Em swedenborg-a-brief-exposition-of-the-doctrine-of-the-new-church-amsterdam-1769-london-1952

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Em swedenborg-a-brief-exposition-of-the-doctrine-of-the-new-church-amsterdam-1769-london-1952

  1. 1. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH SIGNIFIED BY THENEW JERUSALEM in THE REVELATION BY EMANUEL SWEDENBORG A SWEDE BEING A TRANSLATION OF Summaria Expositio Doetrina Novae EeclesiaeSWEDENBORG SOCIE TY. INCORPORATBD 20/21 BLOOMSBURY WAY, LONDON 1952
  2. 2. REVELATION xxi 2, 5. f, John, saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, comingdown from God out of heaven, prepared as a brideadorned for her husband. . . . And He that satupon the throne said, Behold, f make all thingsnew. And He said unto me, Write: for these wordsare true and faithful. PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY THE THANET PRESS, MARGATE.
  3. 3. PREFACE THE SUMMARIA EXPOSITIO DOCTRINAE NOVAE ECCLESIAE was first published in Latin atAmsterdam in the year 1769. According to RobertHindmarshs statement in his Rise and Progress of the New Church, an indifferent translation wasmade soon afterwards either by a certain Mr.John Merchant, a literary gentleman acquaintedwith Swedenborg, or by Mr. William Cookworthy,a Quaker of Plymouth. The statement continues :"It was this first translation of the BRIEFEXPOSITION of which Dr. Messiter speaks in thepostscript of his letter to the Rev. H. Hamilton,Professor of Divinity in the University ofEdinburgh, where he says, Whatever esteem theLatin work may deserve, this I am sure willprocure but little, it is so indifferently translated.A new translation of the BRIEF EXPOSITION wasafterwards made and published by me in the year1789." Two further translations have appeared: onein 1818, "most probably" (according to HydesBibliography of Swedenborgs Works) by the Rev.Samuel Noble; the other in 1895 by the Rev.R. J. Tilson. A second Latin edition, in whichseveral printers errors are corrected, was producedby Dr. J. F. I. Tafel in 1859. . As the title implies, the work gives a summarystatement of the fundamental doctrines ofthe New Church. This statement, however,occupies only a small proportion of the whole work. iii
  4. 4. PREFACEThe greater part consists of a searching exposureof the principal falsities of the decadent ChristianChurch, Roman Catholic and Reformed. Numerousextracts are first adduced from the Decrees of theCouncil of [rent, a principal Roman Catholicstatement of faith, and from the ProtestantFormula Concordiae: after which follows a re­morseless examination of these extracts in twenty­five Articles, showing their disagreement with thedoctrines of the New Church drawn from the Wordand confirmed thereby. Naturally, the work is limited in scope, since,as the Author states in the first paragraph, thislittle work is a preliminary sketch to the majorwork, THE TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, publishedtwo years later. This fact, however, should in noway detract from the importance of the smallerwork which, indeed, gives a more detailed andexhaustive refutation of the main errors ofChristian theology than does the major work, thusclearing the ground for the full presentation ofgenuine truth given in the major work. And if, as Swedenborg writes in a letter from Stockholm,30th October, 1769, to Dr. G. A. Beyer, Professorof Greek in the University of Gothenburg, theBRIEF EXPOSITION is "a forerunner of the majorwork, and is to prepare the way for its reception,"it is, nevertheless, a complete treatise, and ofconsiderable value in itself, as is shown by thefollowing quotations from a posthumous workentitled SKETCH OF AN ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORYOF THE NEW CHURCH: When the Brief Exposition was published, the angelic heaven, from east to west and from south IV
  5. 5. PREFACE to north, appeared of a deep crimson colour, with most beautiful flowers. This took place before myself, and before the Danish kings and others. At another time it appearedlike a flame, beautifully so. On the books was written, "The Advent of the Lord"; on all in the spiritual world. I also wrote the same, by command, on two copies in Holland. One of the two copies referred to has beenfound, and is available for inspection in theLibrary of the British Museum, London. On theinside page of the wrapper which is bound upwith the volume there is this inscription in Sweden-borgs handwriticg :-. )I,, i..:1)({r f a)vvrJi)f;,Vl4~~ ~~s;::~, (L.x,£1.6) . /"u....J....: Q- ".,l;:),J". i 6S1!: /~ /"-" )141.1.,.,/, The numbers refer to paragraphs in the ARCANACAELESTIA, and treat of the Second Advent of theLord. The" A.R." number is from THEApOCALYPSE REVEALED. It remains to say that while keeping close to theLatin the aim of this translation has been toexpress the Authors meaning in clear and simpleEnglish. Scripture quotations are given in thelanguage of the Authorised Version except wherefidelity to Swedenborgs rendering necessitates achange. The small numbers in the margin indicatethe subdivisions of the longer paragraphs in-troduced by the Rev. J. F. Potts in his SWEDENBORGCONCORDANCE. Footnotes have been kept to the v
