanished from their ken, it seemedgood to the Lord to open the sight of my spirit,that l might see everything there, just as l seethings of the naturai world, and might afterwarddescribe that world, which has been done in thework HEAVEN AND HELL, wherein aIso, in onepart, the Sun of that world has been discussed.Of a truth l have seen it. It seemed of the samesize as the sun of the naturai world, and Iike itaIso in being just as fiery, but glowing with aredder tone. l t has been disclosed to me that thewhole angelic heaven is under that Sun; thatangeis of the third heaven see it constantIy,angeis of the second heaven very often, andangels of the first or outermost heaven sometimes.That aIl the heat and light which they enjoy, andeverything visible there, are from that Sun, willbe seen later. 86. That Sun is not the Lord Himself, but isfrom the Lord. The Divine Love and the DivineWisdom going forth are manifest in that world asthe Sun. It is said, that Sun is Divine Love,because Love and Wisdom in the Lord are one(as shown in Part 1); for Divine Wisdom is ofDivine Love, therefore aIso is Love. 87. That Sun appears fiery in the angels sight,because love and fire are mutually correspondent.They certainly cannot see love with their eyes,but they see instead what corresponds to it. Forangels, equally with men, have an internal andexterna1. Their internal thinks and understands,wills and loves. Their external feels, sees, speaks,and acts. AIl their externals are correspondencesof their internals, but spiritual correspondences, 52
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [87-89not indeed natural. Divine Love, furthermore, isfelt by spiritual beings as fire. Hence, where fireis mentioned in the Word, it means love. Holytire had that meaning in the Israelitish Church:whence also it is the custom, in prayers to God,to say, "May heavenly tire kindle the heart,"meaning Divine Love. 88. On account of such a division betweenspiritual and natural, as has been shown above,n. 83, not the least thing of the natural sun, thatis, nothing whatever of its light and heat, or ofany earthly object, can pass into the spiritualworld. There the light of the natural world isdarkness, and its heat death. But the heat of theworld can be vitalised continuously by the influxof heavenly heat, and the light of the worldillumined by the influx of heavenly light. Influxtakes effect through correspondences, and isimpossible by continuity.HEAT AND LIGHT ISSUE FROM THE SUN,WHICH EXISTS FROM THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM 89. Heat and light exist in the spiritual world,the abode of angels and spirits, in like manner asin the natural world where men dwell; and heatand light are also felt and seen similarly. But stillthe heat and light of the two worlds differ so much,that, as stated above, they have nothing in common.The difference between them is comparable tothat between the living and the dead. The heatof the spiritual world has life in itself; so too itslight. For the heat and light of the spiritual 53
    • 89-91 ] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMworld issue from the Sun which is pure love;whereas the heat and light of the natural worldissue from a sun which is pure tire. Love is living,and the Divine Love is very Life, and tire is dead,and solar tire is death itself. It may be so designated,because it has absolutely nothing of life in it. 90. Angels, because they are spiritual beings,can only live in spiritual heat and light. Men, onthe other hand, can only live in natural heat andlight; for the spiritual is proper to the spiritual,and the natural to the natura1. If an angel wereto draw from natural heat and light the minutestthing he would perish, for it is utterly out ofagreement with his life. Every man, as to theinteriors of his mind, is a spirit. When a mandies, he goes out of the natural world altogether,and leaves behind everything belonging to it, andenters into a world which has in it nothing ofnature. In that world he lives so cut off fromnature, that there is no connection by continuity,as, for instance, between what is purer and grosser,but only as between what is prior and posterior.The sole connection between these is throughcorrespondences. From. this it is evident thatspiritual heat is not purer natural heat, nor spirituallight purer natural light, but that they are froman utterly different essence; for spiritual heatand light draw their essence from that Sun whichis pure Love, or Life Itself; and naturallight andheat draw theirs from a sun which is pure tire, inwhich there is absolutely no life; as said above. 9I. Since there is such a distinction between theheat and light of the two worlds, it is perfectlyc1ear that the inhabitants of the one cannot see 54
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [9 I , 92those in the other world. For the eyes of a man,who looks at things from natural light. are madeof the substance of his own world, whereas theeyes of an angel are formed of the substance ofhis world; thus in both cases adequately toreceive their own light. One can see, therefore,the depth of ignorance of those who will not admit,that angels and spirits are men, because they donot see them with their eyes. 92. Hitherto it has been unknown that angelsand spirits live in utterly different heat and lightfrom that which men have; nay rather, the factthat another heat and light is given has not beenknown. Indeed man has not penetrated with histhought beyond the interior or purer things ofnature; accordingly many have placed thedwellings of angels and spirits in the ether, andsorne in the stars, thus within nature, not aboveor outside it; when nevertheless angels and spiritsare absolutely above or outside nature, and in theirown world which is under another Sun. 1t wasproved earlier that spaces in that world areappearances, and therefore it cannot be said thatthey are in the ether or the stars. They are indeedin association with man, conjoined to the affectionand thought of his spirit: for man is a spirit; hethinks and wills from it; consequently the spiritualworld is where man is, and is not at aH scatteredabout away from him. In a word, every man, sofar as the interiors of his mind are concemed.lives in the midst of spirits and angels in thatworld; and he thinks from its light. and lovesfrom its heat. ss
    • 93-95)THAT SUN IS NOT GOD, BUT IS THEMANIFESTATION OF THE DIVINE LOVEAND WISDOM OF GOD-MAN: IT IS THESAME WITH THE HEAT AND LIGHT FROM THAT SUN 93. By that Sun, which is visible to angels andprovides heat and light for them, is not to beunderstood the Lord Himself, but that which firstgoes forth from Him, the fulness of spiritual heat.This is spiritual fire, and is the Divine Love andWisdom in their first correspondence. On thisaccount that Sun appears fiery, and also is fieryto angels, but not to men. Fire as understood bymen is not spiritual, but natura1. The differencebetween the two kinds of fire is comparable tothat between the living and the dead. Whereforethe spiritual Sun gives life to spiritual beings byits heat and renews spiritual things. The naturalsun does the same for natural beings and naturalobjects, yet not from itself, but by means of aninflux of spiritual heat, for which it ministers asa substitute. 94. That spiritual fire, in which also light hasits beginning, becomes spiritual heat and light,which decrease in intensity as they go forth. Thisdecrease is effected by degrees, which will beexplained later. The ancients represented this bycircles glowing with fire, and resplendent withlight around the head of God. This holds goodeven at the present day in pictures representingGod as a Man. 95. Actual experience testifies to the fact thatlove causes heat, and wisdom light. When a man 56
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [95-97loves he grows warm, and when he thinks fromwisdom sees things as if in light. Thus it is plainthat the first manifestation of love is heat, and ofwisdom light. It is obvious, also, that they arecorrespondences; for heat is not in the love itself,but cornes into existence from love in the will, andthence in the body; light, too, is not in wisdom,but cornes into existence in the thought of theunderstanding, and thence in speech. On whichaccount love and wisdom are the essence and lifeof heat and light. Heat and light are what goforth; and because of that are also correspondences. 96. Any one may know that spiritual light isentirely separated from natural light, if he directattention to the thoughts of his mind. For themind, when it thinks, sees its objects in light.They, who think spiritually, see truths equallywell at midnight as in daytime. For which reason,also, light is attributed to the understanding, whichis said to see. Indeed one sometimes says concerninganother mans statements, one sees it is so, meaningthat one understands. The understanding cannotsee from natural light in this way because it isspiritual; for naturallight is not ever-present, butwithdraws with the sun. It is c1ear, then, thatthe understanding enjoys a different light fromthat of the eye, and that light has a different origin. 97. Let everyone guard against thinking thatthe Sun of the spiritual world is God Himself. GodHimself is Man. The first thing proceeding fromHis Love and Wisdom is a fiery spiritual substance,which appears before the angels as a Sun. When,therefore, the Lord manifests Himself in Person tothe angels, He manifests Himself as a Man; and thissometimes in the Sun, sometimes outside the Sun. 57
    • 98- 100) DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM 98. From that correspondence, the Lord isnamed in the Word not only Sun, but Fire andLight also. They are to be understood thus: TheSun is Himself, as to the Divine Love and Wisdomunited; Fire is Himself as to Divine Love, andLight as to Divine Wisdom.SPIRITUAL HEAT AND LIGHT, IN GOINGFORTH FROM THE LORD AS THE SUN,MAKE ONE, JUST AS HIS DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM MAKE ONE 99. How Divine Love and Wisdom in theLord make (or become) one has been explained inPart 1. In a similar way heat and light makeone, because these go forth, and the things whichgo forth make one by correspondence: for heatcorresponds to love, and light to wisdom. Thenceit follows, that just as the Divine Love is theDivine Being, and the Divine Wisdom is theDivine Existence (see n. 14-16), so spiritual heatis the Divine going forth from the Divine Being,and spiritual light is the Divine going forth fromthe Divine Existence; wherefore as by that union,Divine Love is of Divine Wisdom, and DivineWisdom is of Divine Love (see n. 34-39), so spiritualheat is of spiritual light, and spiritual light is ofspiritual heat; and because there is such a union,it follows that heat and light in going forth fromthe Lord as the Sun are one. On the other handit will be seen later that they are not received asone either by angels or men. 100. Heat and light going forth from the Lordas the Sun are named specially the spiritual; and, 58
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [100, 101the spiritual in the singular number, beeause theyare one. Beeause of this, when the spiritual isspoken of in the following pages, bath together ista be understood. On aeeount of that spiritual,the whole of that world is ealled spiritual; throughit aH things there derive their origin, and theirspecifie name. That heat and that light are eaHedthe spiritual, beeause Gad is eaHed a Spirit, andGad as a Spirit is this spiritual going forth. Gadin His Very Essence is named Jehovah; butthrough that spiritual going forth, angels and menof the Chureh reeeive life and enlightenment;that is why quiekening of life and enlightenmentis said ta be effected through the Spirit of J ehovah. lOI. An illustration of the way in whieh heatand light, that is, the spiritual going forth fromthe Lord as the Sun, make one, is furnished by theheat and light whieh issue from the natural sun.They make one as they leave the sun. That theyare no longer one on the earth is due ta the earthand not ta the sun; for the earth revolves dailyround its axis, and is earried round annuallyaeeording ta the ecliptie. From this eireumstancethe appearanee is that heat and light do not makeone; for at midsummer there is more heat thanlight, and at midwinter more light than heat. Sait is in the spiritual world; but there the earthhas no sueh movements. The angels, however,turn themselves, sorne more, sorne less, towardsthe Lord; and they who turn more reeeive moreof heat and less of light; while they, who do notturn themselves sa fully towards the Lord, reeeivemore of light and less of heat. The result of thisis that the heavens, whieh are formed of angels,are divided into two kingdoms, one ealled celestial, S9
    • ror-r03J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthe other spiritual. The celestial angels receivemore of heat, and the spiritual angels more oflight. The eatths also, on which they dweIl,assüme an appearance according to the degree ofheat and light received by them. If this change ofstate of the angels is substituted for the motionof the earth, the correspondence is perfecto roz. AIl spiritual things owing their origin to theheat and light of their Sun make one similarlywhen regarded in themselves, but they do not makeone if looked at as coming forth from the affectionsof angels. This will be seen later. When heat andlight make one in the heavens, it seemslike springto the angels: but not so united, it may seem likesummer, or maybe like winter; not the winter offrigid zones, but of the tropical regions: indeedthe evenly balanced reception of love and wisdomis the very angelic state; and, therefore, an angelis an angel of heaven in the measure that love andwisdom are united in him. It is the same withthe man of the Church, if love and wisdom, or,if you will, charity and faith, make one in him.THE SUN OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD ISSEEN AT A MIDDLE ALTITUDE, ANDAFAR OFF FROM THE ANGELS, JUST AS IS THE NATURAL SUN FROM MEN r03. The majority of people coming from theworld entertain the notion that God is " on high,"above the head, and that the Lord is among theangels in heaven. These ideas they hold, becauseGod is called in the Word, " Highest," and is saidto dweIl " on high "; and so they raise eyes and 60
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [r03-rOShands upwards when they pray and worship, notknowing that " highest " means the inmost. And,regarding the Lord, they think of Him only as ofanother man, sorne perhaps as of an angel; notknowing that the Lord is the Very and Only God,who rules the universe; who, if He were amongthe angels in heaven, could not have the universeunder His observation, guidance and direction;and further, that if He did not shine before theeyes of those in the spiritual world as a Sun, therecould be no light for the angels. For angels arespiritual beings, and, therefore, none but spirituallight accords with their essential nature. Thatheavenly light immeasurably transcends earthlylight will be seen later when treating of degrees. r04. But regarding the Sun, which gives lightand heat to the angels, it is seen from the earthsinhabited by them at an elevation of about fort y­five degrees, that is middle altitude; and it isseen also afar off just as the sun of the worldappears far off from men. That sun is seen con­stantly at this altitude and distance, nor does itmove. Consequently, the angels have no timesdivided into days and years, nor any advancefrom morning through mid-day towards eveningand into night; nor any progression of the yearfrom spring through summer towards autumn andinto win ter, but there is perpetuaI Iight andperpetuaI spring: and for this reason instead oftimes there are states, as was said above. lOS, The Sun of the spiritual world is visible atthe middle altitude especially for these reasons:(r) The heat and light going forth from that Sunare at their middle position, and thence at equalstrength, and thus rightly blended. For if the Sun 6r
    • ,105-107] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMwere higher, more heat than light would bereceived, and if lower, more light than heat; justas happens on earth when the sun is above orbelow the middle of the sky. When it is above,heat increases more than light, and when below,light increases more than heat; for light remainsthe same in summer and winter, but heat increasesor diminishes according to the degrees of the Sunsaltitude. (2) The Sun of the spiritual world is scenat a middle altitude above the angelic heaven,because there is thus a perpetuaI spring in aU theangelic heavens, whereby the angels are in astateof peace; for this state corresponds to spring timeon earth. (3) The angels are thus enabled to turntheir faces constantly towards the Lord. For atevery turn of their bodies, the angels have theEast, thus the Lord, before their faces. This ispeculiar to that world, and would not happen iftheir Sun were higher or lower, and least of aU ifdirectly above the head. 106. If the Sun of the spiritual world were not afar off from the angels, as the natural sun is from men, the angelic heaven, and hell under it, and our earthly globe under them, taken coUectively, would not be under the observation, guidance, omnipresence, omniscience, omnipotence, and providence of the Lord; comparatively as the sun of our world, unless it were as far off from the earth in which it appears, could not be present and potent by its heat and light in all lands, and socould not minister, as it were by deputy, for theSun of the spiritual world. 107. The chief essential is to understand, thatthere are two suns, one spiritual, the other natural ;the former for those in the spiritual world, and the 62
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [107. 108latter for those in the natural world. Unless thisbe known, one can understand nothing arightconcerning creation and man, which are to bediscussed. Effects may indeed be seen, but if thecauses are not seen together with them, the effectscan only appear obscurely.THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE SUN ANDANGELS IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD IS ANAPPEARANCE PROPORTIONED TO THEIRRECEPTION OF THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM roS. AIl the errors, which prevail among thewicked and the simple, spring from appearanceswhich have been confirmed. So long as appearancesremain appearances, they are apparent truths,according to which every one may think andspeak; but when accepted as actual verities,which is done when they are confirmed, thenapparent truths become falsities and errors. Forinstance: The appearance is, that the sun iscarried daily round the earth, and every yearadvances in its orbit. Any one may think andspeak according to this apparent truth, so long ashe does not confirm it; certainly he may say thatthe sun rises and sets, and thereby causes morning,noon, evening, and night; also that the sun isnow in this or that degree of its orbit or altitude,and in this way makes spring, summer, autumn,and winter. But when this appearance is confirmedas actual truth, he thinks and utters a falsity fromhis error. It is the same with countless otherappearances, not only in natural, civil, and moral,but also in spiritual matters. 63
    • r09, rra] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM r09. It is sirnilar with the distance of the Sunof the spiritual world, that Sun which is the firstemanation of the Divine Love and Wisdom.ActuaUy there is no distance, but there isan appearance of distance, regulated by thedegree of the angels reception of the DivineLove and Wisdom. That distances in thespiritual world are appearances may be seenfrom what has been shawn above, as in n. 7-9,that the Divine is not in space; and in n. 69-72,that the Divine without space fiUs ail spaces. Ifthere are no spaces, neither are there distances;or, put in another way, if the spaces are appearances,distances also are appearances, for distances are ofspace. rra. The Sun of the spiritual world appears at adistance from the angels, because they receiveDivine Love and Wisdom in the measure of heatand light sufficient ta their needs. For an angel,because created and finite, cannat receive theDivine in its first degree of heat and light, suchas is in the Sun, for he would be utterly destroyed.The Lord, therefore, is received by them in adegree of heat and light corresponding ta theirlove and wisdom. Ta give an example: An angelof the outermost heaven cannat ascend ta theangels of the third heaven. If he does ascend andenter their heaven, he faUs down as in a swoon,and his life struggles as if with death, because hehas Jove and wisdom in a lesser degree, and theheat of ms love and the light of his wisdom arein that same degree. What, then, would happen,were an angel ta ascend right up ta the Sun, andcome into its fire? On account of the differencesof reception of the Lord by angels, the heavens 64
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [IIO-II2also appear separate from one another. The highestheaven, which is caIled the third, appears abovethe second, and this above the nrst; not that theheavens stand apart, but that they appear to doso. The Lord, indeed, is present just as fuIly withthe angels of the outermost heaven as with thoseof the third. The cause of the appearance of distanceis in the subjects, the angels, not in the Lord. III. That this is so, can be perceived withdifficulty by the natural idea, because space entersinto it ; but it can be perceived by the spiritual idea,because there is no space in that ; this is the idea inwhich the angels are. Yet it is possible to perceivethis fact by a natural idea, that love and wisdom,or what is the same, the Lord who is Divine Loveand Wisdom, cannot go forth through spaces, butis in any one according to reception. That theLord is present witll aIl, He Himself teaches inMatthew xxviii. 20; and that He makes His abodewith those who love Him, John xiv. 23. II2. But this may be regarded as of higherwisdom, because it has been connrmed through theheavens and the angels; but yet it is the samewith men. Men, as to the interior things of theirminds, are warmed and illumined by the sameSun. They are warmed by its heat, and illuminedby its light, to the extent of their reception oflove and wisdom from the Lord. The differencebetween angels and men is that angels are underthat Sun only, but men are not only under it,but also under the natural sun; for the bodies ofmen cannot have being and remain in beingexcept under both suns; not so the bodies ofangels, which are spiritual. 65
    • II3, II4]ANGELS ARE IN THE LORD, AND THELORD IN THEM; AND BECAUSE ANGELSARE RECIPIENTS, THE LORD ALONE IS HEAVEN II3. Heaven is called "the dwelling-place ofGod," and also " the throne of God "; from thisit is believed that God lives there like a king inhis kingdom. But God, that is the Lord, is in theSun above the heavens, and is in the heavensthrough His presence in heat and light (as shownin the last two paragraphs). Although the Lordis in heaven in that way, still He is there as inHimself, for (as shown just above, n. roS-IIZ) thedistance between the Sun and heaven is notdistance, but appearance of distance. Since thatis so, it follows that the Lord Himself is in heaven,for He is in the love and wisdom of the angels ofheaven; and because He is in the love and wisdomof ail the angels, and angels constitute heaven, Heis in the whole heaven. II4. The Lord is not only in heaven, but alsois very Heaven, because love and wisdom makean angel, and these two are the Lords with angels ;hence it foilows, that the Lord is Heaven. Forangels are not angels from their inherent nature(proprium); that is just like mans, which is evil.The inherent nature of the angels is such, becauseail angels were once men, and that nature c1ingsto them from birth; it is only put aside; and tothe extent this is done, they receive love andwisdom, that is, the Lord in themselves. Any onemay see, if only he elevate his understandingsomewhat, that the Lord can only dweil with the 66
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM Irq, usangels in what is Ris own, that is, in Ris ownnature, which is Love and Wisdom, and certainlynot in that of the angels, which is evil. Renee, sofar as evil is put away, so far the Lord is in them,and so far they are angels. The angelic state itselfof heaven is Divine Love and Wisdom. When thisDivine is in the angels it is called " the angelic."From this, again, it is plain, that angels are angelsfrom the Lord, and not from themselves; andthus heaven also. US, The manner in which the Lord is in anangel, and an angel in the Lord, can only beunderstood if the nature of the union is known.The union is of the Lord with the angeI, and ofthe angel with the Lord. Tt is, therefore, reciprocal.On the angels side it is Iike this: the angel isconscious only that he is in love and wisdom fromhimself, just as a man is, and hence as if love andwisdom were his or his own. Unless he so perceived,there would be no union; thus the Lord wouldnot be in him, nor he in the Lord. l t is only possiblefor the Lord to be in any angel or man, if that one,in whom the Lord is with love and wisdom, hasthe sense and feeling of their being his own. In thisway the Lord is not only received, but, having beenreceived, is also held fast, and loved, too, in return.For which reason the angel becomes wise by thatunion, and he remains wise. Who can wish tolove the Lord and the neighbour, and who candesire to be wise, without the sense and feelingthat what he loves, learns, and assimilates, is hisown ? Who can retain that desire in himselfotherwise? If this were not so, the inflowing loveand wisdom would have no abiding-place, for theywould flow through, and not affect the being. Thus D 0
    • IlS, Il6] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMan angel would not be an ange!, nor would manbe man; on the contrary, he would be like some­thing inanimate. From these things it may beevident that reciprocation is necessary, if there ista be union. rr6. It shaH now be explained how it cornesabout, that an angel perceives and feels as his own,and thus receives and retains, what yet is not his(for as was said above, an angel is not an angelfrom anything of his own, but from those thingswhich he has from the Lord) The essence of thematter is this: every angel has freedom andrationality. These two faculties are given him tathe end that he may be capable of receiving loveand wisdom from the Lord. But neither freedomnor rationality is his; they are the Lords in him.Yet since these two are sa dosely united with hislife, sa dosely that they may be said ta be joinedon ta it, they appear ta be his very own. Fromthem he is able ta think, will, speak, and act ; andwhat he sa does appears as if it were done fromhimself. This makes the reciprocation, throughwhich the union is effected. But sa far as anangel believes that love and wisdom are in him,and sa arrogates them ta himself as his own, safar the Angelic is not in him, and he has no unionwith the Lord. For he is not in truth; and sincetruth makes one with the light of heaven, sa farhe cannat be in heaven. For by that daim hedenies that his life is from the Lord, and believesthat he lives from himself, and, therefore, that theDivine essence is his. The life, called angelic andhuman, depends on these two faculties of freedomand rationality. From these things it may beevident that the angel has reciprocation for the 68
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [II6-IISsake of union with the Lord, but that the recipro­cation, considered as to its own capability, is nothis, but the Lords. Henee, if he makes a wronguse of this reciprocation, which enables him toperceive and feel what is the Lords as his own,he fails from the angelic state. That the union isreciprocal, the Lord Himself teaehes, in John xiv.20-24; xv. 4-6; and that the union of the Lordwith man, and of man with the Lord, is in thosethings which are the Lords, and are called Hiswords, John xv. J. IIJ. Some people imagine that Adam was insuch a state of liberty or free-will, that he couldlove God and be wise from himself, and that thisfree-will was lost in his posterity. But this is anerror: for man is not Life, but a recipient of life(see n. 4-6, 54-60); and he who reeeives life cannotlove and be wise from anything of his own. Forwhich reason also Adam, desirous of being wiseand loving from himself, fell from wisdom andlove, and was cast out of Paradise. IIS. What has just been said of the angel,applies in the same way to heaven, which consistsof angels, since the Divine is the same in greatestand least things (see n. 77-S2). It is equally trueof man and the Church; for an angel of heavenand a man of the Chureh by union act as one;moreover, a man of the Church is an angel in respectto the interior things of his mind. A man of theChurch means a man in whom the Church is. 69
    • IIg, 120]IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD THE EASTIS WHERE THE LORD APPEARS ASTHE SUN, AND OTHER QUARTERS ARE DETERMINED THEREFROM IIg. The Sun of the spiritual world and itsessence, its heat and light, and the Lords presencefrom it, have been discussed. Now also the quartersof that world wiU be described. We treat of thatSun and that world because we are treating ofGod, and of love and wisdom; and to do sootherwise than from their very origin, wouId beto treat from effects, not causes. Yet effectsdisclose only effects, and when they only areinvestigated reveal no cause. But causes revealeffects, and the knowledge so acquired is wisdom ;but seeking causes from effects is not to be wise,because errors then present themselves, which theinvestigator caUs causes, and this is to turn wisdominto folly. For causes are the first things andeffects are ensuing things; and first things cannotbe seen from those which ensue, but ensuing thingscan be seen fror:n first things. This is order. Thisis why the spiritual world is discussed first, for aUthe causes are there; and later, the naturalworld, where ail things visible are effects. 120. Here now we speak of the quarters in thespiritual world. The quarters there are like thosein the natural world, but spiritual, just as thatworld itself is; whereas those of the natural world,like that world itself, are natura1. They differ somuch as to have nothing in common. Both worldshave four quarters, east, west, south, and north.In the natural world these four quarters are 70
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [120-122constant, fixed by the sun in meridian; opposedto it is the north, on one side the east, and onlhe other the west. These quarters are determinedby the meridian of each place, for the suns stationin meridian anywhere is always the same, and,therefore, fixed. In the spiritual world it is different.The quarters there are determined by the Sunthere, which appears constant in its place, and thatplace is the east. For which reason the determina­tion of the quarters of that world is not, as in thenatural world, fram the south, but is fram theeast, with the west opposite, and the south andnorth on either side. But, as will be seen later,those quarters are not fram the Sun there, butfram the inhabitants of that world, who are angelsand spirits. 121. Now since those quarters are spiritual, byvirtue of their origin from the Lord as a Sun,therefore, the dweIlings of angels and spirits,which aIl conform to those quarters, are alsospiritual; and they are spiritual because they havetheir homes according to reception of love andwisdom fram the Lord. Those most loving dwellin the east, and those in a.lower degree of love inthe west; the most wise dwell in the south, andthose in a lower degree of wisdom in the north.It is from this, that in the Word, in the highestsense, by "the east" is meant the Lord, and,individuaIly, love towards Him; by" the west" ismeant love to Him of less intensity; by "the south"is meant wisdom in light ; by" the north " is meantwisdom in shade; or similar things relative to thestate of whoever is concerned. 122. Since the east is the point from which aIlthe quarters in the spiritual world are determined, 71
    • 122-124J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMand by the east, in the highest sense, is meant theLord and also the Divine Love, it is clear that thesource, from which aH things exist, is the Lord andlove to Him; and, that so far as one is not inlove, just so far he is moved away from Him, andfinds a home in the west, south, or north, at adistance according to the reception of love. 123. Since the Lord as a Sun is constantly in theeast, the ancients, with whom aU things of worshipwere representative of spiritual things, in theirdevotions turned their faces towards the east;and that they might do the same in aU worship,made their temples to turn in that direction.From this it is that churches, to this day, arealso similarly constructed.THE QUARTERS IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLDARE NOT FROM THE LORD AS A SUN,BUT FROM THE ANGELS ACCORDING TO RECEPTION 124. It was said thaf angels dweU separately inthe eastern, western, southern, and northernquarters, respectively; and that they who dweU inthe eastern quarter are in a higher degree of love;those in the western, in a lesser degree of love; thosein the southern in the light of wisdom; and thosein the northern in the shade of wisdom. Thisdiversity of dweUing-places seems as if it were fromthe Lord, as the Sun, when, nevertheless, it is fromthe angels. The Lord is not in a greater or lesserdegree of love and wisdom, nor, as the Sun, in agreater and lesser degree of heat and light with one 72
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [124, 125than with another, for He is everywhere the same ;but, He is not received in the same degree by one asby another. This is what makes them appear tathemselves ta be more or IEsS distant from oneanother, and also different according ta the quarters.From which it follows, that quarters in the spiritualworld are nothing else than the various receptionsof love and wisdom, and thence of heat and lightfrom the Lord as a Sun. That this is sa is c1earfrom what was indicated above (n. 10S-II2), thatdistances in the spiritual world are appearances. 125. Since quarters are the varying receptionsby the angels of love and wisdom, something shallbe said of the diversity from which the appearancesprings. The Lord is in an angel and an angel inthe Lord, as was shawn in a preceding chapter ;but, because there is an appearance as if the Lordas a Sun were outside him, there is also the appear-ance that the Lord sees him out of the Sun, andthat he sees the Lord in the Sun, which is almostlike the reflection in a mirror. Wherefore if onewere ta speak from that appearance, the facts are:that the Lord sees and looks at each one face taface, but the angels on the contrary do not thusbehold the Lord. Those who are in love ta theLord from the Lord see Him straight before them,and, therefore, abide in the east and west; butthose who are more in wisdom see Him at an angleta the right, and those less in wisdom at an angleta the left, and dwell respectively in the southand north. Theil vision is inc1ined for the reasonwhich has been stated above, namely, that thelove and wisdom, going forth from the Lord asone, are not received by these angels as one; andwisdom, which abounds avel love, may appear ta 73
    • 125-127J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMbe wisdom, but yet is not, because there is no lifefrom love in that superabundance. From thesethings it is clear whence cornes the· diversity ofreception, in exact proportion to which the angelsdweUings appear according to the quarters in thespiritual world. 126. That diverse reception of love and wisdomdeterrnines the quarter in the spiritual world, maybe seen from this fact, that an angel changes hisquarter according to the increase and decrease oflove with him; from which it is clear, that thequarter is not from the Lord as a Sun, but fromthe angel according to reception. I t is the samewith man in regard to his spirit. He, as to hisspirit, is in sorne quarter of the spiritual world,whatever quarter of the natural world he may bein; for, as was said above, the quarters of thespiritual world have nothing in common with thoseof the natural world. In these man dweUs as tohis body, but as to his spirit in those of thespiritual world. 127. To the end that love and wisdom maybecome one in angel and in man, there are pairsin aU the parts of his body. Eyes, ears, andnostrils, hands, loins, and feet, aU are pairs; thebrain is divided into two hemispheres, the heartinto two chambers, the lungs into two lobes, andso with the rest. Thus there is in angel. and mana right and a left; and aU their right parts referto love from which cornes wisdom, and all theleft parts to wisdom springing from love; or, whatis the same, aU right parts to good from whichtruth cornes, and aU left parts to truth springingfrom good. Angels and men possess these pairs, 74
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [127-129sa that love and wisdom, or good and truth, mayact as one, and as one, may have regard ta theLord. But more concerning this matter later. 128. Thus it may be .seen in what error andresultant untruth are those, who imagine that theLord at will imparts heaven, or at will permitsone man ta become more wise and loving thananother; when yet the Lord is equalIy desirousthat the one and the other may become wise andbe saved. Indeed he provides the means for aILJust as each one receives them and lives inaccordance with them, sa he becomes wise and issaved. For the Lord is the same with one as withanother; but the recipient angels and men areunlike from their differing reception and life. Thetruth of this may be evident from what has justbeen said concerning the quarters, and of theangels corresponding abodes ; namely, that thatdiversity is not from the Lord, but from therecipients.ANGELS TURN THEIR FACES CONSTANTLYTOWARDS THE LORD AS A SUN, ANDTHUS THE SOUTH IS TO THEIR RIGHT,THE NORTH TO THEIR LEFT, AND THE WEST BEHIND THEM 129. AlI that is here said of angels and of theirturning towards the Lord as a Sun, is ta beunderstood also of man regarding his spirit. Forman, in respect ta his mind, is a spirit, and, ifin love and wisdom, is an angel; for this reason,also, after death when he lays aside his external D* 75
    • 129, 130J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthings, which he had acquired from the naturalworld, he becomes a spirit, or ange!. Since the facesof the angels are ever turned towards the east, thustowards the Lord, it is said also of the man, who is inlove and wisdom from the Lord, that he " sees God,"he " looks to the Lord, ~ he " has God before hiseyes," meaning that he is living just as an angeldoes. Such expressions are used in the world,because such things actually exist, both in heavenand in the spirit of man. Does not any man,when praying, look before him to God, no matterto what quarter his face is turned ? 130. Angels ever turn their faces to the Lordas a Sun, because they are in the Lord and theLord in them; and the Lord interiorly leads theiraffections and thoughts, and always directs themtowards Himself; hence they cannot do otherwisethan look towards the east, where the Lord as aSun appears. Tt is evident, then, that angels donot turn of themselves to the Lord, but that Heturns them to Him; for when angels thinkinteriorly about the Lord, they think of Him onlyas in themselves. Tt is not interior thought itselfwhich produces distance, but exterior thought, inunion with the sight of the eyes. The reason is,that exterior thought is in space, but not interior ;and when not in space, as in the spiritual world,is still in the appearanee of spaee. But thesethings are hardly intelligible to the man whothinks about God from spaee. For God is every­where, yet not in spaee; thus both within andwithout an ange!. Henee an angel can see God,that is, the Lord, both within himself and outsidehimself; within, when he thinks from love andwisdom, and without himself, when he thinks 76
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WrSDOM [130-132about love and wisdom. But these matters will bediscussed in detail in the treatises on the DivineOmnipresence, Omniscience, and Omnipotence.Let every man beware of that detestable heresy,that God has infused Himself into men, and is inthem, and no longer in Himself; when yet Godis everywhere, as weIl within man as without him;for apart from space, He is in aIl space (seen. 7-10, 69-72). For, if He were in man, Hewould be not only divisible, but also confined inspace; yea, man might then even consider himselfto be God. So abominable is this heresy, that, inthe spiritual world, it stinks like a corpse. 131. The angels turning to the Lord has thisspecial feature, that they behold the Lord as aSun in front of them at every turn of their bodies.An angel may turn round and round, observing aIlmanner of things about him, yet still the Lord asa Sun ever appears before his face. Wonderful asthis may seem, it is yet the truth. To me, alsoit has been granted thus to see the Lord as a Sun;l see Him before my face; and for several yearshave so seen Him, to whatever quarter of theworld l had turned. 132. Since the Lord as a Sun is, therefore, theeast, facing aIl the angels of heaven, it follows thatthe south is to their right, the north to their left,and the west behind them, and so also with everyturn of the body. For, as was said before, aIlquarters in the spiritual world are determined fromthe east; therefore, those who have the east beforetheir eyes are in those very quarters, yea, are them­selves the conclusions of them; for, as shown aboven. 124-128, the quarters are not from the Lord asa Sun, but from the angels according to reception. 77
    • 133-135] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM 133. Now since heaven is composed of angels,and angels are of such a nature, it follows thatthe universal heaven tums itself towards the Lord,and, through that tuming, is ruled as one Man bythe Lord, as indeed it is in His sight. That heavenin the Lords sight is as one Man may be seen inthe work on Heaven and HeU, n. 59-87. From thatalso are the quarters of heaven. 134. Since the quarters are thus, as it were,impressed upon the angel, as weU as on the universalheaven, an ange} knows his own house and placeof abode, unlike a man in the world, wherever hegoes. Man has not this sense, because he thinksfrom space, thus from the quarters of the naturalworld, which have nothing in common with thoseof the spiritual world. But birds and beasts havesuch knowledge, for it is implanted in them toknow of themselves their homes and dweUing­places, as is weU known from abundant experience ;a proof that such is the case in the spiritual world ;for all things which exist in the natural world areeffects, and aU things which exist in the spiritualworld are the causes of those effects. No naturalthing exists which does not derive its cause fromthe spiritual.ALL INTERIOR THINGS OF THE ANGELS,BOTH OF MI ND AND BODY, ARE TURNED TOWARDS THE LORD AS A SUN 135. Angels have understanding and will, andthey have a face and body. They have also interiorthings of the understariding and will, as weIl as of 78
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [I35, I36the face and body. The interior things of theunderstanding and will pertain to their interioraffection and thought; the interiors of the faceare the brains; and the interiors of the body arethe viscera, the chief of which are the heart andlungs. Briefiy, angels have every single thing thatmen on earth have; and from these things it is,that angels are men. The external form withoutthose internaI things does not make them men, butthe external form, together with them, nay rather,from them, does; otherwise they would only belifeless images, of a man, because no living formwas within. I36. It is well known, that the will and under­standing govern the body at their pleasure, forwhat the understanding thinks the mouth speaks,and what the will desires, the body does. It isplain, therefore, that the body is a form corre­sponding to the understanding and will; and sinceform is also predicated of understanding and will,it is plain that the form of the body correspondsto the form of the understanding and will; butthis is not the place to describe how the two formsare constituted. Furthermore, there are in bothforms things innumerable, which act, from the oneside and the other, as one, because they mutuallycorrespond. Hence the mind, or the will andunderstanding, mles the body at pleasure, abso­lutely, as if it were its very self. The result is,that the interior things of the mind act in unisonwith the interior things of the body, and theirrespective exterior things likewise. We shall speakfurther on of the interiors of the mind, beforetreating of the degrees of life; likewise at the sametime, of the interiors of the body. 79
    • I37, I38] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM I37. Since the interiors of the mind make onewith the interiors of the body, it follows thatwhen the former are turned to the Lord as a Sun,the interiors of the body are also turned in likemanner; and because the exteriors of both, as weIlof mind as of body, depend upon their interiors,they too, are similarly turned. Indeed, the actionof the external cornes from the internaIs, for thegeneral derives its aIl from the parts of which itis composed. From these things it is plain thatbecause an angel turns face and body towards theLord as a Sun, aIl the interiors of his mind andbody are turned thither also. So it is with man.If he has the Lord ever before his eyes, which isthe case if he is in love and wisdom, then he looksto the Lord, not only with eyes and face, but alsowith the whole mind and heart, that is, with aIlthe things of the will and understanding, togetherwith aIl things of the body. I3S. This turning to the Lord is an actualturning. Tt is a certain elevation: one is raised,indeed, into the heat and light of heaven, which iseffected by the opening of the interiors. Whenthese are opened, love and wisdom flow into theinteriors of the mind, and the heat and light ofheaven into the interiors of the body; hence anuplifting, as from a cloud, into clear air, orfrom air into the ether. Love and wisdom, withtheir heat and light, are the Lord with man, Hewho, as mentioned above, turns that man towardshimself. I t is the reverse with those who are notin love and wisdom, especially with those opposedto love and wisdom. Their interiors, both of mindand body, are closed, and when closed, the exteriorsreact against the Lord, for such is their inherent So
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [I38-140nature. Hence it is that they turn their back onthe Lord; and turning ones back on the Lord isturning to hell. I39. This actual turning towards the Lord isfrom love and wisdom together, and neither fromlove alone, nor from wisdom alone. Love alone islike Being without Existence, for love has existencein wisdom; and wisdom without love is likeExistence without its Being, for wisdom hasexistence from love. Love is indeed possible withoutwisdom, but this is mans love and not the Lords ;and wisdom, too, is possible without love, and thiswisdom is indeed from the Lord, yet the Lord isnot in it; for it is like light in winter, whichcertainly cornes from the sun, but yet lacks thesuns essence, heat.EVERY SPIRIT, WITHOUT EXCEPTION, INLIKE MANNER TURNS TOWARDS HIS OWN RULING LOVE 140. First we will explain what a spirit is andwhat an angel. Every man after death cornes fustinto the world of spirits, which is midway betweenheaven and hell, and there goes through his times,or states, and, according to his life, is made readyeither for heaven or hell. So long as he stays inthat world he is called a spirit. He who has beenraised from that world into heaven is called anangel; but he who has been cast down into hellis called a satan or devil. During their stay in theworld of spirits, he who is being prepared forheaven is called an angelic spirit, and he who is 8I
    • I40-I4Z] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMbeing prepared for hell, an infernal spirit; mean­while the former is united with heaven, and thelatter with hello AlI spirits, in the world of spirits,are attached ta men, because men, as ta theinteriors of their minds, are in a similar positionbetween heaven and hell, and through those spiritsare in connection either with heaven or hell,according ta their life. It must be borne in mindthat the world of spirits is one thing, and thespiritual world quite another. The world of spiritsis that of which we have just spoken; but thespiritual world, in the complex whole, is the worldof spirits and heaven and hello I4I. Something shall also be said about loves,because it has ta do with the turning by theirloves of angels and spirits towards their loves.The universal heaven is divided into societiesaccording ta all the diversities of loves; sa withhell and with the world of spirits. But heavenis thus divided according ta the differences ofheavenly loves; hell, according ta the varieties ofinfernal loves; and the world of spirits even,according ta the differences of loves, bath heavenlyand infernal. There are two loves which are theheads over all the rest, or ta which all other lovesrefer. The principal love, or that ta which aUheavenly loves relate, is love ta the Lord; and theprincipal love ta which aU infernal loves relate,is the love of ruling from self-love. These twoloves are diametrically opposed ta one another. I4z. Since these two loves, love ta the Lord andthe love of ruling from self-love, are absolutelyopposed ta each other, and since all who are inlove ta the Lord turn themselves ta Him as a Sun 8z
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [142-144(as shown in the preceding chapter) it may beevident that all who are in the love of ruling fromself-love turn their backs to the Lord. Thus theyturn in opposite directions, because those who arein love to the Lord love nothing more than to beled byHim, and wish to be ruled by Him alone ;but those who are in the love of ruling from self-love, love nothing more than to be led by them-selves, and will that they themselves alone mayrule. This is called the love of ruling from self-lovebecause there is a love of ruling from the desire toperform uses, which is a spiritual love, because itis one with love towards the neighbour. But reallythis cannot be called the love of ruling, but the loveof performing uses. 143. Every spirit without exception, turns to-wards his ruling love, because love is the life ofevery one (see Part l, Nos. 1-3); and life turnsits receptades, called members, organs, and viscera,thus the whole man, towards that society which isis in a similar love to itself, thus where its ownlove is. 144. Since the love of ruling from self-love isutterly opposed to love to the Lord, the spiritswho are in that love turn in the reverse directionfrom the Lord. Thence they look to the west ofthe world of spirits, and, because of this contraryturn of the body, have behind them the east, to theirright the north, and to their left the south. Theeast is behind them because they hate the Lord;the north is to their right because they love errorsand falsities therefrom; and the south is to theirleft because they scorn the light of wisdom. Theymay turn round and about, yet everything they seearound them appears of a nature corresponding to 83
    • 144-146J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMtheir love. They are aIl natural sensual spirits;and sorne are such as imagine they alone live,regarding others as so many phantoms. Theybelieve themselves to be wise above aIl others,notwithstanding that they are insane. 145. In the spiritual world roads are seen, pavedlike roads in the natural world; sorne lead toheaven, others to hello But the roads leading tohell are invisible to those passing to heaven, nordo the roads to heaven appear to those on theway to hello There are countless ways of thiskind, branching off to every society of heaven andhello Each spirit takes the road which leads to thesociety of his own love. He cannot see roads tend­ing in any other direction. From this it is, thatevery spirit, as he turns towards his ruling love,also moves forward.THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM EMANAT­ING FROM THE LORD AS A SUN, ANDGIVING HEAT AND LIGHT IN HEAVEN,ARE THE DIVINE PROCEEDING, WHICH IS THE HOL y SPIRIT 146. 1t has been shown, in THE DOCTRINE OFTHE NEW ]ERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD, thatGod is One in Person and in Essence, in Whom isa trinity, and that that God is the Lord; thenthat His Trinity is called Father, Son, and HolySpirit, and that the Divine from God is called theFather; the Divine Human, the Son; and theDivine Proceeding, the Holy Spirit. It is saidDivine Proceeding, yet no one knows how it cornes 84
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [146, 147to be caUed "Proceeding." It is not known,because up to this time it has been unknown thatthe Lord appears as a Sun before the angels, andthat from that Sun issues heat, which in itsessence is Divine Love, and at the same time light,which in its essence is Divine Wisdom. So long asthese things were unknown, it could not be under­stood otherwise than that the Divine Proceedingwas the Divine in itself ; for which reason it is stated,in the Athanasian doctrine of the Trinity, that oneperson is of the Father, another of the Son, andanother of the Holy Spirit. Now, on the other hand,when it is known that the Lord appears as a Sun,it is possible to form a correct idea of the DivineProceeding which is caUed the Holy Spirit, viz.that it is one with the Lord, but proceeds from Himjust as heat and light do from the sun. This alsois the reason that angels enjoy the Divine heat andlight just 50 far as they are in love and wisdom.Apart from the knowledge that the Lord appearsin the spiritual world as a Sun, no one can everknow what is meant by " proceeding," for instance,whether it merely imparts those things which areof the Father and the Son, or merely enlightensand teaches. Still it is not the part of enlightenedreason to recognize it as the Divine in itself, andcaU it God, and thus make a division, since itis weil known that God is one and omnipresent. 147. It was shown above that God is not inspace, and by reason thereof, He is omnipresent;also that the Divine is the same everywhere, butthat His seeming variation is in angels and menfrom difference of reception. Now, since the Divineproceeding from the Lord as a Sun is in light andheat, and light and heat flow first into universal 85
    • 147-149] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMrecipients, which in the world are called atmo­spheres, and these are the recipients of c1ouds, itmay be seen that as the interiors, which pertainto the understanding of man and angel, are veiledaround with such c1ouds, so is he a receptac1e ofthe Divine proceeding. By clouds are meantspiritual clouds, which are thoughts. If these comefrom truths, they harmonise with Divine Wisdom,but are discordant if they come from falsities.Wherefore also, when thoughts from truths arerepresented to sight in the spiritual world, theyappear as clouds of a dazzling white, and thoughtsfrom falsities as black clouds. From these thingsone may see that the Divine is indeed in every man,but is veiled by each one in varying degree. 148. Since the Divine itself is present in angeland man by spiritual heat and light, it is said ofthose who are in the truths of Divine Wisdom andin the goods of Divine Love that they glow withlove to God when they are affected by these, andfrom affection they think from them concerningthem. Sometimes, also, this is perceived and feU,as when a preacher speaks from zeal. Thesesame are also said to be enlightened by Godbecause the Lord, by Ris Divine proceeding, notonly kindles the will with spiritual heat, but alsoenlightens the understanding with spiritual light. 149. That the Roly Spirit is the same as theLord and is Truth itself, from which man hasenlightenment, is plain from these passages in theWord: Jesus said, When the spirit of truth is come, he will guide you into all tntth; he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall have heard, that shall he speak" (John xvi. 13). 86
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [I49-ISI He shall glorify Me; for he shall rece~ve of Mine, and shall show it ~mto you (John xvi. I4, I5).. That he will be UJith the disciples and in them (John [xiv. I7]; xv. 26). Jesus said, The words that 1 speak unto you, they are spirit and they are life (John vi. 63).It is clear fron these passages that truth itself,which proceeds from the Lord, is called the HolySpirit. It enlightens because it is in light. ISO, The enlightenment, ascribed ta the HolySpirit, man has indeed from the Lord, but it iseffected by means of angels and spirits. The natureof that mediation, however, cannat as yet be ex­plained; only tbat angels and spirits cannatenlighten man in any way from tbemselves, sincethey are enlightened in a similar way ta man, bythe Lord. Because they are sa enlightened, itfollows that all enlightenment is from the Lordalone. That angels or spirits are the means em­ployed is because the man, when illumined, is thenput in the midst of such angels and spirits asrcceive enlightenment from the Lord more thanothers.THE LORD CREATED THE UNI VERSE ANDALL THINGS THEREOF BY MEANS OF THESUN, WHICH IS THE FIRST PROCEEDING OF THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM ISr. By the Lord is meant Gad from eternity,or Jehovah, who is called Father and Creatorbecause He is one with Him, as has been shawnin THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM 87
    • 151-153] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMCONCERNING THE LORD: wherefore, in the follow­ing pages, where aiso Creation is discussed, He iscalled the Lord. 152. In Part l (particularly in Nos. 52 and 53) itwas fully demonstrated that all things in theUniverse were created by Divine Love and Wisdom.Here, now, it will be shown that it was by meansof the Sun, which is the first proceeding of DivineLove and vVisdom. No man who can discerneffects from causes, and afterwards from causes,the effects in their order and series, can really denythat the sun is the first of creation. For all thingsin the suns world subsist from it; and becausethey subsist from it, they also came forth from it ;the one fact infers and proves the other. For allthings are under its view, since it set them in orderthat they may exist, and besides, " holding themunder its view" means arranging continually,wherefore also it is said " Subsistence is perpetuaIexistence." Moreover, if anything were to bewithdrawn entirely from the suns influx throughthe atmospheres, that thing wouid instantly bedissipated; for the atmospheres, which are purerand purer, and are rendered active in power by thesun, preserve aIl things in connection. Now sincethe subsistence of the Universe, and all thingsthereof, is from the sun, it is clear that the firstthing of creation is the sun, from which (everythingexists). Creation is said to be by the sun, but themeaning is, by the Lord through the sun, for thesun also was created by the Lord. 153. There are two suns, through which allthings have been created by the Lord, the Sun ofthe spiritual world and the sun of the naturai 88
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [I53-I55world. The Lord created aIl things through the Sunof the spiritual world, but not through the sun ofthe natural world, for the latter sun is far below theformer. It is in the middle distance, with thespiritual world above and the natural world below.The sun of the natural world was created to renderaid as a deputy. Of this aid more in what follows. I54. The universe and aIl things thereof werecreated by the Lord, the Sun of the spiritual worldbeing the means, because that Sun is the firstproceeding of Divine Love and Wisdom, and fromDivine Love and Wisdom aIl things exist. (SeeNos. 52-82.) In every created thing, greatest asweIl as least, there are three properties, the end,the cause, and the effect. A created thing withoutthese three is impossible. This is the order of theirexistence in the greatest thing-the universe; theend of aIl things is in the Sun, which is the firstproceeding of Divine Love and Visdom; thecauses of ail things are in the spiritual world; andthe effects of aIl things are in the natural world.Just how these three properties are in first thingsand last things will be explained later. Now,because a created thing without these three pro­perties is impossible, it follows that the universeand aIl things thereof were created by the Lordthrough the Sun, in which is the end of aIl things. I55. Creation itself cannot be brought withinthe scope of the understanding unless space andtime are removed from the thought; but if theseare set aside, it may be understood. Remove themif you can, or as much as you can, and maintainthe mind in an idea withdrawn from space andtirne, and you will perceive that maximum of space 89
    • 155, 156] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMand minimum of space differ nothing ; and then yonare bound ta entertain the same idea concerningthe creation of the universe as of the creation ofits individual parts; and that variety in thingscreated arises from this fact, that there are infinitethings in Gad-Man, and thence indefinite thingsin the Sun which is the first proceeding from Him,and these limitless things are presented in thecreated universe as in an image. From this it isthat no one thing can anywhere be precisely likeanother. From this cornes that variety of aIlthings which is presented ta the sight in the naturalworld together with space, and in the spiritualworld in the appearance of space; and it is avariety bath of generals and of particulars. Theseare the things which have been shawn in Part I. Nos. 17-22. In Gad-Man infinite things are distinctly one. Nos. 52-53. AU things in the universe have .been created by the Divine Love and Wisdom. Nos. 55-60. AU things in the created universe are recipients of the Divine Love and Wisdom of Gad-Man. Nos. 7-10. The Divine is not in space. Nos. 69-72. The Divine fills ail spaces, apart from space. Nos. 77--82. The Divine in greatest and least things is the same. 156. The creation of the universe and all thingsthereof cannat be said ta have been effected fromspace ta space, nor from time ta time, thus pro­gressively and successively, but from Eternity andfrom Infinity; not from eternity of time becausethis is impossible, but from Eternity not of time,for this is the same with the Divine; nor from 90
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [156, 157infinity of space, because this is impossible, butfrom 1nfinity not of space, which also is the samewith the Divine. These things, l know, transcendthe ideas of thoughts in the light of nature, butthey do not transcend such ideas in spirituallight,for these have nothing of space and time in them :nay, neither do they wholly transcend ideas thatare in natural light; for when it is said thatinfinity of space is impossible, every one fromreason assents; it is the same with eternity, forthis is infinity of time. If" ta eternity " be spokenof, this can be understood from time; but not" from eternity," unless time be set aside.THE SUN OF THE NATURAL WORLD 1SPURE F1RE, AND THEREFORE DEAD;NATURE ALSO 1S DEAD, BECAUSE IT OR1G1NATES FROM THAT SUN 157. Creation itself cannat be attributed in theslightest degree ta the sun of the natural world, butwholly ta the Sun of the spiritual world; since thenatural sun is altogether dead, but the SpiritualSun is living; for it is the first proceeding ofDivine Love and Tisdom; and what is dead doesnothing of itself, but is acted upon: wherefore taattribute anything of creation ta it would be likeascribing the work of a craftsman ta the tool whichis moved by his hands. The sun of the naturalworld is pure fire from which everything of life hasbeen withdrawn; but the Sun of the Spiritualworld is fire which has within it Divine Life. Theidea held by the angels concerning these two firesis, that the Divine Life is within, in the fire of the 91
    • I57-I60J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMSun of the spiritual world, but is without, in thefire of the sun of the natural world. From this itmay. be seen that the motive power of the naturalsun does not come from itself, but from the livingforce proceeding from the Sun of the spiritualworld; wherefore, if that Suns vital force werewithheld or withdrawn, the natural sun wouldcoUapse. Rence it is that sun-worship is thelowest of aU the forms of worship of God, for it isabsolutely dead, like that sun, and therefore in theWord is caUed " the abomination." I58. Since the sun of the natural world is purefire, and on that account dead, the heat and lightproceeding from it are also dead: equaily deadare the atmospheres, caUed ether and air, whichreceive in their bosom and carry down the heat andlight of that sun. Since these are dead, so are eachand ail things of the earth which lie beneath themand are cailed lands. Yet each and aU of thesethings are ericompassed by spiritual things, whichcome forth and issue from the Sun of the spiritualworld. Unless they were so encompassed, theearths could not be impelled to produce for ms ofuses, which are plants, nor forms of life, which areanimaIs; nor to provide materials for the existenceand subsistence of man. I59. Now because nature begins from this sun,and ail that which exists and subsists from it iscailed natural, it follows that nature, with eachand aIl of its parts, is dead. That nature appearsas if alive in man and beast, is on account of thelife which attends and impels it. I60. Since the lowest parts of nature, formingthe earths, are dead, and do not change and vary 92
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [160-162according to the states of the affections andthoughts, as in the spiritual world, but are im-mutable and fixed, there are spaces and spatialdistances in the natural world. There are suchthings because creation ceased there, and remainsin its repose. Rence it is plain that spaces arepeculiar to nature; and because spaces there arenot, as in the spiritual world, appearances of spacesaccording to states of life, they too may be caHeddead. 161. Since times are fixed and constant in likemanner, they also are peculiar to nature; for thelength of a day is always twenty-four hours, and ofa year always three hundred and sixty-five and aquarter days. The very alternations of light andshade, heat and cold, also return regularly. Thestates returning daily are morning, noon, eveningand night; those recurring yearly are spring,summer, autumn and winter. Moreover the annuaIstates modify the daily states regularly. AH thesestates are likewise dead, because they are notstates of life as in the spiritual world where heatand light are continuous. The light corresponds tothe state of wisdom, and heat to the state of lovewith the angels, which states therefore are living. 162. From these things may be seen the foolish-ness of those who attribute aH things to nature.Those who have confirmed themselves in favour ofnature have brought themselves into such astatethat thcy no longer desire to raise the mind abovenature; whence it results that the mind is closedupwards and opened below. Man thus becomesnatural-sensual, which is spiritually dead; andbecause then he thinks only from such ideas as he 93
    • 162, 163] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMhad imbibed from the bodily senses, or throughthose senses from the wor/d, in his heart he evendenies God. Then because the union with heavenis broken, conjunction with hell ensues, the powerof thinking and willing alone remaining. Thefaculty of thinking from rationality and of willingfrom freedom are the two faculties which everyman receives from the Lord, nor are they evertaken away. These two faculties are equally theheritage of devils and angels; but devils applythem to insane thinking and evil doing; and angelsto becoming wise and doing good.CREATION IS NOT POSSIBLE WITHOUTIWO SUNS, THE ONE LIVING AND THE OTHER DEAD. 163. The universe in general is divided into twoworlds, the spiritual and the natura1. Angels andspirits inhabit the spiritual wor/d; men thenatural. These two wor/ds are absolutely alike inexternal appearance, so alike that they cannot bedistinguished, but they are utter/y unlike in theirinternaI appearance. The men themselves whodwell in the spiritual wor/d and who, aS was saidbefore, are called angels and spirits, are spiritual ;and because they are spiritual, think and speakspiritually. But men in the natural world arenatural, and therefore think and speak naturally ;and spiritual thought and speech have nothing incommon with the natura1. From this it is plainthat these two wor/ds, spiritual and natural, areabsolutcly distinct from each other, so much sothat they cannot be in any way together. 94
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [164-166 164. Now since these two worlds are so separated,two suns are essential, one from which aU spiritualthings exist, and the other from which aU naturalthings exist. And since aU spiritual things, in theirorigin, are living, and aU natural, in origin, are dead,and suns are the origins, it foUows that one Sun isliving and the other dead: and also that the deadsun "itself is created by the Lord through the livingSun. 165. A dead sun was created for this purpose,that in outermost things everything may be fixed,settled, and constant, and thence, that there mayexist forms which are perennial and enduring. Inthis and no other way was the basis of creationlaid. The terraqueous globe, in which, upon which,and around which, such things exist is, as it were,the base and support wherein aU things terminateand upon which they rest, for it is the last work.Tt may also be compared to a matrix out of whicheffects are produced, which are the ends of creation.This will be discussed later. 166. That aU things were created by the Lordthrough the living Sun and nothing through thedead sun, may be evident from this, that what isliving disposes what is dead in submission to itself,and shapes it for the uses which are its ends; butnot the contrary. 10 imagine that al! things existfrom nature and that Iife even cornes from natureis possible only to one bereft of reason, who knmvsnot what life is. Nature cannot dispose of life inregard to anything, for in herself nature is abso­lutely inert. For what is dead to set in motionthe living. or dead force to move living force, or whatis the same, for the natural to act upon the spiritual, 95
    • 166,167] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMis entirely contrary to order, and therefore to thinkso is opposed to the light of sound reason. Whatis dead, or natural, may indeed be completelyturned or changed in many ways by externalevents, yet it cannot ad upon life; but life doesact within it according to the change of forminduced. Tt is the same with physical influx .intothe spiritual operations of the soul; which it isknown does not occur because it is impossible.THE END OF CREATION EXISTS INOUTERMOSTS, WHICH END IS, THAT ALLTHINGS MAY RETURN TO THE CREATORAND THAT THERE MAY BE CON]UNCTION. 1:67. In the first place something shaH be saidabout "ends." There are three which follow inorder and are called first end, middle end, and lastend. They are also called end, cause, and effect.These three must be together in everything, sothat it may be anything; for a first end withouta middle end and at the same time a last end isimpossible; or what is the same, an end by itselfwithout a cause and an effect is impossible. Equallyimpossible is a cause alone without an end fromwhich, and an effect in which it exists; or aneffect alone, that is without its cause and end.That it is so may be understood if it be borne inmind that an end without an effect, or separatedfrom its effect, is a thing non-existent, and there­fore merely a word. For an end to be really anend, it must be terminated, and is terminated inits effect, wherein for the first time it is called anend because it is the end. 1t seems as if the agent 96
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [r67-r70or the effecting cause exists by itself; but thisappearance is from what is in the effect; if it isseparated from the effect, it vanishes instantly.Thus it is plain that these three, end, cause, andeffect, must be in everything for it ta be anything. r68. Again, it must be known that the end iseverything bath in the cause and in the effect; itis from this that end, cause and effect are said tobe ends-first, middle, and last. But in arder thatthe end may be everything in the cause, somethingout of the end must be there in which it may be ;and that it may be everything in the effect, some­thing out of the end, through the cause, must bethere for it ta be in. For the end cannat be in itselfalone, but must be in something existing fromitseIf, in which it may be as ta everything of itsown, and by its activity become efficient even tillit subsists. That in which it subsists is the lastend and is caIled the effect. r69. These three, namely end, cause, and effect,are in the created universe, as in its greatest, sa inits least things. They are in greatest and leastthings because these three are in Gad the Creator,who is the Lord from eternity. But because He isInfinite, and because Infinite things in the Infiniteare distinctly one (see Nos. r 7-22), therefore alsothese three in Him and in His infinities are dis­tinctly one. Hence it is that the universe, createdfrom His Being, and which, regarded as to uses,is His image, acquired these three in each and aIlits parts. r70. The universal end, or the end of aIl thingsof creation, is that there may be eternal conjunction 97
    • 170,171] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMof the Creator with the created universe; and thisis only possible with subjects, in whom His Divinecan be as in itself, thus in whom it can dwell andremain. In order that these subjects may be Hishabitations and resting-places, they must berecipients of His Love and Wisdom, as from them­selves, thus such as are about to raise themselvesto the Creator and be conjoined with Him as fromthemselves. Without this reciprocity, conjunctionis impossible. lhese subjects are men who havethe ability to raise and conjoin themselves as fromthemselves. lhat men are such subjects, and thatthey are recipients of the Divine, as from them­selves, has been shown many times above. Throughthat conjunction the Lord is present in every oneof His created works: for everything was created for man as its end; wherefore the uses of aHcreated things ascend by degrees from lowestthings to man, and through man to God theCreator, from whom they exist, see above Nos.65-68. 171. Creation progresses continually to this lastend througb these three, end, cause, and effect,because these three are in the Lord, the Creator,as was said just above; also the Divine, withoutspace, is in ail space (Nos. 69-72), and in greatestand least things the same (Nos. 77-82); from whichit is clear that the created universe in the generalprogression to the last end is relatively the middleend. Indeed, from the earth, forms of uses arecontinually raised by the Lord the Creator in theirorder even up to man who also is from it as to hisbody. Thereafter man is raised by the reception oflove and wisdom from the Lord; and ail the meansare provided for their reception; and he was thus 98
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [171,172fashioned that, if only he be willing, he can receive.From what has now been said it may be seen,although as yet only in a general way, that the endof creation exists in outmost things; which endis, that aU things may come back to the Creatorand that there may be conjunction. 172. That these three, end, cause, and effect, arein each and all created things, may also be evidentfrom this fact, that aIl effects, caIled last ends,become anew first ends in continuous series fromthe First, who is the Lord the Creator, even to thelast end, which is the conjunction of man with theLord. That aIl last ends become anew first ends isplain from this, that there is nothing so inert anddead as to have nothing efficient in it. Even outof sand cornes a breath whose quality is to givestrength to produce, and thus to effect something. E 99
    • PART III THERE ARE ATMOSPHERES, WATERS AND EARTHS IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD, JUST AS IN THE NATURAL WORLD; BUT THE FORMER ARE SPIRITUAL, THE LATTER NATURAL 173. It has been stated in the preceding pages and shown in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, that the spiritual and natural worlds are alike, with the sole difference that each and aIl things of the former are spiritual, and of the latter, natura1. Since these two worlds are alike, both have atmo­ spheres, waters and earths, which are the generals, by and from which each and all things exist with infinite variety. 174. Regarding the atmospheres which are called ethers and airs, they are alike in both worlds, except that those in the spiritual world are spiritual and those in the natural world are natura1. The former are spiritual because they exist from the Sun which is the first proceeding of the Lords Divine Love and Wisdom, and from him receive in themselves the Divine fire which is love, and the Divine light which is wisdom, and carry both the one and the other down to the heavens where the angels dwell, and cause the presence of that Sun there in greatest and least things. Spiritual 100LI
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [I74-I76atmospheres are discrete substances or least forms,originating from the Sun; and because they eachsingly receive the Sun, its fire, divided into so manysubstances or forms, and, as it were, wrapped upby them and tempered by the wrappings, becomesheat, proportioned eventually to the love of angelsin heaven and of spirits under heaven. The sameholds good of the light of the Sun. Naturalatmospheres are like the spiritual in this, that theyalso are discrete substances and least forms,originating from the sun of the natural world.They also receive the sun singly, store up its firein themselves and temper it and carry it down asheat to earth where men dwell. The same is trueof light. I7S. The difference between spiritual and naturalatmospheres is that spiritual atmospheres arereceptacles of Divine fire and light, thus of Loveand Wisdom, for they preserve them interiorly inthemselves: on the other hand, natural atmo­spheres are not receptacles of Divine fire and light,but of the fire and light of their own sun, which initself is dead, as was shown above; consequentlythere is nothing interiorly in them from the Sunof the spiritual world, still they are girt about byspiritual atmospheres from that Sun. That thereis this difference between spiritual and naturalatmospheres (1 have learned) fram angelic wisdom. I76. Tllat there are atmospheres in the spiritualworld, precisely as in the natural, may be evidentfrom this, that angels and spirits breathe, speak,and hear just as men do in the natural world; andrespiration, speech and hearing are aH effected bymeans of the lowest atmosphere, the air: then IOI
    • 176-1781 DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMfrom this, that angels and spirits see precisely asmen do in the natural world, and sight is possibleonly in an atmosphere purer than air: again fromthis, that angels and spirits think and are affectedlike men in the natural world, and thought andaffection are possible only by means of atmospheresstill purer; and lastly from this, that aU the partsof the body of angels and spirits, external as wellas internai, are held together in connection by theatmospheres, the external by air, and the internaiby ether. Unless these atmospheres exertedpressure upon the forms of the body, the interiorsand exteriors would fiow apart. Since angels arespiritual and each and all the parts of their bodiesare held together in connection, form and order bymeans of atmospheres, it follows that these atmo­spheres are spiritual. They are spiritual becausethey originate from the spiritual Sun, which is thefirst proceeding of the Lords Divine Love andWisdom. 177. It has been said above, and has beenshown in the work on Heaven and Hell, that thereare also waters and earths in the spiritual worldjust as in the natural, but with this difference,that they are spiritual. Because they are spiritual,they are moved and modificd through the heat andlight of the spiritual Sun by means of the atmo­spheres therefrom, precisely as is the case withwaters and earths in the natural world throughthe heat and light of its sun by means of itsatmospheres. 178. Atmospheres, waters, and lands, are herementioned because these three are the generalsthrough and from which each and all things existin infinite variety. Atmospheres are the active 102
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [178, 179forces, waters the mediate forces, and lands thepassive forces from which aIl effects exist. Thesethree are such forces in their series solely by virtueof the life which proceeds from the Lord as a Sunand makes them active.THERE AIŒ DEGREES OF LOVE ANDWISDOM, AND CONSEQUENTL y DEGREESOF HEAT AND LIGHT, ALSO DEGREES OF ATMOSPHERES 179. What follows will not be comprehendedunless it be known that there are degrees, and thenwhat they are, and of what nature they are, sincein every created thing, thus in every form, degreesexist. This Part of Angelic Wisdom will thereforetreat of degrees. That· there are degrees of loveand wisdom may be seen clearly by considerationof the angels of the three heavens. The angels ofthe third heaven surpass in love and wisdom thoseof the second heaven, and these the allgels of thelowest heaven, sa much sa, that it is impossible forthem ta dwell together. The degrees of love andwisdom distinguish and separate them. Hence itis that angels of the lower heavens cannat ascendta ange1s of the higher heavens; and, if it ispermitted them ta ascend, they neither see themnor anything near them. The reason that they donot see them is that their love and wisdom is of ahigher degree and beyond the perception of thelower angels, for each angel is his own love and hisown wisdom, and love and wisdom together in itsform, is man, since Gad, Who is Love l tself andWisdom Itself, is Man. At different times it has 103
    • ~r79-r8rJ DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMbeen permitted me to see angels of the lowestheaven who have ascended to angels of the thirdheaven ; and when they have made their waythither, l have heard them complaining that theydo not see any one, while yet they were in themidst of them. Afterwards they were instructedthat they were invisible to them because their loveand wisdom were imperceptible to them, and thatit is love and wisdom which cause an angel toappear as man. r80. That there must be degrees of love andwisdom appears c1earer still from the considerationof the angels love and wisdom in relation to mens.It is known that the wisdom of angels is, relatively,ineffable; that it is even incomprehensible to men,when they are in natural love, will be seen later.It appears ineffable and incomprehensible becauseit is in a higher degree. r81. Since there are degrees of love and wisdom,there are also degrees of heat and light. By heatand light are meant spiritual heat and light, suchas the angels have in the heavens and such as menhave as to the interiors of their minds, for menhave a corresponding heat of love, and light ofwisdom to the angels. In the heavens it is the casethat the quality and quantity of the angels lovedetermines the quality and quantity of their heat ;the same applies to their light in respect of theirwisdom: the reason is that with them love is inheat, and wisdom in light, as was shown above.It is the same with men on earth, with the differ­ence, however, that angels feel that heat and seethat light, but men do not because they are innatural heat and light; and so long as that is so, r04
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [r8r, r82they only sense spiritual heat in sorne delight oflove, and only see spiritual light by a perceptionof truth. Now since man, so long as he is in naturalheat and light, knows nothing about the spiritualheat and light within him, and since this can onlybe known by experience from the spiritual world,we shaH, therefore, here speak particularly regardingthe heat and light in which the angels and theirheavens are. From this and from no other sourceis enlightenment given on this subject. r82. But degrees of spiritual heat cannot bedescribed since love, to which spiritual heatcorresponds, does not faU thus into the ideas ofthought; on the other hand, degrees of spirituallight can be described since light does, for it isthis in respect of thought. Still the degrees ofspiritual heat can be understood from considerationof the degrees of light, for they are in a like degree.With respect then to the spiritual light in whichangels are, it has been granted me to see it withmy eyes. The light with the angels of the higherheavens is sa dazzling a white as ta be indescrib­able, even by the brilliant whiteness of snow, andalso so glowing as cannot be described, even by thesplendour of this worlds sun. In a word, thatlight exceeds the noonday light on earth a thousandtimes. But with angels of the lower heavens, thelight can be described to sorne extent by com­parisons, although it still exceeds the most intenselight of our world. The light of the angels of thehigher heavens is indescribable for this reason,that their light makes one with their wisdom; andsince their wisdom, compared with that of men,is ineffable, so also is their light. From these fewthings it may be evident that there are degrees r05
    • 182-184] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMof light; and because wisdom and love are oflike degree, there must be like degrees of heat. 183. Since atmospheres are receptacles andcontainants of heat and light, it follows that thereare just as many degrees of atmospheres as thereare of heat and light, and of love and wisdom.Much experience of the spiritual world has clearlyshown me that there are several atmospheres andthat they are distinguished from each other bydegrees; especially this, that angels of the lowerheavens cannot breathe in the region of the higherangels, and appear to themselves to gasp forbreath, as living creatures are wont to do whenraised from the air to ether, or from water into air.Moreover spirits below the heavens appear like ablack cloud to those above. That there are severalatmospheres and that they are distinguished fromeach other by degrees, see No. 176.DEGREES ARE OF TWOFOLD ORDER,DEGREES OF HEIGHT AND DEGREES OF BREADTH 184. A knowledge of degrees is like a key foruncovering and penetrating into the causes ofthings. Without this knowledge hardly anythingof cause can be known; for, without it, objectsand subjects of both worlds seem so simple, as ifthere were nothing in them beyond that whichmeets the eye; when yet, compared to the thingswhich lie hidden within, what is thus seen is asone to thousands, nay rather to tens of thousands.The interiors which do not lie open can in no wise 106
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [184, 185be laid bare except by a knowledge of degrees; forexteriors move towards interiors and through thesetowards inmosts, by degrees; not by continuous,but by discrete degrees. "Continuous degrees " isa term applied to the graduallessening or diminish­ing from grosser to finer, or from denser to rarer ;or, preferably, to growths and increases from finerto grosser or from rarer to denser; precisely aslight merges into shade, or heat into cold. But" discrete degrees" are altogether different; theyare like things prior, subsequent, and final; orlike end, cause, and effect. These degrees are calleddiscrete because the prior is by itself, the subse­quent by itself, and the final by itself; yet talœntogether they make one. The atmospheres, whichare called ethers and airs, from highest to lowest,or from the sun to the earth, are separated intosuch degrees; and are like simples, collections ofsimples, and again collections of these, whichtaken together are called a composite. Thesedegrees are " discrete" because they exist separ­ately, and are meant by degrees of height; butthe former are "continuous" because theyincrease continuously, and are meant by degreesof breadth. 185. Each and all things in the natural and inthe spiritual worlds co-exist in accordance withdiscrete degrees and continuous degrees together,or degrees of height and breadth. The dimensionestablished by discrete degrees is called height andthe dimension established by continuous degreesis called breadth. Their position, in respect to thesight of the eye, does not alter their designation.Without a knowledge of these degrees nothing canbe known of those features which distinguish the E* 107
    • r8s, r86] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthree heavens, the love and wisdom of the angelsthere, the heat and light in which they live, and theatmospheres which encompass and preserve them.Nor without this knowledge of degrees can any­thing be known of the distinctions which rule inthe interior faculties of mens minds; in theirstates in respect to reformation and regeneration ;in the exterior aptitude of the body, both of angelsand men; and especially of the distinction betweenspiritual and natural, and thus of correspondence.Nor indeed can anything be known of any differ­ence between the life of men and beasts, or betweenmore perfect and less perfect beasts, or of thevegetable and mineraI kingdoms. It may beevident from these considerations that thosepersons who are ignorant of these degrees cannotperceive causes from any considered judgment;they only see effects and form their opinion ofcauses from them, frequently by induction con­tinuous with the effects: when yet causes do notproduce effects by continuity, but discretely ; fora cause is one thing and an effect is another. Thedifference is like that between prior and posterior,or between formative and formed. r86. In order to arrive at a still better under­standing of discrete degrees, their quality, andtheir difference from continuous degrees, theangelic heavens may serve as an example. Thereare three heavens, separated by degrees of height,one below another. The only communicationbetween them is by influx, which is effected bythe Lord through the heavens in their order to thelowest; and not in the reverse direction. Eachheaven by itself, however, is divided, not by degreesof height, but by degrees of breadth; those in the r08
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [r86, r87middle, or centre, are in the light of wisdom;while those surrounding, even to the boundaries,are in the shade of wisdom. Thus does wisdomdecrease even to ignorance, as light merges intoshade, by continuity. It is the same with men.The interiors of their minds are divided into asmany degrees as there are angelic heavens, oneabove another. Wherefore these interiors aredivided by discrete degrees, or degrees of height.l t is from this fact that man can be in the lowestdegree, then in a higher, and also in the highest,according to the degree of his wisdom. Moreover,when he is only in the lowest degree, the higher isclosed; but it is opened as he receives wisdom fromthe Lord. As in heaven, so also in man there arecontinuous degrees, or degrees of breadth. Man islike the heavens because he is a heaven in leastform, in respect to the interiors of his mind, sofar as he is in love and wisdom from the Lord.That man, as regards the interiors of his mind,is a heaven in least form, may be seen in the workon HEAVEN AND HELL (Nos. sr-58). r87. From these few instances it may be evidentthat he who knows nothing of discrete degrees, ordegrees of height, cannot know anything of mansstate regarding his reformation and regeneration,which are effected by the reception of love andwisdom from the Lord, and then through theopening of the interior degrees of his mind in theirorder. Nor can he know anything of influx throughthe heavens from the Lord, or of the order intowhich he has been created. For if anyone thinks ofthese things from continuous degrees, or degreesof breadth, and not from discrete degrees, or degreesof height, he can perceive nothing from causes, but rog
    • 187,188J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMonly from effects; and to see from effects only isto see trom fallacies, whence come, one after theother, errors; which can be so multiplied byinductions, that at length the grossest falsities arecalled truths. 188. 1 do not know that anything has becomeknown up to this time concerning discrete degrees,or degrees of height, but only concerning con­tinuous degrees, or degrees of breadth; never­theless, nothing of the real truth about cause canbecome known without a knowledge of degrees ofboth kinds. They will be deaIt with, therefore, inthe whole of this Part: for it is the aim of thislittle work to uncover causes, that effects may beseen from them, and thus the darkness be dispelledwhich envelops the man of the Church concerningGod, the Lord, and Divine things generally, whichare called spiritual things. This 1 may mention,that angels are grieved for the darkness on earth :they say that they see light hardly anywhere;that men snatch at errors and confirm them, andthereby multiply lies upon lies; and, in order toconfirm them, search out by deductive reasoningfrom errors and falsified truths, such things ascannot be demolished, owing to the darkness inregard to causes, and ignorance regarding truths.The angels lament especially over confirmations ofthe doctrine of faith separate from charity, andjustification thereby; also over the ideas heldabout God,angels, and spirits, and the ignoranceof what love and wisdom are. rro
    • [I89, 19°DEGREES OF HEIGHT ARE OF THE SAMENATURE, AND ONE IS FROM THE OTHERIN A SERIES, LIKE END, CAUSE, AND EFFECT 189. As degrees of breadth, or continuousdegrees, are like the gradations from light to shade,heat to cold, hard to soft, dense to rare, gross tofine, and so forth, and these degrees are knownfrom sensual and ocular experience, while degreesof height, or discrete degrees, are not so known,these, particularly, will be deait with in this Part,for without a knowledge of these degrees, causescannot be pereeived. It is known indeed, that end,cause, and effect, follow in order like prior, sub­sequent, and final; also that the end produees thecause, and through the cause the effect, so that theend may exist. About these, also, many things areknown: and yet to know them and not to seethem by application to existing things, is simplyto know abstractions, which remain only so longas the thought is occupied with analytical ideasfrom the metaphysical. Henee it is that althoughend, cause, and effect advanee by discrete degrees,yet little, if anything, is known in the world aboutthese degrees. For a mere knowledge of abstrac ­tions is like an airy something which flies away;but if abstractions are applied to such things asexist in the world, they become like what is seenwith the eyes on earth, and endure in the memory. 190. AlI things existing in the world of whichthreefold dimension is predicated, or which arecalled composites, are of degrees of height, ordiscrete degrees. But let examples make this III
    • 190, 191] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMclear. It is known from ocular experience thatevery muscle in the human body consists ofminutest fibres, and that these put together intolittle bundles form larger fibres, caned motorfibres, and .that groups of these form the compositecaned a muscle. 1t is the same with nerves: inthem, from minute fibres larger fibres are gatheredtogether which look like filaments, and these massedtogether compose the nerve. The same is true ofthe rest of the combinations, gatherings intobundles, and groupings, from which come theorgans and viscera; for these are composites offibres and vessels shaped in various ways throughlike degrees. 1t is the same also with each and anthings of the vegetable and mineraI kingdoms: inwoods there are combinations of filaments intriple order; in metals and stones there are com­pressions of parts, also in triple order. From thesethings it may be seen how discrete degrees areconstituted, namely, one from the other, andthrough that other the third, which is caned acomposite; and that each degree is discrete(separate) from the other. 19I. From these examples the inference ispermissible, regarding things which the eye cannotsee, that the same applies to them; thus, toorganic substances which are receptacles and homesof thought and affection in the brain; to theatmospheres; to heat and light; and to love andwisdom. For the atmospheres are receptacles ofheat and light; and heat and light are receptaclesof love and wisdom; consequently as there aredegrees of atmospheres there are like degrees alsoof heat and light, and of love and wisdom; for thesame principle applies to the latter as to the former. IIZ
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [192-194 192. That these degrees are homogeneous, i.e.of the same character and nature, appears fromwhat has just been said. Motor fibres of the muscles,least, larger, and largest, are homogeneous; nervefibres, least, larger, and largest, are homogeneous ;woody filaments from least particles to their com-posites are homogeneous. The parts of stones andmetals of every kind, likewise. The organic sub-stances, which are receptacles and homes ofthoughts and affections, from their simplest formsto their common congeries, which is the brain, arehomogeneous. The atmospheres, from pure etherto air, are homogeneous. Degrees of heat and lightin series foUowing the degrees of atmospheres arehomogeneous; and hence also degrees of love andwisdom. Things which are not of the same characterand nature are heterogeneous and do not harmonizewith the homogeneous; thus they cannot formdiscrete degrees with them but only with theirown, which are of the same character and natureand with which they are homogeneous. 193. That these degrees in their order are likeends, causes, and effects, is clear; for the first,which is the least, produces its cause through themiddle, and its effect through the last. 194. l t should be known that each and everydegree is separated from the other by coveringsof its own, and that aU the degrees together areseparated by a general covering; and that thegeneral covering communicates with the interiorand inmost degrees in their order. Hence cornesthe union of aU the parts and oneness of action. II3
    • 195-197]THE FIRST DEGREE IS THE ALL IN ALL OF THE FOLLOWING DEGREES 195. The reason is that the degrees of eachsubject and of each thing are homogeneous; andthey are homogeneous because they are the pro­ducts of the first degree. For their formation issuch that the first, by making little bundles orcompressions, in a word, by groupings, brings forththe second and through this the third, and separateseach one from the other by a covering drawnaround iL Hence it is clear that the first degree isthe original and sole directing (force) in thosefoUowing and therefore is their aH in aIl. 196. When it is said that degrees are such inrespect to each other, the meaning is that sub­stances are such in their degrees. The mode ofspeaking by degrees is abstract, that is, universal,and therefore applicable to every subject or matterwhich is in degrees of this kind. 197. This may be applied to aU those thingswhich have been enumerated in the precedingarticle, thus to muscles, nerves, materials and partsof both vegetable and mineraI kingdoms, to organicsubstances which are the subjects of thoughts andaffections in man, to atmospheres, heat and light,and love and wisdom. In ail these things thefirst is the sole directing force in the foilowing,nay, rather, it is the sole thing in them; and,because it is the sole thing in them, is the ail inthem. That this is so is clear also from these weUlmown facts, namely, that the end is the ail ofthe cause and through the cause is the aU of theeffect; and on that account, end, cause, and effect 114
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WI5DOM [197-199are cal!ed first, middle, and last end; and again,that the cause of the cause is also the cause of thatwhich is caused; and that there is nothing essentialin causes except the end, and nothing essential inmotion except the effort: also, that there is onesingle substance which is substance in itself. 198. From these things it may be seen c1earlythat the Divine, which is substance in itself, or theone and only, is the substance from which each andal! things have their being; thus that God is theall in ail of the universe, in agreement withwhat has been proved in Part First: as DivineLove and Wisdom are substance and form (Nos.40-43); Divine Love and Wisdom are substanceand form in itself, thus the Very and Only (Nos.44-46); aH things in the universe are created byDivine Love and Wisdom (Nos. 52-60); Hence thecreated universe is His image (Nos. 61-65); TheLord alone is heaven, where angels are (Nos.Il3-Il8).ALL PERFECTIONS INCREASE AND ASCEND WITH AND ACCORDING TO DEGREES 199. That degrees are of twofold nature,breadth and height, has been shown above (Nos.184-188); and that degrees of breadth are aslight verging to shade, or wisdom to ignorance;and that degrees of height are like end, cause, andeffect, or as prior, subsequent, and final. Of theselatter it is said that they ascend or descend, forthey are of height; but of the former that theyincrease or decrease, for they are of breadth.These two kinds of degrees differ so much as to Ils
    • 199-201J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMhave nothing in common; they should thereforebe understood c1early and by no means be con­fused. zoo. All perfections increase and ascend with andaccording to degrees because all predicates follow their subjects, and perfection and imperfection aregeneral predicates, of life, of forces, and of forms."Perfection of life" is the perfection of love andwisdom; and because the will and understandingare their receptac1es, perfection of life is alsoperfection of will and understanding, and thereforeof affections and thoughts; and because spiritualheat contains love, and spiritual light containswisdom, perfection of these also may be referred toperfection of life. "Perfection of forces" is theperfection of aIl things which life actuates andmoves, but which have no life within them. Suchforces are the atmospheres in respect of their activemeans; the interior and exterior organic sub­stances in men, and also in animaIs of everydescription. Such forces, also, are aU things in thenatural world which receive their means to activityfrom its sun, both directly and indirectly. "Per­fection of forms" and perfection of forces makeone, for such as are the forces, so are the forms, theonly difference being that forms are substances,while forces are the activities of them; whereforelike degrees of perfection pertain to both. Formswhich are not at the same time forces are alsoperfect according to degrees. Zo1. The perfections of life, forces, and forms,which increase or decrease according to degrees ofbreadth, or continuous degrees, will not be dis­cussed here, because these degrees are known in theworld; but only those which ascend or descend rr6
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [20r, 202according to degrees of height, or discrete degrees,since these are not known in the world. Of themanner in which perfections ascend and descendaccording to these degrees little is to be learnedfrom things visible in the natural world, but it isclear from things to be seen in the spiritual world.From objects visible in the natural world only is itrevealed that the more closely they are examinedthe greater are the marvels which meet the eye:for example, the eyes, ears, tongue, muscles, heart,lungs, pancreas, kidneys, and other viscera; thentoo, seeds, fruits, and flowers; and also metals,mineraIs, and stones. The fact is weH known thatin aH these things, the more inwardly they arelooked into, the more wonderful are the thingswhich present themselves to view; and yet it hashardly become known at aH that they are interiorlymore perfect according to degrees of height, ordiscrete degrees. Lack of knowledge of thesedegrees has concealed it. But since these very degrees are clearly visible in the spiritual world(for, from the highest to the lowest, it is distinctlydivided into them) it is possible for an intelligentidea of them to be drawn therefrom: from whichafterwards one can infer as to the perfections of forces and forms, which are in similar degrees in the natural world. 202. In the spiritual world there are threeheavens, set in order of degrees of height. In thehighest heaven the angels are in every perfection,exceeding the angels in the middle heaven, whoare in every perfection superior to the angels in thelowest heaven. The degrees of perfections are suchthat angels of the lowest heaven cannot attain tothe first threshold of the perfections of the angels II7
    • 202] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM of the middle heaven, nor these to the first threshold of the perfections of the angels of the highest heaven. This seems a paradox, yet is the truth. The reason is that they are associated according to discrete degrees, and not according to continuous degrees. l have learned from observation that the difference between the affections and thoughts, and consequently the speech, of the angels of the higher and lower heavens is such that they have nothing in common; and that communication takes place only through correspondences which exist by the direct influx of the Lord into ail the heavens, and by indirect influx of the Lord into ail the heavens, and by indirect influx through the highest heaven into the lowest. Such being the nature of these differences, they cannot be expressed in natural language and so cannat be described; for the thoughts of the angels, being spiritual, do not fail into natural ideas. They can only beexpressed and described by themselves in their own tongues, words, and writing. and not byhuman means. This is why it is said that thingsare heard and seen in the heavens tao great forwords. Sorne idea of the differences may be gatheredfrom this fact, that the thoughts of the angels ofthe highest or third heaven are concerned with"ends," those of the middle or second heavenwith "causes," and those of the lowest or firstheaven. with "effects." It must be borne in mindthat it is one thing ta think from ends, and anotherto think about ends; one thing to think fromcauses, and another to think about causes; asit is also one thing to think from effects, andanother to think about effects. Angels of thelower heavens think about causes and ends, butangels of the higher heaven think from causes and Il8
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [202-204ends; and ta think from these is indicative ofhigher wisdom than thinking about them. Tathink from ends is the way of wisdom, fromcauses the way of intelligence, and from effectsthe way of science. From these things it is c1earthat all perfections ascend and descend with andaccording ta degrees. 203. Since the interiors of man, which are ofhis will and understanding, resemble the heavensin respect ta degrees (for man, as ta the interiorsof his mind, is a heaven in least form) thereforetheir perfections are like them also. But theseperfections are not visible to any man while in theworld because he is then in the lowest degree; andthe higher degrees cannat be perceived from thelower; but they are seen after death, for manthen cornes into that degree which accords withrus love and wisdom. Because he then becomesan angel he thinks and speaks things which wereinexpressible ta his natural man, for there is anelevation of all the things of his mind, not insimple ratio, but threefold. Degrees of height arein this latter ratio but degrees of breadth are insimple ratio. Only those who were in truths in theworld and had applied them to life ascend and areraised into degrees of height. 204. It appears as if prior things are less perfectthan subsequent, or simples than composites; butthe prior from which the subsequent cornes, orsimples out of which composites come, are themore perfecto The reason is that prior and simplerare more naked and less veiled by substances andmatter devoid of life, and are, as it were, moreDivine; wherefore they are more nearly related II9