  6. 6. PREFACEminimum, and it is hoped that the work will beread with ease and satisfaction alike by theordinary reader and the scholar. To my Consultant,the Rev. Eustace R. Goldsack, M.A., also toMr. William C. Dick, M.A., F.E.LS., I tender mythanks for their assistance and advice. RUPERT STANLEY.Glasgow, 1952. VI
  7. 7. CONTENTS PAGEINTRODUCTION (n. I)THE DOCfRrNALS OF THE ROMAN CATHOLICS CONCERN- ING JUSTIFICATION: FROM THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. (n. 2-8) . . . . . . . . . .. 2THE DOCTRINALS OF THE PROTESTANTS CONCERNING JUSTIFICATION: FROM THE Formula Concordiae. ~.~I~ 9A SKETCH OF THE DOCTRINALS OF THE NEW CHURCH ~I~ nTHE DISAGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE TENETS OF THE PRESENT CHURCH AND THOSE OF THE NEW CHURCH I. The Churches which separated themselves at the Reformation from the Roman Catholic Church dissent in various points, but they all agree on the Articles concerning a Trinity of Persons in the Godhead, Original Sin from Adam, the Imputation of Christs Merit, and Justification by Faith Alone. (n. 17, 18). . 24 11. The Roman Catholics held exactly the same beliefs before the Reformation as the Re- formed Church did after it concerning the four Articles mentioned above, namely, a· Trinity of Persons in the Godhead, Original Sin, the Imputation of Christs Merit, and Justification by Faith therein; with the sole difference that they united that Faith with Charity or Good Works. (n. 19,20) 25 vu
  8. 8. CONTENTS PAGE Ill. The leading Reformers, Luther, Melanchthon and Calvin, retained all the dogmas concerning a Trinity of Persons in the Godhead, Original Sin, the Imputation of Christs Merit, and Justification by Faith, just as they were and had been with the Roman Catholics; but they separated Charity or Good Works from that Faith, and declared that they were not conjointly saving, in order that they might be completely severed from the Roman Catholics as to the very essentials of the Church, which are Faith and Charity. (n. 21-23) 26 IV. Nevertheless, the leading Reformers adjoined Good Works, and even conjoined them, to their Faith, but in man as a passive subject; whereas the Roman Catholics did so in man as an active subject ; and yet there is actually a conformity between the latter and the former as to Faith, Works and Merit. (n. 24-29) 28 V. The whole theology of the Christian World at this day is founded on the idea of three Gods, arising from the doctrine of a Trinity of Persons. (n. 30-38). 31 VI. The dogmas of the aforesaid theology are seen to be erroneous after the idea of a Trinity of Persons, hence of three God~, has been rejected, and the idea of one God, in Whom is the Divine Trinity, received instead. (n. 39, 40) 37 VII. Then truly saving Faith, which is Faith in One God united with Good Works, is acknow­ ledged and received. (n. 41, 42) 39VIII. This Faith is Faith in God the Saviour Jesus Christ, which in its simplest form is as follows: 1. There is One God in Whom is the Divine Trinity, and He is the Lord Jesus Christ. 2.A Saving Faith is to believe on Him. Vlll
  9. 9. CONTENTS PAGE 3. Evil actions ought to be shunned because they are of the devil and from the devil. 4. Good actions ought to be done because they are of God and from God. 5. And these are to be done by man as of himself, yet it ought to be believed that they are from the Lord, with him and through him. (n. 43, 44) . 40 IX. The Faith of the present day has separated religion from the Church; for religion con­ sists in the acknowledgment of One God, and in the worship of Him from the Faith of Charity (n. 45, 46) 43 X. The Faith of the present Church cannot be united with Charity, or produce any fruits which are Good Works. (n. 47-50) . 45 XI. From the Faith of the present Church there flows forth a worship of the mouth and not of the life; when yet the worship of the mouth is accepted by the Lord only so far as it accords with worship which is of the life. (n. 51, 52) 47XII. The doctrine of the present Church is bound together by.many paradoxes which are to be embraced by faith; therefore, its dogmas enter the memory only, and not into any part of the understanding above the memory, but merely into confirmations below it. (n. 53-57) 50XIII. The dogmas of the present Church cannot be . learned without great difficulty, nor retained, since they slip from the memory; neither can they be preached or taught without using great care and caution lest their nakedness appear; because sound reason neither perceives nor receives them. (n. 58, 59) 53 ix