    • 204, 205J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMta the spiritual Sun in which the Lord is. Forperfection itself is in the Lord and from Him inthe Sun, which is the first proceeding of His DivineLove and Wisdom; and then in those thingsimmediately foIlowing, and sa in arder even tathe lowest, becoming less perfect as they recede.Were there not such outstanding perfection inprior and simple things, neither man nor anyanimal could exist, and afterwards subsist, fromseed; nor could the seeds of trees and shrubsvegetate and multiply; for everything becomesmore immune from injury the more it is priorand simple, because it is more perfect.IN SUCCESSIVE ORDER THE FIRST DEGREEIS THE HIGHEST, AND THE THIRD IS THELOWEST; BUT IN SIMULTANEOUS ORDERTHE FIRST DEGREE IS THE INMOST, AND THE THIRD THE OUTERMOST 205- There is a successive arder and there is asimultaneous arder. The successive arder of thesedegrees is from highest ta lowest, top ta bottom.In this arder are the angelic heavens, where thethird heaven is the highest, the second the micldle,and the first the lowest. Such is their position inrespect ta each other. Ihere, in like successivearder, are the states of love and wisdom withangels, of heat and light, and of spiritual atmo­spheres, likewise ail the perfections of forrns andforces. When degrees of height, or discrete degrees,are in successive arder, they may be compared taa column divided into three staries, through which I20
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM 2°5-2°7ascent and descent are made. The most perfectand beautiful things are in its upper chamber;the less perfect and beautiful in the middle; butthe still less perfect and beautiful in the lowest.But simultaneous order which consists of the samedegrees has a different appearanee. In this thehighest things of successive order, the most perfectand beautiful (as mentioned above) are in theinmost, the lower in the middle, and the lowestin the circumference. They are, as it were, in afirm base in accordance with these three degrees ;in whose middle or centre are the finest parts,around this parts less fine, and on the outer borders-the circumferenee-parts composed of these andtherefore grosser. It is like that column, mentionedjust above, subsiding into a plane, whose top makesthe inmost, the middle the middle, and the basethe outmost. 206. Since the highcst of successive orderbecomes the inmost of simultaneous order and thelowest becomes the outmost, therefore in the Word,by " higher " is signified interior, and by " lower "is signified ext~rior. Up and down, height anddepth have the same significations. 207. In every ultimate there are discrete degreesin simultaneous order. Motor fibres in everymuscle, fibres in every nerve, also fibres and smaIlvessels in aIl the viseera and organs, are in suchan order. The inmost in these are the simplest,the most perfeet things; the outermost is a com-posite from them. A like order of these samedegrees is in every seed and fruit, also in everymetal and stone; their parts, from which thewhole is formed, are of such a nature. The inmosts,middles, and outermosts of the parts are in these 121
    • 207-209] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMdegrees; for they are successive composites, orbundlings and massings, from the simples, whichare their first substances, or matters. 208. In a word, such degrees exist in everyultimate, thus in every effect. For every ultimatehas its being from things prior, and these fromtheir first; and every efiect exists from cause andthis from the end; and the end is the aU of thecause, and cause the all of effect (as shown above) ;and end makes the inmost, cause the middle, andeffect the outmost. It is the same with degrees oflove and wisdom, heat and light, and also with theorganic forms of thoughts and affections in man,as will be seen later. The series of these degrees insuccessive and simultaneous order has been treatedin THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW ]ERUSALEM CON­CERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (No. 38, &c.) ;it was shown that like degrees are in each and aUthings of the Word.THE OUTERMOST DEGREE SURROUNDS,CONTAINS, AND SUPPORTS PRIOR DEGREES 209. The doctrine of degrees, taught in thisPart, has up to now been explained by the variousthings which exist in both worlds; as for instanceby the degrees of the heavens where angels dwell,by the degrees of heat and light with them, by thedegrees of the atmospheres, and by various thingsin the human body, and also in the animal andmineral kingdoms. But this doctrine has a widerrange which includes not only natural, but alsocivil, moral, and spiritual things, and every singlething thereof. There are two reasons for this 122
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [zog-zIIextension ta such spheres: Firstly, in every thingof which anything can be predicated there is thetrine, called end, cause, and effect, and these threeare mutually related according to degrees ofheight: Secondly, every civil, moral, and spiritualthing is not something abstract from substance,but ail these things are substances, for just as loveand wisdom are not abstract things but are sub­stances (see above Nos. 40-43) so likewise are ailthose things called civil, moral, and spiritual.These indeed may be thought of in a way abstractfrom substances, yet in themselves are not abstractoTake for example, affection and thought, charityand faith, will and understanding ; for it is thesame with these as with love and wisdom, in thatthey are not possible outside of subjects which aresubstances, but that they are states of subjects orof substances. That there are changes of these,which produce variations, will be seen in whatfollows. By" substance" is also meant form, forsubstance without forro is impossible. ZIa. From its being possible ta think of will andunderstanding, affection and thought, and charityand faith, abstractly from the substances whichare their subjects, and from their having been saregarded, it has come to pass that a correct ideaof these things, as being states of substances orforms, has perished. It is altogether as with sen­sations and actions, which are not things abstractfrom the organs of sensation and motion. Abstractor separate from these, they are mere figments ofreasoning, like sight without the eye, hearing with­out the ear, taste without the tangue, and sa on. ZII. Since aIl civil, moral, and spiritual thingsproceed through degrees, not only continuous but IZ3
    • 2II-213] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMdiscrete also, in the same way as natural things,and since progressions of discrete degrees are likethose of ends to causes and of causes to effects, lhave chosen to explain and confirm the presentpoint that the outmost degree surrounds, contains,and supports prior degrees, by the things abovementioned, namely by those which pertain to loveand wisdom, will and understanding, affection andthought, and charity and faith. 212. That the outmost degree surrounds, con­tains, and supports prior degrees is clearly seenfrom the progression of ends and causes to effects.That the effect surrounds, contains, and supportscauses and ends can be perceived by enlightenedreason; but it is not so clear that the end with allthings thereof, and the cause with all things thereof,are actuaHy in the effect, and that the effect is theirfull complex. That such is the case may be seenfrom what has been said above in this Part,especiaHy from this, that one thing comes fromthe other in triple series, and that effect is nothingelse than the end in its outmost. And since theoutmost surrounds, it follows that it contains andalso supports. 213. So far as it concerns love and wisdom, loveis the end, wisdom the instrumental cause, and usethe effect; and use surrounds, contains, andsupports wisdom and love; and moreover usesurrounds and contains in such a manner that aHthings of love and wisdom are actually in it; itis their sirnultaneous meeting place. But it mustbe strictly borne in mind that aH things of love andwisdom which are of the same kind and degree arepresent in use, in accordance with the principlesstated and explained above (Nos. 189-194). 12 4
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [214, 215 214. Affection, thought, and action are also in aseries of like degrees because every affection hasrelation to love, thought to wisdom, and action touse. Charity, faith, and good work are in a seriesof like degrees, for charity is (the form) of affection,faith of thought, and good work of action. Willunderstanding, and practice are also in a series oflike degrees; for the will is of love and thence ofaffection, the understanding is of wisdom andthence of faith, and practice is of use and thence ofwork. And just as aU things of wisdom and of loveare present in use, so all things of thought andaffection are present in action, all things of faithand charity in good work, and so on; but aU arehomogeneous, that is, harmonious. 215. That the outermost of each series, namely,use, action, work, and practice, surround andcontain aU prior things, is a fact not yet known.It seems as if there were nothing more in use,action, work and practice than such as is in motion;yet ail prior things are actually present in these,and so fully that nothing is wanting; they areenclosed in them like wine in its vessel, and house­hold goods in the home. These are not seen becausethey are looked at from the outside and 50 regardedare only activities and motions. It is like themovement of arms and hands. One is not consciousthat a thousand motor fibres co-operate in theirevery motion, and that these thousand motorfibres are stimulated by thousands of things of thethought and affection corresponding to them;which, because they act inmostly, are invisible to anybodily sense. That nothing is done in or throughthe body except from the will through the thought,is weil known; and since both operate, each and 125
    • 215, 216J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMaIl things of will and thought must needs bepresent in the action; they cannot be parted.Renee it is that other people form their opinionfrom deeds or works concerning the thought of amans will, which is called his intention. This facthas been made known to me that the angels, froma single deed or work of man, perceive and see thewhole of this will and thought; the angel of thethird heaven sees from his will the end for whichhe acts, and the angel of the second heaven thecause by which the end operates. l t is from thisthat works and deeds are so often enjoined in theWord, and it is said that man is known by them. 216. l t is in accordanee with the angelic wisdomthat if the will and understanding, or affection andthought, also charity and faith, do not clothe andinvest themselves with works or deeds whenpossible, they are only as vapours which passaway, or as phantoms of the air which vanish; andthey first are fixed in man and become part of hislife when he sets to work to do them. The reason isthat the outmost surrounds, contains, and supportsprior things. Such a vapour and a phantom isfaith apart from good works, and such also arefaith and charity without the practice of them,with the sole difference that they who professcharity and faith have the knowledge and theability to will to do good works, but not so thosein faith apart from charity. 126
    • 2I7,218DEGREES OF HEIGHT ARE IN FULNESSAND POWER IN THEIR OUTERMOST DEGREE 2I7. It was shown in the preceding chapter thatthe outermost degree surrounds and contains priorthings. It follows then that prior degrees are infulness in their outermost, for they are in theireffect, and every effect is the fulness of causes. 2I8. That these ascending and descendingdegrees, also called prior and subsequent, and,likewise, of height and discrete, are in their powerin their outennost may be confirmed from all thesethings which have been adduced in the precedingchapters as confirmations from objects of sense andperception. But here l wish to confirm them onlyby the efforts, forces and motions in dead andin living subjects. It is known that effort doesnothing of itself but acts through forces corre­sponding to itself, and that through them motionappears; consequently that effort is everythingin forces and through forces in motion; andsince motion is the outermost degree of effort,by motion effort exerts its power. Efiort, force,and motion are united in no other way thanaccording to degrees of height, conjunction ofwhich is not by continuity, for they are discrete,but by correspondences. For effort is not force,nor is force motion; but force is produced byeffort, indeed force is effort excited, and motion isproduced through force; wherefore there is nopower in effort alone, or in force alone, but thereis in motion, which is the product of them. Thatthis is so may yet seem doubtful, because not I27
    • 218-220] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMillustrated by application to objects of sense andperception in nature; nevertheless such is theirprogression into power. 219. But let application of these be made toliving effort, living force, and living motion. Theliving effort in man, a living subject, is will unitedto understanding; the living forces in man arethose which form his body within, in ail of whichare motor fibres entwined in varying fashion; andthe living motion in man is action, which is pro­duced through those forces by the will united tothe understanding. For the interiors pertaining towill and understanding make the first degree; theinteriors pertaining to the body make the seconddegree; and the whole body, the complex of them,make the third degree. l t is well known that theinteriors pertaining to the mind have no powerexcept through forces in the body, and that forceshave no power except through the action of thebody itself. These three do not act through whatis continuous but through what is discrete, and toact thus is to act through correspondences. Theinteriors of the mind correspond to the interiors ofthe body; and the interiors of the body correspondto its exteriors, through which actions arise;wherefore the two prior degrees have power throughthe exteriors of the body. It may seem as if effortand forces in man have sorne power, although notin action, as in sleep and in states of rest, but eventhen the limits of efforts and forces are in thegeneral motor organs of the body, which are theheart and lungs; but with the stoppage of theiraction the forces cease also, and with them effort. 220. Since the powers of the whole, that is, ofthe body, are determined chiefly into the arms and 128
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [220,221hands, which are ultimates, " arms " and" hands "in the Word signify power, and the" right hand "signifies superior power. Since such is the unfoldingand revealing of degrees in power, the angels, whoare near to man and in correspondence with allthings belonging to him, perceive his quality as tounderstanding and will, charity and faith, thus asto the internallife of his mind and the externallifetherefrom in the body, from a single action madeby the hands. l have often marvelled that angelshave such an intuition from a single action of thebody through the hands; but it has been provedrepeatedly by actual experience. l t has been saidthat consecration into the office of a minister bythe laying on of hands had this derivation, andthat touching with the hand signifies communica­tion; besides other like things. The inference isthat everything of charity and faith is in the works,and without works charity and faith are likerainbows in the vicinity of the sun which dieaway and are dispersed by a cloud. On thisaccount " works " and the " doing of works " areso frequently mentioned in the Word, and it issaid that mans salvation depends upon them;further, he is called a wise man who does themand a foolish man who does them not. But itmust be understood that "works" here meanuses actually performed; for everything of charityand faith is in and according to uses. This corre­spondence of works with uses exists because it isspiritual, but it operates through substances andmatters, which are its subjects. 221. Here two heavenly mysteries may berevealed, which can be understood by means ofwhat has been said above. The first is that the 12 9
    • 22rJ DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM Word is in its fulness and power in the sense of the letter. For there are in the Word three senses, celestial, spiritual, and natural, according to the three degrees. Since they are there according to degrees of height and conjunetion is effected by correspondences, the uitimate, which is the naturai and is called the sense of the letter, not only surrounds, contains, and supports the correspond­ ing interior senses, but is the Word in the ultimate sense in its fulness and power. Abundant proof will be found in the DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERU­ SALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (Nos. 27-35, 36-49, 50-6r, 62-69). The other is that the Lord came into the world and assumed a Human -.--in order that He might put Himse!Ul!S>~er to subdue the helli and restore fo mueralithmgs in heaven as weIl as on earth. Thi~ he putÀ. l on over His former Human. ~fhe Hum--a:ntliïis s~uêëd in the world was like mans. Both Human natures nevertheless are Divine, and nence infinitely transcending the finite humans of angeis and men. And because He fully"glorified the 1 natural Human even to its ultimate, Hérose again wîtll a whôIe body, differently from any man. By the ~tion of this Human ~~.2!L.Pivine Ommpoten...s:e not only for subdulng the heTISalld lof bringing the heavens again into order, but aiso for keeEing the hells in subieetion to eternl1y, and savïng mankind. 1~ Eower is meant by His sittin a at the ri ht han of the power and mi t of~ o. ecause t e or, y e ass mptlOn of a ~ ifufurai Human, mad Him If Dl . ùt1ïln ultimates,1Ièïs c ed" the Word," and it lS said ~ the Word was made Flesh"; Divine T ruth in ultimates is the Word in respect to the sense of the Ietter. This He made Himself by 130
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [221-223 fulfiIling ail things of the Word concerning Himself ln Moses and the Prophets. Every man 1S fiiSOWii. good and his own truth; man is a man from no other reason: but the Lord, by the aSSuill12tion ofJ a natural Human, is Divine Good itself, and Divine Yruth itself, or what is the same, He is Divine Love Itself and -Divine Wisdom Itself. oothin ilrStbeginnings and in ultimates. 1fêrïce it is that the Lord, since His coming into the world, appears in the angelic heavens as a Sun with more powerful rays and greater splendour than before His Coming. This mystery can be understood by means of the doctrine of degrees. The Lords omnipotence before His advent into the world will be discussed later. DEGREES OF BOTH KINDS ARE IN THE GREATEST AND LEAST OF CREATED THINGS 222. That the greatest and the least of aIl things consist of discrete and continuous degrees, or degrees of height and breadth, cannot be shown by ex amples from visible objects, because least things do not appear to the sight, and greatest things which are visible do not appear to be divided into degrees; on which account this proposition only permits of proof through univer- saIs.. And since angels have their wisdom from universals and from them their knowledge of particulars, it is permitted to make their statements on these matters known. 223. They are as foIlows: There can be nothing so minute as to be without degrees of both kinds ; F 131
    • 223, 224] DIVIN);: LOVE AND WiSnOMfor instance, nothing so minute in any animal,plant, minerai, in the ether or the air, as not tohave these degrees in it. And since ether and airare receptacles of heat and light, and since spiritualheat and light are receptacles of love and wisdom,there can be nothing of heat and light or of loveand wisdom so minute as not to have in it degreesof both kinds. They also state that the least thingof affection and of thought, nay, rather of an ideaof thought, consists of degrees of both kinds, andthat if it does not, it is nothing; for it has noform, no quality, nor any state which can bechanged ane! varied, and thereby exist. The angelsconfirm it by this truth, that infinite things inGod the Creator, who is the Lord from eternity,are e!istinctly one; and that in His infinites areinfinite things; and that in these infinitely infinitethings are degrees of each kind, which yet aredistinctly one in Him. Now, because these thingsare in Him ane! all things are created by Him, andthings created refiect in a certain image the thingswhich are in Him, it follows that the minutestfinite thing cannot be without such degrees.Greatest and least things have these degreesequally, because the Divine is the same in greatestand least. That in God-Man infinite things aredistinctly one, see Nos. 17-22; and that theDivine is the same in greatcst and least thingssee Nos. 77-82; both propositions are furtherexplained in Nos. 155, 169, 171. 224. Since love ane! wisdom are substance andform (as shown above, Nos. 40-43) it is impossiblefor the minutest thing of love and wisdom, or ofaffection and thought, or of the least idea ofthought, to exist without both kincls of degrees ; 13 2
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [224-226in like manner affection and thought. And becauseforms are impossible without these degrees, assaid above, it fo!lows that they have the samedegrees; for ta separate love and wisdom, oraffection and thought, from substance in a form,is ta blot them out of existence since they are notpossible outside of their subjects; for they are thestates of their subjects which a man perceives inaH their variation, which states cause them taappear. 225. The greatest things which have bath kindsof degrees are: the universe, the natural world,the spiritual world, any dominion and kingdomwhatever, with everything civil, moral, andspiritual of them, the entire animal, vegetable, andmineraI kingdoms, all the atmospheres of bathworlds taken together, also their heats and lights,each of the above in its whole complex. Thingsless general as well: man in his complex, everyanimal, tree, shrub, stone and metal, in theirs.Their forms are alike in this, that they consist ofbath kinds of degrees: the reason is that theDivine, by whom they are created, is the same ingreatest and least things (see Nos. 77-82). Theparticulars ta the least detail and the generals tathe aggregates are similar in this, that they areforms of bath kinds of degrees. 226. On account of things greatest and leastbeing forms of bath kinds of degrees, they areconnected from beginnings ta ends, for likenessunites them. But yet it is impossible for any leastthing ta be identical with another, and there istherefore a distinction in all the particulars ta theleast detail. That no least thing can be the same 133
    • 226-229] DIVINE LOVE Mm WiSDOMas another in any forllls or arriongst any forms ison account of greatest things having like degreesand the greates{ being made up of the least. Sincethere are such degrees in the greatest forms andthe differences from top ta bottom and from centreta circumference in accordance therewith areperpetuaI, it follows that it is impossible for anylesser or least of these forms, having like degrees,ta be .identical with any other. 227. From angelic wisdom there is this state­ment aIso. The perfection of the created universeis on account of the likeness in respect of thesedegrees which exists between generals and par­ticulars, or the greatest and the least: for theone then regards the other as its Iike, capable ofjoining together with it in every use and of bringingevery end into effect. 228. But these things may seem paradoxicalbecause they are not shown by application tovisible abjects; yet abstract things, being universal,are wont ta be understood better than appliedthings, which are of unending variety; andvariety obscures. 229. Sorne propound the theory that a substanceis possible sa simpIe as not ta be a forro from lesserforros, and that by the heaping into masses of thissimple substance, things substantiate or compositecome into existence, and at length the substanceswhich are called material. But such superlativelysimple substances are not possible: For what issubstance without form? It is such that nothingcan be predicated of it; and from "being" ofwhich nothing can be predicated, nothing can be I34
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [229-231produced by heaping up. That there are countlessthings in the first created substances of aIl things,that is, in the most minute and simple, will beseen in what follows, where forms are treated of.IN THE LORD ARE lBREE DEGREES OFHEIGHT, INFINITE AND UNCREATE, ANDIN MAN ARE THREE DEGREES, FINITE AND CREATED 230. In the Lord the three degrees of height areinfinite and uncreate because the Lord is Loveitself and Wisdom itself, as was shown in precedingchapters; and because the Lord is Love itself andWisdom itself, He is also Use itself. For love hasuse as its end, and brings it forth by means ofwisdom; for love and wisdom have no boundaryor end without use, or no home of their own;wherefore they cannot be described as being andexisting unless there is a use in which they may be.lhese three form the three degrees of height insubjects of life. These three are as it were end thefirst, end the middle which is caIled cause, and endthe last which is called effect. That end, causeand effect form the three degrees of height hasbeen shown above and abundantly confirmed. 231. That there are three degrees in man maybe evident from the elevation of his mind even tothe degree of the love and wisdom of the angelsof the second and third heavens; for aIl angelswere born men, and man, in respect to the interiorsof his mind, is a heaven in least form; conse­quently there are as many degrees of height in 135
    • 231--233] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM man, by creation, as there are heavens. Man also is an image and likeness of God; wherefore these three degrees have been inscribed upon man because they are in God-Man, that is, in the Lord. That these degrees in the Lord are infinite.and uncreate, and in man finite and created, may be evident from what has been proved in Part First : as from these, the Lord is Love and Wisdom in Himself; Man is a recipient of love and wisdom from the Lord; also, nothing but Infinite can be asserted of the Lord, and nothing but finite of man. 232. With the angels these three degrees are named Celestial, Spiritual, and Natural; and to them the celestial is the degree of love, the spiritual of wisdom, and the natural of uses. The reason they are so named is that the heavens are divided into two kingdoms, the one termed celestial, and the other spiritual, to which a third kingdom draws near, wherein are men in the world, and this is the natural kingdom. Moreover, the angels of whom the celestial kingdom consists abide in love; the angels of the spiritual kingdom in wisdom; and men in the world in uses; and on that account the three kingdoms are united. How it is to be understood that men are in uses will be discusscd in the next Part. 233. l have been told from heaven that~ 1 the aS~Dtion of a RUffian iD the world, thëtwo prior degrees were actually in the Lord from eternity, who is ]ehovah, and the third degree potentially, as also they are in angels; but that2 ictfteJ3 t.he.-ill;sum~man in the world, He ~I:!J~ill-.19~..third d~caneanaturai, . and therehy became Man, li~~1! the world, 13 6
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [233 but with the difference however, that this degree,J~_the _12rior d.~œ~~te, while those in angel and man are [mite and created. For the Divine which had filled aU spaces without space (Nos. 69-72) penetrated even to the ultimates of nature; yet before the assumj?Hon~ of1Iie Ruman tllere was a Divine influx into the natura! degree through the medium of the angelic heavens, but after the assumption direct from Himself. This is the reason why aU Churches in the world before His Coming were representative of spiritual and celestial things, but after His Coming became natural-spiritual and natural-celestial, and why representative worship was abolished. It was also the reason that the Sun of the angelic heaven, which is, as was said above, the first emanation from His Divine Love and Wisdom, gleamed with more remarkable brilliance and splendour than before the assumption. It is this also which is meant by these words in Isaiah: In that day the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days (xxx. 26). This is said of the state of heaven and of the Church after the Lords Coming into the world. Again in the Apocalypse: The C01tntenance of the Son of lVfan was as the sun shineth in his strength (i. 16); and elsewhere as in Isaiah lx. 20; 2 Sam. xxiii. 3, 4; Matt. xvii. 1, 2. The mediate enlightenment of men through the angelic heaven, before the Lords Coming, may be likened to the moons light, the mediate light of the sun. This became immediate as the result of His Coming, as foretold in these words in Isaiah, The light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and in David: In his days shall the righteous flourish, and abundance of peace until there is no 137
    • 233-235J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMlonger any rnoon (Psalm 1xxii. 7). This a1so is saidof the Lord. 234. The Lord from eternity, or Jehovah, puton this third degree by the assumption of a Humanin the world because He cou1d enter into thisdegree only by means of a nature similar to humannature, thus only by conception from His Divine,and by birth from a virgin; for in this way Hecou Id lay aside the nature, which in itself is deadand yet a receptacle of the Divine, and clotheHimself with the Divine. This is meant by thetwo states of the Lord in the world, ca11ed ex­inanition (emptying) and glorification, which aretreated of in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERU­SALEM CONCERNING THE LORD. 235. These statements concerning the threefoldascent of degrees of height are general, but theycannot be discussed here in any detail because, aswas said in the preceding chapter, these threedegrees must be in greatest and in 1east things;this only need be said, that there are such degreesin each and aU things of love, and therefrom ineverything of wisdom, and from these in every use.In the Lord ail these degrees are infinite, but inange1 and man !lnite. How these degrees dwe11 inlove, wisdom, and uses can only he describedand unfoldecl in series. 13 8
    • [23 6, 237EVERY MAN HAS THESE THREE DEGREESOF HEIGHT FROM BIRTH. THEY CAN BEOPENED ONE AFTER THE OTHER, AND ASTHEY ARE OPENED MAN IS IN THE LORD AND THE LORD IN MAN 236. It has not becorne known hitherto thatthere are three degrees of height in man for thereason that these degrees have not been recognised ;and as long as they escaped notice none but con­tinuous degrees could be known; and when onlythese degrees are known it may be believed thatlove and wisdom increase in man only by con­tinuity. But it must be known that every manfrom birth has three degrees of height, or discretedegrees, one above or within another, and thateach degree of height, or discrete degree, has alsodegrees of breadth, or continuous degrees, accord­ing to which it increases by continuity; for thereare degrees of both kinds in the greatest and inthe least of aU things (see Nos. 222-229). Adegree of one kind without the other is impossible. 237. These three degrees of height are termednatural, spiritual, and celestial (see No. 232).When man is born he cornes first into the naturaldegree and this grows in him by continuity inaccordance with what he learns, and the under­standing acquired thereby, even to the highest ofthe understanding, which is caUed the rational.Yet not by this means is the next degree, whichis called spiritual, opened. This is opened by alove of uses in accordance with what he is able tounderstand, but it is a spiritual love of uses, which F* 139
    • 237, 238J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMis love towards the neighbour. This degree maygrow in like manner by continuous degrees evento its highest point, and it grows by means ofintelligent ideas of truth and good, or of spiritualtruths. But even by these the third degree, whichis called celestial, is not opened; for this is openedby the celestial love of uses, which is love to theLord; and love to the Lord is nothing else thancommitting to life the precepts of the Word, whichmay be summed up in shunning evils because theyare hellish and devilish, and doing good becauseit is heavenly and divine. Thus are these threedegrees opened in man one after the other. 238. So long as man lives in the world he knows nothing of the opening of these degrees within himbecause he is then in the natural degree, which isthe ultimate, and from it thinks, wiils, speaks, andacts; and the spiritual degree, which is interior,does not communicate with the natural degree bycontinuity but by correspondences, and this is notperceived by the senses. But when man lays asidethe natural degree, which he does at death, hecornes immediately into that degree which had beenopened within him in the world; into the spiritual,he in whom that degree had been opened and intothe celestial, he in whom that degree had beenopened. The man who cornes into the spiritualdegree after death, no longer thinks, wills, speaks,and acts naturally, but spiritually; and the manwho cornes into the celestial degree thinks, wills,speaks, and acts according to that degree. Andbecause communication between the three degreesis only possible by correspondences, the differencesof love, wisdom, and use in respect of these degreesare such as have nothing in common by means of 140
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [238-240anything continuous. From these considerationsit is plain that man has three degrees of height,and that one after the other can be opened. 239. Since man is endowed with three degrees oflove and wisdom and thence of use, it follows thatthere must be three degrees of will, of under­standing, and thence of result, and in this way adetermination to use; for will is the receptacle oflove, understanding the receptacle of wisdom, andresult is use from these. From this it is evidentthat there are in every man a natural, a spiritual,and a celestial will and understanding, potentiallyfrom birth, and in act when opened. In a word, themind of man, consisting of will and understanding,is, from creation and therefore from birth, of threedegrees, so that man has a natural mind, a spiritualmind, and a celestial mind, and can thereby beraised into angelic wisdom and possess it whileliving in the world; but he comes into it onlyafter death and if he becomes an angel, and thenhis speech is inexpressible and incomprehensible toa natural man. I knew a man of moderate educa­tion in the world and after his death saw him andconversed with him in heaven. l perceived clearlythat he spoke like an angel and that what he saidwould be imperceptible to the natural man. Thereason was that in th~ world he had applied theprecepts of the Word to life and had worshippedthe Lord, and was therefore raised up by the Lordinto the third degree of love and wisdom. I t isimportant to have a knowledge of this elevationof the human mind, for upon it depends the under­standing of what follows. 240. Man has two faculties from the Lordwhereby he is distinguished from beasts. One is L}I
    • 240, 241J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM that he can understand what is true and what is good. This is called rationality and is the faculty of his understanding. The other is that he has power to do what is true and good. This is called f~ and is the faculty of his will. ~or man, on account of his rationality, is able to think whatsoever he pleases, either with or against God, and either with or against the neighbour; he also has power to will and to do what he thinks ;0Ui: when he sees an eV1I and fears punishment, he is able on account of freedom to cease doing it. J3y v1rtue of these two facultles man lS man and distinguished from beasts. Man has them from the Lord unceasiQgly; they are not withdrawn,Iofïn that event mans human would perish. With every man, ood and evil alike, the Lord is in these two facultles; t ey are t e or s dwe ing place in the liuman race; from this it is that every man, good as weIl as evil, lives to eternity. But the Lords dwelling place is doser within man as bX..m~of these faculties man opens the higher degrees; for their opening glves film entrance to higher degrees of love and wisdom, thus he comes nearer to the Lord. From this it may be evident that as these degrees are opened, so man is in the Lord and the Lord in him. 241. It was said above that the three degrees of height are like end, cause and effect, and that love, wisdom and use follow their course according to these degrees; wherefore a few things shall be said here about love as the end, wisdom as the cause, and use as the effect. Everyone who con­ sults his reason, provided it is enlightened, can see that the end of all things of man is his love, for w~t he loves that he thinks, resolves and does, 142
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [241,242consequently has for his end. Man is able also tosee from his reason that wisdom is cause, becausehe, or the love which is his end, seeks diligently inhis understanding for the means by which he mayattain his end; thus he consults his wisdom, andthese means make the instrumental cause. Thatuse is effect needs no explanation. But love withone man is not the same as with another, neitheris wisdom, nor thence use. And since these threeare homogeneous (see Nos. 189-194) it follows thatsuch as is mans love, such is the wisdom, and suchthe use. Where wisdom is mentioned, what belongsto mans understanding is meant.SPIRITUAL LIGHT FLOWS IN THROUGHTHE THREE DEGREES INTO MAN, BUTNOT SPIRITUAL HEAT, EXCEPT SO FAR ASMAN SHUNS EVILS AS SINS, AND LOOKS TO THE LORD 242. l t is evident from what has been shownabove that heat and light emanate from the Sun ofheaven, which is the first proceeding of the DivineLove and Wisdom (treated of in Part Second) ;light from His Wisdom, and heat from His Love;and that light is the receptacle of wisdom andheat the receptacle of love; and that so far asman cornes into wisdom, he cornes into this Divinelight, and so far as he cornes into love, he cornesinto this Divine heat. It is also evident from whatwas indicated above that there are three degrees ofboth light and heat, or three degrees of both wisdomand love, and that these degrees have been formed 143
    • 242, 243J DIVINE LOVE AND WISVOM in man in order that he might be a receptacle of Divine Love and Wisdom, and 50 of the Lord. lt is now to be proved that spiritual light ftows in through these degrees into man, but spiritual heat does not, except 50 far as man shuns evils as t sms, and looks to to receive wisdom even to the that man is able the Lord; or what 15 the same, third degree, but not love unless he shuns evils as sins, and looks to the Lord; or what is still the same, that mans understanding can be raised into wisdom bùflÎls will cannot except 50 far as he shuns evils as sins. 243. That the understanding can be raised into the light of heaven, or into angelic wisdom, and that the will cannot be raised into the heat of heaven, or into angelic love unless man shuns evils as sins and looks towards the Lord, was made evident to me from experience in the spiritual world. l have frequently seen and perceived that simple spirits, who only knew that there is a God and that the Lord was born Man and scarce any­ thing besides, thoroughly understood the mysteries of angelic wisdom, almost as the angels do; and not they alone, but many also from the devilish crew. Th% while they were listening, understood, but not when they ~hought within thems~s, for as tliey were hstenmg hght entered trom above, but as they thought things over no light could penetrate except such as agreed with their heat or love. Wherefore also as soon as they heard these mysteries and perceived them, they turned their ears away and remembered nothing; yea, those who were from the diabolical crew immediately rejected and absolutely denied these mysteries because the fire of their love and its delusive light 144
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [243-245eovered them with darkness whieh extinguished theheavenly light from above. 244. l t is the same in the world. A man, notaltogether stupid and who from eonceit in his ownintelligence has not eonfirmed false things inhimself, when he hears men speaking on higherthings or when he reads sueh things, provided hehas some affection of knowing, at once understandsthem, retains them, and afterwards is able toeonhrmthem. A bad man ean do this just 1J;1esame as a good man. Even a bad man, although fl Jin heart denying tfië Divine things of the Chureh,still has power ta understand them and also speakand preaeh them, besides skilfully eonfirming themin writing; but assuredly, when left to his ownthought, his own hellish love makes him thinkeontrary to them and deny them. From whieh itis obvious that the understanding ean be in spirituallight even though the will is not in spiritual heat.From whieh it follows that the understandin~ doesnot lead the will, or wisdom beget love, ut itmerëIy teaehes and shows the way; it teaehes howman ought to live and shows him the way heshould go. And again it follows that the will leadsthe understanding and makes it àCfliïtiiilsOrïWîfhItself; and that the wills love proc1alms that tobewisdom in the understanding whieh agrees withitself. In what follows it will be seen that the willdoes nothing by itself without the understanding,but ail that it does, it does in eonjunction with theunderstanding; on the other hand it is the willflowing in whieh takes the understanding intopartnership, and not the other way round. 245. The nature of the influx of light into thelthree degrees of life in man, whieh belong to the 145
    • 245, 246J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM mind, shail now be explained. The forms receptive of heat and light, or of love and wisdom, and which, as said above, are in triple order or of three degrees, are transparent from birth and transmit spiritual light as crystal glass does naturallight. From this cornes the possibility of a man being raised to the third degree in respect to wisdom. Nevertheless these forms are not opened except when spiritual fieat umtes wlth spiritualhght, or love With ~m; yet through su~union tliese trans­ parent forms are opened in accordance with degrees. The same holds good with the heat and light of the natural sun regarding plant life on the earth. Wintry light, though equally as bright as summer light, opens nothing in seed or tree, but when united with vernal heat then everything bursts open. The comparison is exact because spiritual light corresponds ta natural light, and spiritual heat to natural heat. 246. This s iritual heat is acquired o~by shunnin ev a a _._ e ~me J!.ii1e lookin towards the Lord; for so long as man is ft iiî evÎS he is also in the love of them, indeed in lust for them, and the love of evil and lust rests in a love which is contrary to spiritual love and affection. That love or lust can only be removed by shunning evils as sins; and since man cannat escape them of himself but only trom the Lord, he must look to Hlm. When he thus esca~es"them from the Lord, the love· of evil and it heat is removed at the same time, and the love of good and Ifs heat IS put 10 Ùs place, whereby a higher degree is opened. The Lord indeed flows in from above and opens it and at the same time unites love or spiritual heat to wisdom or spiritual light. 146,
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM (246-24élFrom this union man begins to flourish spiritually,like a tree in spring time. 247. Man is distinguished from beasts by theinflux of spiritual light into aIl three degrees of themind; and, compared with beasts, man can thinkanalytically, perceive not only natural truths butspiritual also, and, seeing them, can acknowledget~e reformed and regenerated. Thehculty of receiving spirituallight is what is meantby rationality, referred to above, which every manhas from the Lord, and which is not taken awayfrom him; for if it were taken away, he could notbe reformed. It is on account of this faculty,termed rationality, that man can not only think,but also speak from thought, differently frombeasts; and afterwards from his other faculty,termed freedom, also referred to above, he can dothe things which he thinks from his understanding.As these two faculties, rationality and freedom,which are peculiar to man, have already beendiscussed (No. 240), no more will be said aboutthem here.MAN BECOMES NATURAL AND SENSUALIF THE HIGHER DEGREE, WHICH IS THE SPIRITUAL, IS NOT OPENED IN HlM 248. l t was shown above that there are threedegrees of the human mind, termed natural,spiritual, and celestial, and that they can beopened in man one after the other: also, that thefirst degree to be opened is the natural, and after­wards, if man shuns evils as sins and looks to theLord, the spiritual degree is opened, and at length 147
    • 248, 249J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthe ce!estial. Since these degrees are openedaccording to mans life, one after the other, itfollows that the two higher degrees may not beopened, and then man remains in the natura!, theultimate, degree. It is known even in the worldthat there is a natura! man and a spiritual man,or an external man and an internaI man; but itis not known that a natura! man becomes spiritualby the opening of any higher degree in him, andthat the opening is effected by a spiritua! life1conformed to the DIvme---E,recepts, ana thatwithout such a life man rëmams natura!. 249. There are three classes of natural men:one consists of those who know nothing about theDivine precepts; another of those who know thereare Divine precepts but give no thought to a lifeaccording to them; and the third of those whodisregard and deny them. Respecting the firstclass, who know nothing about Divine precepts,since they cannot teach themselves there is nothingfor them but to remain natura!. Every man istaught about the Divine precepts by others whoknow them from religion, and not by immediaterevelations; on which subject see the " Doctrineof the New J erusalem concerning the SacredScriptures " (Nos. II4-II8). The second class, whoknow about the Divine precepts but give nothought to a life according to them, also remainnatura! and care about no other concerns savethose of the world and the body. These afterdeath become menia!s and servants, according tothe uses which they are able to perform for thosewho are spiritual; for a natural man is a menialand servant, and a spiritual man is a master andLord. The third class, who disregard and despise 148
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [249-251the Divine precepts, not only remain natural butbecome sensual in proportion to their contemptand denial. The sensual are the lowest naturalmen, incapable of thought higher than theappearances and errors of the bodily senses; theseafter death are in hello 250. Since in the world it is not known what aspiritual man is, or what a natural man is, andhe who is merely natural is by many called spiritual,therefore the two shall be distinctly treated of, asfollows: (i) What the natural man is, and what the spiritual. (ii) The character of the nat~tral man in whom the spiritual degree is opened. (iii) The character of the natural ma·n in whom the spirit~tal degree is not opened, but yet not closed. (iv) The character of the natural man in whom the spiritual degree has been absolutely closed. (v) Lastly, the nature of the difference between the life of a merely natural man and the life .of a beast. 251. (i) What the natural man is, and what thespiritual. Man is not man from face and body,but from understanding and will; wherefore bythe natural man and the spiritual man is meantthat mans understanding and will are eithernatural or spiritual. The natural man as regardshis understanding and will is like the naturalworld, and may be called a world or microcosm ;and the spiritual man as regards his understandingand will is like the spiritual vorld, and may be 149
    • 251,252) DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM called a spiritual world or heaven. From which it is clear that since the natural man is in a certain image a natural world, he loves worldly things, and that as the spiritual man is in a certain image a spiritual world, so he loves the things of that world or of heaven. A spiritual man certainly does love the natural worldalso, but onlyas a master may love a servaDfwOilgh ""bom he fulfils a use. Accordmg to uses also a natura1 man becomes as it were s iritual when he feels the delight of use fro e siri al. This naturar man may be called spiritual natural. The spiritual man fmds pleasure in spiritual truths; he likes not only to know and understand but also wills them; how­ ever, the natural man likes to talk about those truths and to do them too: doing truths is performing uses. This subordinatIon cornes from tfîe umon of the spiritual and natural worlds; for whatever appears and is done in the natural world derives its cause from the spiritual world. From this it may be evident that the spiritual man is absolutely distinct from the natural and that the only communication between them is that of cause and effect. 252. (ii) The character 0] the natural man in whom the spiritual degree is opened is obvious from what has been said above; ta which must be added that the natural man is a complete man when the spiritual degree lS 0 ened m hlm; Ïor he lS en assocIa e wIt ange s m eaven and at the same time with men in the world, and in 1regard to both is living under the guidance offu Lord; forme spiritual man gathers his inJunctlons rrom the Lord through the Word, and followsl/ them out by means of the natural man. The ISO
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [252,253 natural man whose spiritual degree has been opened is unaware that he thinks and acts from h~ own spiritual man; for If seems as 1f if were from Illmself, when yet it is not from himself but ~ from the Lord. He also is unaware that by means of his spiritual man he is in heaven, when, actually, his spiritual man is in the midst of the angels of ~heaven ; sometimes he is even visible ta them, but as he retreats inta his natural man after a brief stay there he is parted from them. Again, r he is unaware that his spiritual mind is filled bythe Lord with thousands of the secrets of wisdomand thousands of the delights of love, and that he will come into these things after death when he becomes an ange!. The reason why these thingsare unknown ta the natural man is that communica­tion between the natural and spiritual man iseffected by correspondences, and tbis communica­tion is only perceptible ta the understanding inffièlïght by WhlCh trutns are seen, and ta the will vlry. the affection with WhlCh uses are perfor~ed. 253. (iii) The character of the natural man inwhom the spiritual degree is not opened, but yet notclosed. The spiritual degree is not opened, butnot yet c1osed, with those who have led in sornemeasure the life of charity and yet have knownIittle of genuine truth. The reason is that thisdegree is opened by a unioiîOf love and wls(fom,or of heaCwltli light;1ove aloIïë,""Orspmtua! hèàt/a1Oïlè; tloes not open it, nor wisdom alone, norspirituailight aione; but bath united. Wherefore,if the genuine truths which give wisdom or lightare unknown, love has not the power ta open thatdegree, but only keeps it in the possibility of beingopened; which is to be understood by its not 15 [
    • 253J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM being shut. This is the same as in the vegetable kingdom. Beat alone does not make seeds and trees grow, but it works in union with light to èffect this. It should be known that aU truths are of spirituallight and aU good things are of spiritual heat, and that good opens the spiritual degree by means of truths; for good produces the eftect of use by truths, and uses are the good things of love, which derive their essence from the union of good and truth. The lot of those aIter death, in whom the spiritual degree is not opened and yet not shut, is that since they are stiU natural and not spiritual, they are in the lowest parts of heaven where they sometimes sufter hard things, or they are in the outskirts of sorne higher heaven where they are, as it were, in the light of evening ; for, as was said above, in heaven and in each of its societies, the light decreases from the middle to the boundaries, and those who are more advanced in Divine truths than others are in the centre, and those in few truths in the outskirts. They are in few truths who only know from religion that there is a God and that the Lord suftered for them; also that charity and faith are essentials of the Church; and take no trouble to find out what they are; when yet faith in its essence is truth, and truth is manifold, and_charity is aU the workl of his calling which man âoes from the Lord;. w1liëh iSëIone from the Lord as and when heShûns e7tts as sms. It isPmlsely as was sfâteâ1il5OVe, the end IS the aU of the cause, and the eftect is the ail of the end through the cause: the end is charity or good, the cause is faith or truth, and eftects are good works or uses. From this it is clear that no more of charity can be carried into works than to the extent that charity has been united with 15 2
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [253,254truths which are termed "of faith." Throughthese truths charity enters into works and givesthem their character. 254. (iv) The character of the natural man inwhom the spiritual degree kas been absolutely closed.The spiritual degree is closed in those who are inevils as to life, and still more in those who, onaccount of evils, are in false principles. It is thesame as with a fibril of a nerve, which contractsat the slightest touch of anything of a differentcharacter; similarly every motor fibre of a muscle,yea, the muscle itself, and even the whole body,shrinks from the touch of whatever is hard orcold; so also substances or forms of the spiritualdegree in man shrink from evils and the falsitiesfrom them, for they are of opposite character.For the spiritual degree, being in the form ofheaven, only allows good things, and truths which~xist from good, to draw near; these are homo­geneous to it, but evils and the false ideas whichexist from evil are heterogeneous to it. Thisdegree is contracted, and by contraction closed,especially with those in the world who by reasonof their self-love are in the love of domination,since this love is opposed to love to the Lord. l tis also closed, but not so much, in those who fromlove of the world have an insane greed of possessingthe goods of others. These loves shut up thespiritual degree because they are the origins ofevils. The contraction or closing of this degree islike the twisting of a spiral in the opposite direction:the reason of which is that, after this degree isclosed, it turns back the light of heaven, and thereis darkness there instead of heavenly light; hencetruth, which exists in heavenly light, becomes 153
    • 254, 255J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMnauseous. In such persons not only does thespiritual degree itself become closed, but also thehigher region of the natural degree, which istermed the rational, until at last the lowest regionof the natural degree, termed the sensual, alonestands open; for this is nearest to the world andthe outward senses of the body, from which theman afterwards thinks, speaks, and reasons, Anatural man, sensualised by evils and false ideastherefrom, in the spiritual world, in heavenlylight, does not look like a man, but like a monsterwith nqse drawn back: the indrawn nose resultsfrom the correspondence of the nose to the percep­tion of truth. Moreover he cannot bear a ray ofheavenly light ; the only light they have in theircaverns is like that which cornes from live coalsor burning charcoal. It is clear therefore who,and of what character, they are who have theirspiritual degree closed. 255. (v) The nature of the d-ifference between thel-ife of a merely natural man and the l-ife of a beast.This difference will be discussed in detail whentreating of life in the following pages. Here it isonly necessary to point out that the difference isthat man has three degrees of mind, or of under­standing and will, which can be opened one afterthe other; and, since these are transparent, mancan be raised as to bis understanding into thelight of heaven and see truths, spiritual as well ascivil and moral; and, from many truths so seen, can form conclusions about them in their order, and thus perfect his understanding to eternity.But beasts do not possess the two higher degrees.They have only the natural degrecs, and without the others have no means of thinking on any 154
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [255,256civil, moral or spiritual matter. And since theirnatural degrees cannat be opened sa as to beraised into higher light, they are unable ta thinkin successive order but only in simultaneous arder,which is not thinking, but acting from knowledgecorresponding ta their love. And because theycannot think analytically and view a lower thoughtfrom sorne higher one, they are unable ta speak,and can only utter sounds consistent with theknowledge which is barn of their love. Still thevery lowest of sensual men only differ from beastsin that they can fill the memory with information,and think and speak therefrom; and this abilitythey derive from the power, peculiar ta every man,of understanding truth if they wish ta. Tt is thiscapacity which makes the difference. But many,by abuse of this capacity, have made themselveslower than beasts.THE NATURAL DEGREE OF THE HUMANMIND REGARDED IN ITSELF IS CON ­TINUOUS, BUT, WHEN RAISED, IT HASTHE APPEARANCE OF BEING DISCRETE,THROUGH CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE TWO HIGHER DEGREES 256. Although this is hardly comprehensible tathose who have not yet made acquaintance withclegrees of height, it must nevertheless be revealed,because it is a matter of angelic wisdom. Althoughit is impossible for the natura! man ta think aboutthis wisdom in the sarne way as angels, the U1.cler­standing can yet perceive it when raisecl as far as 155
    • 256, 257] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthe degree of light of the angels; for the under­standing can be raised even to that extent and beenlightened accordingly. But the illumination ofthe natural mind does not rise by discrete degrees,but by a continuous degree; then, as it increases,so it is illuminated interiorly from the light of thetwo higher degrees. How this is done can beunderstood from a perception of the degrees ofheight, as being one above another, and of thenatural degree, the ultimate, as being like a generalcovering of the two higher degrees. Then just asthe natural degree is elevated towards the higherdegree, so the higher, from within, acts upon theouter natural and il1uminates it. The illuminationis indeed effected from within by means of thelight of the higher degrees; but it is received bythe natural degree, which covers and surrounds,through continuity, thus more clearly and purelyin proportion to its ascent; that is, the naturaldegree is enlightened from within by the light ofthe higher degrees discretely, but in itself isenlightened continuously. From this it is plainthat so long as man lives in the world, and isthereby in the natural degree, hE cannot be raisedinto wisdom itself such as it is with angels, butonly into higher light, even to the angels, and canreceive illumination from their light, which flows infrom within and enlightens. But these things cannotas yet be more clearly described; they can be betterunderstood from effects, for effects present causesin themselves in light and thus il1ustrate them,when there is sorne previous knowledge of causes. 257. Such effects are: (1) The natural mindcan be raised even to the light of heaven in whichangels are and perceive natural1y, thus not so 15 6
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [257fully, what angels perceive spiritually; nevertheless,mans natural mind cannot be raised into angeliclight itself. (2) Through the elevation of his naturalmind to the light of heaven man can think, yea,speak with angels; but the thought and speechof the angels then flows into the natural thoughtand speech of the man, and not in the reverse way ;for which reason angels speak with man in naturallanguage, his own mother tongue. (3) This iseffected by a spiritual influx into the natural andnot by any natural influx into the spiritual. (4)Ruman wisdom, which is natural during manslife in the natural world, cannot be raised to thelevel of angelic wisdom, but only into a certainimage of it; the reason is that the elevation ofthe natural mind cornes by continuity, as it mightbe from shade to light, or from grosser to finer.Yet the man, whose spiritual degree has beenopened, cornes into that wisdom when he dies, andmay also come into it by the suspension of hisbodily senses and, at the same time, an influx fromabove into the spiritual things of his mind. (5)Mans natural mind is composed of both spiritualand natural substances: thought comes from itsspiritual substances but not from natural sub­stances; these are separated when the man dies,but the spiritual substances are not; whereforethat same mind, after death when man becomesa spirit or angel, remains in a form like that whichit had in the world. (6) The natural substancesof that mind, which as was said are separated bydeath, constitute the covering of skin for thespiritual body of spirits and angels. It is by meansof such covering, taken out of the natural world,that their spiritual bodies continue to exist, for thenatural is the outmost containant. Consequently 157
    • 257, 258] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthere is no spirit or angel who was not born aman. These secrets of angelic wisdom are addueedhere in order that the quality of mans naturalmind may be known. Further particulars will begiven in the following pages. 258. Every man is born into the pm,ver of under­standing truths even to the inmost degree, inwhich are the angels of the third heaven; for thehuman understanding, lifting itseif up by continuityaround the two higher degrees, reeeives the lightof wisdom of those degrees, as described in No. 256.Renee man can become rational in accordancewith his elevation; if raised to the third degree,he becomes rational in accordanee with the thirddegree; if to the second degree, he becomes rationalto that degree; and if not raised, he is rationalin the first degree. It is said that he becomesrational in accordance with these degrees becausethe natural degree is the general receptac1e oftheir light. Man does not become rational to theextreme height possible, because love, whichpertains to the will, cannot be raised in the samemanner as wisdom, which pertains to the under­standing. The wills love is raised only by shunningevils because they are sins, and then by the goodthings of charity, namely uses, which man after­wards performs from the Lord. Wherefore if love,which is of the will, is not raised at the sametime, wisdom, which is of the understanding,however it may have aseended, yet relapses ta itsown love. Rence man is still rational only in thelowest degree if his love be not raised at thesame time into the spiritual degree. It may beevident, therefore, that mans rational appears asif of three degrees: rational from celestial, from 15 8
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [258-260spiritual, and from natural; also that rationality,the faculty which can be raised, is still in man,whether or not it be raised. 259. 1t was said that every man is bom intothat faculty, or into rationality; but this meansevery man whose body has not been injured bysorne chance occurrence, either in the womb orfrom an after-birth disease, or from a wound onthe head, or from sorne insane lust bursting forthand unloosing aU barriers. With such people therational cannot be raised, for the life of the willand understanding with them has no bounds,within which it may stop, so arranged that it canperform outward acts in an orderly manner; forlife acts in accordance with the ultimate boundaries,but not out of them. That rationality is not given1.0 infants and children will be seen below (No. 266at the end).SINCE THE NATURAL MIND COVERS ANDCONTAINS THE HIGHER DEGREES OF THEHUMAN MIND, IT IS REACTIVE; AND, IFTHE HIGHER DEGREES ARE NOT OPENED,IT ACTS AGAINST THEM, BUT IF THEY ARE OPENED, IT ACTS WITH THEM 260. It was shown in the previous chapter that,since the natural mind is in the lowest degree, itenvelops and encloses both the spiritual andcelestial minds, which are higher in respect todegrees. There cornes now the necessity of showingthat the natural mind reacts against the higher or 159
    • 260, 26iJ DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMinterior minds. It does so because it covers,encloses, and contains them, and this cannot bedone without reaction; for if it did not react, thethings inside or enclosed would become loosened,pushed forth, and so be scattered. It would bejust as if the viscera, which are the interiors of thebody, were to faIl out and ftow apart, should thecoverings of the body not react. So also it wouldbe if the membrane covering the motor fibres of amuscle did not react against the forces of thesefibres in their activities; not only would actioncease, but aIl the inner tissues would be dispersed.l t is the same Nith every !owest degree of thedegrees of height: consequently with the naturalmind in relation to the higher degrees; for, assaid above, there are three degrees of the humanmind, natural, spiritual, and celestial, and thenatural mind is in the lowest degree. Anotherreason why the natura! mind reacts against thespiritual mind is that the natura! mind is composednot only of spiritual substances but also of natural(see No. 257); and substances of the natura!world react from their very nature against thoseof the spiritual world; for in themselves they aredead, and are set in motion from without bysubstances of the spiritual world. Things that aredead, and are acted upon from without, offerresistance from their own nature, and thus fromtheir nature react. From these considerations itmay be evident that the natural man reacts againstthe spiritual man and that there is a contest. It isthe same whether it be said of man, natural andspirit ua!, or of mind, natural and spiritual. 261. It may be obvious also that the naturalmind continually opposes spiritual ideas if the 160
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOlvl (z6r, z6z spiritual mind be c1osed, and is fearfullest anything should flow in therefrom to disturb its own states. Everything which flows in through the spiritual mind cornes from hcaven, indeed the spiritual mind is in its form a heaven; and everything which fiows into the natural mind cornes from the world, for the natural mind is in its form a world. It foHows therefore that, when the spiritu~l ~1).ind is c1osed, the natural mind reacts against aH heavenly things, nor does it admit them, except so far as they are useful to it as means for providing and possessing worldIy things. And when heavenly things are used as means by the naturaI mind for its own ends, those means then become natural, heavenly th~)UgI:Ul:H~y~Rpear; fQr}h~~Ii(givês them -tfieir quality. They 5ëcome indeed just fike tUe intelligent ideas of the natural man, which have no inherent life in them. But since heavenly " things cannot be united to natural sa as ta act as one, they are separated, and with merely natural men are arranged round about the natural things Within. Hence it is that a merely naturaI man can speak and preach about heavenly things and[ feign them also by his actions, aIthough inwardly thinking in opposition to them. The latter he does when alone, but the former when in company. But of this more later. 26z. The natural mind or man, on account of its inborn reaction, opposes the things of the spiritual mind, or man, whe!! he love..s hims~1f and the world above aIl things. Then also he fe~Sa delight in eviIs of every kind, as, for instance, adultery, fraud, revenge, blasphemy, and other such things; then too, he recognises nature as the creator of the universe; and aH these things r6r
    • 262,263) DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM he confirms by means of his rational faculty; and, after confirmation, either 2erverls, stifies, or ~1!? away the good and true things of heavên and the Church, and at length either runs away from them, or scorns them, or hates them. This he does in his spirit and in his body, so far as he dares to speak from his spirit to other people without fear of the los-S-QLrgr.!:!.!é.lti9n touching his honour and wealth. Vvith such a man the spiritual mind becomes gradually more and more closely shut, principally through the confirmation of evils by falsehoods. Rence it is that confirmed evil and falsity cannot be eradicated after death. That is only possible by repentance in the world. 263. But the state of the natural mind is abso­ lutely different when the spiritual mind is opened : then the natural mind is disposed and subordinated in cClmpliance with the spiritual; for the spiritual mind acts upon the natural from above or within, removes those things therein which reaet, and adapts to itself those which act in harmony with & whereby prevailing Il.:e3!s.!i~m is gradually done away with. It must be understood that there is7- ( action and reactiorDin the greatest and least things onhe univefse,both living and dead; hence cornes the eq.uilibrium of ail things, which is destroyed when laction overcomes reaction and vice versa If is tlie-samewIfh-the 11atüral and spiritual minds. When the natural mind acts from the delight of its love and the pleasures of its thought, which in themselves are wickcd and false, ttle.--.r.ei!.<:tion of lhe naturé).l mind remaves those things which belong ~ to the spiritual mind, and blocks the / doors lest they enter; it causes action ta come from such things l,as agree with its own reaction. 162
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [263,264 Thus there is an action and reaction of the naturall mind, 0.Qp0sed to the action and reaction of the ~piritual rrund, resulting in the closing of the spiritual mind like the bending back of a spiral. But, if the spiritual mind be opened, the action and readion of the natural mind is inverted; for ~Illiitual mind acts from above orwithln, and at the same tiffiëfrQIÎÎ below or without, through those things in the naturaÏÏnind which have been arranged in submission to it, and twists back the spiral in wIncn the action and reaction of theIr natural mind lie; for this mind from birth is in, direct opposition to things orthe spirItual mind, an opposition derived by heredity from parents, as is weIl known. Such is the nature of the change of state, called reformation and regeneration. The state of the natural mind before reformation may be compared to a spiral twisting or bending itself downward, but after reformation to a spiral twisting or bending itself upward; wherefore man before reformation looks downward to hell and after- retormafio-ri ü-pwar~!o h~aven.- ~- ---­ THE ORIGIN OF EVIL COMES FROM ABUSE OF THE FACULTIES PECULIAR TO MAN, TERMED RATIONALITY AND FREEDOM 264. By rationality is meant the faculty of understanding what is true and from it what is false, what is good and from it what is evil; and by freedom is meant the faculty of thinking, Villing and doing these things freely. From the foregoing it may be evident, and from the following will be more evident, that every man has these G r63
    • 264-266J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOllftwo faculties by creation and thence by birth, andthat they are from the Lord; that they are nottaken away; that from them comes the appearancethat man thinks, speaks, wills and acts as ofhimself; that the Lord dwells with every man inthese faculties; that man lives to eternity onaccount of this union; that man can be reformedand regenerated by means of these faculties, butnot without them; fmally, that by them man isdistinguished from beasts. 265. That the origin of evil comes from abuseof these faculties will be explained in this order : (i) A bad man equaUy with a good man enjoys these two faculties. (ii) A bad man abuses these faculties in con­ firming evil and false things, but a good man uses them in confirming good and true things. (iii) Evils and falsities confirmed in man remain and become his love and thence Ms lite. (iv) Those things which belong to his love and life are passed on to the children. (v) AU evils, both inherited a1l,d contracted, reside in the natural mind. 266. (i) A bad man equally with a good manenjoys these two faculties. It was shown in thepreceding chapter that the natural mind, inrespect to the understanding, can be raised evento the light which the angels of the third heavenhave, and see truths, acknowledge them, and thentalk about them. From this it is c1ear that, sincethe natural mind can be so raised, a bad manequally with a good man enjoys that faculty whichis called rationality: and because the natural mind 164
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [266can be raised to such an extent, it follows that healso can think and speak about them. Moreoverreason and experience testify that he can will anddo them, even if he does not. "Reason"; Whocannot will and do what he thinks? But that hedoes not, is because there is no desire to will anddo them. The ability to will and do is freedom,and is the Lords gift to every man; but his notwilling and doing good, when he has the power,cornes from love of evil, which opposes; Thislove however he can resist, and many also doresist. This has been confirmed several times from" experience" in the spiritual world. l havelistened to evil spirits who inwardly were devilsand had in the world rejected the truths of heavenand the Church; these, when the affection oflearning, which is every mans from childhood, wasexcited by the glory that, like the brightness offire, surrounds every love, perceived secrets ofangelic wisdom just as clearly as good spirits, whoinwardly were angels. Yea, those diabolical spiritssaid, they can indeed will and act according tothem, but do not wish to. When told they maywill them if only they shun evils because they aresins, they said they can even do that, but are notwilling. From this it was plain that the wickedequally with the good have the faculty of freedom ;let every man refiect and he will perceive that itis so. Man is able to will because the Lord, framWhom that faculty cornes, gives him the powerunceasingly; for as said above, the Lord dwellswith every man in these two faculties, hence inthe faculty or power of being able to will. Inregard to the faculty of understanding, termedrationality, this is not granted to a man before hisnatural mind cornes to its maturity; meanwhile r65
    • 266,267J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMit is like seed in unripe fruit which is incapable ofbeing opened in the ground and of growing into ashrub. Neither is this faculty granted to thosementioned above (No. 259). 267. (ii) A bad man abuses these facuUies in con­firming evil and false tl~ings, but a good man usesthem in confirming good and true things. Man derives the power to confinu whatsoever he wills from theintellectual faculty termed rationality and thevoluntary faculty termed freedom; for the naturalman can raise his understanding towards higherlight just so long as he desires; but one who is inevils and the falsities from them raises it no higherthan into the upper region of his natural mind,and rarely to the region of the spiritual mind. Thereason is that he lives in the delights of the loveof his natural mind; and if he rise above thatmind, the delight of his love perishes. If hisunderstanding be raised higher and he see truthsopposed to the delights of his life or to the principlesof his self-intelligence, he either perverts thosetruths, takes no notice of them and contemptuouslyabandons them, or he bears them in mind as meansto serve his lifes love or the pride of his self­intelligence. That a natural man can confirmwhatever he wishes is very evident from the manyheresies in the Christian world, each of which isconfirmed by its adherents. Who does not knowthat evils and falsities of every kind can beconfirmed ? It is possible ta confirm, and thewicked do confinu also in themselves, that there isno God, and that Nature is everything and createdherself; that religion is only a mcans for keepingsimple minds in fetters; that human prudenceefiects all and the Divine Providence nothing, 166
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [267.268beyond maintaining the universe in the order inwhich it was created; also that murders, adulterie.s,thefts, frauds, and revenge are permissible, accord­ing to Machiavelli and his followers. These andmany like things a natural man can confirm, yea,can fill volumes with confirmations; and whenthey have been confirmed, these falsehoods appearin their delusive light, and truths in such shadowthat they are to be seen only as phantoms of thenight. In a word, take the grossest lie and presentit as a proposition, and say to an expert, " Confirmit," and he will confirm it to the utter extinctionof the light of truth; but set his confirmations onone side, go back and look at the proposition itselffrom your own rationality, and you will see itsfalsity in an its deformity. From these things itmay be evident that man can abuse these twofaculties, the Lords gift to him, by confirmingevils and falsities of every kind. No beast can dothis, since no beast enjoys these faculties; where­fore a beast is born into the whole order of itslife and into every knowledge of its natural love,differently from man. 268. (iii) Evils and falsities conjirmed in manremain and become Ms love and thence his life.Confirmations of evil and falsity are simplythe putting away of good and truth, and if theygrow they become rej ections; for evil removesand rejects good, and falsity truth: hence alsoconfirmations of evil and falsity serve to shut upheaven, for every good and truth flows in fromthe Lord through heaven ; and when heaven isc1osed, man is in hell, and in a society wheresimilar evil and falsity reign, whence no release isafterwards possible. Permission was given to 167
    • 268,269J DIVINE LOVE AND WISOOMspeak with sorne who ages before had confirmedin themselves the falsities of their religion, and lperceived that they persisted in the same errorsas they held in the world. The reason is that ailthe things which man confirms in himself becomeproperties of his love and his lite; of his lovebecause they become properties of will and under­standing, and will and understanding constitute thelife of everyone; and when they become propertiesof mans life they become properties not only of hiswhole mind but also of his whole body. Hence itis clear that a man who has confirmed himself inevil and false things is of such a character fromhead ta foot; and when wholly such, by no mannerof twisting or turning can he be brought back ta anopposite state and thus be withdrawn from hel!.From these and the preceding statements in thischapter may be seen whence the origin of evil is. 269. (iv) Those things which belO1~g ta his loveand thence ta his life are passed on ta the children.Tt is known that man is barn into evil and thathe acquires it as an inheritance from parents: andit is believed by sorne that the inheritance is notfrom parents but through parents from Adam;but this is an error. He derives it from the father,from whom he has a soul which is clothed with abody in the mother; for the seed from the fatheris the first receptacle of life, but a receptacle ofsuch quality as it was with the father, for it is inthe form of his love, and everyones love is, ingreatest and least things, similar ta itself. Thereis in that seed an effort towards the human form,into which also it gradually passes. Hence itfollows that so called hereditary evils from thefathers, and sa tram grandfathers and forefathers, r68
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [269,270are derivcd to the offspring in succession. Experi­ence also teaches this, for as to affections there isa resemblance of races to their nrst progenitorsand a stronger resemblance in families, and a stillstronger resemblance in homes; indeed theresemblance is such that generations can bedistinguished not only from character, but evenfrom the face. But of the begetting of the loveof evil from parents in children more will be saidlater when treating of the correspondence of themind, or will and understanding, with the bodyand its members and organs. Here only thesefew things are brought forward that it may beknown that evils are derived in succession fromparents and are augmented through the accumula­tions of one parent after another, until man bybirth is nothing but evil: and that the malignityof evil increases according to the degree of theclosing of the spiritual mind, for thus the naturalmind also is closed above; and that this is notre-established in their descendants except byshunning evils as sins by the Lords help. In noother way is the spiritual mind opened and thenatural mind thereby restored to a form corre­sponding with it. 270. (v) AU evils and the falsities from them, bothinherited and contracted, reside in the nattlral mind.Evils and the falsities from them reside in thenatural mind because that mind is, in form orimage, a world; but the spiritual mind is, in formor image, a heaven, and in heaven evil cannot beentertained; on which account this mind is notopened from birth but only has the possiblity ofbeing opened. The natural mind takes its formalso in part from natural substances, but the r69
    • 270, 271] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMspiritual mind solely from spiritual substances.This mind is preserved in its innocence by theLord sa that man may become man; for he isbarn animal, but becomes man. The natural mindand everything thereof is curved in spirals fromright ta left, but the spiritual mind in spirals fromleft ta right; these minds are thus reciprocallyopposed in direction, a token that evil resides inthe natural mind and of itself acts against thespiritual mind. Moreover the spiral from right taleft is turned downward and sa towards heU, butthe spiral from left ta right goes up, thus towardsheaven. That it is sa was made plain ta me bythis proof: an evil spirit cannat twist his bodyfrom left ta right but turns from right ta left; onthe other hand a good spirit can with difficultyturn the body from right to left but turns easilyfrom left ta right. The spiral motion follows theflow of the minds interiors.EVILS AND FALSITIES EXIST IN EVERY ­ THING OPPOSED 10 GOOD AND TRUETHINGS, BECAUSE EVILS AND FALSITIESARE DI ABOLICAL AND INFERNAL, ANDGOOD AND TRUE THINGS ARE DIVINE AND HEAVENLY 271. Everyone agrees when he hears that eviland good, and falsity from evil and truth fromgood, are opposed; but since those who are inevil do not feel and hence do not perceive otherwisethan that evil is good--for evil pleases their senses,especially sight and hearing, and from that it also 17 0
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [271, 272pleases the thoughts and so the perceptions-theyacknowledge indeed that evil and good are opposed,yet when they are in evil they dec1are evil to begood from the delight of it, and good evil. Takefor example the case of the man who abuses hisfreedom of thinking and doing evil; he calls thatfreedom, and its opposite, namely thinking thegood which is essentially good, slavery; whennevertheless the latter is true freedom and theformer serfdom. He who loves adulteries cails itfreedom to commit adultery, and servitude whennot allowed; for he feels delight in lust andundelight in chastity. He who from self-love is inthe love of domination feels in that love a joy oflife surpassing every other kind of pleasure; henceeverything that belongs to that love he calls goodand everything contrary to it he declares to beevil; when yet it is the opposite. It is the samewith every other evil. Wherefore, although every­one agrees that evil and good are opposites, thosewho are in evil still cherish a wrong idea aboutthis opposition, and only those in good have aright idea. No one so long as he is in evil can seewhat is good, but he who is in good can see evil.Evil is below as in a cave, good is above as on amountaino 272. Now since many are ignorant of the natureof evil, and that it is absolutely opposed to good,and as it is important that it should be known,the matter shall be examined in the followingorder: (i) The natural mtOnd, which is in evils and falsities from them, is a form and image of hello (ii) The natural mind, which is a form and image of hell, descends through three degreeso c* 171
    • 272, 273) DIVINE LOVE AND WI5D01-l (iii) The three degrees of the natu1al mind, which is a form and image of hell, are opposite to the three degrees of the spiritual mind, which is a form and image of heaven. (iv) The nabtral mind which is a heU is opposed in everythi11g to the spiritual mind which is a heaven. 273. (i) The natural mind, which is in evils andfalsities from them, is a form and image of hello How the natural mind in its substantial form isconstituted in man or how it has its form wovenfrom substances of both worlds in the brains, where that mind resides in its first beginnings, cannot here be described. The universal idea of that form will be given in the following pages where the correspondence of mind and body is dealt with. Here something will be said only regarding its form in respect to states and their changes, by which perceptions, thoughts, intentions, desires, and things connected with them are produced; for in respect to these the natural mind that is in evils and falsities therefrom is a form and image of hello This form assumes as subject a substantial form, for without it changing states are impossible, precisely as sight without the eye and hearing without the ear are impossible. And as regards the form or image wherein the natural mind relates to hell, it is such that its prevailing love together with its lusts, the universal state of this mind, is just as is the Devil in heU; and thoughts of what is false originating from that ruling love are like the Devils crew. Nothing else is meant in the Ward by the Devil and !lis crew. The case is similar also, for in heU there is a love of dominion from self-love, a ruling love, called there the 17 2
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [273Devil, and the affections of the false together withthe thoughts originating from that love are calledhis crew. It is the same in every society of hell,with differences such as are the specific differencesof one genus. The natural mind in evils and thefalsities from them is in a like form; consequentlya natural man of such a character cornes afterdeath into a society of hell resembling himself,and then in each and everything he does, acts inunison with it; for he enters into his own form,that is, into the states of bis own mind. Thereis another love ca!led Satan, subordinate to theformer-the Devil; it is the love of takingpossession of the goods of others by every possiblewicked device; cunning villainies and subtletiesare its crew. In this heU the inhabitants as a classare called satans, in the former they are calleddevils; and those who do not act secretly theredo not disown the name; from this it is that theheUs as a whole are cal!ed the Devil and Satan.The two hells are divided generical!y in accordancewith these two loves because al! the heavens aredivided into two kingdoms, celestial and spiritual,in accordance with two loves. The diabolical hell,on account of standing opposite, is the counterpartof the celestial kingdom, and the satanic hell, forthe same reason, of the spiritual kingdom. That theheavens are divided into two kingdoms, celestial andspiritual, may be seen in the work on Heaven andHel! (Nos. 20-28). A natura! mind of such a characteris in form a hel! because every spiritual form is likeitself in greatest and least things; hence every angelis a heaven in lesser form, as has also been shownin the work on Heaven and Hel! (Nos. SI-58) ;from this it fol!ows also that every man or spiritwho is a devil or a satan is a hel! in lesser form. 173
    • 274J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM 274. (ii) .The nat~tral mind, which is a jorm orimage oj hell, descends through three degrees. It maybe seen above (Nos. 222-229) that in the greatestand least of aIl things there are degrees of twofoldorder, called height and breadth; thus the naturalmind also (has these degrees) in its greatest andleast things. Here degrees of height are understood.The natural mind, by reason of its two facultiescalled rationality and freedom, is so situated thatit can ascend through three degrees and descendthrough three degrees. It ascends on account ofits good and true things and descends on accountof its evil and false things. When it ascends, thelower degrees which tend towards hell are closed,and when it descends the higher degrees whichtend towards heaven are closed, the reason beingin their re-action. These three higher and lowerdegrees are neither opened nor closed in man inearly infancy, for he is then ignorant of good andtruth, and of evil and falsity; but as he entersinto them the degrees are opened and closed onone side or the other. When they are openedtowards heIl the ruling love of the will chooses thehighest or inmost place; thought of falsity, whichthe understanding has from that love, chooses thesecond or middle place; and the conclusion oflove through thought, or of will through under­standing, receives the lowest place. It is the samehere also as with the degrees of height treated ofabove. In order they are like end, cause andeffect, or tint, middle and last end. The descentof these degrees is towards the body; hence inthe descent they wax grosser and become materialand corporeal. If truths from the Word are admittedinto the second degree to form it, they are falsifiedby the first degree, which is the love of evil, and 174
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [274,275become servants and slaves; from which it maybe evident what truths of the Church from theWord become in those who are in the love of evil,or whose natural mind is in form a hell; namely,that they are profaned because they serve thedevil as means; for love of evil ruling in thenatural mind, which is a heU, is the Devil, as wassaid above. 275. (iii) The three degrees of the nat~tral mind,which is a form and image of heU, are opposite tothe three degrees of the spiritual mind, which is aform and image of heaven. That there are threedegrees of the mind, caUed natural, spiritual, andcelestial, and that the human mind, composed ofthese degrees, looks towards heaven and turnsitself in that direction, was shown above. Reneeit may be seen that the natural mind, as long asit looks downward and turns itself towards hell, islikewise composed of three degrees, and that eachdegree of it is opposite to a degree of a mind thatis heaven. That this is so was very evident to mefrom things 1 saw in the spiritual world, namely,that there are three heavens separated in accordaneewith the three degrees of height; that there arethree hells and these also are separated inaccordance with the three degrees of height ordepth; that the hells are opposite to the heavensin each and aU things; that the lowest heU isopposite to the highest heaven, the middleheU to the middle heaven, and the uppermostheU to the lowest heaven. It is the same withthe natural mind which is in the form of hell;for spiritual forms are like themselves ingreatest and least things. The heavens and hellsare set opposite in this manner because their 175
    • .,275] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMloves are thus opposed. Love to the Lord andfrom it love towards the neighbour make theinmost degree in the heavens; but self-love andlove of the world make the inmost degree in thehells. Wisdom and intelligence proceeding fromtheir loves make the middle degree in the heavens ;but folly and insanity, seeming like wisdom andintelligence, proceeding from their loves make themiddle degree in the hells. Things resulting fromthe two other degrees which are either stored upin the memory as items of knowledge or determinedinto actions in the body make the lowest degreein the heavens. Conclusions also from their twodegrees, which become either laid up in the memoryas items of knowledge, or determined in the bodyas actions, make the outermost degree in theheIls. How the good and true things of heavenare converted in the heIls into evil and false thingsand so into the opposite may be evident fromthis experience: 1 heard that a certain Divinetruth flowed down from heaven into hell and thatby degrees, on the way in its descent, it wasturned into falsity, so that at the lowest hell itwas completely opposite; from which it was clearthat the hells in accordance with degrees are inopposition to the heavens in respect to aIl thingsgood and true, which become evil and false throughthe influx into inverted forms; for it is weIlknown that aIl influx is perceived and felt accordingto the recipient forms and their states. Thisinversion into the opposite was also made clear tome by the following experience: it was grantedme to see the hells in their position relatively tothe heavens, and those who were there appearedinverted with head downward and feet upward ;but it was said that to themselves they appear aIl 176
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [275, 276the time erect on their feet, as is the case withthe antipodeans. From these examples ofexperience it may he evident that the three degreesof the natural mind, which is a hell in form andlikeness, are opposite ta the three degrees of thenatural mind, which is a heaven in form andlikeness. 276. (iv) The natural mind which is a heU isopposed in everything to the spiritual mind whichis a heaven. When loves are opposites, all thingspertaining ta the perception become opposites;for out of love, which makes the very life of man,ail the others flow like brooks from their spring ;such as are not therefrom separate themselvesin the natural mind from those which are. What­ever belongs ta mans ruling love is in the middleand the lest towards the sicles. If the latter aretruths of the Church from the Ward, they are sentfrom the middle further away ta the sides, and atlast are driven out, and then the man or the naturalrnind perceives evil as good, sees falsity as truth,and conversely. For this reason he believes maliceta be wisclom, folly to be intelligence, cunning tabe prudence, wicked clevices ta be cleverness;and then also he makes Divine and heavenly thingsof the Church and of worship of no account, andbodily and worldly things of the greatest worth.Thus he inverts the state of his life making forexample what is the heads ta belong ta the soleof the foot and trampling on it, and what is ofthe sole of the foot ta he of the head. Thus manfrom living becomes dead. He is said ta be livingwhose mind is a heaven, and ta be dead whosemind is a hell. 177
    • 277,27 8]ALL THINGS OF THE THREE DEGREES OFTHE NATURAL MIND ARE INCLUDED INWORKS WHICH ARE DONE THROUGH ACTS OF THE BODY 277. Through the knowledge of degrees, taughtin this Part, this secret is revealecl: that aIl thethings of the mind or of mans will and under­standing are present in his actions or works,included almost as are the visible and invisiblethings in seed, fruit, or egg. Actions themselvesor works only appear like these outwardly, yetinnumerable things are present inwardly; for thereare forces of the motor fibres of the whole bodywhich meet together and all the things of the mindwhich rouse and determine these forces, as shownabove. That they have three degrees has beenshown above. And since there are ail things ofthe mind so there are all things of the will, or allthe affections of mans love, which form the firstdegree; aU the things of the understanding or allthe thoughts of his perception, which make thesecond degree; and all the things of the memory,or aU the ideas of thought nearest to speech takenfrom the memory, which compose the third degree.From these determined into act proceed works,in which, viewed in outward form, the prior thingsdo not appear, which, nevertheless, are actuallytherein. That the ultimate is the complex,containant, and base of prior things may be seenabove (Nos. 209-216); and that degrees of heightare in fulness in their ultimate (Nos. 217-221). 278. The actions of the body viewed by the eyeappear thus simple and uniform, as in external form 178
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [278,279do seeds, fruit, eggs, and nuts and almonds in thekernel, yet holding ail prior things, from whichthey exist, together in themselves, because everyultimate is covered round and thereby distinguishedfrom prior things; also, every degree is envelopedby a covering and thereby distinguished fromanother; wherefore things of the first degree arenot known by the second degree, nor those of thisdegree by the third. For example: The love ofthe will, which is the first degree of the mind, isnot perceived in the wisdom of the understanding,which is the second degree of the mind, except bya certain delight in thinking of the thing. Thefirst degree which, as said before, is the love of thewill, is not perceived in the knowledge of thememory, which is the third degree, except by acertain pleasure in knowing and speaking. Itfollows from these facts that a work which is theaction of the body includes ail these things,although outwardly it appears simple as one thing. 279. This is confirmed by the following: Angelsattendant on man perceive one by one those thingswhich are from the mind in the action; spiritualangels what is from the understanding therein,and celestial angels what is from the will therein.This seems a paradox, yet still is true. But itshould be known that the things of the mindwhich have to do with a matter, proposed or inhand, are in the middle and the rest round aboutaccording to affinities. Angels declare that a manscharacter is perceived from a single deed but in alikeness of his love changing according to itsdetermination into affections and from them intothoughts. In a word, every act or deed of aspiritual man is, in the sight of angels, like fruit, 179
    • 279-281J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMluscious, useful and beautiful, which when openedand eaten gives relish, use, and delight. Thatangels have such perception of mans acts anddeeds may also be seen above (No. 220). 280. It is the same with mans speech. Angelsrecognise a mans love from the tone of his speech,his wisdom from articulation of sound, and hisknowledge from the meaning of the words. Theysay moreover that these three things are in everyward, since the ward is like an effect in that itcontains sound, articulation, and meaning. It wastold me by angels of the third heaven that, fromevery ward spoken in sequence, they perceive thespeakers general state of mind and also someparticular states. That in every single ward of theWard there is a spiritual meaning from the DivineWisdom, and a celestial from the Divine Love, andthat these are perceived by angels when the Wardis read devoutly by man has been abundantlyshawn in "The Doctrine of the New J erusalemconcerning the Sacred Scripture." 281. It is demonstrated from these things thataU his evils and false principles of evil are in thedeeds of a man whose natural mind descendsthrough three degrees into heU; and that aU hisgood and true things are in the works of a manwhose natural mind ascends into heaven; andthat the one and the other are perceived by theangels fram a solitary ward or action of man.Rence it is said in the Ward that a man" shaUbe judged according ta his works "; and that heshaU render an account of his words. 180
    • • PART IVTHE LORD FROM ETERNITY, WHO ISJEHOVAH, CREATED THE UNIVERSE ANDALL THINGS THEREOF FROM HIMSELF, AND NOT FROM NOTHING 282. It is known throughout the universe andacknowledged by every wise man from interiorperception, that there is one Gad, the Creator of theuniverse; and it is known from the Ward that Gadthe Creator of the Universe, is called " Jehovah,"by reason of Being, since He alone Is. That theLord from eternity is that J ehovah has beenproved by many passages from the Ward in"The Doctrine of the New J erusalem concerningthe Lord." Jehovah is called the Lord frometernity because J ehavah assumed a Humanthat he might save mankind from heIl, andthen commanded the disciples ta calI Him Lord;for which reason Jehovah in the New Testa ­ment is called The Lord, as may be evidentfrom this: "Thou shalt love Jehovah thy Gad with aIlthy heart and with aIl thy soul" (Deut. vi. 5);but in the New Testament: "Thou shalt love the Lord thy Gad with aIlthy heart and with aIl thy soul " (Matt. xxii. 37) ;similarly in other passages in the Evangelists, takenfrom the Old Testament. 181
    • •283J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM 283. Everyone who thinks from c1ear reasonperceives that the universe was not created fromnothing, because he sees it is impossible for anythingta come out of nothing; for nothing is nothingand ta make something out of nothing is a con­tradiction, and a contradiction is contrary ta thelight of truth, which is fIam Divine Wisdom; andwhatever is not from Divine Wisdom is not fromDivine Omnipotence. Everyone who thinks fromc1ear reason sees also that ail things were createdout of substance which is substance in itself,namely, Being itself, out of which all things thatare can exist; and since Gad alone is Substancein its~lf and therefore Being itself, it is evidentthat the existence of things themselves is fIam noother source. Many have seen this, since reasonpermits, but have not ventured ta confirm it,fearing lest they might come perchance ta thinkthat the created universe is Gad because fIam Gad,or that nature is from itself and thus its inmost iswhat is called Gad. Renee it cornes about thatalthough many have perceived that the existenceof aIl things is from no other source than Gad andRis Being, yet they have not dared ta advancebeyond the first thought about it, lest they shouldentangle their understanding in a so-called Gordianknot, from which they might not afterwards beable ta release it. That release would be impossiblebecause their thought, concerning Gad and thecreation of the universe by Gad, had been fromtime and space, the properties of nature; andfrom nature no one can understand Gad and thecreation of the universe, but everyone, whoseunderstanding is in sorne degree of interior Iight,can perceive that nature and its creation are fromGad, because Gad is not in time and space. That r82
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [283-285the Divine is not in space, see above (Nos. 7-10) ;that the Divine fiUs aU spaces of the universeapart from space (Nos. 69-72); and that theDivine, apart from time, is in aU time (Nos. 73-76).In the foUowing pages it wiU be seen that althoughGod created the universe and aU things thcreoftrom Himself, yet there is nothing whatever, thatis God, in the created universe; besides manythings which wiU put this matter in its proper light. 284. In Part First of this Work the subjecttreated was; God, as being Divine Love andWisdom, and Lite, also Substance and Form whichis the very and only Being. In Part Second thespiritual Sun and its world, and the natural sunand its world, and the creation of the universewith aU things thereof by means of both suns byGod. In Part Third degrees in which each and aUthings which have been created exist. Here inPart Fourth the creation of the universe by GodwiU now be treated. The reason for explaining aUthese subjects is that angels have lamented beforethe Lord that when they look into the world theysee nothing but darkness, and in men no knowledgeof God, or of heaven, or of the creation of nature,to which their wisdom can incline.THE LORD FROM ETERNITY, OR ]EHOVAH,COULD NOT HAVE CREATED THE UNI­ VERSE AND ALL THINGS THEREOF UNLESS HE WERE MAN 285. Those who entertain a natura! bodily ideaof God as Man are entirely unable to understandhow God as Man could have created the universe 183 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .J
    • 285] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMand ail things thereof; for they think withinthemselves, How can Gad as Man wander throughthe universe from space ta space and create? Or,How is it possible from His place ta speak theward and as saon as it is uttered, creation follow ?When it is said that Gad is Man, such ideas suggestthemselves ta those who think of Gad Man in thesame way as of a man of this world, and who thinkof Gad from nature and its properties, which aretime and space. But assuredly those who do notthink like this perceive clearly that the universecould not have been created unless Gad were Man.Let your thought into the angelic idea of Gad asbeing Man, put away as far as you can the ideaof space, and you will come very near ta the truth.Sorne of the learned certainly have a perception ofspirits and angels as not in space because theyhave a perception of the spiritual as apart fromspace. For the spiritual is like thought, whichdespite its being in man, yet makes it possible forhim ta be present as it were elsewhere, in anyplace, even the most lemote. Such is the state ofspirits and angels, who are men even as ta theirbodies. Where their thought is, there they appear,because in the spiritual world spaces and distances are appearances, and act as one with thought from their affection. From which it may be evident that Gad, who appears as a Sun far above the spiritual world, and ta whom there can be no appearance of space, is not ta be thought of from space. And it can then be understood that He created the universe out of Himself, and not out of nothing; again, that His Human Body cannat be considered as great or small, or of any height, since this aIsa pertains ta space; consequently that in things first and last, greatest and least, He 184
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [285-287is the same ; and above al!, that the Human isthe inmost in every created thing, yet apart fromspace. That the Divine is the same in thingsgreatest and least, see above (Nos. 77-82); andthat the Divine fil!s al! spaces apart from space(Nos. 69-72). And because the Divine is not inspace, it is not, like the inmost of nature, continuous. 286. That God could not have created theuniverse and al! things thereof unless He were Man,an intelligent person may very clearly perceivefrom this, that he cannot deny within himself thatin God there is Love and Wisdom, Mercy andForbearance, also very Goodness and Truth, sincethese are from Him. And since he cannot denythis, neither can he deny that God is Man; forapart from man, not one of these is possible; forman is their subject and to separate them fromtheir subject is to say that they do not exist. Thinkof wisdom and place it outside man. Is it anything ?Can you imagine it as something ethereal or assomething fiaming? You cannot, un~ess perchancewithin them; and if it be in them, it must bewisdom in a form such as man has; it must bein the whole of his form, not a single thing may bemissing if wisdom is to be in that form. In aword, the form of wisdom is man; and becauseman is the form of wisdom, he is also a form oflove, mercy, forbearance, goodness, and truth.because these act in unison with wisdom. Thatlove and wisdom cannot be conceded except in aform, see above (Nos. 40-43). 287. That love and wisdom are man may beevident also from the fact that the angels ofheaven are men, whose beauty is proportioned to r8S
    • 287-289] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOiIthe love anû wisdom they have from the Lord.The same may appear from what is said of Adamin the Word, that he was created into the imageand likeness of God (Gen. i. 26), because into theforro of love and wisdom. Every man on earthis born in human form in respect to the body,because his spirit, caHed also the soul, is a man.And this is a man because it is receptive of loveand wisdom from the Lord; and their receptionby the spirit or soul is the measure of his manhoodafter the death of the material body, which hadclothed it; their non-reception makes him pro­portionately monstrous, yet deriving something ofmanhood from the ability to receive. 288. Since God is Man, the whole angelic heavencoHectively resembles one man, and is divided intoregions and provinces in accordance with themembers, viscera, and organs of man. There are,indeed, societies of heaven which constitute theregion of the brain and aH things thereof, of theface and aH its organs, and of aH the viscera of thebody; and these regions are separated from eachother precisely as they are in man; moreover theangels know in which region of Man they dwell.The whole heaven bears this likeness because Godis Man; and God is Heaven because the angels, whoconstitute heaven, are recipients of love andwisdom from the Lord, and recipients are images.That heaven is in the forro of man and all hisparts has been shown in the Arcana Cœlestia,at the end of several chapters. 289. From aU these things one may see theemptiness of ideas of those who think of God inany other way than as Man, and of the Divine 186