  10. 10. CONTENTS PAGE XIV. The doctrine of the Faith of the present Church ascribes to God human properties, as that He viewed man from anger, that He required to be reconciled, that He is reconciled through His love to the Son and by intercession, that He required to be appeased by the sight of His Sons misery, and thus to be brought back to mercy, that He imputes the righteous­ ness of His Son to the unrighteous man who supplicates it from Faith Alone; and that thus from being an enemy He makes him into a friend, and from a son of wrath into a son of grace. (n. 60-63) . 56 XV. From the Faith of the present Church mon­ strous births have been produced, and may still be produced, such as, Instantaneous Salvation from Direct Mercy, Predestination, the notion that God does not attend to mans actions, but only to faith, that there is no bond between Charity and Faith, that in conversion man is as a stock, with many other such enormities; likewise concerning the Sacraments of Baptism and the Holy Supper, as to the principles of reason drawn from the doctrine of Justification by Faith Alone respecting the benefits they confer; also as regards the Person of Christ. The heresies from the first period to the present day have flowed from no other source than the doctrine founded upon the idea of three Gods. (n. 64-69) 59XVI. The last state of the present Church, when it is at an end, is meant by the Consummation of the Age and the Advent of the Lord at that time. Matt. xxiv 3 (n. 70-73) . . . . . 67XVII. Infestation by falsities, thence the consumma­ tion of all truth, or desolation, in the Christian Churches at this day, is what is meant by the Great Affliction such as was not from the beginning of the world, nor shall be. Matt. xxiv 21. (n.74-76) 71 X
  11. 11. . CONTENTS PAOEXVIII. That neither Love, nor Faith, nor the Cog­ nitions of Good and Truth, exist in the last period of the Christian Church when it draws to its end, is meant by these words in the aforesaid chapter of Mal/hew: After the affliction of those days, shall the sun be darkened and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens ~hall be shaken.-Verse 29 (n.77-81) . 73 XIX. Those who hold to the present belief in Justification by Faith Alone are meant by the he-goats in Daniel and Matthew. (n. 82-86). 78 XX. Those who have confinned themselves in the present belief in Justification by Faith Alone are meant in the Revelation by the Dragon, his two Beasts, and the Locusts; and this Faith, when confinned, is meant there by the Great City, which is spiritually called Sodom and Egypt, where the Two Witnesses were slain; also by the Pit of the Abyss from which the Locusts came forth. (n. 87-90) . 82 XXI. Unless a New Church is established by the Lord, no one can be saved ; this is meant by these words : Except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved.-Matt. xxiv 22 (n. 91-94) 85 XXII. The exposure and rejection of the dogmas of the Faith of the present Church, and the revelation and reception of the dogmas of the Faith of the New Church, is meant by these words in the Revelation : He that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful. Rev. xxi 5 (n. 95-98) . 88 Xl
  12. 12. CONTENTS PAGEXXIII. The New Church about to be establi~hed_by the Lord is the New Jerusalem treated of in the J Revelation, chaps. xxi and xxii, which is there called the Bride and Wife of the Lamb. (n. 99-101). . ; . . . . . 91XXIV. The Faith of the New Church cannot possibly be together with the Faith of the former Church; for if they were together, such a collision and conflict would ensue that everything of the Church with man would perish (n. 102-104) 96XXV. Roman Catholics at this day know nothing of the Im utation of Christ Men, or 0 ustifi­ cation by];aith therein, into which Faith eir Church has been mitiated, because this lies entirely concealed under their external forms of worship, which are numerous. Wherefore, if they recede even in part from the externals oftherr worship, ana appr<facnGOO -the Jll SavIOur Jesus Christ direct, and also recei e the-t!oly Eucharist in both kinds, they may be brought Into the New Jerusalem, that is, into the Lords New Church,- before the Reformed. (n. 105-113) . 99Two MEMORABLE NARRATIVES FROM THE Apocalypse Revealed. (n. 114 and liS) . . . . . 112ApPENDIX •.• THE FATTH OF THE NEW HEAVEN AND THE NEW--cHtrRCH IN ITs UNIVERSAL AND PARTICULAR FORMS. (n. 116 and 117) 120THREE· MEMORABLE NARRATIVES FROM THE Apocalypse Revealea. (n. 1[8-flU 122 xii
  13. 13. 1] DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH A BRIEF EXPOSITION of the DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH signified by THE NEW JERUSALEM IN THE APOCALYPSE 1. As several works and tracts have beenpublished by me during the past few years con­cerning the NEW JERUSALEM, by which is meanta New Church to be established by the Lord,and as the Apocalypse has now been revealed,I have decided to bring to light the Doctrine ofthat Chu~ch in its fulness, thus as a whole. This,however, is a work which will take some years tocomplete; wherefore I have thought it advisableto produce some sort of a sketch of it, in order that ageneral idea of this Church and its Doctrine mayfirst be obtained. For, when general things precede,then each and everything stands out clearly in thelight; for particulars enter into generals as thingshomogeneous into their own receptacles. This briefexposition, however, is not designed for criticalexamination, but is only offered to the world forinformation; its contents will be fuIly proved inthe major work itself. Yet the doctrinal tenets ofto-day concerning Justification are to be set forthfirst, on account of what follows concerning thedisagreement between the doctrines of the presentChurch and those of the New Church. (I) See the work entitled THE APOCA.LYPSE REVEALED, published inAmsterdam in 1766.