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [289.290attributes otherwise than as in God as Man, sincethese apart from Man are mere figments of reason.That God is Very Man, from Whom every man isman in accordance with his reception of love andwisdom, may be seen above (Nos. II-I3). Thattruth is here confirmed on account of what fol1ows,that the creation of the universe by Gad, becauseHe is Man, may be perceived.THE LORD FROM ETERNITY, OR ]EHOVAH,BIWUGHT FORTH FROM HIMSELF THESUN OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD, ANDFROM THAT CREATED THE UNIVERSE AND ALL lHINGS THEREOF 290. The Sun of the spiritual world has beendiscussed in Part Second of this work, where thefol1owing propositions have been demonstrated:Divine Love and Divine Wisdom appear in thespiritual World as the Sun (Nos. 83-88). Spiritualheat and light issue from that Sun (Nos. 89-92).That Sun is not God, but is the manifestation ofthe Divine Love and Wisdom of God-Man; inlike manner the heat and light from that sunNos. 93-98). The Sun of the spiritual world is ata middle altitude, and appears afar off from theangels just as is the natural sun from men (Nos.103-107). In the spiritual world the east is wherethe Lord appears as the Sun, and other quartersare determined therefrom (Nos. II9-I28). Angelsturn their faces constantly towards the Lord as aSun (Nos. 129-139). The Lord created the universeand al1 things thereof by means of that Sun, 187
    • 29°,291] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMwhich is the first proceeding of the Divine Loveand Wisdom (Nos. 151-156). The sun of thenatural worid is pure fire, and nature, which takesits origin from that sun, is therefore dead; andthe sun of the natural world has been created inorder that the work of creation may be completedand ended (Nos. 157-162). Creation is not possiblewithout two suns, the one living and the otherdead (Nos. 163-166). 291. This also is among the things demonstratedin Part Second: That Sun is not the Lord but isthe Proceeding from His Divine Love and Wisdom.It is called " Proceeding" because that Sun wasbrought forth from the Divine Love and Wisdom,which in themselves are substance and form, andthe Divine proceeds by this means. But as humanreason is such as not to be satisfied unless it seea thing from its cause, thus unless it also perceive" how "-in this case how the Sun of the spiritualworld, which is not the Lord but the proceedingfrom Him, was brought forth-something shall besaid on this also. l have talked much with theangels on this subject. They told me that theysee this clearly in their spirituallight, but can onlywith difficulty put it before man in his naturallight, owing to the difference between the twokinds of light and therefore of the thoughts. Theysaid, however, that it is similar to the sphere ofaffections and thoughts therefrom which surroundsevery angel, whereby his presence is indicated tathose near and far away; and that this sphereround about him is not the angel himself, butcornes out of every single thing of his body, fromwhich substances flow continuously like a streamand encompass him; also that these substances 188
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [291-293around his body, ever impelled by his lifes twinfounts of motion, the heart and lungs, stir theatmospheres into their activities and therebyestablish in others a perception as if he werepresent; and thus that it is not another sphere ofaffections and thoughts therefrom, although it isso called, that goes forth and is continued, sinceaffections are mere states of the minds forms inhim. They said further that such a sphere existsabout every angel because there is one about theLord, and that the sphere about the Lord is inlike manner from Him, and that that sphere istheir Sun, or the Sun of the spiritual world. 292. The perception of such a sphere aroundangel and spirit has often been granted me, andof a general sphere around many in a society. lhave also been permitted to see it in varying guise,in heaven on occasion like a clear flame, in helllike a dense fire, at times in heaven in the semblanceof a clear shining cloud, in heU as a thick blackthunder cloud. It has also been granted me toperceive them in the varied form of odours andstenches. By these things l have been assuredthat a sphere, consisting of substances set freeand separated from their bodies, spreads aroundeveryone in heaven and in heU. 293. It was seen also that a sphere flows forthnot only from angels and spirits but also fromevery single thing that appears in that world, asfrom the trees and their fruits there, from shrubsand their flowers, from herbs and grasses, evenfrom the earths and their very particles. Fromthese facts it was made clear that this generalprinciple exists in things both living and dead, 18 9 ,
    • 293-295] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMnamely, that everything is surrounded by a likenessof what is within it, and which is exhaled from itcontinuously. From the experience of many learnedmen it is weil known that a similar thing existsin the natural world, as that a wave of effiuviaconstantly flows forth from man, from everyanimal, and also from tree, fruit, shrub, flowerand even from metal and stone. This the naturalworld derives from the spiritual world, and thespiritual wodd from the Divine. 294. Since these things which constitute theSun of the spiritual world are not the Lord, butfrom the Lord, they are not life in itself, but aredispossessed of life in itse1f; just as those thingswhich flow forth from angel and man and make thespheres around them, are not angel or man, butare from them, bereft of their life. The only respectin which these spheres make one with ange! orman is that they harmonize, because they Veretaken out of the forms of their bodies, which inthem were forms of their life. This is a secretwhich angels with their spiritual ideas can visualisein thought and express in speech, but men cannatdo so through their natural ideas, since a thousandspiritual ideas go ta the making of one naturalidea, and one natural idea cannat be resolved intoany spiritual idea, still less into sa many. Thereason is that they differ according to degrees ofheight, concerning which see Part Third. 295. That there is such a difference between thethoughts of angels and of men was made knownto me by this experiment. They were requestedta think spiritually on sorne subject and afterwardsta tell me what they had thought. When this wasdone and they wished ta tell me, they could not. 190
    • ,,~ DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [295,296They said that they were unable to utter them.It was the same with their spiritual language andwriting; there was no word of spiritual languagesimilar to a word of natural language, nor anyspiritual writing like natural writing, except theletters, each one of which comprised a completesignificance. But-and this is wonderful-theyseemed to themselves to think, speak, and writein the spiritual state in the same manner that mandoes in the natural state, when yet there is nosimilarity. From which it was clear that thenatural and spiritual differ according to degrees ofheight, and that they do not communicate witheach other except by correspondences.IN THE LORD THERE ARE THREE (ATTRI­ BUTES), THE DIVINE OF LOVE, THE DIVINEOF WISDOM, AND THE DIVINE OF USE,WHICH ARE THE LORD; AND THESETHREE ARE REPRESENTED OUTSIDE THESUN OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD, THEDIVINE OF LOVE BY HEAT, THE DIVINEOF WISDOM BY LIGHT, AND THE DIVINEOF USE BY THE ATMOSPHERE CONTAINING THEM 296. That heat and light go forth out of theSun of the spiritual world, heat out of the LordsDivine Love, and light out of His Divine Wisdom,may be seen above (Nos. 89-92, 99-102, 146-150).Now ie will be explained that the third whichgoes forth from the Sun there is the atmosphere 19 1
    • 296-298J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMcontaining the heat and light, and that it goes forthout of the Lords Divine which is called Use. 297. Everyone who thinks with any enlighten­ment can see that love has and intends use for anend, and brings it forth by means of wisdom; forlove cannot bring forth any use of itself, but with",isdom as its means it cano Nay, what is love,unless there be something loved? This somethingis use; and because use is the thing loved andit is brought forth by means of wisdom, it followsthat use contains love and wisdom. That thesethree, love, wisdom, and use follow in orderaccording to degrees of height, and that the outmostdegree surrounds, contains, and supports the priordegrees, was shown above (Nos. 209-216, andelsewhere). From these things it may be evidentthat these three, the Divine of Love, the Divineof Wisdom, and the Divine of Use, are in theLord, and in essence are the Lord. 298. That man, regarded as to his outward andinward things is a form of ail the uses, and thatail the uses in the created uni verse correspond tothose uses in man, will be full y proved in whatfollows; it need onlY be mentioned here that itmay be known that God as Man is the form itseifof ail uses, and from this form al! uses in thecreated universe derive their origin; and thusthat the created universe, regarded as to uses, isan image of Him. Those things are called usedwhich are from God-Man, that is, from the Lord,in order by creation; but those things are notcalled uses which come from mans inherent nature,for this is hell, and the things therefrom arecontrary to order. 192
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [299.300 299. Now since these three, Love, Wisdom, andUse are in the Lord and are the Lord; and sincethe Lord is everywhere, for he is omnipresent;and since the Lord cannot present Himself to anyangel or man such as He is in Himself, and suchas He is in His Sun, He therefore presents Himselfby means of such things as can be received, andas to love manifests Himself by heat, as to wisdomby Light, and as to use by atmosphere. The Lordmanifests Himself as to use by atmosphere becausethe atmosphere contains heat and light, as usecontains love and wisdom. For light and heat,going forth from the Divine Sun, cannot go forthin nothing, or in vacuum, but must have a con­tainant which is a subject. This containant wecali the atmosphere, which surrounds the Sun andtakes it to its bosom. It carries it to the heavenwhere angels dwell, and from there to the world ofmen and so makes the Lords presence everywheremanifest. 300. That the spiritual world has atmospheresin like manner as the natural world has beenshown above (Nos. 173-183); and it was explainedthat atmospheres of the spiritual world are spiritual,and atmospheres of the natural world are natura1.It may now be evident from the origin of thespiritual atmosphere most closely encircling thespiritual Sun that each thing thereof is in itsessence of the same nature as the Sun in its essence.That it is so, the angels make quite clear by meansof their spiritual ideas, which are apart from space,in this way: There is one only substance fromwhich ail things exist, and the Sun of the spiritualworld is that substance; and since the Divine isnet in space, and is the same in greatest and least 193
    • 300-302] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthings, that Sun, which is the first going forth ofGod-Man, is of similar character; and again, thisone only substance, which is the Sun, going forthby means of atmospheres according to continuousdegrees, or degrees of breadth, and at the sametime according to discrete degrees, or degrees ofheight, establishes the varieties of all things in thecreated universe. The angels declared that thesethings cannot possibly be understood unlessspaces be withdrawn from the ideas; and thatif they be not withdrawn, appearances mustnecessarily introduce errors; which, however, can­not enter so long as it is borne in mind that God isVery Being, from which aH things exist. 30r. Moreover, it is perfectly clear from angelicideas, which are apart from space, that in thecreated universe nothing whatever lives exceptGod-Man, that is, the Lord; nothing whateveris set in motion except by life from Him; andnothing exists except by means of the Sun fromHim; so that it is a truth that in God we live,and move, and have our being.THE ATMOSPHERES, WHICH ARE THREEIN NUMBER IN BOTH THE SPIRITUALAND NATURAL WORLDS, IN THEIRULTIMATES FINISH IN SUBSTANCES ANDMATTERS OF THE NATURE OF THOSE IN THEIR EARTHS 302. It was shown in Part Third (Nos. 173-176)that there are three atmospheres in both thespiritual and natural worlds, which are separate 194
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [302, 303from each other according to degrees of height,and which, in their downward course, accordingto degrees of breadth, become less active. Andbecause of this tendency they become constantlymore dense and inert, and at length in ultimatesso dense and inert as to be no longer atmospheresbut substances at rest, and in the natural worldfixed and of the nature of those in the earths,which are called matters. Such being the originof substances and matters, it follows, firstly thatthese substances and matters are of three degrees ;secondly that they are held in connection with oneanother by surrounding atmospheres; thirdly thatthey are adapted to the production of aIl uses intheir forms. 303. That such substances or matters as are inthe earths were brought forth by the sun throughits atmospheres, who will not endorse who refiectsthat there are continuous links from the First toultimates and that nothing can have existenceexcept from something prior to itself, and at lengthfrom the First, and that the First is the Sun ofthe spiritual world, and the First of that Sun isGod-Man, or the Lord? Now since atmospheresare those prior things whereby that Sun establishesitself in ultimates, and since those prior thingscontinually decrease in activity and expansioneven to ultimates, it follows that when theiractivity and expansion cease in the ultimates, theybecome substances and matters such as are in theearths, which retain within them from the atmos­pheres, out of which they originated, the strivingand incitement to bring fortll uses. Those whodo not make the creation of the universe and aIlthings thereof dependent on continuous links from H 195
    • 303,304J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthe First can but build hypotheses, shattered andtom from their causes, which when examined bya mind that looks deeply into the matter do notappear like buildings, but like heaps of rubbish. 304. From this general origin of aIl things in thecreated universe individual things there acquiretne same order, that is, they proceed from theirfirst to ultimates, which are relatively in astateof rest, that they may terminate and remain inbeing. Thus in the human body fibres go fromtheir flrst forms until at last they become tendons,also fibres with small vessels from their firsts untilthey become cartilages and bones; and upon thesethey are at rest and continue in being. Since theprogression of fibres and vessels from firsts toultimates is of this nature in man, a similarprogression of their states exists, and these aresensations, thoughts, and affections. These alsofrom their firsts, which are in light, spread to theultimates, where they are in shade; or from theirfirsts, where they are in heat, to ultimates, wherethey are not in heat. Also, since thére is such aprogression of these, there is a like progression oflove and of wisdom and aIl the things appertainingto each of them. In a word, this progression is inaH things of the created universe. This is identicalwith what was proved above (Nos. 222-229),namely, that there are degrees of both kinds in thegreatest and least of aH created things. There aredegrees of both kinds even in the minutest thingsof aH because the spiritual Sun is the one andonly substance from which aH things exist, according to the ideas of the spiritual angels (No. 300). 196
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [305, 306THERE IS NOTHING OF THE DIVINE INITSELF IN THE SUBSTANCES AND MATTERSFROM WHICH EARTHS ARE FORMED, BUTYET THEY COlVIE FROM THE DIVINE IN ITSELF 305. From the ongm of the earths (treated ofin the preceding chapter), it may be evident thatthere is nothing of the Divine in itself in theirsubstances and matters, but that they are strippedof everything that is Divine in itself. For theyare, as was said, the endings and fixings of theatmospheres, whose heat has given way to cold,light to darkness, and activity to inertia. Never­theless, they have borne in unbroken successionfrom the substances of the spiritual Sun what wasin that substance from the Divine. This, as wassaid above (Nos. 291-298), was the sphere surround ­ing God-Man, or the Lord; from this sphere, incontinuous succession from the Sun and withatmospheres as the means, have arisen the sub­stances and matters from which the earths areformed. 306. The ongm of earths from the spiritualSun and with atmospheres as the means can beexplained in no other way by words fiowing fromnatural ideas, but may be otherwise explained bywords fiowing from spiritual ideas, since these areapart from space and therefore do not faU intoany of the words of naturallanguage. That spiritualthoughts, speech, and writings differ so completelyfrom natural as to have nothing in common andthat they communicate only by correspondences,may be seen above (No. 295). It is enough, 197
    • 306,3°7] DIVINE LOVE AND VISDOMtherefore, for the ongin of the earths to be perceivednaturally to sorne extent.ALL USES, WHICH ARE THE ENDS OFCREATION, HAVE FORMS WHICH THEYRECEIVE FROM SUBSTANCES AND MATTERS SUCH AS ARE IN THE EARTHS 307. All that has been said hitherto, as, forinstance, about the sun, the atmospheres, and theearths, are only means to ends. The ends ofcreation are those things which are produced fromthe earths by the Lord as the Sun by means ofthe atmospheres. These ends are called uses.They include in their scope all the things of thevegetable and animal kingdoms, and finally thehuman race and the angelic heaven which is fromit. These are called uses because they are recipientsof the Divine Love and Wisdom, also because theyhave regard to God their Creator from whom theyare, and by this means conjoin Him to His great work; and by this conjunction cause themselves to be kept in life from Him just as they came into existence from Him. It is said that they have regard to God their Creator and conjoin Him to His great work, but that statement is according to the appearance. What really is meant is that God the Creator causes them to have regard and to conjoin themselves to Him as if from themselves ; but how it is done will be told in what follows. Something has been said about these matters before in their proper places; as, for example, that Divine Love and Wisdom must of necessity be and exist in others created by itself (Nos. 47-51) ; 198
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [3°7-310that ail things in the created universe are recipientsof Divine Love and Wisdom (Nos. 55-60); thatthe uses of ail created things ascend by degrees toman, and through man to God the Creator fromWhom they are (Nos. 65-88). 308. Who does not see clearly that the ends ofcreation are uses when he refiects that nothingelse can have existence from God the Creator, andtherefore nothing else be created, but use; andthat to be a use it must be for the sake of others;and that a use for the sake of itself is also forothers, since it makes possible astate that maybe of use to others? He who refieets thus may alsorefieet that use which is use cannot exist fromman, but in man from Him from whom everythingthat exists is use, thus from the Lord. 309. But as the subjeet here to be treated ofconcerns the forms of uses, it shaH be stated inthe following order : (i) There is effort in earths to bring forth ~tses in forms, or forms of uses. (ii) Tl~ere is a certain likeness to the creation of the universe in aU forms of uses. (iii) There is a certain likeness to man in aU forms of uses. (iv) There is a certain likeness to the Infinite and Eternal in aU forms of ~tses. 310. (i) There is effort in earths to bring forthuses irt forms, or forms of uses. That there is thiseffort in the earths is evident from their origin,in that the substances and matters, from whichthe earths are composed, are the ,endings andfixings of atmospheres which go forth as uses from 199
    • 310J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthe spiritual Sun, may be seen above (Nos. 305,306). And because these substances and mattershave that origin, and their masses are held inconnection by the surrounding pressure of theatmospheres, it follows that they have therefroma perpetuaI effort to bring forth forms of uses.The faculty itself of production they derive fromtheir origin, namely, that they are the ultimatesof atmospheres, with which they are, therefore,in accord. When it is said that this effort andthis faculty are in earths, the meaning is that theyare in those substances and matters from whichearths are composed, whether they be in earths,or exhalations from earths in atmospheres. l t isweIl known that atmospheres are full of such things.That such an effort and faculty are in substancesand matters of the earths is manifestly plain fromthe fact that seeds of every kind, when openedby the medium of heat even to their inmost, areimpregnated by most subtile substances whichhave no power unless they be of spiritual origin,and thereby, in the ability to unite themselveswith use, from which is their prolificacy. Then, through union with matters of a natural origin,they are able to produce forms of uses and afterwards to deliver them as from the womb so that they also come to the light, and thus germinate and grow. This effort, afterwards, is continuous from earths through the root even to outmosts, and from outmosts to firsts wherein use itself has its origin. Thus uses pass into forrns; and forms, in progress from firsts to outmosts and from outmosts to firsts, derive from use, which is like a soul, this property, that each and aIl of them are of sorne use. Use is compared to a soul because its torm is like a body. That there is an effort yet 200
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [310-313more interior, that of producing uses for theanimal kingdom by vegetable growths, alsofollows, for animaIs of every kind are nourishedby them. That there is an inmost effort in themas weIl, that of performing uses for the humanrace, follows likewise. From the foregoing theseconclusions are drawn: (1) That there are ultimatesand in them all prior things together in their order(as shawn above in different places). (2) That thereare degrees of both kinds in the greatest and leastof aIl things (see above Nos. 222-229), and likewisein that effort. (3) That aIl uses are brought forthby the Lord out of ultimates, and in ultimates,therefore, there must be effort towards them. 3II. Still, aIl these efforts are not living, forthey are efforts of the last forces of life, withinwhich forces, by reason of the life from which theyexist, there is finally a striving to retum to theirorigin by the means presented. Atmospheres inultimates are forces of this kind, and by themsubstances and matters such as are in earths areimpelled to take forms and are held together informs both within and without. Space does notpermit a fuller demonstration. the subjeet is taoextensive. 312. The first production from these earths,while they were still new and in their simple state,was seed. The first effort therein could be no other. 313. (ii) There is a certain l-ikeness ta the creationof the universe in aU forms of uses. Forms of usesare of a threefold kind, namely, of the mineraI,vegetable, and animal kingdoms. The forms ofuses of the mineraI kingdom cannot be described,as they are not apparent to the sight. The first 201
    • 313,314] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMforms are substances and matters of which theearths are composed in their minutest partic1es.The second forms are masses of them in infinitevariety. The third forms come from plants whichhave turned to dust, and from animal remains,and from the continual evaporations and exhala­tions from them, which mix with earths and maketheir soil. These forms of the three degrees of themineral kingdom bear a likeness to creation inthis, that impelled by the sun through the atmo­spheres and their heat and light, they bring forthuses in forms, which uses were the ends of creation.This likeness to creation lies concealed in theirefforts. 314. The likeness to the creation of the universein the forms of uses of the vegetable kingdom ismanifest in their progress from firsts to outmosts,and from outmosts to firsts. Their firsts are seeds,their outmosts are stalks covered with bark, andby means of the bark, which is the outmost of thestalk, they strive towards seeds, which, as wassaid, are their firsts. Stalks with their coveringsof bark answer to the earth covered with soils,from which the creation and formation of all usesproceeds. It is well known to many that growthsof plant life are made by the forcing outwards bycoverings of the roots through the inner and outerbarks continued round the stalks and branchesinto the beginnings of fruits, and, in like mannerthrough fruits into seeds. A likeness to creationin the forms of uses is exhibited in the progressionof their forms from firsts to outmosts, and fromoutmosts to firsts; also, that in the whole progres­sion there is the end of producing fruits and seeds,which are uses. From what has been said above, 202
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [314-316it is clear that the progression of the creation ofthe universe was from its First, which is the Lordencompassed by the Sun, to ultimates, which areearths, and from these through uses to its First,or the Lord; also that the ends of ail creationwere uses. 315. It must be known that the heat, light, andatmospheres of the natural world effect absolutelynothing towards this likeness to creation. It is onlythe heat, light and atmospheres of the Sun of thespiritual world that do this, bearing that likenesswith them and infusing it into the forms of usesof the vegetable kingdom. The heat, light, andatmospheres of the natural world simply open theseeds, maintain their products while unfolding,and clothe them with the matters that fix them.But this is done not by any forces from their ownsun, which regarded in themselves are nothing,but by forces from the spiritual Sun by which theyare unceasingly impeiled to these services. Naturalforces contribute absolutely nothing towards givingthem a likeness to creation, for the likeness tocreation is spiritual. But in order that it mayappear and perforrn use in the natural world, andmay be fixed and lasting, it must be materialized,that is, completely filled with matters of thatworld. 316. There is a likeness to creation in the formsof uses of the animal kingdom. For instance, froma seed deposited in the womb or egg a body isformed, which is its ultimate, and this, whengrown up, produces new seeds. This progressionis similar to that of the for ms of uses of the vegetablekingdom: seeds are the beginnings; the wombor egg is like the earth; the state before birth is H* 203
    • 316J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMlike that of the seed taking root in the earth; thestate after birth, until the time of prolification, islike the growth of a tree until it reaches the stateof bearing its fruit. From this parallel it is plainthat, just as a likeness to creation exists in theforms of plant life, so is it also in the forms ofanimal life, that there is, indeed, a progressionfrom firsts to ultimates, and from ultimates tafirsts. A similar likeness to creation exists inevery single thing in man; for love has a likeprogression through wisdom into uses; after thatthe will through the understanding into acts, andcharity through faiths into works have similarprogressions. Will and understanding, and charityand faith also, are the first origins; acts andworks are the ultimates; from these cornes thereturn through the delights of uses to their firsts,which, as was said, are will and understanding, orcharity and faith. That the return cornes throughthe delights of uses appears very clearly from theevident delights of acts and works, from whateverlove they spring, flowing back to the first originof that love and being united thereby. The delightsassociated with acts and works are what are calledthe delights of uses. There is a similar progressionfrom firsts to ultimates, and from ultimates tafirsts in the forms, most purely organic, of affectionsand thoughts in man. In his brains there are thosestar-like forms called the grey substances, fromwhich fibres issue through the medullary substanceby way of the neck into the body, pass to theultimates there, and return from ultimates ta theirfirsts; the return is made through the blood­vessels. There is a like progression of all affections and thoughts, which are changes and variations ofstate of those forms and substances; for the fibres 204
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [316-318going out of those forms or substances may becompared to atmospheres from the splritual Sun,which are containants of heat and light; and theacts of the body are like the things brought forthfrom the earths by the agency of atmospheres, thedelights of which uses return to their originatingcause. I t is scarcely possible for the understandingfully to grasp that such is the progression of thesethings and that a likeness to creation is therein,both because the thousands and myriads of forcesoperating in an act appear like one, and becausethe delights of uses do not put ideas in the thought,but only make themselves felt without a distinctperception. Previous statements and illustrationson these matters may be seen: That uses of allcreated things ascend through degrees of height toman, and through man to God their Creator (Nos.65-68): and, That the end of creation appears inoutermosts, which end is that all things may returnto the Creator and that there may be conjunction(Nos. 167-172). But these things will be seen stillmore clearly in the following Part, where thecorrespondence of the will and understanding withthe heart and lungs will be dealt with. 317. (iii) There is a certain likeness ta man in aUforms of uses: This has been shown ahove (Nos.61-64). In the following chapter it will be scenthat all uses from firsts to ultimates, and fromultimates to firsts, have relation to, and correspondwith, all things of man, consequently that man is,in a particular likeness, a universe, and conversely,that the universe, regarded as to uses is, in likeness,aman. 318. (iv) There is a certain likeness ta the Infiniteand Eternal in aU forms of uses. The likeness to 205
    • 318] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthe Infinite in these forms is plain from their effortand power ta fill the spaces of the whole world andof many worlds besides, ta infinity. For from oneseed, a tree, shrub, or plant, is brought forthwhich fills its own space; from which tree, shrub,or plant, seeds are produced, in sorne cases severalthousands of them, which when sown and grownup, fill their spaces; and if from each of these therewere to come just as many new seeds again andagain, in the course of years the whole worldwould be filled; and if the reproductions stillcontinued, many worlds would be filled; and thista infinity. Reckon a thousand from one seed andca1culate a thousand times a thousand, ten, twenty,one hundred times repeated, and you will see.The likeness to the Eternal in them is also similar.Seeds are propagated from year ta year, andpropagations never cease. From the creation of theworld even to this time they have not ceased, norwill do ta eternity. These two things are evidentproofs and attesting signs that ail things of theuniverse were created by an Infinite and EternalGod. Besides these likenesses ta the Infinite andEternal, there is yet another in " varieties "; sincethere can never be a substance, state, or thing inthe created universe the same or identical withanother, neither in atmospheres, nor in earths,nor in forms arising from them; thus not in anyof the things which fill the universe can anythingthe same be produced ta eternity. This is con­spicuously evident in the variety of faces of allhuman beings; no one face exists in the wholeworld the same as another, nor can there be taeternity, consequently not one mind the same, ofwhich the face is the type. 206
    • [3 19,3 20ALL THINGS IN THE CREATED UNIVERSE,VIEWED IN REGARD Ta USES, BEAR ALIKENESS Ta MAN; AND THIS PRaVES THAT GaD IS MAN 319. Man was called by the ancients a microcosm,from the fact that he resembles the macrocosm,that is, the universe in its entirety: but it is notknown to-day why he was so caIled, for the onlyevidence of the universe, or macrocosm, in him isthat he obtains food and bodily life from its animaland vegetable kingdoms, and that its heat maintainsthe condition for living, its light for seeing, and itsatmospheres for hearing and breathing: but thesethings do not make man a microcosm in the sensethat the universe together with aIl its properties isa macrocosm. The fact is that the ancients didcalI man a microcosm or little universe, and theyderived it from the knowledge of correspondences,which the most ancient peoples had, and bycommunication with angels of heaven; for angelsof heaven know from what thev see around themthat aIl things of the universe: viewed in regardto uses, bear a likeness to man. 320. But the idea of the universe seen in thespiritual world does not make it possible for thisproposition to come into the thought, and fromthat into the knowledge of any man. Consequentlyit can only be confirmed by an angel in thespiritual world, or by some one who has beenpermitted to dwell there and see the things ofthat world. Because 1 have had this permission1 am able, from things seen there, to disc10se thissecret. 2°7
    • 321 , 322 J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM 321. It must be known that the outwardappearance of the spiritual world is exaetly likethat of the natural world. Lands, mountains, hills,vaBeys, plains, fields, lakes, rivers, springs, are tobe seen there, as in the natural world; thus aUthe things belonging to the mineraI kingdom.Paradises, gardens, glades, woods, and in themtrees and shrubs of every kind bearing fruit andseed, also plants, fiowers, herbs, and grasses; thusaB things pertaining to the vegetable kingdom areto be seen there. AnimaIs, birds, and fish of everykind are seen; thus aH things of the animalkingdom. In that world man is angel and spirit.This fact is advanced in order that it may beknown that the universe of the spiritual world isexactly like the universe of the natural world, withthe sole difference that things there are notimmoveable and static as in the natural world,because nothing there is natural, but everythingis spiritual. 322. That the universe of that world bears alikeness to man may be clearly seen from this,that aB the things just mentioned (No. 321) appearto the life and are about the angel and around theangelic societies, as if produced or created fromthem; they remain round them and do notdisappear. The foBowing are instances of why itappears as if they have been produced or createdfrom them: when an angel goes away, or a societypasses to another place, the things mentioned nolonger appear; when other angels arrive in theirplace, the whole aspect round about is changed,the paradises with their trees and fruits, the fiowergardens with their blossom and seed, the fields withherbs and grass, even the kinds of animaIs and 208
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [322-324birds, aH are changed. Such things exist and arechanged in this way because they aH come intobeing according to the affections of the angels andthe thoughts which spring from them, for they arecorrespondences; and because things that corre­spond make one with the thing to which theycorrespond, they are a likeness representative of it.The likeness itself is not seen when aH these thingsare looked at in their forms, but appears when theyare regarded in their uses. It has been granted meto perceive that angels have recognized and seenthemselves in these things, when their eyes havebeen opened by the Lord and they have seen themfrom the correspondences of uses. 323. Now since those things which are about theangels, according to their affections and thoughts,relate to a particular universe in this, that theyare lands, plants, and animaIs, and these form alikeness representative of the angel, it is clear whythe ancients caHed man a microcosm. 324. That it is so has been abundantly confirmedin the Arcana Cœlestia; and also in the work onHeaven and Hell; and in various places in thepreceding pages where correspondence has beendiscussed. There also it has been shown that thereis nothing in the created universe that has notcorrespondence with something of man, not onlywith his affections and thoughts therefrom, butalso with his bodily organs and viscera; not withthese as substances, but as uses. Hence it is thatin the Word, where the Church and the man ofthe Church are treated of, such frequent mentionis made of trees, as the olives, vines, and cedars;then gardens, glades, and woods; and beasts of 20g
    • 324-326J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthe earth, birds .of the air, and fish of the sea.They are mentioned there because they correspond,and by correspondence make one, as has beensaid. Wherefore aiso the angeis do not perceivethese things when man is reading about them inthe Word but, instead of them, the Church ormen of the Church, as to their states. 325. Since all things in the universe bear aIikeness to man, Adam, in respect to wisdom andintelligence, is represented by the Garden of Eden,wherein were trees of every kind, aiso rivers,precious stones and gold, and animaIs to whichhe gave names; by all of which are meant suchthings as were in Adam, and made what is calledMan. Almost the same things are said of Ashurin Ezekiei xxxi. 3-9, by whom is signified theChurch in respect to intelligence; and of Tyre,by which is signified the Church as to its ideasregarding goodness and truth (Ezek. xxviii. I2-I3). 326. From these things it may be evident thatall things of the universe, regarded from uses, beara Iikeness to man, and that this proves that Godis Man. For such things as have been mentionedabove are not about the angelic man from theangel, but are from the Lord through the angel.For they come into being by influx of the LordsDivine Love and Wisdom into the angei who is arecipient, and before whose eyes it is brought forthIike the creation of a universe. From this theyacknowledge there that God is Man, and that thecreated universe, regarded as to uses, is a Iikenessof Him. 2IO
    • [3 27,3 28ALL THINGS CREATED BY THE LORDARE USES; AND THEY ARE USES IN THAlORDER, DEGREE, AND RESPECT, IN WHICHTHEY RELATE 10 MAN, AND THROUGHMAN 10 THE LORD, FROM WHOM THEY ARE 327. On these subjects it was said above: Thatnothing can have existence from God the Creatorexcept use (No. 308). That the uses of ail createdthings ascend thraugh degrees from outermostthings ta man, and through man ta Gad theirCreator (Nos. 65-68). That the end of creationexists in outermosts, which end is, that aU thingsmay return to God the Creator and that there maybe conjunction (Nos. 167-172). That they are usesso far as they have regard to the Creator (No. 307).That the Divine must of necessity be and exist inothers created by Itself (Nos. 47-51). That aUthings of the universe are recipients according touses, and this according ta degrees (No. 58). Thatthe universe, regarded from uses, is an image ofGod (No. 59). Besides many other things. Fromthese, this truth is c1ear, that aU things created bythe Lord are uses, and that they are uses in thatorder, degree, and respect, in which they relate taman, and through man to the Lord fram whomtheyare. It still remains to say something in detailconcerning uses. 328. By man, to whom uses relate, is meant notan individual man, but a gathering of men, and asociety, smaller or larger, maybe state, kingdom,empire, or that largest society, the whole world, 2II
    • 328-330) DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMfor each of these is Man. Likewise in the heavensthe whole angelic heaven is one Man in the sightof the Lord, and equaily sa every society of heaven ;from this it is that each angel is man. That thisis so may be seen in the work on Reaven and Reil(Nos. 68-I03). These things make clear what ismeant by man in the foilowing pages. 329. What use is may be evident from the endof the creation of the universe, that end being theexistence of an angelic heaven. And since theangelic heaven is the end, man also, or the humanrace, is the end because heaven is from the humanrace. Rence it follows that ail created things aremediate ends and that these are uses in that order,degree, and respect, in which they relate to man,and through man ta the Lord. 330. Seeing that the end of creation is an angelicheaven from the human race, thus the human raceitself, aU other created things are mediate ends.These, because they relate to man, have in viewthese three things in him, his body, his rational,and his spiritual, for the sake of his union with theLord. For man cannot be united to the Lord ifhe be not spiritual; nor can he be spiritual if hebe not rational; nor can he be rational if his bodybe not healthy. These three may be comparedto a house of which the foundation stands forthe body; the building on it for the rational;the contents for the spiritual; and union with theLord for living in it. From this the order,degree, and respect are manifest, in which uses,the mediate ends of creation, relate to man,namely, for sustaining his body, perfecting hisrational, and receiving the spiritual from theLord. 2I2
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [331-333 331. Uses for sustaining the body relate to itsnourishment, clothing, habitation, recreation andenjoyment, protection, and welfare. The usescreated for the nourishment of the body are ail thethings of the vegetable kingdom suitable for foodand drink, such as fruit, grapes, grain, pulse andherbs; also ail the things of the animal kingdomwhich serve for meat, such as oxen, cows, calves,deer, sheep, kids, goats, lambs, and milk; likewisefowls and tish of many kinds. The uses createdfor clothing the body, and also for habitation,recreation, enjoyment, protection and welfare, aremany products of these two kingdoms, and beingweil known, are not detailed. Their mere enumera­tion would tiil pages. There are many things,indeed, which are not of use to man; but superfiuitydoes not do away with use; it ensures its con­tinuance. Misuse of uses also is possible, butmisuse does not destroy the use, even as perversionof truth does not destroy truth, except with thoseonly who pervert it. 332. Uses for perfecting the rational are ail thethings that instruct on those matters just spokenof. They are cailed the sciences and learning, andrelate to natural, economic, civil, and moral a:ffairs.They are acquired from parents, teachers, books,intercourse with other people, or by thinking thematters out for oneself. These perfect the rationaljust 50 far as the uses are in a higher degree. Theyendure 50 long as they are applied to life. Spaceforbids the enumeration of these uses, as much byreason of their abundance as of their varied regardto the general good. 333. Uses for receiving the spiritual from the Lordare a11 the things that have to do with religion 21 3
    • 333,334] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMand the worship from religion; thus those thatteach the recognition and acknowledgment of God,and the acknowledgment and recognition of good­ness and truth, and thus eternal lite. These areacquired in the same way as other instruction,from parents, teachers, discourses and books, andespecially by study of the life according to them,and in the Christian world by doctrines and dis­courses from the Word, and through the Wordfrom the Lord. These uses comprise what may bedescribed in terms similar to those employed forthe uses of the body, provided that they are appliedto the soul: nourishment to the good things oflove, clothing to the truths of wisdom, habitationto heaven, recreation and enjoyment to lifeshappiness and heavenly joy, protection to protectionagainst infesting evils, and welfare to eternal life.Ail these things are given by the Lord accordingto the acknowledgment that aU bodily things arealso from the Lord, and that man is only like aservant and steward appointed over the goods ofhis Lord. 334. That such things have been given to manfor his use and enjoyment, and that they are freegifts is plainly evident from the state of ange1s inthe heavens, who have, like men on earth, a body,a rational, and a spiritual. They are nourishedfreely, for food is given them daily; they areclothed freely, for garments are given them; theyreside freely, for houses are given them. They haveno anxiety about anything at aU, and in so far asthey have become rational and spiritual beings,their enjoyment, protection, and welfare areassured. The difference is that angels see that thesethings come from the Lord, since they are created 21 4
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [334, 335in agreement with the state of their love andwisdom (as shown in the preceding chapter,No. 322); but men do not see this because (theirnatural supplies) return yearly and have nothingto do with the state of their love and wisdom, butdepend on the care taken with them. 335. Although it is said that they are usesbecause through man they have relation to theLord, it cannot be said that they are uses fromman for the Lords sake, but from the Lord formans sake, since aU uses are infinitely one in theLord, and none are in man except from the Lord,for man can do no good thing of himself, but onlyfrom the Lord. Good is what is called use. Theessence of spiritual love is to do good to othersfor their sake without thought of self. Infinitelymore is this the essence of Divine Love. This islike the love of parents towards children, becausethey do good to them from love with no thoughtof self, but for their sake. This is clearly seen in amothers love for her babes. Because the Lord isto be adored, worshipped, and glorified, it isthought that he loves adoration, worship, andglory for His own sake. But He loves these thingson mans account, since by means of them mancornes into the state that aUows the Divine to flowin and be perceived; for man thereby removes hisinherent nature which stops influx and reception.This inherent nature, indeed, which is self-love,hardens the heart and shuts it up. It is removed by the acknowledgment, that from himself cornes nothing but evil, and from the Lord nothing but good. From this acknowledgment there is a softening of the heart and humiliation, from which adoration and worship flow forth. From these 21 5
    • 335, 336J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthings it follows that the uses, which the Lordperforms for Himself through man, are to theintent that man may do good from love; and·since this is the Lords love, reception is theenjoyment of His love. Therefore, let no onebelieve that the Lord is with those who merelyworship Him. He is with those who do Hiscommandments, thus uses; with these He has adwelling - place, but not with the former. (Seewhat was said above on these matters, Nos. 47-49,)EVIL USES WERE NOT CREATED BY THELORD, BUT ORIGINATED TOGETHER WITH HELL 336. AH good things existing in act are calleduses, and aH evil things existing in ad are alsocalled uses, but evil uses, whereas the former arecaHed good uses. Now, since ail good things comefrom the Lord and aH evil things from hell, itfollows that none but good uses were created bythe Lord and that evil uses arose out of hello Bythe uses with which this chapter deals in particularare meant all the things which appear on earth, asanimaIs of every kind and vegetables of everykind; such of these as serve a use to man are fromthe Lord, and those which cause him injury arefrom hello Similarly, by uses from the Lord aremeant all things that perfect the rational andeffect mans reception of the spiritual from theLord; but by evil uses are meant ail things thatdestroy the rational and make it impossible forman to become spiritual. Those things whichcause injury to man are called uses, because they 216
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [336-338are of use to the evil in doing evil, and also becausethey are of service in the absorption of injuriousmatters, and thus as remedies. Use is meant in bothsenses, as, for instance, love, as good love and evillove. Moreover, everything that love does it calls use. 337. That good uses come from the Lord, andevil uses from heU will be shown as follows : (i) What is meant by evil uses on the earth. (ii) AU things are in heU that are evil uses, and in heaven that are good uses. (iii) There is a continuous influx from the spiritual world into the natural world. (iv) Influx from heU works to produce things that are evil uses wherever there are tlûngs corresponding thereto. (v) The lowest spiritual separated from its higher degree works to this end. (vi) There are two forms in which the work is effected by influx, the vegetable and the animal form. (vii) Each of these forms receives the power of propagating their kind, and the means of propagation. 338. (i) What is meant by evil uses on the earth.By evil uses on the earth are meant ail noxiousthings in both the animal and vegetable kingdoms,and also in the mineraI kingdom. It is needlessto enumerate all the noxious things in thesekingdoms since this would be piling up names,and to pile up names without an indication of theharm that each kind produces does not serve theuse intended by this work. For informations sakeit is sufficient here to mention some. In the animalkingdom there are venomous snakes, scorpions, 21 7
    • 338, 339] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMcrocodiles, serpents, homed owls, screech owls,mice, locusts, frogs, spiders; also flies, drones,cockroaches, lice, mites; in a word, such asconsume grasses, foliage, fruit, seed, food, anddrink, and are harmful to beasts and to men. Inthe vegetable kingdom there are ail injurious,virulent and poisonous herbs, with pulse andshrubs of like nature. In the mineraI kingdomthere are ail poisonous earths. From these fewexamples may be seen what is meant by evil useson the earth; for evil uses are all things that areopposite to good uses, conceming which see theparagraph just preceding (No. 336). 339. (ii) AU things are in heU that are evil uses,and in heaven tltat are good uses. Before it can beseen that evil uses existing on the earth are notfrom the Lord but from hell, something ought tobe said by way of introduction conceming heavenand hell, without a knowledge of which evil uses,as weil as good, may be attributed to the Lord, andit may be believed that they are together fromcreation, or they may be attributed to nature, andtheir origin to natures sun. From these two errorsman cannot be delivered, unless he know thatnothing whatever exists in the natural world thatdoes not derive its cause, and therefore its origin,from the spiritual world, and that good cornesfrom the Lord and evil from the devil, that is,from hello By the spiritual world is to be understoodboth heaven and hello In heaven aU those thingsthat are good uses are to be seen, concerning whichsee the preceding chapter (No. 336) ; in heU ailthose that are evil uses are to be seen, as enumerated(in No. 338) just above. These are wild creaturesof every kind, as snakes, scorpions, serpents, 218
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [339, 340crocodiles, tigers, wolves, foxes, swine, horned owls,night owls, screech owls, bats, mice, rats, frogs,locusts, spiders, and noxious insects of many kinds,also hemlocks and aconites and poisons of everykind, both in herbs and in earths; in a word, aIlthings that do harm and destroy men. In thehells such things thus appear to the life, preciselyas they do on and in the earths. It is said thatthey appear there; yet they do not exist thereas in the earths, for they are mere correspondencesof lusts, that pour out from their evil loves andappear before others in such forms. Since suchthings are in the hells, they are also full of dreadfulstenches, as of dead bodies, excrement, urine,decayed matter, with which diabolical spirits arethere delighted, as animaIs are with rank smellingthings. From these things it may be evident thattheir like in the natural world did not derive theirorigin from the Lord and were not created from thebeginning, neither did they spring from naturethrough her sun, but are from hell. That they arenot from nature by means of her sun appears plainlyfrom the fact, that the spiritual fiows into thenatural, and not the reverse; and, that they arenot from the Lord, from this fact, that hell is notfrom Him, thus nothing in hell that correspondsto the evils of its inhabitants. 340. (iii) There is a cantinuaus influx Jram thespiritual warld inta the natural warld. He who doesnot know that there is a spiritual world and thatit is distinct from the natural world, as what isprior from what is subsequent, or as cause fromthe thing caused, can know nothing about thisinfiux. This is why writers on the origin ofvegetables and animaIs have only been able to 21 9
    • 340 , 34 1J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMdeduce it from nature; and, if from God, thatGod had put into nature from the beginning thepower of producing such things, thus unawarethat no power is implanted in nature, for naturein itself is dead and contributes no more to theproduction of these things than does a tool, forinstance, to the work of a craftsman, that mustbe moved ail the time in order to act. It is thespiritual, which derived its origin from the Sunwhere the Lord is, and proceeds to the outmostsof nature, that produces the forms of vegetablesand animaIs, sets forth the wonders with whichboth are endowed and fiils their forms with earthymatters, so that they may be fixed and lasting.Now since it is known that there is a spiritualworld, and that the spiritual is from the Sunwhere the Lord is and which is from the Lord, andthat it impels nature to action, as what is livingimpels what is dead, also that in that world thereare similar things to those in the natural world,it may be evident that vegetables and animaIshave come into existence from no other than theLord through that world, and by its agency existperpetually; and thus there is continuaI influxfrom the spiritual world into the natura!. Thatit is so will be abundantly confirmed in thefollowing chapter. Noxious things on earth areproduced through influx from hell by the same lawof permission whereby evils themselves flow intomen from hello This law will be explained in theA ngelic W isdom concerning the Divine Providence. 341. (iv) Influx from hell works to produce thingsthat are euil uses wherever there are things corre­sponding thereto. The things that correspond toevil uses, that is, to hurtful plants and noxious 220
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [341,342animaIs, are cadaverous, putrid, excrementitiousand stercoral, rancid, and urinous; wherefore inplaces where these are, such herbs and sllchanimalcules exist as have been mentioned above ;and in torrid zones, similar things but larger, assnakes, cockatrices, crocodiles, scorpions, mice,and so on. Every one knows that marshes, swamps,dung, and fouI soils are full of such things; alsothat noxious insects fill the atmosphere like acloud, and noxious worms the earth like armies, anddestroy its herbage even to the roots. l oncenoticed in my garden that in the space of about ayard nearly all the dust was turned into tinyinsècts, for when stirred with a stick, they rose uplike clouds. That cadaverous and fetid things arein accord with these noxious and useless animal­cules, and that they are homogeneous, is evidentfrom mere observation and may be seen clearlyfrom the cause, which is that similar stenches andfumes exist in the hells, where such animalculesare also to be seen. Those hells are thereforenamed accordingly; sorne are called cadaverous,sorne stercoral, sorne urinous, and so forth; butthey are aIl covered, lest those vapours shouldrush out from them. For when they are openedto the slightest extent, as on the entry of novitiatedevils, they excite vomiting and cause headache,and those which are at the same time poisonousinduce fainting. The very dust there is also of thesame nature, wherefore it is there called thedamned arena. Rence it is plain that, where thereare such fouI smells, such noxious things exist,because they correspond. 342. vVhether such things exist from eggsconveyed thither by air, rain, or permeation with 221
    • 342,343] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMwater, or whether they exist from the damp andstenches themselves there, will now be the subjectof inquiry. That such noxious animalcules andinsects, as have been mentioned above. are hatchedfrom eggs carried to the place, or hidden in theground even from creation, is not supported bygeneral experience. since worms exist in tiny seeds,nuts, wood, rocks, and even on leaves; onplants also, and in them, are lice and grubs whichare accordant with them; also by reason of theflies which appear in like manner, having risen insuch abundance in houses, fields and woods insummer without any material egg forms; thosewhich eat into meadows and lawns. and in certainhot localities fill the air and infest it, besides those that swim and fly unseen in fouled waters, ferment­ing wines and pestilential air. These facts ofobservation support those who declare that odours,stenches and exhalations emitted from plants,earths, and swamps, themselves also provide thebeginnings of such things. That when they have come forth, they are afterwards propagated, eitherby eggs or by spawn, does not disprove theirimmediate generation; since every living creature of the kind, together with its minute viscera, also receives organs of generation and means of propaga­ tion, concerning which see below (No. 347). With these things one may be in agreement from the experience, hitherto unknown, that there are like things also in the hells. 343. That the hells mentioned above have notonly communication but also connection with suchthings in the earths may be inferred from this, thatthe hells are not distant from men, but are roundabout them, indeed within those who are evil; 222
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOilI [343, 344 thus they are in contact with the earths. For man, as to his affections and lusts and the thoughts therefrom, and as to his actions, which are good or evil uses and spring from them, is in the midst.either of angels of heaven or of spirits of heU; and since such things as are on the earths exist also in the heavens and the hells, it follows that influx from them produces such things directly when the temperature is favourable. For all the things which appear in the spiritual world, equally in heaven as in hell, are correspondences of affections and of lusts, indeed their existence there is according to them. Therefore when affections and lusts, which in themselves are spiritual, faU in with homogeneous or corresponding things in the earths, a spiritual is present to furnish the soul, and material to furnish the body. Moreover, there is in everything spiritual an effort to clothe itself with a body. The hells are round ab~.lUt men and therefore in contact with the earths, because the spiritual world is not in space, but is where there is corresponding affection. 344. l heard two presidents of the English Royal Society, Sir Hans Sloane and Martin Folkes, conversing together in the spiritual world about the existence of seeds and eggs and their products in the earths. The former ascribcd them to nature, saying that power and force had been given to her from creation to produce such effects by means of the suns heat. The other declared that this force in nature comes unceasingly from God the Creator. In order to settle the contention a bcautiful bird was shown to Sir Hans Sloane, and he was asked to examine it to see if it differed in the slightest degree from a similar bird on earth. He held it 223
    • -,344, 345J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMin his hand, examined it, and affirmed that therewas no difference. He knew, indeed, that it wasnothing but the affection of a certain angel repre­sented outwardly as a bird, and that it wouldvanish or cease with his affection, which also cameto pass. This praof convinced Sir Hans Sloanethat nature contributes absolutely nothing to theproduction of vegetables and animaIs, but onlythat which flows from the spiritual world into thenatural world effects it. If that bird, he said,were infilled to its least particles with correspondingmatters of the earth, and so fixed, it would endurelike birds on the earths; and that it is the samewith things fram hello He said, in addition, that ifhe had known what he now knew of the spiritualworld, he would have ascribed no more to naturethan that it was serving the spiritual from God byfixing those things which flow without ceasinginto nature. 345. (v) The lowest spiritttal separated from itshigher degree works to this end. It was shown inPart Third that the spiritual flows downwardsfrom its Sun even to the outmosts of naturethrough three degrees, called celestial, spiritual,and natural; that these three degrees are in manby creation and hence by birth, and are openedaccording to his life; that if the celestial degree,the highest and inmost, is opened, man becomescelestial; if the spiritual degree, the middle, isopened, he becomes spiritual; and if only thenatural degree, the lowest and outmost, is opened, hebecomes natural; that if man becomes naturalonly, he loves only bodily and worldly things and,to the extent that he loves these, does not lovecelestial and spiritual things, does not look to God, 224
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [345, 346and to that extent becomes evil. From these thingsit is clear that the lowest spiritual, which is cal!edspiritual-natural, can be separated from its higherdegrees, andis separated in men from whom hel!is formed. The lowest spiritual cannot of itself beseparated from its higher degrees and look towardshel! either in beasts or in the earths; it is possibleonly with men. From which it fol!ows that thelowest spiritual, separated from its higher degree,such as it is with those who are in hell, works toeffect those evil uses on earth, spoken of above.That noxious things on earth derive their originfrom man, and thus from hel!, may be confirmedfrom the condition of the land of Canaan, describedin the Word. When the children of Israel livedaccording to the Commandments, the earth yieldedher increase, the flocks and herds likewise; andwhen they lived contrary to the Commandments,the land was barren and, as it is said, accursed;instead of harvests it yielded thorns and briars;flocks and herds miscarried, and wild beasts broke in. The same may be deduced from the locusts, frogs, and lice in Egypt. 346. (vi) There are two Jorms in which the workis effected by influx, the vegetable and the animalJorm. That two universal forms only are produced from the earth is known from the two kingdoms of nature, which are cal!ed the animal and vegetable kingdoms. And al! the things of either kingdom have many features in common. For instance, the subjects of the animal kingdom have organs of sense and organs of motion, members and visccra also, which are actuated by brains, hcart and lungs; and the subjects of the vegetable kingdom send a root into the ground and bring 225
    • 346J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMforth stem, branches, leaves, fiowers, fruit ândseeds. Both kingdoms, animal and vegetable alike,as to productions into their forms, derive theirorigin by spiritual influx and operation from theSun of heaven where the Lord is, and not fromthe influx and operation of nature from her sun,except the fixation of them, as was said above.AH animaIs, great and small, derive their originfrom the spiritual in the lowest degree, which iscalled natural, and man alone from aH the degrees,of which there are three, called celestial, spiritual,and natura!. As each degree of height, or discretedegree, decreases from its perfection ta its imper­fection by continuity, as light does ta shades, saalso do animaIs; wherefore there are perfect, less perfect, and imperfect animaIs. Perfect animaIsinclude elephants, camels, horses, mules, oxen,sheep, goats, and others, either of the herd or fiock.The less perfect are birds. The imperfect are fishand sheH fish; these, since they are the lowest of their degree, are, as it were, in shade, while the former are in light. Yet since they live solely from the lowest spiritual degree, which is called the natural, animais cannat look elsewhere than towards the earth and the food there, and ta their own kind for the sake of propagation. The soul of al! these is natural affection and appetite. Tt is the same with the subjects of the vegetable kingdom, which include the perfect, less perfect, and imperfect. The perfect are fruit trees, the less perfect are grape vines and shrubs, and the imperfect are grasses. But vegetables draw from the spiritual, which is their origin, the fact tllat they are uses, and animaIs from the spiritual, from wllich they arise, the fact that they are affections and appetites, as has been said. 220
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [347,348 347. (vii) Each of these forms, whilë it exists,receives the means of propagation. That in ail theproducts of the earth which, as was said above,pertain either to the vegetable or animal kingdoms,there is a certain likeness to creation, to man, andalso to the Infinite and Eternal, was shown above(Nos. 313-318); and the likeness to the Infiniteand Eternal shines out by reason of their capacityfor propagation to infinity and eternity. Reneeit is that all reeeive the means of propagation,subjects of the animal kingdom by seed in the egg,or in the womb, or by spawning; and subjects ofthe vegetable kingdom by seed in the earths.From which it may be evident that although themore imperfect and noxious animaIs and vegetablesoriginate by immediate influx from hell, yet after­wards they are propagated mediately by seeds,eggs, or grafts; therefore, the one position doesnot annul the other. 348. That aIl uses, both good and evil, comefrom a spiritual origin, thus from the Sun wherethe Lord is, may be illustrated by this experience.1 have heard that things good and true have beenlet down through the heayens from the Lord tothe hells, and that these same things reeeived bydegrees in the abyss were there turned into thingsevil and false, the opposites of the things goodand true let down. The reason for such a changewas that recipient subjects turn aIl things thatflow in to such things as agree with their ownfonus, just as brilliant sunshine is turned intohideous colours and into black in those objectswhose substances are inwardly of such a form asto sufiocate and extinguish light; and marshes,dung, and dead bodies turn the heat of the sun l ~7
    • 348, 349J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMinto stenches. Whence it is evident that evil usesalso are from the spiritual Sun, but that good usesare changed in hell into evil uses. It is c1ear,therefore, that the Lord has not created and doesnot create any but good uses, and that hell producesthe evil uses.IN THE CREATED UNIVERSE THINGSVISIBLE PROVE THAT NATURE HAS PRO­DUCED NOTHING, AND DOES PRODUCENOTHING, BUT THAT THE DIVINE PRO­DUCES ALL THINGS OUT OF ITSELF, AND THROUGH THE SPIRITUAL WORLD 349. The great majority of people speak fromthe appearance. They say that the sun by itsheat and light produces whatever is to be seen inplains, fields, gardens, and woods; also that thesun by its heat hatches worms from eggs, andmakes beasts of the earth and fowls of the airprolific, indeed, even gives life to man. Those whospeak so from appearance only may do so and yetnot ascribe these things to nature for they do notthink about it: like those who speak of the sunrising and setting, making days -and years, andbeing in this or that altitude; these likewise speakfrom the appearance, and may do so, althoughthey do not ascribe these efiects to the sun; forthey are not thinking of the suns ~tanding stilland the earths turning round. But those whoconfirm themselves in the idea that the sun produceswhat appears on the earth by means of its heatand light, in the end ascribe all things to nature, 228 ~
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [349, 350as well as the creation of the universe, becomebelievers in naturalism and, fmally, atheists. Thesemay indeed say afterwards that God creatednature and put into her the power of producingsuch things, but they say this for fear of the lossof reputation. They still, by God the Creator,mean nature, and sorne the inmosts of nature; andthen the Divine things taught by the church countfor nothing with them. 350. Sorne indeed are to be excused that haveascribed certain visible things to nature for atwofold reason. First, they know nothing of theSun of heaven, where the Lord is, and of influxtherefrom, nor anything of the spiritual world andits state, nay rather, nothing of its presence withman. Rence they could but think of the spiritualas apurer natural, and thus of angels as being inthe ether or the stars; also of the devil as mansevil, or if actuaHy existing, as being either in theair, or in the abyss; and of mens souls after deathas being in the midst of the earth, or in sorneabstract place or space till the day of judgment ;and of other similar delusions brought about byignorance concerning the spiritual world and itsSun. The second reason for excusing them is thatthey couId not understand the method by whichthe Divine produced aH those things that appearon earth, good and evil alike; afraid to confirmthemselves in the idea, lest they should ascribeevil things also to God, conceive a maferial ideaconcerning Rirn, and rnake God and nature one,and thus confuse them. These are two reasonsfor excusing those who have believed that natureproduces things visible by power irnplanted in herfrom creation. But those who have becorne atheists, 229
    • 350, 35 1 J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthrough confi.rmations in favour of nature, oughtnot to be excused, because they could have con­fi.rmed themselves in favour of the Divine.Ignorance certainly excuses, but does not removea falsity which has been confi.rmed, for this kindof falsity unites with evil, and so with helloWherefore, those who have conflrmed themselvesin favour of nature so far as to separate the Divinefrom her, reckon nothing as sin, because every sinis against the Divine which they have separatedand thus rejected; and they who in spirit reckonnothing as sin, when they become spirits afterdeath, confi.ned to hell, rush headlong into crimeaccording to the lusts, to which they have givenfree rein. 351. Believers in the Divine working in aU thedetails of nature can, by very many things whichnature shows them, be confi.rmed in favour of theDivine, as fullY as those confi.rmed in favour ofnature, indeed more fully. For the former payheed to the marvels to be seen in the propagationboth of vegetables and animaIs. In the propagationof vegetables: that out of a little seed cast intothe earth, a root goes out, by means of the roota stem, and branches, leaves, fiowers, and fruit,one after the other, even to new seeds; just asif the seed knew the order of succession, or theprocess by which it is about to be renewed. Canany rational being imagine that the sun, which ispure fi.re, has this knowledge, or that it can infuseits heat and light with the capacity to effect suchresults, or that it is able to fashion the marvels inthem, and design the use. The man of elevatedreason, who sees and ponders these things, cannotbut think that they come from Him who has 23°
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [351infinite wisdom, thus from God. Those who doacknowledge the Divine see and think this also ;but those who do not acknowledge the Divine donot see and think this, because they will not.Thus they allow their rational to sink down intothe sensual, which draws all its ideas from thelight of the region of the bodily senses, and confirmstheir illusions, saying, Do you not see the suneffecting these things by means of its heat andlight? What is a thing that you do not see? Isit anything? Those who confirm themselves infavour of the Divine pay heed to the marvels tobe seen in the propagation of animals: for instance,this fact alone is remarkable in eggs; the littlechick lies in them hidden in its seed, or undevelopedstate, with everything it needs until the hatchingout, and also with everything for its growth, afterhatching, until it becornes a bird, or flying creature,in a foon like the parent. And, if one engage inthe study of the form, it is such as to fi11 any onewith amazement who thinks deeply. For, in themost minute just as in the greatest of them, andindeed, in the invisible just as in the visible, thereare organs of the senses, namely sight, hearing,sme11, taste and touch; also organs of motionwhich are muscles, for they fly and walk; andthe viscera surrounding heart and lungs, which areset in motion by the brains. That common insectsalso enjoy the use of these organs is well knownfrom their anatomy, as described by certainwriters, notably by Swammerdam, in his BibliaN aturae. Those who ascribe aIl to nature certainlysee these things, but have in mind only the factthat they exist, and declare that nature producesthem. They say this because they have turnedtheir minds away from thinking about the Divine; 23 1
    • 351-353] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMand those who have done this are unable to thinkrationally, still less to think spiritually, when theysee the marvels in nature. But their thought issensual and material; and then they think innature from nature, and not above nature, in thesame way as those do who are in hello The onlything that differentiates them from the beasts isthat they have the power to think rationally, thatis, they can understand, and so, if they choose,can think otherwise. 352. Those who have deliberately avoided think­ing of the Divine when observing the marvels innature, and who thereby become sensual, do notrefiect that the sight of the eye is so gross that itsees many little insects just as if they were oneobscure insect, when yet every single one of themis furnished with organs of feeling and motion,and thus is possessed of fibres and vessels, a tinyheart also, and lung tubes, minute viscera andbrains; and that these organs are woven out ofthe purest substances in nature, their tissuescorresponding to something of life, by which theirminutest parts are separately animated. Since thesight of the eye is so gross that many such littleinsects, with innumerable parts to each one, appearto it as an obscure speck, and yet, by that sight,those who are sensual think and judge, it is plainhow their minds have been dulled, and into whatdarkness it has brought them concerning spiritualthings. 353. Any one may confirm himself in favour ofthe Divine from the visible things of nature, if heelect to do so, and he also does confirm himself,who thinks about God in regard to life. Take, forinstance, the birds of the air, how each individual 23 2
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [353, 354species knows its own food and where to find it,recognises its kind by sound and sight, and whichamong other kinds are its friends and which itsenemies; how they mate, know sexual union,skilfully build their nests, lay eggs therein, sit uponthem, know the period of incubation, at whichtime preciscly they hatch out their young, love themmost tenderly, cherish them under their wings,bring food in their bills to nourish them, and thisuntil they can ad for themselves, do the samethings themselves and bring forth a family toperpetuate their kind. Every one who is willing toreflect on the Divine influx through the spiritualworld into the natural can see this influx in thesethings. He can also, if he will, say from his heart," Such items of knowledge cannot flow into themfram the sun through its rays of light, for the sun,from which nature derives its origin and essencè, ispure fire, and therefore its rays of light are absolutelydead"; and thus he may draw the conclusion, thatsuch wonders come from the influx of the DivineWisdom into the outmost things of nature. 354. Any one may confirm himself in favour ofthe Divine from things seen in nature, when hesees larvae, from delight of a certain desire, longand hope for the change from their earthly conditionto one something like the heavenly, and creepinto places and stow themselves away. as if intoa womb in order to be reborn, and there becomechrysalises, aurelias, caterpillars, nymphs, and atlast butterflies; then having undergone thischange of form and been decked with the beautifulwings of their kind, they fly upwards into the airas into their heaven, and there frolic joyfully,effect their marriages, lay eggs, and provide for 233
    • 354, 355) DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthe generations to follow themselves; and in themeantime are nourished with delightful and sweetfood from the fiowers. What man, confirmed infavour of the Divine by the visible things ofnature, does not see a certain likeness to mansearthly state in these creatures as larvae, and alikeness to the heavenly state in them as butterflies ?On the other hand, those confirmed in favour ofnature see indeed the same things, but becausethey have cast out of mind the heavenly state ofman, they calI them mere instincts of nature. 355. Anyone may confirm himself in favour ofthe Divine, from things to be seen in nature, byconsideration of what is known about bees. Theyknow how to gather wax and suck honey fromherbs and fiowers, and to build cells like tinyhüuses, and arrange them in the form of a citywith streets through which they pass in and out;they scent at long distances the flowers and herbsfrom which they gather wax for their home andhoney for food, and laden with these fiy back in adirect line to their hive. Thus do they providethemselves with food and dwelling for the comingwinter, as if they foresaw its approach and knewof it. They also appoint for themselves a mistressas queen, by whom a further generation will bepropagated; and for her they make a royal courtabove themselves with guards in attendance roundabout; when the time of bringing forth approaches,she goes with her retinue of attendants from ceUto ceil and lays her eggs, which a throng of followerssmear ail over lest they receive injury from theair; from these a new progeny is to come forthem. Later, when this progeny has advanced to its maturity, so that it can do the same, it is 234
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [355driven from the home. The expel1ed swarm firstgathers itself together, and then in a body, lestthe association be dispersed, flies away in quest ofa home for itself. Moreover, in the autumn theuseless drones are led out and deprived of theirwings, lest they return and consume the food forwhich they have not worked: not to mentionother particulars. From these facts it may beevident, that on account of the use performed tothe human race by influx from the spiritual world,bees have a form of government like that whichexists with men on earth, or rather with the angelsin heaven. Can any man of unimpaired reason failto see that their methods do not come from thenatural world? What is there in common betweenthe sun from which nature exists and a governmentthat rivaIs and compares with the government ofheaven? From these and other very similar thingsin the brute creation, the man who avows andworships nature confirms himself in favour ofnature, while he who avows and worships Godby those same things, confirms himself in favourof the Divine. For the spiritual man sees in themspiritual things, and the natural man natural things,thus each such as he himself is. So far as l amconcerned, l have regarded these things as proofsof the influx of the spiritual into the natural, orof the spiritual world into the natural world, andtherefore from the Divine Wisdom of the Lord.Moreover, weigh up in your mind whether you canthink analytically about any form of government,any civil law, any moral virtue, or any spiritualtruth, unless the Divine flows in out of His Wisdomthrough the spiritual world. For myself, l couldnot and cannot, since l have observed that influx,perceptibly and sensibly, for nearly nineteen years 1* 235
    • 355-357] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMcontinuously, and therefore speak from actualexperience. 356. Is it possible for anything natural to haveuse as an end and to dispose uses into their ordersand forms? l t is impossible except one be wise;and none but God, whose Wisdom is infinite, canso give order to the universe and form it. Whoelse, or what else, can foresee and provide aU thosethings that are food and clothing for men-foodfrom the fruits of the earth and from animaIs,and clothing from the same sources? It is amongthe wonders of creation that those insignificantworms, called silkworms, should clothe in silk andmagnificently adorn both women and men, fromqueens and kings even to maid-servants and men­servants; and that insignificant insects like thebees should supply in abundance wax for the candIesby which temples and courts are made brilliant.These and many other things are convincingevidence that the Lord makes all things that existin nature, from Himself, through the spiritual world. 357. To the above must be added, that l haveseen in the spiritual world such as have beenconfirmed in favour of nature from things visiblein the world, and at last had become atheists. Inspiritual light their understanding appeared openbelow, but closed above. The reason was that theylooked downwards to the earth and not upwardsto heaven. Over their sensual, which is the lowestpart of the understanding, appeared the likeness ofa veil; in sorne lit up from hellish fire, in sorneblack as soot, and in sorne livid as a corpse.Therefore, beware every one of confirmations infavour of nature. Let him confirm himself infavour of the Divine. There is no lack of evidence. 23 6
    • PART VTWO RECEPTACLES AND DWELLINGS OFHIS OWN, CALLED WILL AND UNDER­STANDING, HAVE BEEN CREATED ANDFORMED BY THE LORD IN MAN; THEWILL FOR HIS DIVINE LOVE, AND THEUNDERSTANDING FOR HIS DIVINE WISDOM 358. The Divine Love and Wisdom of God theCreator, who is the Lord from etemity, and thecreation of the universe, have been treated of;something shaH now be said of the creation of man.We read that man was created in the image of Godafter His likeness (Gen. i. 26). By" the image ofGod " is there meant the Divine Wisdom, and by"the likeness of God" the Divine love; forwisdom is nothing else than an image of love,since love shows itself in arder to be seen andrecognised in wisdom; and because it is thereseen and recognised, wisdom is its image. Moreoverlove is the Being of life, and wisdom is theManifestation of life therefrom. The likeness andimage of God appear clearly in angels, for lovefrom within shines forth in their faces, and wisdomin their beauty; and beauty is the form of theirlove. l have seen and perceived it. 359. Man cannot be an image of God after Hislikeness, unless God be in him and be his lite from 237
    • 359,360] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthe inmost. That God is in man, and is his lifefrom the inmost, follows from what was shownabove (Nos. 4-6) namely, that God alone is Life,and that men and angels are recipients of life fromHim. Moreover, it is well known from the Wordthat God is in man, and makes His abode withhim; and because it has come to be known fromthe Word, it is customary for preachers to declarethat men should be prepared to receive God, thatHe may enter into them, and be in their hearts,that they may be His dwelling-place. The devoutman says the same in his prayers, and so do sornemore openly regarding the Holy Spirit, which theybelieve is in them when they have holy zeal, andfrom that zeal think, speak, and preach. That theHoly Spirit is the Lord, and not sorne other Godwho is a Person by Himself, has been shown inThe Doctrine of the New Jerttsalem concerning theLord. For the Lord declares : " In that day ye shall know that ye are in Me, and r in you " (John xiv. 20; likewise, xv. 4, 5 ; xvii. 23). 360. Now, because the Lord is Divine Love andWisdom, and these two essentially are Himself, itis necessary, in order that He may abide in manand give life to man, that He should create andform in man receptacles and dwellings of His own,one for love and the other for wisdom. Thesereceptacles and dwellings in man are called the willand the understanding; the receptacle and dwellingof love, the will; and the receptacle and dwellingof wisdom, the understanding. That these twoare the Lords in man, and that from thesetwo man has all his life, will be seen in whatfollows. 23 8
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [361 361. That every man has these two, will andunderstanding, and that they are distinct from oneanother, as are love and wisdom from one another,is known and yet not known in the world. l t isknown by general intuition, and is not known bythought, and still less from thought put intowriting. For who does not know intuitively thatwill and understanding are two distinct things inman? Indeed, everyone perceives it when hehears, and possibly also says to another, "Thisman means well, but does not understand aright ;but the other mans understanding is all right, andhis will all wrong. l like him whose understandingand will are both good, but l do not like him whounderstands well and wills wickedly." Yet whenhe thinks about will and understanding, he doesnot make them two and distinguish them, butconfuses them, because his thought shares withthe sight of the body. When he writes, still lessdoes he perceive that will and understanding aretwo distinct things, since his thought then uniteswith the sensual, which is the mans inherent nature.Hence it is that sorne are able to think and speakdearly, yet cannot write well; and this is generallytrue of the female sex. It is the same with manyother things. Who has not come to know intuitivelythat the man is saved who lives a good life, andcondemned who leads a bad life? Aiso that a manwhose life is good enters the society of angels, andsees, hears, and speaks there, just as man does?And that one who does what is just from equity,and what is right from rectitude, has a conscience ?But if one gets away from intuition and submitsthese things to thought, one then does not knowwhat conscience is; nor does one know that thesoul can see, hear, and speak as man does, nor that 239
    • 361) DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMgoodness of life is anything else than giving tothe needy. And should you write about suchthings from your thought, you confirm them byoutward appearances and errors, and by highsounding words of no substance. This accountsfor the fact that many learned men and greatthinkers, especially among writers, have weakenedand dimmed, yea, have destroyed their intuition;and that simple people see more clearly what isgood and true than those who imagine themselvestheir superiors in wisdom. This intuition cornes byinflux from heaven and sinks into the thoughtalmost to sight, but thought, separated from intui­tion, falls into the imagination, which cornes fromsight and mans inherent nature. That this is so,you may put to the test. Tell anyone with intuitionsomething true, and he will see it; tell him thatfrom God and in God we are, we live and areaffected, and he will see it; tell him that Goddwells with man in love and wisdom, he will seeit; tell him further that the will is the receptacleof love, and the understanding the receptacle ofwisdom, and explain it a little, he will see it; tellhim that God is Love itself and Wisdom itself, andhe will see it; ask him what conscience is, and hewill tell you. But say the same things to anylearned man who has not thought from intuition,but from principles or ideas caught by the sightfrom the world, that man will not see. Thenconsider which is the wiser. 240
    • [3 62 ,3 63THE WILL AND THE UNDERSTANDING,WHICH ARE THE RECEPTACLES OF LOVEAND WISDOM, ARE IN THE BRAINS, INTHE WHOLE AND EVERY PART OF THEM,AND FROM THEM IN THE BODY, IN THE WHOLE AND EVERY PART OF IT 362. These things must he proved as foIlows : (i) Love and wisdom, and the will and the under­ standing therefrom, make the very life ofman. (ii) The life of man is in its beginnings in the brains and in its derivatives in the body. (iii) Such as life is in its beginnings, such it is in the whole and every part. (iv) By means of those beginnings, life is in the whole from every part, and in every part from the whole. (v) Such as the love is, such is the wisdom, and therefore such is the man. 363. (i) Love and wisdom, and the will and theunderstanding therefrom, make the very life of man.Hardly anyone knows what life is. When onethinks about it, it seems as if it were a vapourysomething, of which no idea is possible. It seemsso, because it is n.ot known that God alone is Life,and that His Life is Divine Love and Wisdom;hence it is plain that in man life is nothing else,and that life is in man in the degree in which hereceives this love and this wisdom. l t is knownthat light and heat go forth from the sun, andthat aIl things in the universe are recipients, andbecome warm and bright in the degree of their 24 1
    • 363] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM reception. Thus it is also from the Sun where the Lord is; the heat issuing therefrom is Love, and the light issuing is Wisdom, as was shown in Part Second. Life, therefore, cornes from these two, issuing from the Lord as the Sun. That love and wisdom from the Lord are life may be evident also from this, that man grows listless as love recedes from him, and stupid as wisdom leaves him, and, if they were to go away altogether, he would be deprived of life. There are many things partaking of love, which have had other names· assigned to them because they are derivatives, as affections, desires, appetites, and their pleasures and enjoyments; and there are many things partaking of wisdom, as perception, refiection, recollection, thought and intention towards a thing ; and there are many things partaking of both love and wisdom, as consent, conclusion and determina­ tion to action, besides others. Ali these, in fact, partake of both, but are named from the more important and immediate quality of the two. From these two in the end are derived sensations; they are sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, with their enjoyments and pleasures. According to appearances it is the eye that sees, but in fact the understanding sees through the eye; on which account seeing is attributed also to the under­ standing. The appearance is that the ear hears, but in fact the understanding hears through the r lh.o.. ear; therefore hearing is predicated of attention o ~lLL and obedience, which are of the undefstanding.l,,(>:_ J Ihe appearance IS {fiat tne noSê smells, and tfiat~ l4< the tongue tastes; but in fact the understanding ~~y its perception smells and also tastes; for this reason smelling and tasting are attributed also to perception. And so in other cases. The sources 24 2
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [363-365of everyone of these are love and wisdom. It maybe evident, therefore, that these two make the lifeof man. 364. Everyone sees that the understanding isthe receptacle of wisdom, but few see that the willis the receptacle of love. The explanation is thatthe will does nothing by itself, but acts by meansof the understanding; also that, when the love ofthe will passes into the wisdom of the under­standing, it nrst of all goes into affection, and inthis way passes through; and affection is onlyperceived as something pleasant in thinking,speaking, and doing, to which no attention is given.Still it is evident that love is from the will, for thereason that everyone wills what he loves, and doesnot will what he does not love. 365. (ii) The life of man is in its beginnings inthe brains and in its derivatives in the body. Inbeginnings means in its nrst forms, and in deriva­tives means in what is brought forth and formedfrom nrst things; and by life in beginnings ismeant will and understanding. These two arewhat are in their beginnings in the brains, and intheir derivatives in the body. It is evident thatbeginnings or nrst forms of life are in the brains : (1) From feeling itself; since, when a man bends his mind to think, he perceives that he thinks in the brains. He, as it were, draws in the sight of the eye, and knits his brows, and feels that the investigation is within, mostly in the forehead and somewhat above it. (2) From the formation of man in the womb ; since the brain or head cornes nrst and for quite a long time continues larger than the body. 243
    • 365J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM (3) Since the head is above and the body below; and the law of order is for the higher to act upon the lower, and not the reverse. (4) Since, with the brain injured, either in the womb, or by a wound, or by disease, or by excessive strain, thought is impaired,--ana sometlmes the mind becomes delirious. (5) Since aH the bodys outward senses, namely, sight, hearing, smell and taste, together with the general sense of touch, and even speech, are in the front part of the head, which is called the face, and connect directly by means of fibres with the brains, and derive from them their sensittve and active life. (6) Rence it is that affections of love are portrayed in the face, and thoughts of wisdom are refiected in the eyes. (7) Anatomy also teaches that ail fibres descend from the brains through the neck into the body and that none goes up from the body through the neck into the brains. And where the fibres are in their beginnings and first forms, there life is in its beginnings and first forms. Who dares to deny that life has its origin where the fibres have theirs ? (8) Ask anyone with sorne degree of intuition, " Whereabouts is thought ? " or " Where do you think?" and he will reply, "In the head." Then ask someone who has assigned the seat of the soul to a particular gland or to the heart, or elsewhere, "Where are affection and its thought· in their first beginning? Are they not in the brain ? " and he will answer, No, or that he does not know. The reason for this ignorance you may see above (No. 36r). 244
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [366 366. (iii) Such as life is in its beginnings, suchit is in the whole and every part. In order that thismay be perceived, it shall be explained where inthe brains those beginnings are, and the mannerof their conveyance down. Anatomy shows clearlywhere they exist. Tt makes known that there aretwo brains, and that they are continued from thehead into the spinal column; that they consist oftwo substances, called cortical substance andmeduUary substance; that cortical substanceconsists of innumerable gland-like forms, andmedullary substance of innumerable fibre-likeforms. Now as these glands are the heads offibrils, they are also their beginnings; for thefibres begin and go for th from these glands, andgradually become bundled together into nerves.These bundles or nerves, when formed, descend tothe sensory organs in the face, and to the organsof motion in the body, and form them. Consultanyone skilled in the science of anatomy, and youwiU be convinced. This cortical or glandularsubstance for ms the surface of the cerebrum, andalso the surface of the corpora striata, from whichcornes the medulla oblongata; it also forms the middle of the cerebellum, and the middle of thespinal marrow. But the medullary or fibrillary substance everywhere begins in and proceeds from the cortical; and from this come the nerves,and from them all things of the body. That this is true is proved by dissection. They who understanél these things, either from study of the science of anatomy or from the testimony of experts, can see that the beginnings of life are nowhere else than the commencements of the fibres, and that fibres cannot go forth from themselves, but from those beginnings. These beginnings or origins; which 245
    • 366,367] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM appear as glands, are almost countless; their multitude may be compared to the multitude ofstars in the universe; and the multitude of fibrilsfrom them may be compared to the multitude ofrays issuing from the stars and bearing their heatand light to the earths. The multitude of theseglands may also be compared to the multitude ofangelic societies in the heavens, which also arecountless, and, as l have been told, are in thesame order; and the multitude of fibrils issuingfrom these glands may be compared to spiritualtruths and goodness, which in the same way flowdown therefrom like rays. Rence it is that manis like a universe and like a heaven in least form,as has frequently been said and shown above.From these things it may be evident that such aslife is in beginnings, such it is in derivatives; or,such as life is in its first forms in the brains, suchit is in the things arising therefrom in the body. 367. (iv) By means of those beginnings life is inthe whole from every part, and in every part fromthe whole. This is because the whole, that is, thebrain and body together, by its origin, exists oruyfrom the fibres which proceed from their beginningsin the brains. It has no other origin, as is plainfrom what has been shown just above (No. 366).Rence the whole is from every part. Life also isin every part from the whole by means of thosebeginnings, because the whole furnishes each partwith its dutY and its needs, and thereby makes it apart in the whole. In a word, the whole exists byreason of the parts, and the parts continue toexist by reason of the whole. That there is sucha reciprocal communion, and union thereby, isplain from many things in the body. For it is the 246
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [367,368same there as in astate, republic and kingdom ;the community exists by reason of the individualswho are its parts, and the parts or individualscontinue to exist by reason of the community. Itis the same with everything which has any form,especially in man. 368. (v) Such as the love is, such is the wisdom,and therefore such is the man. For such as are thelove and wisdom, such are the will and under­standing, since the will is the receptacle of love,and the understanding of wisdom, as was shawnabove; and these two make the man and hischaracter. Love is manifold, and sa manifold thatthe varieties are unlimited, as may be evident fromthe human race in the earths and in the heavens.There does not exist one man or angel sa likeanother that there is no difference. Love is whatdistinguishes, for every man ishis own"ov~. ILssupposea that wlsdorrî riiaI<es a dIstinction, butwisdom cornes from love and is the form of love;for love is the Being of life, and wisdom is theManifestation of life from that Being. I t is believedin the world that the understanding makes theman; but this is believed because the under­standing can be raised inta the light of heaven, aswas shown above, and the man may thus have the appearance of being wise; but as far as that muchof the understanding which transcends, that is, does not belong to the love, appears ta be the mans, so far he has that character, but it is an appearance. For ~t much of the understanding which transcends lias reilly to do With tfie love pf§OWillg and belVg wise, but not at the same tU"Qe with the love 0 applying to hie what the man knows and understands; wherefore in the wàt-Id 247
    • 368, 369] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMthat part in time passes away, or it lingers withoutin the borders, a thing of the memory, ready tofaU away; on which account it is separated afterdeatn, and no more remains than agrees with thespirits own love. Because love makes the life ofman, and thus the man himself, all the societiesof heaven and aU the angels in the socleties, arearran ed accordin to the affectIons belongmg 10t elr lo,xe, an no SOCle y nor ang SOCle yaœording to anything of the understanding apartfrom its love. It is the same in the hells and theirsocieties, but in accordance with loves opposed tothe heavenly loves. From these things it may beevident that such as the love is, such is the wisdom,and therefore such is the man. 369. It is recognised, indeed, that man is of thesame nature as his ruling love, but only in respectto mind and disposition, not in respect to his body,thus not whoUy. But it has been made known tome from much experience in the spiritual world,that man, from head to foot, or from the first thingsin the head to the last things in the body, is ofthe same nature as his love. For aU in that worldare forms of their love, angels· forms of heavenlylove, devils of heUish love; devils deformed inface and body, but angels finely formed in face andbody; and if their love is impugned, their facesare changed, and whoUy disappear if much attacked.This is peculiar to that world and so happensbecause their bodies make one with their minds.The reason is c1ear from what has been said above,that aU things of the body are derivatives, that is,are connected by means of fibres from beginningswhich are receptac1es of love and wisdom. Whenbeginnings have this charac.ter, their derivatives 248
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [369, 371are bound to be of the same nature. The con­sequence is that where beginnings go, the deriva­tives follow; they cannot be separated. Hence itis that ~ who raises his mind to the Lord is whQllyl2tt~I uE. to Hlm, and he who casts his mind downto e lS whol y cast down to heU; whereforethewhofe nlailëomes, according to his lifes love, eitherinto heaven or into hello From angelic wisdomcornes this: The mind of man is a man becauseGod is Man; the body is the external of the mind,and feels and acts; and thus they are one, andnot two. 370. It should be noted that the very forms ofthe members, organs and viscera of man, in respectto the actual composition, are from fibres thatarise out of their beginnings in the brains, butthat they are fixed by means of such substancesand matters as are in the earths, and from theearths in the air and ether, and that this is effectedby means of the blood. Therefore, in order thatall things of the body may continue to exist in theirformation, and thus be permanent in their functions,man must be nourished by material food, and becontinually renewed.THERE IS A CORRESPONDENCE OF THEWILL WITH THE HEART, AND OF THE UNDERSTANDING WITH THE LUNGS 371. This shall be proved in the following order : (i) All things of the mind have reference ta tht; will and understanding, and all things of the body ta the heart and lungs. 249
    • -,371,372] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM (ii) There is a correspondence of the will and understanding with the heart and lungs, and from this a correspondence of all things of the mind with all things of the body. (iii) The will corresponds to the heart. (iv) The understanding corresponds to the lungs. (v) By means of this correspondence many secrets concerning the will and understanding, and therefore also concerning love and wisdom, may he disclosed. (vi) Mans mind is his spirit, and the spirit is the man. The body is the externat through which the mind or spirit feels and aets in its world. (vii) The union of mans spirit with the body is by the correspondence of his will and understanding with his heart and lungs, and separation comes through non-corre­ spondence. 372. (i) AU things of the mind have reference tothe will and understanding, and aU things of the bodyto the heart and lungs. By the mind nothing elseis meant than the will and understanding. and theyinclude ail the things a man is affected by andthinks of, thus aIl things of mans affection andthought. Those things by which man is affectedbelong to his will, and those of which he thinksbelong to his understanding. It is known that ailthe things of mans thought belong to his under ­standing, since he thinks from the understanèling,but it is not so weIl known that aIl the things ofmans affection belong to his will, and for thisreason, that when he thinks he pays no heed tothe affection, bût only to what he lS thmkmg ;just as wllen he hears somebody speakmg, li lS not 25 0
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [372,373the sound he attends to, but the words themselves ;when yet affection stands in the same relation tothought as sound does to the spoken word; forwhich reason one knows from the sound of aspeakers voice what his affection is, and from thewords what his thought is. Affection belongs to thewill because every affection belongs to love, andthe receptacle of love is the will, as was shownabove. He who does not know that affection belongsto the will confuses affection with the under­standing, for he declares it to be one with thought ;nevertheless, they are not one although they actas one. That they are confused is clear from thecommon expression "1 think l shaH do this,"meaning, " l will do it." But that they are twothings is also clear from a common expression," l wish to think over this matter," and when hethinks it over, the wills affection is present in theunderstandings thought, just as sound is presentin the spoken word, as was said before. That allthe things of the body have reference to the heartand lungs is well known, but that there is a corre­spondence of the heart and lungs with the will andunderstanding is not known. This subject willtherefore be discussed in what follows. 373. Since the will and understanding arereceptacles of love and wisdom, these two areorganic forms, or forms organised from purestsubstances, for such they must be to be receptacles.It does not matter that their organisation isimperceptible to the eye. Even when the visionof the eye is magnified by the microscope, theorganisation lies within, imperceptible. Tiniestinsects also are imperceptible, inside vision, yetthey have organs of sense and motion, for they 25 1
    • 373; 374J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMfeel, and walk and fly. That they, too, have brains,hearts, lung tubes, and viscera, acute observershave discovered from their anatomy by means ofthe microscope. When the tiny insects themselvesare not visible and stillless their component viscera,and it is not denied that they are organized evento each single particle in them, how then can it besaid that the two receptacles of love and wisdom,called will and understanding, are not organicforms? How can love and wisdom, which are lifefrom the Lord, act on what is not a subject, or onanything which has no substantial existence?How otherwise can thought inhere, and how cananything be spoken from thought not inherent ?Is not the brain, by which thought comes forth,complete and organised in every part thereof?There the organic forms themselves are visibleeven to the naked eye; and the receptacles of thewill and understanding in their beginnings emergein the cortical substance, where they are clearlyseen as small glands, concerning which see above(No. 366). Do not, l beg you, think of these thingsfrom an idea of vacuum. Vacuum is nothing, andin nothing nothing takes place, and from nothingnothing comes forth. (Concerning the idea ofvacuum, see above, No. 8z.) 374. (ii) There is a correspondence of the will andunderstanding with the heart and lungs, and fromthis a correspondence of all things of the mind withall tl~ings of the body. This is something new, andhas not been known before, because nobodLknewwhat the sR.iritual was, and wherein it differèdfrom the natural; consequently, what corre­s ondence is was unknown; for there IS a corre­spon ence 0 spmtu things with natural, and z5 z
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [374through that correspondence cornes their union.We say that these things have not been knownhitherto. Yet they could have been known. Whodoes not know that affection and thought arespiritual, and therefore that all things belongingto them are spiritual? Who does not know thataction and speech ate natural, and therefore thatall things belonging to them are nàtural? Whodoes not know that affection and thought, whichare spiritual, make man act and speak? Whocannot know from these things what correspondenceof spiritual things with natural is? Does notthought make the tongue speak, and at1ectiontogether with thought make the body act? Theyare two distinct things. l can think withoutspeaking, and l can will without acting; and thebody, it is known, does not think nor does it will,but thought falls into speech, and will into action.Does not affection beam fOJ;th from the face andthere present a type of itself? This everyone knows.Is not affection, regarded in itself, spiritual, andare not the changes of the countenance, called theexpression, natural? From this, who might notthen conclude that there is a correspondence, andhence a correspondence of all things of the mindwith all things of the body? And, since all thingsof the mind have reference to affection and thought,or what is the same, -to will and understanding,and aIl things of the body to the heart and lungs,who might not also conclude that there is acorrespondence of the will with the heart, and ofthe understanding with the lungs? Such thingshave been unknown, though they might have beenknown, because man has become so external as tobe unwilling to acknowledge anything except thenatura!. This has been the delight of his love, and 253
    • 374, 375] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMtherefore the delight of his understanding; forwhich reason it has been distasteful to him to raisehis thought above the natural to contemplatesomething spiritual apart from the natural, andconsequently, on account of his natural love andits delight, he could only think of the spiritual asapurer natural, and of correspondence as somethingftowing in by continuity. Nay more, a man whois merely natural, is unable to think what is apartfrom the natural; to him it is nothing. There isanother reason why these things have not beenseen, and have, therefore, hitherto been unknown.They have removed from mans survey all mattersof religion that are called spiritual by the dogmaticassertion in the whole Christian world that thetheological, that is the spiritual, teachings, decreedby Councils and certain leaders, must be blindlybelieved because, as they say, they transcend theunderstanding. Some, therefore, have imaginedthe spiritual to be like a bird ftying above the airin the ether, to which sight the eye does not reach ;when yet it is like a heavenly bird, ftying near theeye and brushing its pupil with its lovely wings,longing to be seen. By the sight of the eye ismeant enlightened sight. 375. The correspondence of will and under­standing with heart and IUllgS cannot be provedabstractly, that is, by reasoning alone, but may beproved by effects. It is the same as with the causesof things. These, indeed, can be seen rationally,but clearly, only by effects; for causes exist ineffects, and by their means render themselvesvisible; till then the mind is not convinced aboutcauses. The effects of such correspondence will berelated in what follows. But lest anyone slip into 254
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [375,376ideas concerning this correspondence acquiredfrom assumptions about the soul, let him first readcarefully what has been shown in the precedingchapter; Nos. 363-364, Love and wisdom, andwill and understanding therefrom, make the verylife of man; No. 365, The life of man is in itsbeginnings in the brains, and in its derivatives inthe body; No. 366, 5uch as life is in its beginnings,such it is in the whole and every part; No. 367,By means of those beginnings life is in the wholefrom every part, and in every part from the whole ; No. 368, 5uch as the love is, such is the wisdom,and therefore such is the man. 376. Here, by way of testimony, a representationmay be adduced of the correspondence of the willand understanding with the heart and lungs, seenin heaven among the angels. By a wonderfulmotion as of flowing into !?pirals, inexpressible inwords, they formed a likeness of the heart andlungs with all the internai structures therein, andimmediately were following the flow of heaven,for heaven ascends into forms like these by reasonof the influx of love and wisdom from the Lord.In this manner they were representing the unionof heart and lungs and at the same time thecorrespondence of these with the wills love and theunderstandings wisdom. They called this corre­spondence and union the heavenly marriage, saying, that it is the same in the whole body and itsindividual members, organs and viscera as it is in those which belong to the heart and lungs; and that where the heart and lungs do not act and each perform its part, there no motion of life is possible from any voluntary principle, nor any sensation of life from any intellectual principle. 255
    • 377] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM 377. Whereas the correspondence of the heartand lungs with the will and understanding is treatedof in the pages immediately following, and uponthis correspondence is based that of all parts of thebody, namely, the members, organs of sense, andviscera; and seeing that the correspondence ofnatural things with spiritual has hitherto beenunknown, and yet is amply set forth in two works,one of which treats of Heaven and HeU, and theother, the Arcana Cœlestia, of the spiritual senseof the Word in Genesis and in Exodus, l will hereindicate what has been written and shown in thosetwo works regarding correspondence. In Heavenand HeU: The correspondence of all things ofheaven with all things of man (Nos. 87-102). Thecorrespondence of all things of heaven with allthings on earth (Nos. 103-Il5). In the ArcanaCœlestia, the work on the spiritual sense of the;Yord in Genesis and Exodus: The correspondenceof the face and its expressions with affections ofthe mind (Nos. 1568, 2988-9, 3631, 4796-1, 4800,5165, 5168, 5695, 9306); of the body, its gesturesand actions, with things intellectual and voluntary(Nos. 2988, 3632, 4215); of the senses in general(Nos. 4318-4330); of the eyes and of sight (Nos.4403-4420); of nostrils and of smell (Nos. 4624­4634); of the ears and of hearing (Nos. 4652­4660); of the tongue and of taste (Nos. 4791­4805); of the hands, arms, shoulders, and feet(Nos. 4931-4953); of the loins and organs ofgeneration (Nos. 5050-5062); of the internaIviscera, especially of the stomach, thymus gland,of the receptacle and ducts of the chyle, of themessentery (Nos. 5I71-5I81); of the spleen(No. 9698); of the peritoneum, kidneys andbladder (Nos. 5377-85); of the liver, and of the 256
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [377,378hepatic, cystic, and pancreatic ducts (Nos. 5183-5) ;of the intestines (Nos. 5392-5, 5379); of the bones(Nos. 5560-4); of the skin (Nos. 5552-9); ofheaven with man (Nos. 9II, 1900, 1982, 2996-8,362 4-49, 374 1-5, 3884, 4051, 4279, 4403, 45 24-5,6013, 6057, 9279, 9632). All things that exist inthe natural world and in its three kingdomscorrespond to all things which appear in thespiritual world (Nos. 1632, 1831, 2758, 2990-3,2997-3003, 321 3-27, 34 83, 362 4-49, 4 044, 4053,4116, 43 66 , 4939, 511 6, 5377, 5428 , 5477, 8211,9280). AU things that appear in the heavens arecorrespondences (Nos. 1521, 1532, 1619-25, 1807-8,1971, 1974, 1977, 1980-1, 2299, 2601, 32 13-26 ,3349-50,3475-85,3748,9481,9570,9576-7). Thecorrespondence of the sense of the letter of the Wordand of its spiritual sense is treated of in the ArcanaCœlestia throughout; and on this subject see also the Doctrine of the New ] erusalem concerning theSacred Script~tre (Nos. 5-26, 27-65). 378. (iii) The will corresponds to the heart. Thiscannot be seen so c1early taken by itself as whenconsidered from the will in effects (as was saidabove, No. 375). By itself, this fact may make itevident, that aU affections, springing from love,lead to changes in the rate of the hearts action,as is plain from the beat of the arteries, which actat the same time with the heart. Hs changes andpulsations in accordance with the loves affectionsare innumerable. Those felt by the fmger are onlythat it beats slowly or quickly, high or low, calmlyor roughly, regularly or irregularly, and so on;thus varying with joy and sorrow, peace of mindand wrath, courage and fear, fevers and chills, andso forth. Becallse the motions of the heart, termed 257
    • 378, 379] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDÛMsystole and diastole are changed and varied toaccord with the affections of anyones love, manyancient writers, and sorne modern, have ascribedaffections to the heart and also believed their hometo be there. From this it has crept into ordinaryspeech to talk of the heart as generous or mean,joyous or sad, soft or hard, stout or timid, wholeor broken, of flesh or of stone; likewise as gross,soft, gentle; giving the heart to doing something,a single heart, a new heart, laying up in the heart,receiving in the heart, not rising above the heart,hardening ones heart, a friend at heart; hencethe terms concord, discord follyof heart, and manysimilar terms expressive of love and its affections.Like expressions are found in the Word, because theWord has been written by means of correspondences.Whether you say love or will it is the same, sincethe will is the receptacle of love, as was said above. 379. Tt is known that there is vital heat in manand in every animal; but its origin is not known.Everyone speaks of it from conjecture, consequentlythose who have known nothing of the correspon­dence of natural things with spiritual have ascribedits origin to the heat of the sun, sorne to activityof the parts and sorne to life itself; but as theyknew not what life was, they simply stopped usingthat word. But he who knows that there is acorrespondence of love and its affections with theheart and its derivations, may know that love isthe origin of vital heat. For love goes forth, fromthe spiritual Sun where the Lord is, as heat, andmoreover, is felt by the angels as heat. Thisspiritual heat, which in its essence is love, is whatflows in by correspondence into the heart and itsblood, infuses it with heat, and at the same time 25 8
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [379-38rgives it life. That a man grows hot and, as it were,bums, according to his love and the degree of it,and becomes numb and chilled as it decreases, isknown, for it is felt and seen; it is felt in theheat of the whole body, and it is seen in the flushof the face; and extinction of love, on the otherhand, is felt in the coldness of the body, and seenin the pallor of the face. Because love is the lifeof man, the heart is the first and the last of his life.And because love is the life of man and the soulimpels its life into the body through the blood, inthe Word blood is called the soul (Gen. ix. 4;Levit. xvii. I4). The various meanings of the word" soul" will be explained in what follows. 380. That the blood is red is also on accountof the correspondence of the heart and the bloodwith love and its affections; for in the spmtuâlwbrld there are colours of every kind. Red andwhite are the fundamental, and the lest derive theirvarieties from these and their opposites, which area smouldering fire shade and black. Red therecorresponds to love, and white to wisdom. Redcorresponds to love because it takes its origin fromthe fire of the Sun there, and white correspondsto wisdom because it derives its origin from thelight of the same Sun; and because there is acorrespondence of love with the heart , the bloodcannot but be red, and indicate its origin. Renceit is that in the heavens, where love to the Lordreigns, light is the colour of flame, and the angelsare clothed in purple garments; and in the heavenswhere wisdom reigns, the light is shining white,and the angels are clothed in white lawn garments. 38r. The heavens are distinguished into twokingdoms, one of which is called celestial and the K ~9
    • 38r , 382 J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMother spiritual; in the celestial kingdom love tothe Lord reigns, and in the spiritual kingdom wisdomfrom that love. That kingdom in which loveprevails is cal1ed heavens cardiac kingdom, andthat where wisdom prevails, is cal1ed its pulmonickingdom. It should be known that the wholeangelic heaven in its entirety resembles one manand 50 appears in the Lords sight. For this reasonits heart makes one kingdom, and its lungs theother; for there is a general cardiac and pulmonicmotion of the whole heaven, and an individualmotion therefrom in each ange!. The generalcardiac and pulmonic motion is from the Lordalone, because love and wisdom come from Himalone; for these two motions are in the Sun, wherethe Lord is, and which exists from the Lord, andfrom that in the angelic heaven and in the universe.Banish spaces and think of omnipresence, and youwill be convinced that it is 50. That the heavensare distinguished into two kingdoms, celestial andspiritual, may be scen in the work on Heaven andHeU (Nos. 26-28); and that the whole angelicheaven in its entirety resembles one man (Nos.59-87). 382. (iv) The ~mderstanding corresponds to thelungs. This fol1ows from what has been saidconcerning the correspondence of the will withthe heart; for will and understanding are the twothings which rule in the spiritual man or in themind; and the heart and lungs are the two thingscontrolling the natural man or the body; and thecorrespondence is between aU the things of themind and all the things of the body, as was saidabove; from which it fol1ows that the willcorresponds to the heart, and the understanding 260
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [382,383to the lungs. Moreover, everyone may perceive inhimself, both from his thought and from his speech,that the understanding corresponds to the lungs.From thought: No one can think unless the respira­tion agrees and harmonizes; consequently, whenone is thinking quietly the breathing is quiet, ifone thinks deeply the breathing is deep; thebreath is drawn in and let out, the lungs contractand expand in conformity to the thought, thusaccording to the influx from love, slowly, quickly,eagerly, gently, intently; indeed, if the breathbe held completely, it is impossible to think exceptin ones spirit by its own respiration, and thatis not manifestly perceptible. From speech: Sincenot the slightest sound escapes from the mouthwithout the assistance of the lungs; for the sound,which is articulated into words, aH cornes forth bymeans of the trachea and epiglottis; wherefore,according to the inflation of those beHows and theopening of the passage, the voice is raised even toa shout, and according to the contraction islowered; and, if the passage be closed, speechtogether with thought ceases. 383. Since the understanding corresponds to thelungs, and thought therefrom to the respiration,in the Ward, "soul" and "Spirit" signify theunderstanding: as where it is said, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy Gad with all thy heart and with all thy soul" (Matt. xxii. 37). " Gad will give a new heart and a new spirit" (Ezek. xxxvi. 26; Ps. li. 10).That "heart" signifies the love of the will wasshown above; therefore "Soul" and "Spirit"signify the wisdom of the understanding. That the 261
    • 383J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMspirit of God, also caIled the Roly Spirit, meansDivine Wisdom, and therefore Divine Truth, whichis the light of men, may be seen in the Doctrineof the New]erusalem concerning the Lord (Nos.50 -S I ). Rence it is that " The Lord breathed on His disciples, and said, Receive ye the Holy Spirit" (John xx. 22),for the same reason it is said that " ] ehovah God breathed into the nostrils of Adam the breath of lives, and he was made a living soul" (Gen. ii. 7) ;also Re said to the prophet, " Prophesy upon the breath, and say unto the wind, Come from the four winds, 0 breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live" (Ezek. xxxvii. 9) ;likewise in other places; therefore the Lord iscalled "The breath of the nostrils," and "thebreath of life." Because respiration passes throughthe nostrils, they signify perception; and anintelligent man is said to be keen-scented, and anunintelligent man to be dull-scented. For the samereason, spirit, and wind in the Rebrew and insorne other languages are the same word; for theword spirit is derived from a word that meansbreathing; and therefore, when a man dies, he issaid to give up the ghost (anima = spirit or breath).It is from this also that men believe the spirit tobe wind, or an airy something like breath fromthe lungs, and the soul to be of similar nature.From these things it may be evident that to"love God with aIl the heart and ail the soul"means to love Rim with ail the love and with allthe understanding, and to " give a new heart and 262
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [383, 384a new spirit" means to give a new will and a newunderstanding. Because" spirit" means under­standing, it is said of Bezaleel, That he was "filled with the spirit of wisdom, of intelligence and of knowledge" (Exod. xxi. 3) ;and of J oshua, That he was "jilled with the spirit of wisdom " (Deut. xxxiv. 9) ;and Nebuchadnezzar says of Daniel, That " an excellent spirit of knowledge, of intelli­ gence, and of wisdom, was in him" (Dan. v. II, 12, 14) ;and it is said in l saiah, They that err in spirit shall learn intelligence (xxix. 24) ;likewise in many other places. 384. Since all things of the mind have relationto the will and understanding and ail things of thebody to the heart and lungs, there are in the headtwo brains, each distinct trom the other as is thecase with the will and understanding. The cere­bellum exists chiefly for the sake of the will, andthe cerebrum chiefly for the understanding.Similarly the heart and lungs in the body aredistinct from the rest of the organs there. Theyare separated by the diaphragm and are envelopedby a covering of their own, called the pleura, andform that part of the body called the chest. Inthe other parts of the body, that is, the members,organs and viscera, the two parts are joined together,and thus also are pairs; for example, arms, hands,loins, feet, eyes, nostrils; within the body, kidneys,ureters, testic1es; and the viscera, which are notin pairs, are divided into right and left. Moreover, 26 3
    • 384, 385] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM the brain itself has two hemispheres, the heart two ventricles, and the lungs two lobes; and the right of these relates to the goodness belonging to truth, and the left to the truth belonging to goodness; or what is the same, the right refers to the goodness of love from which comes the truth of wisdom, and the left to the truth of wisdom which comes from the goodness of love. And because the union of goodness and truth is reciprocal, and by means of that union they become as it were one, the effect in man is that these pairs act together and jointly in their functions, movements, and senses. 385. (v) By means of this correspondence many secrets concerning the will and understanding, and therefore also concerning. love and wisdom, may be disclosed. In the world iL!? scarcely known what the will is or what love is, since man is not able, QI hlmself, to love, and from love to will, in theN. same way that he can understand and think, 2:§ from himself; just as he cannot of himself make the heart to beat, âIffiough he can of himself e1tect respiratIOn onhe lungs. Now because it is scarcely known in the world what the will is and what love is, and yet it is known what the heart and lungsare, -for these can be seen and examined by the eye, and also have been examined and described by anatomists, whereas the will and understanding cannot be seen and examined,-therefore, when it is known that they correspond, and by corre­ spondence act as one, many secrets concerning the will and understanding may be disclosed which otherwise would be impossible, as, for instance, the union of the will Vith the understanding, and the reciprocal union of the understanding with the will; or, as the union of love Nith wisdom, 26 4
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [385,386and the reciprocal union of wisdom with love;also as the descent of love into the affections, theassociations of the affections, and of their influxinto the perceptions and thoughts, and at lengththeir influx according to correspondence into theactions and senses of the body. These and manyother secrets may be both disclosed and provedby the union of the heart and lungs, and by theblood f10wing in from the heart to the lungs, andreciprocaUy from the lungs to the heart, and fromthere through the arteries into aU the members,organs, and viscera of the body. 386. (vi) Mans mind is his spirit, and the spiritis the man. The body is the external through whichthe mind or spirit jeels and acts in its world. Thatmans mind is his spirit and that the spirit is theman can hardly be accepted in good faith by suchas have deemed the spirit to be wind and the soulsomething etherial, such as is breathed from thelungs; for they say, How can the spirit be theman when it is spirit, and how can tl;te soul be theman when it is soul? and similarly concerning Godbecause He is calied a Spirit. They have derivedthis idea of the spirit and the soul from the factthat, in sorne languages spirit and wind are thesame word; also, that when a man dies, it is saidthat he gives up the ghost or spirit; and againthat in cases of suffocation or swooning life returnswhen the spirit, or breath of the lungs, cornes back.And since they perceive nothing except breathand air, they judge from the eye and bodily sensethat the spirit and the soul of man after death isnot the man. From such a corporeal opinion of thespirit and soul, various assumptions have arisen,and out of these has grown the belief that man 265
    • 386,387J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMdoes not become a man until the day of the lastjudgment, and in the meanwhile he remainssomewhere or other, awaiting the re-union (as hasbeen related in the Continuation concerning theLast Judgment, Nos. 32-38). Since mans mindis his spirit, the angels are called minds, as theyalso are spirits. 387. The mind of man is his spirit and the spirit is the man because by mind is meant all the things of mans will and understanding, and these exist in their beginnings in the brains, and in their derivatives in the body; thus they are all the things of man as regards their forms. Since that is sa, the mind, that is, the will and understanding, impels the body and all its parts at will. Does not the body do whatever the mind thinks and wills ? Does not the mind encourage the ear ta hearingand direct the eye to seeing, the tangue and lips tospeaking, urge the hands and fmgers ta doingwhatever it pleases, and the feet ta walking whitherit will? 1s the body anything but obedience toits mind; and can the body be such obedienceunless it has the mind m ItS denvahves witFîin it ?:fSIf consistent with reasonTà think that the bodyobeys because the mind wills it sa to do? If thatwere sa they would be two, the one above and theother below, and the one will issue orders whichthe other will attentively obey. Because this isnot at all compatible with reason, it follows thatmans life is in its beginnings in the brains, andin its derivatives in the body, as has been saidbefore (No. 365); also, that such as life is in itsbeginnings, such it is in the whole and in everypart (No. 366) ; and that from these beginnings lifeis in the whole from every part, and in every part 266
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [387-389from the whole (No. 367). That all things of themind have relation to the will and understanding,and that these are receptacles of love and wisdomfrom the Lord, and that these two make the lifeof man, has been shown in the preceding pages. 388. From what has just been said it may nowbe seen that mans mind is the man himself. Forthe elemental design of the human form, or thehuman form itself with every detail thereof, iscontinued from its beginnings, out of the brainand through the nerves, as also has been shownabove. This is the form into which man cornesafter death. He is thereupon styled spiri~ andangel, and is a completely equipped man, but aspiritual man. The material forni which wasannexed and assumed in the world, is not a humanform of itself, but by reason of that spiritual form.l t Vas annexed and assumed so that man couldperform uses in the natural world, and also that hemight carry with him out of the purer substancesof the world sorne permanent container of spiritualthings, and in this way continue and perpetuatelife. It is a truth of angelic wisdom that mansmind, not only in general, but in every particular,is in constant effort to attain the human form,because Gad is Man. 389. In arder that man may be man, no part,either of the head or body, must be lacking, thatexists in the complete man, since there is nothingtherein that does not enter into and make thehuman form; for it is the form of love and wisdom,and this regarded in itself, is Divine. In it are aUthe terminations of love and wisdom, which inGod-Man are infinite, but in His likeness, that is, K* 267
    • - -........., 3 89,39 0 ] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM in man, angel and spirit, are finite. If any part that exists in man were lacking, something of a termination from love and wisdom corresponding to it would be lacking, through which the Lord might be in man from first forms to outmosts, and might provide uses in the created world from His Divine Love through His Divine Wisdom. 390. (vii) The union of mans spirit with the body is by the correspondence of his will and understanding with his heart and lungs, and separation cornes through non-correspondence. On account of it being unknown hitherto that mans mind, that is, the will and understanding, is his spirit, and that the spirit is the man, and moreover, that mans spirit has a pulse and respiration like the bodys, it could not be known that the pulse and respiration of the spirit in man flow into the pulse and respira­ tion of his body and produce them. Since, therefore, mans spirit, equally with his body, enjoys a pulse and respiration, it follows that there is an exact correspondence between the two, for, as was said, the mind is his spirit, consequently, when their dual motions cease to correspond, a separation cornes, which is death. Separation or death occurs when, from sorne sickness or accident, the body cornes into such a condition as to be unable to act in unison with its spirit, for thus correspondence perishes, and with it union; not when respiration alone ceases, but when the hearts pulsation ceases. For so long as the heart is in motion, love with its vital heat remains and preserves the life, as is clear from cases of swooning and suffocation, and ~Il tbe condition of fetallife. In a word, mans bodily life depends on the correspondence of its pulse and respiration with the pulse and respiration of his 268
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [39°,391spirit; and when that correspondence ceases, hisbodily life ceases, and his spirit departs and con­tinues its life in the spiritual world, which is solike his life in the natural world that he does notknow that he has died. Most people are out of thebody and in the spiritual world aft..er a lapse oft~s. l have spoken with some after two days. 391. That a spirit enjoys a pulse and respirationexactly as a man does in the world can only beproved by spirits and angels themselves, whenpermission to speak with them is granted. Thispermission has been given ta me; wherefore, whenquestioned on this matter, they affirmed that theyare men exactly like men in the world, that theyenjoy the use of a body just as men do, exceptthat it is spiritual, and that they feel pulsationof the heart in the chest and of the artery in thewrist just as men do in the natural world. l havequestioned many of them and they said the same.That mans spirit breathes within his body, l havebeen permitted ta know from personal experience.On one occasion the angels were allowed ta controlmy respiration, ta lessen it at will, and at last towithdraw it so far that only the breathing of myspirit remained, which l perceived at that momentsensibly. The same thing happened when l waspermitted ta learn the state of the dying, as maybe seen in the work on Heaven and Hell (No. 449).Sometimes also l have been reduced ta the simplebreathing of my spirit as far as to perceive sensiblyits harmony with the general respiration of heaven.Many times l have been in astate like that of theangels, and also been raised up ta them in heaven,and being then in the spirit outside the body, lhave conversed with them with respiration in the 26 9
    • 39I-393] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMsame manner as in the world. From these andother actual proofs l saw plainly that mans spiritbreathes. not only in the body, but also after ithas left the body; that the spirits breathing isso silent that man does not notice it; and that itflows into the manifest breathing of the bodyalmost as cause flows into effect, and thought intothe lungs and by means of the lungs into speech.Renee it is also plain that the union of the spiritand body in man exists through correspondence ofthe cardiac and pulmonary motions of both. 392. These two motions-cardiac and pulmonary-exist and continue because the whole angelicheaven to the least partic1e is in these two motionsof life; and this again is because the Lord poursthem forth from the Sun where Re is, and whichis from Rim; for that Sun passes on these twomotions from the Lord. It is c1ear that they haveno other origin since all the things of heaven andof the world are supported by the Lord throughthat Sun in such a union of form as may be comparedto chain work from the first link to the last, alsosince the life of love and wisdom is from Rim, andaH the forees of the universe exist from life. Itfollows that the variation of these motions is inaccordance with the reeeption of love and wisdom. 393. A further explanation of the correspon­dence of these motions follows: what kind ofcorrespondence they have who breathe togetherwith heaven and they who breathe together withhell; also they who speak together with heavenbut think together with hell, thus they who arehypocrites, fl<itterers, deceivers, and such like.. 27°
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [394THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE HEARTWITH THE WILL AND THE UNDERSTAND ­ING WITH THE LUNGS MAKES KNOWNALL THAT IS POSSIBLE TO BE KNOWNOF THE WILL AND UNDERSTANDING, OROF LOVE AND WISDOM, AND THUS OF MANS SOUL 394. Many learned men have toiled laboriouslyin search of the soul; but because they knewnothing of the spiritual world and of mans stateafter death, they could only frame theories of theoperation of the soul in the body, not of its nature.The only idea they have been able to reach ofwhat the soul is like is of something most pure inthe ether, and of the form which contains the soulas of something etherial. Concerning this, however,they have ventured only generalities lest theyascribed anything natural to the soul, knowingthat the sou! is spiritual. Now, because they hadconceived such an idea of the soul and yet knowperfectly weil that the soul 0 erates in the boand produces everything t at as 0 0 Wl ItSsensatlon âiïO motlon, ey ave, as was Sal ,Iaboured hard ln reséàrch on the operation of thesoul in the body, which sorne have held to beeffected by influx and sorne by harmony. But asnothing has been discovered in this way with whichthe mind, desirous of seeing if it be so, canacquiesce, it has been granted me to speak withangels, and to be enlightened on this subjeet bytheir wisdom, of which the following is a summary.Mans soul, which lives after death, is his spirit.and lt IS man ln perfeeted form; the sou! of this 27 1
    • 394, 395J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM fonu is the will and understanding and the soul OMiiese lS loye arîa~om from the LQId; These (wo faculties are what constitute mans life, which is from the Lord alone; for the sake of reception of Him bJ.; man, the Lord causes it ta appear that hIe lS, as li were, mans own; but, lest he shou1d ascnbe hIe ta hlmself as filS own and thus withdraw himself from reception of the Lord, the Lord has aiso taught that everything of love, wfiIëll1Séâlléd ~od, and everythtn~of wisdom, which is~dJ{1 truth, cornes frori1Hlm, and nothing of them froi m2-E; and sÎnce these two are me, that everything of life which is life cornes from Him. 395. Since the soul, with res ect ta its veQ Qeing, is ove an , an ese wo aculties eXlst ln man from the Lord, two receptacles wele created in man which also serve as the Lords dwelling-places with him; one is for love and the other for wisdom; the love receptacle is called the will, and the wisdom receptacle is called the understanding. Now since Love and Wisdom in the Lord are distinctly one (see Nos. 17-22), and Divine Love is of Divine Wisdom, and Divine Wisdom is of Divine Love (Nos. 34-39), and these go forth in like manner from Gad-Man, that is, from theLord, therefore in man these tworeceptacles and dwelling-places of the Lord, called will and understanding, were created by the Lord so that they are distinctly two, b~et make one in every operation and in every sensahon; for in these will and understanding cannat be separated. Still, as essential to the end that man may become a receptacle and dwelling-place, it has been done in such a wa that mans underst . can be raisëa above l~ own parhcular love into a certain light 27 2
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [395, 396of wisdom, in the love of which he is not, andtfierehy may see and learn how one must livetOcome mto that love and s~$)( happiness taeternity. Now since man has misapplied the powerof raising the understanc1ing above his own particularlove, he has destroyed that within him whichmight have been the receptacle and dwelling-placeof the Lord, that is, of love and wisdom from theLord, b makin the will the dwellin - lace of t elove of self anu a the world, and the un erstan mgtne dwel1mg-place of confirmatIons of those lovés.This is the ongin of these two dwelling-places, willand understanding, becoming dwelling-places ofinfernallove l and, by confirmatIOns m thei~r,ç,f infernal thoug~t, which in hell passes for wisdom. 396. The cause of the loves of self and of theworld being infernal, and of man being able taenter into them and sa destroy the will and under­standing within himseIf, is this: QY creati6n the[oves of self and of the world are heave~, forthey are loves of the natural man of serVIce tas~itual 10000as foundations are ta h.P.lses. Fromt e love of self and the world man cares for thebody, he wants ta be fed, clothed, and housed. taprovide for his family, ta seek useful employment,yea, and ta be held in respect according ta thedignity of his office, by reason of obedience, andalso ta find delight and refreshment in worldlyen[c1liiêiit; y~ these for the sakeof the elld,whic must be u~. For through these things heis m a candI tIOn ta serve the Lord and the nel h­bour ; ut w en t ere is no love 0 servmg heGd and the nelfthbour, and the love is only thatof servmg hlmset oy means Qf 1Jle woŒ:l~from bemg heavenly, it becomes infernal, and 273
    • il ......., 396-398] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM makes the man plünge mind and soul into his own inherent nat!:re which in itself is altogether eV1I. 397. Now in case man through the understanding be in heaven, as is possible, and through the will in hell, and thereby have a divided mind, after death everything that transcends his own particular love is removed; whence it ensues that will and understanding with all men finaUy act as one. With those who are in heaven, the will loves what is good and the understanding thinks what is true ; but with those in hell, the will loves what is evil and the understanding thinks what is false. Man does the same in the world when he thinks from his spirit, as he does when alone, although many think differently when they are in the body, as happens when they are not alone. Then it is different because they raise their understanding above the particular love of their will, or of their spirit: These things have been declared to let it be known that will and understanding are two distinct facultles, and yet were created to act as one, and that they are forced to do so after death, if not before. 398. Because, then, love and wisdom, and thence will and understanding, are what are spoken of as the soul, and in the following pages it is to be declared how the soul acts upon the body and effects aU its operations, and since this may be known from the correspondence of the heart with the will, and of the lungs with the understanding, by that correspondence the foUowing propositions have been revealed: (i) Love or the will is mans very life. (ii) Love or the will strives continually towards the human form and all things thereof. 274
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [398 (iii) Love or the will can do nothing through its human form except by ma1riage with wi§.dom or the understanding. (iv) Love or the will prepares a home or bed­ chamber for its future wife, which is wisdom or the understanding. (v) Love or the will also prepares all the things in its own human form so tltat it may act together with wisdom or the under­ standing. (vi) After the nuptials, the first union cornes through the affection of knowing, from which springs an affection for truth. (vii) The second union comes through the affection of understanding, from which springs perception of truth.(viii) The third union comes through the affection for seeing tntth, from which springs thought. (ix) Love or the will comes into sensitive and active life through these three unions. (x) Love or the will introduces wisdom or the ~tnderstanding into all things of its house. (xi) Love or the will does nothing except in union with wisdom or the understanding. (xii) Love or the will unites itself to wisdom or . the ~tnderstanding, and makes the ~tnion reciprocal.(xiii) Wisdom or the understanding, from power given it by love or the will, can be raised and can receive such things as are of heavenly light, and perceive them.(xiv) Love or the will can be raised likewise and can perceive such things as are of heavenly heat, provided it loves its partner in that degree. 275
    • 398,399J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM (XV) Otherwise love or the will draws wisdom or the zmderstanding back from its elevation so that it may act in unison with itself. (xvi) Love or the will is purified by wisdom in the understanding if they are raised together. (xvii) Love or the will is defiled in and by the understanding, if they are not raised together. (xviii) Love, purified by wisdom in the under­ standing, becomes spiritual and celestial. (xix) Love, defiled in and by the zmderstanding, becomes natural and sensual. (xx) The faculty of understanding, called ration­ ality, and the faculty of acting, called freedom, still remaitL (xxi) Spiritual and celestial love is love towards the neighbour and to the Lord, a1td natural and sensual love is love of the world and of self. (xxii) ft is the same with charity and faith and their union as with will and under­ standing and their union. 399. (i) Love or the will is mans very life. Thisfollows from the correspondence of the heart withthe will (see above, Nos. 378-38r). For as theheart acts in the body, sa does the will in the mind ;and as all things of the body, in respect ta existenceand motion, depend on the heart, sa all things ofthe mind, in respect ta existence and life, dependon the will. It is said "on the will," but thismeans on the love, because the will is the receptacleof love, and love is life itself (see above, Nos. r-3),and love which is life itself is from the Lord alone.By the heart and its spreading into the body 276
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [399, 400through arteries and veins, it may be known thatlove or the will is mans life, since those things whichcorrespond to each other aet in a similar manner.except that one is natural and the other spiritual.In what way the heart aets upon the body is plainfrom anatomy: for instance, every thing is livingor submissive to life where the heart aets throughvessels sent out from itself; and everything islifeless where the heart does not aet through itsvessels. Moreover, the heart is the first thing andthe last thing that aets in the body. That it isthe first is evident from embryos, and that it is thelast is evident from the dying, and that it aetsapart from the co-operation of the lungs is evidentfrom cases of suffocation and of swooning. Fromthis it may be seen that. as the subsidiary life ofthe body depends on the heart alone, so likewisethe life of the mind depends on the will alone, andin the same way the will lives when thought hasceased, just as the heart does when breathing hasceased, as is also clear from the embryos, thedying, and cases of suffocation and swooning.From which it follows that love or the will is mansvery life. 400. (ii) Love or the will strives continuallytowards the human form and aU things thereofThis is plain from the correspondence of the heartwith the will, for it is weIl known that aIl thingsof the body are formed in the womb by means offibres from the brains and blood vessels from theheart. and that the tissues of aU the organs andviscera come from these two sources; from whichit is clear that aIl things of man have existencefrom the life of the will, which is love, from theirbeginnings out of the brains through the fibres; 277
    • 400,401] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMand all things of his body out of the heart throughthe arteries and veins. From these things it isperfectly plain that life, which is love and the willtherefrom, strives continually towards the humanform; and since the human form is composed ofall those things that are in man, it follows thatlove or the will is in the constant effort andendeavour to form all those things. There is aneffort and endeavour towards the human formbecause God is Man, and Divine Love and Wisdomis His Life, from which cornes the whole of life.Everyone may see that unless Life, which is veryMan, were acting into that which has no life initself, nothing could be formed such as exists inman, in whom thousands of thousands of thingsgo to make one thing, and with one consent aspireto the likeness of the Life from which they sprang,in order that man may become His receptac1e anddwelling-place. From these things it may be seenthat love, and from love the will, and from thewill the heart, strive continually towards thehuman form. 401. (iii) Love or the will can do nothing throughits human form except by marriage with wisdom orthe understanding. This also is plain from thecorrespondence of the heart with the will. Theembryo man lives from the heart, but not fromthe lungs; for at that time blood does not ftowfrom the heart into the lungs and enable him tobreathe, but through an aperture into the leftventric1e of the heart; for which reason theembryo during that time cannot move any partof the body, for it lies bunched up, nor can it fee!anything, for the sensory organs are c1osed. Itis the same with love or the will, from which the 27 8
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [401,402embryo is all the while living, but in obscurity,without feeling and movement. But as soon asever the lungs are opened, which takes place afterbirth, he begins at once to feel and to move, andlikewise to will and to think. From these thingsit may be evident that love or the will can donothing through its human form except by marriagewith wisdom or the understanding. 402. (iv) Love or the will prepares a home or bed­chamber for its future wife, which is wisdom or theunderstanding. In the created universe and everysingle thing thereof a marriage exists between good­ness and truth; and this is so because goodness·comes from love, and truth from wisdom, and thesetwo are in the Lord, and from Him all things werecreated. How this marriage exists in man maybe seen refiected in the union of the heart with thelungs, for the heart corresponds to love or goodness,and the lungs to wisdom or truth (see above,Nos. 378-384). From that union it may be seenhow love or the will betroths to itself wisdom orthe understanding, and later weds or goes througha form of marriage with it. It betroths her toitself by preparing a home or bed-chamber for her ;and it marries her by uniting her to itself throughthe affections, and then carries wisdom with itinto thilt home. Why it is so can only be describedin spiritual language, because love and wisdom,and will and understanding therefrom, are spiritualthings, which can indeed be taught in naturallanguage, but only so as to be vaguely perceivedon account of the ignorance of what love, wisdom,affections of goodness, and affections of wisdomwhich are affections of truth, really are. Yet onemay see the nature of the betrothal and of the 279
    • 402,403) DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMmarriage of love with wisdom, or of the will withthe understanding, through the parallelism thatexists in their correspondence with the heart andlungs. For it is the same with these as with loveand wisdom, so much so as to make absolutely nodifference, except that one is spiritual and theother natura1. Thus it is evident from the heartand lungs that the heart first forms the lungs, andlater unites itself with them; it forms the lungsin the embryo, and unites itself with them afterbirth. This the heart does in its home, the breast,where they share their tent in common, separatedfrom the other parts of the body by a wall, thediaphragm, and by a covering, the pleura. Tt isthe same with love and wisdom, or with will andunderstanding. 403. (v) Love or the will also prepares all the thingsin its own human Jorm. so that it may act togetherwith wisdom or the understanding. Will and under­standing are mentioned, but it is right that itshould be known that the will is the whole man;for the will is, with the understanding, in beginningsin the brains and in derivatives in the body, andthence in the whole and every part as has beenshown above (Nos. 365-367). From which it maybe evident that the will is the whole man in respectto form itself, both the general and the particularform of aIl things thereof; and that the under­standing is its partner, just as the lungs are thepartner of the heart. Let everyone beware ofentertaining the idea that the will is somethingseparate from the human form, for it is the same.From this it may be seen not only how the willprepares a bed-chamber for the understanding, butalso how it prepares aIl things ln its home, the 280
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [403whole body, so that it may act in union with theunderstanding. This it makes ready in this way;each and aH things of the body are united to theunderstanding as they are ta the will, or theunderstanding has each and aH things of the bodyin subjection as thè will has. How this preparationis effected can be seen only in the body, as in amirror or likeness, by means of the science ofanatomy. Thus it is known how all things in thebody are connected so that when the lungs breathe,each and aU things of the whole body are movedthereby, while at the same time also they aremoved by the beating of the heart. It is knownfrom anatomy that the heart is united to thelungs by auric1es, which are continued into theinteriors of the lungs; again that aH the visceraof the whole body are joined to the cavity. of thechest by means of ligaments; and so joined thatwhen the lungs breathe, each and all things ingeneral and in detail receive something from therespiratory motion. For when the lungs sweU out,the ribs expand the thorax, the pleura is dilated,and the diaphragm is stretched wide, and togetherwith these all the lower parts of the body connectedwith them by ligaments receive sorne movementthrough the action of the lungs. l do not recitemany facts, lest those who have no anatomicalknowledge become lost through ignorance of thescientific terms employed in this subject. Onlyconsult the expert and discerning anatomists as towhether ail things in the whole body from thebreast downwards be not so bound together that,when the lungs are inflated, each and all thingsare roused to action, keeping time with the actionof the lungs. From these things the nature of theunion of the understanding with each and all things 281
    • 403, 404] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMof the human form, prepared by the will, is nowplain; but examine the connections weIl, andsurvey them with anatomical eye, and afterwards,according to the connections, observe their co­operation with the breathing lungs and with theheart, and then think of understanding in placeof lungs, and of will instead of heart, and youwill see. 404. (vi) After the nuptials, the first union comesthrough the affection of knowing, from which springsan affection for tntth. By nuptials is to be under­stood mans state after birth, from a state ofignorance to a state of intelligence, and from thisto a state of wisdom. The first state of mereignorance is not here meant by nuptials, since atthat stage there is no thought from the under­standing, but only a dim affection of the love orwill. This state is the first step towards thenuptials. But in the second state, which is of manin childhood, it is weIl known that there is anaffection for knowing, by which the infant childlearns to talk and to read, and later graduallyacquires knowledge which belongs to the under­standing. That it is love, belonging to the will, that effects this, cannot be doubted; for if loveor the will did not set it in motion, it would notbe done. That every man has, after birth, an affection for knowing, and through it acquires the knowledge by which his understanding is gradually formed, enlarged, and perfected, everyone acknow­ ledges if he looks to experience with the aid of reason. That from this cornes affection for truth is also clear; for when man has become intelligent from an affection for knowing, it is not so much that affection by which he is led, as an affection 282
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [404 for reasoning, and forming conclusions on matters in which he takes delight, whether they be economic, civil, or moral. When this affection is raised yet more to spiritual things, it becomes an affection for spiritual truth. That its first or introductory state was an affection for knowing may be evident from the fact that an affection for truth is an exalted affection for knowing; for to be affected by truths is to will to know them, from affection, and when he discovers them, to drink them in from the joy of affection. (vii) The second unùm comes through the affection of understanding from which springs perception of truth. This is clear to anyone who desires to study it from rational insight, which insight makes it plain that affection for truth and perception of truth are two faculties of the understanding, that in sorne persons are united and in sorne are not. They are united with those who love to perceive truths with the understanding, and not with those who only wish to know truths. It is clear also that everyone has as much perception of truth as he has affection for understanding; for take away affection for understanding truth and there will be no perception of truth; butgrant affection for understanding truth, and its perception will correspond to the degree of affection for it; for the perception of truth is never lackingin a man of sound reason, provided he has theaffection for understanding truth. It has beenshown above that every man has this faculty of understanding truth, which is called rationality. (viii) The third union cames through the affectionfor seeing truth, from which springs tlwught. Thatthe affections for knowing, understanding, andseeing, or, the affection for truth, the perception 2 83
    • 40lJ DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMof truth, and thought, are each a separate thing,is but dimly seen by those who are unable toperceive the minds workings separately, but isperfectly plain to those who cano The reason thatthe former see these distinctions dimly, is that theminds workings are simultaneous in the thoughtwith those who have both affection for truth andperception of it, and when simultaneous, theycannot be distinguished. Man is in manifest thoughtwhen his spirit thinks in the body, especial1y whenin company with others; but when he has anaffection for understanding, and thereby enters intothe perception of truth, he is then in the thoughtof his spirit, which is meditation. This does indeedsink into bodily thought, but into silent thought ;for it is above bodily thought and sees the thingswhich belong to thought from the memory, as itwere, below itself, for he draws therefrom eitherconclusions or confirmations. But affection itselffor truth is perceived only as a striving of the willfrom something delightful that lies within medita­tion as its life, to which little attention is paid.From these things it may now be evident that thesethree, affection for truth, perception of truth, andthought, follow in sequence fram love, and existonly in the understanding. For when love makesits entry mto the understandmg, WhiCh it doeswhen their union is effected, it first begets affectionfor truth, then affection for understanding whatit knows, and finally affection for seeing in bodilythought that which it understands, for thought isnothing else than internaI sight. Because it belongsto the natural mind, thought does indeed existfirst, but thought, in accordance with perceptionof truth coming fram affection for truth, existsat the last. This thought is wisdoms thought, 284
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [404. 405but the other is thought by means of the naturalmind from the memory. All the workings of loveor the will outside the understanding relate toaffections for goodness, and not to affections fortruth. 405. That these three things from the willslove follow in sequence in the understanding mayindeed be comprehended by a rational man, butyet not seen clearly, and so not be confirmed tothe extent of faith. Now since love which belongsto the will acts in unison with the heart by corre­spondence, and wisdom which belongs to theunderstanding acts in unison with the lungs, asshown above, what has just been said (No. 404)concerning affection for truth, perception of truth,and thought, can nowhere be more clearly seenand proved than in the lungs and the structurethereof. These shall, therefore, be briefly described.After birth, the heart discharges the blood fromits right ventricle into the lungs; and, after goingthrough these, empties it into its left ventricle;and so opens the lungs. This it does through thepulmonary arteries and veins. The lungs havebronchial tubes which branch out, and fmallyterminate in air-cells, into which the lungs admitair and so breathe. Around the bronchial tubesand their branches there are arteries and veins,called branchial, rising from the vena azygos or venacava and from the aorta. These arteries and veinsare distinct from the pulmonary arteries and veins.These facts make it plain that the blood flows intothe lungs by two ways and flows out of them bytwo ways. This renders it possible for the lungsto breathe at a different rate from the hearts beat.It is well known that the reciprocal motions of the 28 5
    • 405,406] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMheart and of the lungs respectively do not act inunison. Now since there is a correspondence ofthe heart and lungs with the will and understanding,as was shown above, and since the union bycorrespondence is such that the one acts as theother acts, it may be seen, by the influx of bloodfrom the heart into the lungs, how the will flowsinto the understanding, and effects the thingsmentioned just above (N 0.404) concerning affectionfor and perception of truth, and concerning thought.Correspondence has revealed this and many otherthings concerning them to me, which cannot bedescribed in few words. Since love or the willcorresponds to the heart, and wisdom or theunderstanding corresponds to the lungs, it followsthat the blood vessels of the heart in the lungscorrespond to affections for truth, and the branchesof the bronchia of the lungs to perceptions andthoughts from those affections. Anyone whoexplores aIl the tissues of the lungs from thesebeginnings and makes the analogy with the loveof the will and with the wisdom of the under­standing, may see reflected the things mentionedabove (No. 404), and so be confirmed to faith. Butsince the facts of anatomical science concerning theheart and lungs are known to few, and to confirmanything by the unknown leads to obscurity, lrefrain from further demonstra tion of the analogy. 406. (ix) Love or the will comes into sensitive andactive life through these three unions. Love withoutthe understanding or affection, which cornes fromlove, without thought, which cornes from theunderstanding, can neither feel nor act in the body,because love without the understanding is as itwere blind, or affection without thought is as it 286
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOlI [405.407were in a fog, for the understanding is the light bywhich love sees. The wisdom of the understandingcornes from the light which goes forth from theLord as the Sun. Since. thereforc, the wills lovesees nothing without the light of the understanding,and is blind, it follows that, without the light ofthe understanding, the bodily senses also wouldbe in darkness and grossness, not only sight andhearing, but the others also; the other senses 31sohecause every perception of truth cornes from lovein the understanding, as Vas shawn above, and aIlthe senses of the body derive their perception fromthe perception of its mind. It is the same withevery bodily act; for an act from love without theunderstanding is like the action of a man in thenight time, for at such a time he knows not whathe is doing ; therefore there would be no intelligenceand wisdom in the action. l t cannot be calledliving action. Action also derives its being fromlove and its character from intelligence. Besides,ail the power of goodness comes through truth;on which account goodness acts in truth and thushy its means; and goodness cornes from love. andtruth from the understanding. From these things,it may be evident that love or the "lill comes intoits sensitive and active life through these threeunions, concerning which see above (No. 404). 407. That it is so can be confirmed to the lifeby the union of heart and lungs. because thecorrespondence between the will and the heart,and between the understanding and the lungs. issuch that just as love acts with the understandingspiritual1y, so does the heart act with the lungsnaturally; hence what has been said above mayhe seen as in a picture presented to view. That 287
    • 407, 408] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM man has neither any sensitive life nor any active life so long as the heart and lungs do not act together, is evident from the state of the embryo or of the infant in the womb, and from its state after birth. As long as man is an embryo, or in the womb, the lungs are closed; consequently he possesses neither feeling nor action; the organs of sense are sealed up, the hands are bound and the feet likewise; but after birth the lungs are opened, and in proportion as they are opened so man feels and acts; the lungs are opened by the blood sent into them from the heart. That man has neither sensitive nor active life without the co-operation of the heart and lungs is evident also from swoons. In swoons the heart alone acts and not the lungs, for breathing is then suspended. In these cases it is well known that there is no sensation and no movement. The same is true of a man suffocated, whether it be by water, or by something blocking the larynx and closing the breathing passage of the lungs. The man appears at the time to be dead, he feels nothing and does nothing, and yet is alive at heart, as is well known, for he returns to both lives, sensitive and active, directly the obstructions of the lungs are removed."1 l t is true the blood circulates in the meantime through the lungs, 5üTtllrough the pulmonary ~teries and vems, and not through the broncfiial arJenes l,nd veins, which .K!..vli man the p~er to breathe. It is the same wit the influx orIOve into the understanding. 408. (x) Love or the will introduces wisdom or the understanding into aU things of its hou.se. By the house of love or the will is meant the whole man in respect to all his mind s belongings. Because 288
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [408these correspond to all the things of the body (asshown above), the house means also the "hole manin respect to all the parts of his body, calledmembers, organs, and viseera. That the lungs areintroduced into aU these in the same way as theunderstanding into all things of the mind may beevident from what has been shown above: forexample, love or the wiU prepares a home or bed­chamber for its future wife, wisdom or the under­standing (No. 402); love or the will prepares all the things in its own human form, or in its home,so that it may act together with wisdom or the understanding (No. 403). From the facts statedin these passages, it is plain that each and aU thingsin the whole body are connected by ligaments put for th from the ribs, spine, sternum, and diaphragm, and from the peritonaeum which depends on these, in such a way that, when the lungs are breathing, they are similarly depressed and raised in alternate movements. That the alternations of breathing also penetrate to the viscera themselves, even to their inmost recesses, may be evident from anatomy ; for the ligaments mentioned above adhere to the sheaths of the viscera, and the sheaths, by thrusts outward, penetrate to their innermost parts, as do the arteries and veins also through their branches. Renee it may be evident that the breathing of the lungs is in complete union with the heart in every part of the body; and in order that the union may be complete in every respect, even the heart itself has pulmonic motion, for it lies in the bosom of the lungs and is connected with them by the amides, and reclines upon the diaphragm, whereby its arteries also participate in the pulmonic motion. Moreover the stomach has a similar union with the lungs by the connection of its gullet with the 289
    • 408,4°9] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMtrachea. These anatomical facts are adduced withthe purpose of showing the kind of union existingbetween love or the will and wisdom or the under­standing, and of both together with aU things ofthe mind; for it is similar. 409. (xi) Love or the will does nothing except inunion with wisdom or the understanding. For aslove has no sensitive nor any active life apartfrom the understanding, and as love introduces theunderstanding into all things of the mind (as wasshown above, Nos. 407, 408), it follows that loveor the will does nothing except in union with theunderstanding. For what is it to act from lovewithout the understanding? It can only be calledirrational; for the understanding teaches whatought to be done and the way it should be done.Love does not know this apart from the under­standing; on which account the marriage betweenlove and the understanding is such that althoughthey are two, they yet act as one. There is asimilar marriage between goodness and trllth, forgoodness belongs to love, and truth to the under­standing. Every single thing in the universe whichhas been created by the Lord has such a marriage ;their use has relation to goodness and the form ofthe use to truth. From this marriage cornes thefact that every single part of the body has a rightand a left, and the right relates to goodness fromwhich truth springs, and the left to truth fromgoodness, thus to their union. The pairs in manare from this source. There are two brains, twohemispheres of the brain, two ventric1es of the heart, two lobes of the lungs, two eyes, ears, nostrils, arrns, hands, loins, feet, kidneys, testic1es, and other things; and where there are not pairs, 29 0
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WI5DOM [409,410there is a right and a left. These pairs exist becausegoodness has truth in view in order that itselfmay have existence, and truth has goodness inview in order that itself may live. It is the samein the angelic heavens and in each of their societies.More concerning these may be seen above (No. 401),where it was shown that love or the will can donothing through its human form without a marriagewith wisdom or the understanding. We shall dealelsewhere with the union of what is evil and taIse,which is the opposite of the union of goodness andtruth. 410. (xii) Love or the will u-nites itself to wisdomor the tmderstanding, and makes the union reciprocal.That love or the will unites itself to wisdom or theunderstanding is plain from their correspondencewith the heart and lungs. The knowledge ofanatomy teaches that the heart cornes into its lifesmotion before the lungs. Experience tcaches it bythose who suffer from swoons and suffocation, alsoby embryos in the womb, and chicks in eggs.Knowledge of anatomy also teaches that the heart,during the time it is acting alone, forms and adaptsthe lungs 50 that it may put the respiration inmotion there; and that it also forms the otherviscera and organs so that it may perform varioususes in them, the organs of the face that it maydiscern by sense, the organs of motion that it maymove, and the lest of the bodily organs that itmay establish uses corresponding to the affectionsof love. From these things it is first and foremostevident that just as the heart produces such thingson account of the varied activities it is about toperform in the body, so love produces correspondingthings in its receptacle, the will, for the sake of the L 291
    • ---,410] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMvarious affections that make up its form, which,as was shown above, is the human form. Nowsince the first and neighbouring affections of loveare the affections for knowing, for understanding,and for seeing what it knows and understands, itfollows that love forms the understanding for them,and actually cornes into them when it begins tofeel and to act, and to think. The understandingcontributes nothing to this, as is evident from theanalogy of the heart and lungs (see above). Fromthese things it may be seen that love or the willunites itself to wisdom or the understanding, andnot wisdom or the understanding to love or thewill; and it is further evident that the knowledgewhich love gains for itself from the affection forunderstanding, and the perception of truth whichit gains from the affection for understanding, andthought which it gains from the affection for seeingwhat it knows and understands, do not come fromthe understanding, but from love. Thoughts,perceptions, and items of knowledge therefrom,do indeed flow in from the spiritual world, yet arenot received by the understanding, but by lovein accordance with its affections in the under­standing. It appears as if the understandingreceives them, and not love or the will, but it isan illusion. 1t appears also as if the understandingunites itself to love or the will, but this also is anillusion. Love or the will unites itself to the under­standing and makes the union reciprocal. Thisreciprocal union comes from loves marriage withit. The union thence is made seemingly reciprocalby the life and consequent power of love. It isthe same with the marriage of goodness and truth,for goodness cornes trom love, and truth from theunderstanding. Goodness actuates all things, and 29 2
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [410,4IIreceives truth into its home, and unites itse1f withtruth as far as it is in harmony. Goodness mayalso admit truths which are not in harmony, butthis it does from an affection for knowing, under­standing, and thinking its own things, while it isnot yet deterroined upon the uses which are itsends, and are called its good things. There isabsolutely no reciprocal union, or union of truthwith good. What is united reciprocally cornes fromthe lire of goodness. From this it is that everyman and every spirit and angel is judged by theLord according to his love or goodness, and noone according to his understanding, or truthseparate from love or goodness; fç"r mans life ishis love, as was shown above, and filS hIe IS Itrejust as he lias exalted filS affections SYmeans àf Ltruths, that IS, ln accordance w ~maue theatfêctions er cc. •or love s affectionsare exalte an per ected by means of truths, thus 1by wisdom; and then love acts together withwisdom, as if from it, but actually of itse1f throughwisdom, as through its own forro, which formreceives nothing whatever from the understanding,but everything from sorne nxed purpose of lovewhich is called affection ... 411. Love calls all those things which arefavourable to it its good things, anrl all those thatas means lead to good things it calls its truths;and because they are means they are loved andbecome the property of its affection, and thusbecome affections in forro; on which accounttruth is nothing else than a form of loves affection.The human form is nothing else than a form of ailloves affections; beauty is its power of discernmentwhich it acquires through truths received either 293
    • 4II,412] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMby external and internaI sight or hearing. Theseare the things that love arranges into a form of itsaffections. These fonus exist in great variety, butail derive a resemblance from their general fonu.which is the human. Ail of these to love appearbeautiful and worthy to be loved, but the rest uglyand unlovable. From these things it is evident alsothat love unites itself to the understanding. andnot the reverse, and that the reciprocal union alsocornes from love. This is what is meant by loveor the will making the union with wisdom or theunderstanding reciprocal. 412. What has been said may be seen in sorneresemblance and so confinued by the correspondenceof the heart with love and of the lungs with theunderstanding (of which above). For if the heartcorresponds to love, its ends-the arteries andveins-correspond to affections, and in the lungsto affections for truth; and since there are othervessels alsû in the lungs cailed air vessels, by whichbreathing is effected, these vessels correspond toperceptions. l t must be correctly understood thatthe arteries and veins in the lungs are not affections,and that respirations are not perceptions andthoughts, but that they are correspondences, fortheir action is correspondent or synchronous;similarly, that the heart and lungs are not loveand the understanding, but correspondences; andsince they are correspondences, the one may beseen in the other. He who has acquired a knowledgeof the structure of the lungs from anatomy, andmakes comparison with the understanding, maysee clearly that the understanding does nothing ofitself, does not perceive nor think of itself, butit does everything from loves affections, which in 294
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [412,413the understanding are caUed affections for knowing,understandillg, and seeing truth (and were treatedof above). For aU the conditions of the lungsdepend upon the blood from the heart and fromthe vena cava and aorta,. and breathing, which iseffected in the bronchial branches, goes on accordingto those conditions; for when the infiow of bloodstops, breathing stops. Much more may yet berevealed by comparing the structure of the lungs ,with the understanding, to which it corresponds;but as the science of anatomy is not generallyknown, and to demonstrate or confirm anything bythe unknown renders it obscure, it is not advisableto say more on the matter. From my knowledgeof the structure of the lungs 1 am fully convincedthat love unites itself to the understanding by itsaffections, and that the understanding does notunite itself to any affection oflove, but that it isunited reciprocally by love because of the end,that lClve may have sensitive and active life. Butit must be known generally that man has a two­fold respiration, one of the spirit, the other of thebody; and that the breathing of the spirit dependson the fibres from the brains, and the breathingof the body on the blood vessels from the heart and from the vena cava and aorta. Moreover, it isevident that thought draws out the respiration, andit is evident also that loves affection draws out thought; for thought apart from affection is precisely like respiration without the heart, whichis impossible. Renee it is clear that loves affection unites itself to the understandings thought, as said above, in the same way as the heart does in the lungs. 413. (xiü) Wisdom or the understanding, Jrompower given it by love, can be raised, and can receive 295
    • ., 413) DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM such things as are of heavenly light, and perceive them. l t has been shown in several places above that man has the power to perceive secrets of wisdom when he hears them. This faculty of man is what is called rationality and is the heritage of every man by creation. lt is the faculty of under­ standing things interiorly and.2! forming opinions on what 1s Just and ri fit and on what IS good andJ t~; an y 1 man IS istmguishe rom eas s. This therefore is the meaning of the caption above, " the understanding can be raised and can receive such things as are of heavenly light, and perceive them." The truth of this may be seen effigied also in the lungs, since the lungs correspond to the understanding. lt may be evident in the lungs from their cellular substance, which is made up of branchial tubes continued even to the minutest air-cells, which are receptac1es for the air used in breathing; these are the things with which the thoughts ad in unison by correspondence. This cell-like substance is such that it may be expanded and contracted in twofold fashion, in one with the heart, and in the other almost separate from the heart, in the former by arterics and veins which come from the heart alone, in the latter by the bronchial arteries and veins which come from the vena cava and aorta,. these vessels are outside of the heart. This is sa in the lungs beca~e understanding can be raised above its own articular love correspon mg 0 e eart an can receive liiili1 from heaven. Yet when the understanding~ is raI se a ove its own particular love, it does not go away from it, but geriyes therefrom an affection for knowing and understanding for the sake of SQlIle....-W~[ll~t of hanaur. glory or gain. This quality clings to every love like a surface, 296
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [413,414on account of which love shines out to the surface,and with the wise shines through. These thingsconcerning the lungs are brought forward to provethat the understanding can be raised, and canreceive and perceive things that are of heavenlylight, for the correspondence is absolute. To seefrom correspondence is to see the lungs in accordancewith the understanding, and the understanding inaccordance with the lungs and so the confirmationin accordance with both together. 414. (xiv) Love or the will can be raised likewiseand can receive such things as are of heavenly heat,provided it loves wisdom, its partner, in that degree.It was shown in the preceding chapter and in manyplaces above that the understal!ding can be raisedinto the light of heaven, and from it imbibe wisdom ;but it has also been frequently shown that loveor the will can be raised in like manner if1tIOVe fthings that belong to the light of heaven.. oLiQwisdom. But love or the will cannot be raised •through any hope of honour, glory, or gain, as anend, but through love of us.,e, thus not for the sake 11 of self, but for the sake of the neighbour; and ~ bëëaüse this love ~s O"iven onl b the LOrd f[,2mheaven, an IS Iven b t e or w n )11shüOs evils as sms, ove or the wi can on t isaccount be ralsed by this means and in no otherway. Love or the will is raised into heavenly heat,the understanding, however, into heavenly light ;and if both be raised, their marriage is celebratedthere, and is called a heavenly marriage, becauseit is a marriage of heavenly love and wisdom; forwhich reason it is said that love also is raisedif it love wisdom, its partner, in that degree.Wisdoms love, or the genuine love of the humap 297
    • 414, 415] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM understanding, is love towards the nei hbour from t~lQ.fd. 1t is t e same wIt lig t an eat in1 the world. Light is given without heat and is given with heat, the former in winter and the latter in summer. When there is heat with light all things flourish. Light in man corresponding to the light of winter is wisdom without its love, and light in man corresponding to the light of summer is wisdom with its love. 415. This union and disunion of wisdom and love may be seen effigied, as it were, in the union of the lungs with the heart. F<?r the heart can be united to the clustering air-vessels of the 5ronchia by blood sent out from itself, and li can be united 5y bTôod not from ItseU -Out from the vena câ,va and aorta. By this means the breathing of the body can be separated from the breathing of the spirit; but when blood from the heart alone acts,1 the respirations cannot be separated. Now since• thoughts act in unison with breathing by corre­ spondence, it is plain from the twofold condition of the lungs in respect to breathing, that man can think in one way and from his th(mght speak and act in the company of others, and that he can think in another way and from his thought speak and acCwhen not in company, that is, when he fears no loss of reputation. For flien heëân-think and speak against God, the neighbonr, the spiritual things of the Church, and against things moral and civil; and, moreover, can ad against them, by stealing, taking revenge, blaspheming, and com­ mitting adultery. But in company when he fears loss of reputation, he can talk, preach, and act precisely like a spiritual, moral, and civil man. From these things it may be evident that love 298
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [415,416 416. (xv) Otherwise love or the will draws wisdomor the understanding back from its elevation, so thatit may act in unison with itself. There is naturallove and there is spiritual love. A man who is innatural love and at the same time lU spmfuâI lOveisa rahonal man; but a man who is lU nafurallOVe alone is not a rational man, although he maythink rationally precisely like a spiritual man;he does certainly raise his understanding to thevery light of heaven, thus to wisdom, but ~et thetreasures of wisdom or of heavenly light 0 notbelong to filS love. HIS love Goes thlS, If ïstrüè,bût trom a desire for honour, glory, and gain.Yet, when he perceives that he gains nothing of thekind from that elevation, as he does whenherefiects within himself from TÙs own natural love, jhehas no love tlien for thingsOf lieavell1y Ilght or wisdom; and for this reason immediately recalls the understandmg from lis elevation so tnat it may act in umson with filmseIf. For inStâriëë : ~he understa:nding by elevation attains wisdom, love at once sees the qualities of justice, sincerity, chastity, yea and of genuine love. The~ faculty of understanding and seeing things in heavenly light enables love to see this, and further- more, to talk and preach about them and to depict them as moral and also spiritual virtues. When, 141 however, the understandin is not raised, lore, li it lS mere y na ura, sees no ose vlrtues, but instead of them, injustice, frauds, lust, and so L* 299
    • .... 416,417] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM forth. Should it then contemplate what it had said when its understanding was raised, it may ridicule them, and think only that they may serve it for ensnaring mens souls. From these things it may be evident how it is to be understood that love, if it love not lts partner, wlsdom, ln {fiatl ~ree, draws it back from its elevatLOn, so that 1 may ad ln Ulllson wltfï-itse1f. That love can oe raise(!; if it love wisdom in that degree, may be seen above (No. 414). 417. Now since love corresponds to the heart, and the understanding to the lungs, the above statements may be confirmed by their corre­ spondence; thus, how the understanding can be raised above its own articular 0 e evenJ!1to wlsâ:9m; also, Mw the un erstanding is drawn back from its elevahon by Uïat love, li {filS be mereI)! natura1. Man lias a twoIofd r"ësimaûOn, orthe body and of the spirit. These two respirations may be separated and may also be united; in merely natural men, particularly in hypocrites, they are separated, but in spiritual and sincere men, rarely. Consequently a merely natural man and hypocrite, whose understanding has been raised, and in whose memory, therefore, many things of wisdom remain, can talk wisely in company by thought from the memory; but should he not be in company, his thought does not come from the memory, but from his spirit, thus from his love. In like manner also he breathes, because thought and breath act correspondently. That the structure of the lungs is such that they can lrrëéilhe both by blood from the heart and by blood from OlitSlÔë Of lhë-hëart has been shownft 1above. 300
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [418,419 418. Tt is generally held that wisdom makes theman; therefore when people hear anyone speakingand teaching wisely, they credit him Vith wisdom ;indeed, he himself believes sa at the time. Thereason is that when he speaks and teaches incompany, he is thinking from his memory, and,if he be a merely natural man, from the surfaceof his love, which is the desire for hanour, glory,and gain; but that same man, when alone, actuallythinks from the interior love of his spirit, and thennot wisely, but at times insanely. From thesethings it may be evident that no one is judgedby wise speech, but by his life; that is ta say,no one is judged by wise speech apart from life,but by wise speech united ta life. By life is meantlove. That love is the life has been shawn above. 301
    • 419] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM and reject them become visible to him. Love, that is, the man, sees all this by the exercise of the faculty of raising his understanding into the light of heaven, the source of wisdom. Then to theextent that love puts heaven first and the WOrTclsecond, and al the same hme puts the Lord 10 Thefirst place and himself in the second, it is cleansedfrom unc1eanness and is purified; that is, love israised into heavenly heat and united to the lightof heaven in which the understanding dwells, anda marriage is made that is called the union ofgoodness and truth, that is, of love and wisdom.Everyone may understand intellectually and seerationally that in the measure that any man shunsand rejects theft and fraudulence, he will lovesincerity, uprightness, and justice; in the measurethat he shuns and rejects revenge and hmred, hewill love the neighbour; and in the measure thathe shuns and rejects adulteries, he will love chastity,and so on. Nay rather there is scarcely anyonewho knows what there is of heaven and of theLord in sincerity, uprightness, justice, love towards.the neighbour, chastity, and the other affectionsof heavenly love, until he has removed theiropposites. As soon as the opposites are removed,he cornes into those affectlOns and DY thelr aidrëëàgtllses and sees thtm; meanwhile it is as if aveil were interposed, which does indeed transmitto love the light of heaven; but because love doesnot in that degree love its partner, wisdom, it doesnot receive it, indeed may even refute and rebukeit, when it returns from its elevation. Yet man isconsoled by the thought that the wisdom of hisunderstanding may prove the means to honour,glory, or gain; but then he puts himself and theworld in the first place, and the Lord and heaven 302
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [419. 420in the second; and what is put in the second placeis loved only so far as it is serviceable; and if notof use, is given up and rejected, if not before death.yet after it. From these things the truth is nowevident that love or the will is purified in theunderstanding, if they are raised together. 420. A similar thing is portrayed in the lungs,whose arteries and veins correspond to the lovesaffections, and whose respirations correspond to theunderstandings perceptions and thoughts, as hasbeen said above. That the hearts blood is c1eansedfrom undigested matters in the lungs and isnourished with the beneficial properties of the airinhaled, is evident from much observation. Thatthe blood is cleansed of undigested matters in thelungs, is evident not only from the inflowing bloodwhich is venous, and therefore filled with thechyle collected from food and drink, but also fromthe expirations which are moist, and from theirodour, as perceived by others, as well as from thediminished quantity of blood flowing back intothe left ventric1e of the heart. T hat the blood isnourished with the beneficial matters of the airinhaled, is evident from the immense volumes ofodours and exhalations continually flowing forthfrom meadows, gardens and woods; and from thecopious supplies of various kinds of salts in thevapours rising from the earth, rivers and ponds;and from the vast quantities of exhalations andeffiuvia from human beings and animals. withwhich the air is charged. That these things flowinto the lungs with the indrawn air is not to bedenied, nor can it be denied that the blood drawgtherefrom such things as are beneficial to it; andsuch things are beneficial as correspond to the 3°3
    • 1 42 0, 421 J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM affections of its love. Hence it is that there are in the air-calls, or inmosts of the lungs, small veins with little mouths, which suck in such things; thereupon the blood flowing back into the left ventricle of the heart is changed into arterial blood and is in good condition. These facts prove that the blood is purified by heterogeneous things and is nourished by homogeneous things. That the blood in the lungs purifies and nourishes itseif correspondently to the affections of the mind is as yet unknown, but is very weil known in the spiritual world; for angels in the heavens enjoy only those odours that correspond to the love of their wisdom, but spirits in hell enjoy only those odours that correspond to the love opposed to wisdom; these odours are stenches, but the former are perfumes. l t follows from Jhis that men impregnate their blood with similar things according to the correspondence with their loves affections; for what mans spirit loves, the blood in accordance with the correspondence craves, and attracts by respiration. From this correspondence it cornes that man is purified in respect to his lovè if he love wisdom, and is defiled if he does not love it. Moreover, ail urfica on of man is effected b truths of wisdom, and ail e ement by falsities o~ruths of wtsdom.;K.• the4 understanding, if they will is dejiled intogether;~ (xvii) Love or the 21 . are not raised and by li since, if love be not raised, it remains impure (as stated above, Nos. 419, 420); and as long as that is so, it loves what is impure, revenge, hatred, deceit, blasphemy, adultery; for these are then its affections and are called lusts; it scorns e;.rerything that has to do with charity, justice, sincerity, truth, 3°4
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [421,422 and chastity. Love is said ta be defiled in and by the understanding: in the understanding, when love is. affected by thOSë"Tmpure thmgs; 6y the understanding, when love causes the things of wisdom to become its servants, and still more when it perverts, falsifies, and adulterates them. There is no need ta say more of the state of the heart or its blood in the 111ngs carrespanding ta these things, than was said above (No. 420), except that instead of purification of the blood its defilement takes place, and instead of nutrition of blood by fragrant odours, nutrition is effected by stenches, exact!y as it is in heaven and in hello 422. (xviii) Love, purifled by wisdom in the understanding, becomes spiritual and celestial. Man is barn natural, but as the understanding is raised inta the light of heaven and with it love is raised into the heat of heaven, 50 he becomes spiritual and celestial; he then becomes like a Garden of Eden which has at once the light and heat of perpetua! spring. Tt is not the understanding that becomes spiritual, but lo::e; and when laye tiëëomes spiritual, it also makes its P<n:tner, tl!e understandmg, spmfual and celesué.Û. Love becomes spiritual and celesbal by-:riife In accordance wlih the truths of wisdom taught and indicated by the understanding. Love imbibes these truths by means of its understanding and not from itself; for love cannat be raised except b knowin truths,~ a~ 1 can know t ese on y y means a an e eva êdIland enhghtened unders an mg; an en t e measure ol-il--s--wve--1OTfftiThs by practisl~ is the height of lis elevation. For lt 15 one thing fa understand, and another ta will; or one thing ta talk and another ta do. There are those who 30 5
    • 422, 423J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM understand and speak truths of wisdom, yet neither will them nor practise them. When, therefore, love does put into practice the truths of Ilght, which it understands and talks about, iJ is raised. 1 fiat If 1S so, man may see from reason atone; for what can be said of the man who understands the truths <:Jf wisdom and speaks about them while he lives contrary to them, that is, while his will and conduct are opposed to them? Love purified by wisdom becomes spiritual and celestial because man has three degrees of life, called natural, spiritual, and celestial, treated of in the Third Part of this Work. Man can be raised from one to another ; yet he is not raised b wisdom alone but b r eIl in accor ance t erewJ.t , or man s Me is h1S .love. Wherefore, he loves wisdom to the extent that he appljes it to life; and that. application is tlie measure of his purification from what is unc1ean, that is from sins; and so far as he purifies himself,11 he loves wisdom. 423. The process of love purified by wisdom in the understanding being made spiritual and celestial cannot be seen through its correspondence with the heart and lungs, because no one can see the quality of the blood by which the lungs are maintained in a state of respiration. The blood may abound in impurities, and in this respect be indistinguishable from pure blood. Moreover the respiration of a merely natural man appears the same as that of a spiritual man, but the difference is c1early discerned in heaven, for there everyone breathes in accordance with the marriage of love and wisdom; on this account, as angels are recog­ nised by that marriage, they are recognised also by the breathing. This is why, when anyone enters 306
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [423,424heaven who has not that marriage, he is seizedwith anguish in the breast, and struggles forbreath like those in the agony of death; for whichreason also he throws himself headlong from theplace and rests not tiU he finds himself among thosewith respiration similar to his own; for then bycorrespondence he is in similar affection andtherefore in similar thoughL From these thingsit may be evident that with the spiritual man, itis his purer blood, called by sorne the animal spirit,which is purified; and that it is purified to thedegree the man is in the marriage of love andwisdom. It is this purer blood which correspondsmost nearly to this marriage, and since it fiowsinto the blood of the body, it follows that the latterblood also is purified by iL The reverse is true ofthose in whom love is defiled in the understanding,but, as was said, no one can test this by anyexperiment on the blood. but he can by observing theaffections of love, since these correspond to the blood. 424. (xix) Love, deflled in and by the ~mder­standing, becomes natural, sens~ial, and corporeal.Natural love se arated trom s iritual love is theOpposIte 0 spIrItual love. The reason IS thatnatural love is the love of self and of the world,and spiritual love is love to the Lord and to theneighbour; and love of self and the world looksdownward and outward, and love to the LordlQoks ulward and inward. Consequently, wMnnatur love is scannot be raIs~_)r rated fro s iritual 10 è7Ït man s In ~ot nature, bGt 1[(;mains Immersea~. and sa rar- as it lovesit,15 fastened to iL Then if the understandingascends and sees by the light of heaven suchthings as are of wisdom, it drags the wisdom down 3°7
    • 424J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM and unites it to itself in its own inherent nature, and there either reects the thin s of wisdom or falsl es t em, or puts t em round about itself to bCSp<5KëïfOI foi-reputahon s sake. Just as natural love can ascend by degrees and become spiritual and celestial, so also it can descend by degrees and become sensual and corporeal; and the descent is to the extent that it loves to dominate from no love of use, but solely from the love of self. It is this love which is caHed the devil. Those who are in this love can speak and act exactly like those who are in spiritual love; but, at the time they do so, it is either from the memory or from the under­ standing raised by itself into _the light of heaven. Nevertheless their speech and actions may be compared to goodly fruit lotten within, or almonds whose sheHs look sound but are worm eaten within. In the spiritual worlel they caH these things phantasies, by means of which harlots, who are there caUed sirens, make themselves look beautiful and adorn themselves with becoming dresses, but when the phantasy is dissipated they look like ghosts, and are like the devils who make themselves angels of light. For when that corporeal love drags its understanding down from its elevation, as it does when alone, and then thinks from its own love, it thinks against God in favour of nature, against heaven in favour of the world, and against the true and good things of the Church in favour of the false and evil things of heU, and thus against wisdom. From these things it may be evident what is the character of those caUed corporeal men, for they are not corpbreal in respect to the understanding, but are corporeal in respect to love; that is, they are not corporeal in under­ standing when speaking in company, but when 30 8
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [424, 425communing with themselves in spirit; and becausethey are such in spirit, after death, in respect toboth love and understanding, they become whatare known as corporeal spirits. Those who in theworld had been in the supreme love of ruling fromself love, and at the same time had excelled othersin elevation of the understanding, then appear inbody like Egyptian mummies, and in mind grossand foolish. Who in the world to-day knows thatthis love in itself is of such a character? Never­theless a love of ruling from a love oJ.J:!.~e iSJ29ssible,but from a love of use for the sake of the eneralgood, not or t e sake 0 se. ut man can hardlydistinguish the one from the other and yet thediflerence between them is like that betweenheaven and hello The diflerences between thesetwo loves of ruling may be seen in the work onHeaven and HeU (Nos. 55I-565). 425. (xx) The fa culty of understanding, calledrationality, and the faculty of acting, called freedom,still remain. These two faculties belonging to manwere discussed above (Nos. 264-267). Man possessesthese two faculties in order that he may, frombeing natural, become spiritual, that is, may beregenerated. For, as was said above, it is ma.!!slove that becomes spiritual and is regenerated;and tfilS cannot become spiritual or be regeneratedunless he know by means of his J:nderstancl.ingwhaLevil is and what goodness lS, and the~rewhat tnîlllis and wfiatIalSif:fi5.VVheÏï1îëKnowsthese thingS,l-ïe may cfioose o~ or the other; andif he choose goodness, he can Qy means oL.!:ysunderstanding be informecfOfihë means b w chtQ..attam 0 goo ness. means are rOVl edby WhlCh man can attain .. ness. le a 1 ity • 3°9
    • 425] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM ta know and understand these means cornes from 1rattonalÛy, and the ablhty ta VIÏll and ta do them , from Jièedom. Freedom is also the will to knQw, to understand.z and t2-think them. They kIlOW notlimg a50ut these faculties who believe from the teaching of the Church, that spiritual or theological things transcend the understanding, and must therefore be believed without understanding. These can only deny that there is a faculty of rationality. And they who believe from the teachings of the Church that no one can do ood of himself and t ere ore no good must be done wl1h any hope of salvation as its cause, can only deny from a principle of their religion the existence of both faculties belonging to man. Therefore, they who have become confirmed in these beliefs, are deprived of both faculties after death in accordance with their faith, and instead of the heavenly freedom which might have been theirs, have infernal freedom, and instead of the angelic wisdom they might have had from rationality, they come into infernal insanity. The remarkable thing is that they perceive the existence of bath these faculties in the doing of what is evil and thinking of what is false, not knowing that the freedom to do evil is slavery, and that the basic reason for thinking what is false is irrational. But it must be clearly recognisedIllilU ~ that bath these faculties of freedom and rationalit are nol mans, but are the Lordis m man, and that they cannat he Jl.PPUU?nated ta man as his QlVn ; therefore, .the cannat be iven ta .m~n as. his own. but r~ con mu y e ord s 1!!.--....E!1; and yètthey are never taken away fram man, for this reason; that without them he cannot be saved; for regeneration is J:.lot possible without them, as was said above. .3Vherefore man is taught by the 310
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [425,426Church that he cannot think what is true nor dowhat is good of himself. But since man is onlyconscious that this thought and act come fromhimself, it is perfectly clear that he ought ta be1ievethat he thinks what is true and does what is goodas if from himself. For, if he do not believe this,either he does not think and act in this way andsa has no religion, or he thinks and acts fromhimself, and then he ascribes ta himself what isDivine. That man ought ta think what is trueand do what is good as if from himself may beseen in the Doctrine of Life for the New]erusalem,from beginning ta end. 426. (xxi) Spiritual and celestial love is lovetowards the neighbour and ta the Lord, and naturaland sensual love is love of the world and of self.B love ta ards the nci hbou . m a the eo uses, and bv love ta the Lord is meant the loveôfëiOfng uses, as has been shown betore. 1hereason that these loves are spiritual and celestialis that the love of uses and doing them from lovefor them is distinct from mans inherent love; forhe who loves uses spiritually, regards not hims.!;lf 1but others outslde seTf,të)f whoSëgë5OG1ie 1S con-l ~ Ilcerned. The loves 01 self and of the würfcrareopposed ta these loves, for they have no regard tauses for the sake of others, but only for self; andthose who perform uses in this way invert theDivine arder, and put themselves in the Lordsplace, and the world in the pla.ce of heaven; thusit cornes about that they look backwards, awayfrom the Lord and from heaven, and ta look back­wards is ta look towards hell; but more concerningthese loves may be seen above (No. 424). But mandoes not feel and perceive the love of performing 3I I
    • 426,427] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOMuses for the sake of uses as a love of performinguses for the sake of self; hence also he does notknow, when he does them, whether he is doingthem for the sake of uses or of self. But he mayknow that in the degree he shuns evils, he is erforming uses for the sake of uses; for sotaras he shuns them, he aoes them not from himself,but from the Lord. For evil and good are opposites,and for this reason one cornes into good to theextent that one cornes out of evil. No one can bein evil and in good at the same time, because noone can serve two masters at the same time. Thesethings are said so that it may be known that,although man does not perceive by sense whetherthe uses performed are for the sake of use or forthe sake of self, that is, whether the l1ses arespiritual or merely natural, he may yet know it bythis, whether or no he consider evils to be sins.If he regard them as sins, and if, on that account,he refrain from doing them, then the uses heperforms are spiritual; and when, from a feelingof aversion, he shuns sins, he also begins to havesensible perception of the love of uses for the sakeof uses, and this from a spiritual delight in them. 427. (xxii) ft is the same with charity and faith,and their union, as with will and understanding, an.dtheir union. Celestial love and spiritual love arethe two loves in accordance with which the heavensare distinguished. Celestial love is love to theLord and spiritual love is love towards the neigh­bour. The distinction between these loves is thatcelestial love is the love of what is good, andspiritual love is the love of what is true; for. thosewho live in celestial love perform uses from loveof what is good, and those who live in spiritual 312
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [427love from love of what is true. The marriage ofcelestial love is with wisdom and the marriage ofspiritual love is with intelligence; fur domg whatis good from goodness Ts the part of wisdom, anddoing what is ood from truth is the part ofintelligence; where ore ce estial love oes w at ISgood, and spiritual love does what is true. Thedifference between these two loves can only bedefined in this way, that those who live in celestiallove have wisdom inscribed on their life and noton their memory, for which reason they do nottalk about Divine truths, but do them; while thosewho live in spiritual love have wisdom inscribedon their memory, and therefore talk about Divinetruths and do them from princirles in the memory.Because those ltvmg m celesha love have wlsdominscribed on their life, they perceive instantlywhether anything they hear is true or not; andwhen asked if it be true, answer only, " It is," or" It is not." These are they who are meant bythe words of the Lord : " Let your communication be Yea, yea, Nay, nay " (Matt. v. 37).And since such is their character they are unwillingta hear anything about faith, saying, "What isfaith? 1s it not wisdom ? " and" What is charity?1s it not doing?" and when told that faith isbelieving what is not understood, they turn awaywith the remark, "This man is out of his mind."These are they who dwell in the third heaven, andwho are the wisest of ail. Such a disposition havethey acquired in the world who applied ta theirlife Divine truths directly they heard them byturning away from evils as infernal, and by worship­ing the Lord alone. Ta others they appear likechildren because they live in innocence, and they 31 3
    • ...... 427-429] DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM even seem simple because they have nothing to say about truths of wisdom, and because there is not an atom of pride in their discourse. Yet all the while as they listen to anyone speaking, they perceive by the tone all things of his love, and by his speech all things of his intelligence. These are they who abide in the marriage of love and wisdom from the Lord; and who relate to the heart region of heaven, mentioned above. 428. On the other hand those who live in spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbour, do not have wisdom inscribed on their life, but intelligence; for wisdoms part is to do good from affection for what is good, and the part of intelligenceÏs to do good from affection for what is true, as was sard aGove. Neither do tnese know what faith is.~ When faith i . d the understand trutfî, an w_en charity is mentioned they understand putting jJ:U.t:h into lractice; and when told that tbey must believe, replythat this is idle talk, and ask, " Who does not believe what is true ?" This they say because they see truth in the light of their own heaven; on which account, to believe what they do not see, they caU either simplicity or foolishness. These are they who constitute the lung region of heaven, also mentioned above. 429. But those who live in natural-spiritual love have neither wisdom nor intelligence inscribed on their life, but have something of faith from the Word, so far as this has been united with charity. Since these do not know what charity is, nor if faith be truth, they cannot be among those in the heavens who abide in wisdom and in intelligence, but among those in knowledge only. On the other hand those who shun evils as sins dwell in the 31 4
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM (429-431lowest heaven, and in light there which is like thelight of the moon by night. But those who havenot confirmed themselves in ignorant faith, buthave at the same time cherished some affectionfor truth, having been instructed by angels so faras they can receive truths and live according tothem, are raised into societies of those who dwellin spiritual love, and intelligence therefrom. Thesebecome spiritual, the rest remain natural-spiritual.But those who have lived in faith separate fromcharity are removed and sent away into desertsbecause they do not live in any goodness, thus inno marriage of goodness and truth, in which allabide who are in the heavens. 430. AIl that has been said in this Part conceminglove and wisdom may be said of charity and faith,if only spiritual love be understood in respect ofcharity, and truth by which comes intelligence inrespect of faith. It is the same if the terms willand understanding, or love and intelligence, beused, since the will is the receptacle of love, and theunderstanding of intelligence. 431. To the above l add this memorable factoIn heaven all who perform uses from an affectionfor use draw from the communion in which theydwell a state of wisdom and happiness exceedingothers. And there, with them, performing usesmeans acting sincerely, uprightly, justly, andfaithfully, in the work of their employment. Thisthey call charity, and acts of worship they ffillsigns of charity, and other tlllngs they caTI duïisaQQ pnvlleges; declaring that when anyone doesthe work of his employment sincerely, uprightly,justly, and faithfuIly, the community abides andcontinues steadfast in its state of goodness, and 31 5
    • ., 43 1 , 43 2 J DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM that this is to " be in the Lord," since everything . that fiows in from the Lord is a use, and fiows in fram the parts mto the community; and from the 1 community to the parts. The parts there are angels, and the community is a society of them. WHAT MANS INITIAL FORM IS AT CONCEPTION 432. What mans initial or primitive form is in the womb after conception no one can know, since it cannot be seen; moreover, it is formed out of ) spiritual substance which is not visible by nàtural light. Now since there are sorne in the world that turn their minds to searching out even the primitive form of man, that is, the seed from the father by which conception is effected, and since many of them have fallen into this error, that man is in his fulness from his first beginning, which is the rudiment, and is afterwards perfected by growth, it has beert disclosed to me what that rudiment or · first is in its form. This has been disclosed to me by angels, to whom it was revealed by the Lord; r . and because they had made it part of their wisdom, and it is a delight of their wisdom to communicate what they know to others, permission having been granted, they presented before my eyes in the light 1 of heaven a type of mans initial form, which was like this: Tt seemed like a tiny image of the brain with a delicate delineation of something of a face in front, without any appendage. This primitive in the upper convex part was a structure of globules of spherules touching one another, and each spherule was a joining of those yet more minute, and each of these in like manner of those still more 316l~
    • DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM [432 minute; it was thus of three degrees. In front, in the fiat part, something outlined appeared ta. represent a face. The COll;ex part was covered round about with a skin or membrane sa fine as ta be transparent. The convex part, which was a type of the brain in least forms, was aIsa divided into two lobes, as it were, just as the brain in its greatest extent is divided into two hemispheres. l was informed that the right lobe was the receptac1e of love, and the left lobe was the receptac1e of wisdom ; and that by their wonderful interweavings they were, as it were, consorts and partners. It was further shawn in the light of heaven, which shane brightly upon it, that the structure of this little brain,( in respect ta the position in which it was lying and ta its fiow, was in the arder and form of heaven, and that its outer structure was in direct opposition ta that arder and form. After these things had been shawn and seen, the angels said that the two interior degrees, which were in the arder and form of heaven, were receptac1es of love and wisdom from the Lord; and that the outer degree, which was in direct opposition ta the arder and form of heaven, was a receptacle of infernal love and foUy; for the reason that man by here­ ditary defilement is barn inta evils of every kind, and these evils remain there in outermosts; and that these defilements are not removed unless the higher degrees are opened, which, as was said, are receptacles of love and wisdom from the Lord. And since love and wisdom are very man, for love and wisdom in their essence are the Lord, and tbis primitive of man is a receptac1e, it fol1ows that in that primitive there is a cont