  14. 14. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [2-4THE. DOCTRINALS OF THE ROMAN CATHOLICS CONCERNING JUSTIFICATION : FROM THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. 2. In the bull of Pope Pius IV, dated 13thNovember, 1564, are the following words: .. Iembrace and receive everything, in general andparticular, which the most holy Council of Trenthas determined and declared concerning OriginalSin and Justification." 3. From the Council o/Trent, concerning OriginalSin. Ca) Adam, by his transgression, was whollychanged for the worse, both in body and soul.This transgression proved injurious not only toAdam but to his offspring. It not only transmitteddeath and bodily sufferings to the whole humanrace, but also sin which is the death of the soul :Sess. V, 1, 2. Cb) This sin of Adam, which in origin was asingle transgression, but which has been trans­mitted by propagation, not by imitation, is im­planted in everyone as his own, and cannot beremoved by any other remedy than the Merit ofour Lord Jesus Christ, the only Saviour, Whohas reconciled us to God by His blood, being madefor us righteousness, sanctification and redemp­tion: Sess. V, 3. Cc) By Adams transgression all men lost theirinnocence and became unclean, and by naturechildren of wrath: Sess. VI, chap. 1. 4. Concerning Justification. Ca) The heavenly Father, Father of mercies,sent Christ Jesus, His Son, to men, when theblessed fulness of time arrived, in order to redeem 2
  15. 15. 4] DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHboth the Jews who were under the law and theGentiles who followed not after righteousness, sothat they might lay hold of righteousness, and allreceive adoption as sons. God offered Him to bea propitiation for sin through faith in His blood,and this, not only for our sins but also for the sinsof the whole world: Sess. VI, chap. 2. (b) Yet all do not receive the benefit of Hisdeath, but only those to whom the merit of Hispassion is communicated; wherefore, unless theyare born again in Christ, they will never be justified:Sess. VI, chap. 3. (c) The origin of justification is to be derivedfrom the prevenient grace of God through ChristJesus, that is, from His call: Sess. VI, chap. 5. (d) Men are disposed to righteousness when,being stirred by divine grace, and acquiring faithby hearing, they are freely moved towards God,believing those things to be true which are divinelyrevealed and promised; and especially this, thatthe ungodly are justified by God by His grace, bythe redemption which is in Christ Jesus ; and whenthey realise that they are sinners, from fear ofdivine justice, by which they are profitably dis­quieted, they are raised to hope, trusting that God,for Christs sake, will be well-disposed towardsthem: Sess. VI, chap. 6. (e) The consequence of this disposition andpreparation is actual justification, which is notonly a remission of sins but also a sanctificationand renewal of the interior man by the receptionof grace and gifts, whereby man, from being un­righteous, becomes righteous, and from being anenemy becomes a friend, so as to be an heir accord­ (1) See textual nole on p. 140. 3
  16. 16. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [4-5ing to the hope of eternal life : Sess. VI, chap. 7. er) The final cause of justification is the gloryof God and of Christ, and life eternal. Theefficient cause is God Who freely cleanses andsanctifies. The meriting cause is the most dearlybeloved and only-begotten of God, our LordJesus Christ, Who, although we were enemies, onaccount of the exceeding great love wherewith Heloved us, and by His most holy passion upon thecross, earned justification for us, and made satis­faction on our behalf to God the Father. Theinstrumental cause is the sacrament of baptism,which is a sacrament of faith without which noone can ever be justified. The formal cause is thesole righteousness of God; not that whereby Heis righteous Himself, but that whereby He makesus righteous, with which, that is, we, beinggifted by Him, are renewed in the spirit of ourmind. Moreover, we are not only reputed righteousbut truly called righteous ; being so in reality, eachaccording to that measure which the Holy Spiritimparts to everyone just as it pleases Him:Sess. VI, chap. 7, par. 2. (g) Justification is a transference from thatstate in which man is born a son of the first Adaminto a state of grace and adoption among the sonsof God through the second Adam, our SaviourJesus Christ: Sess. VI, chap. 4. 5. Concerning Faith, Charity, Good Works and Merit. (a) When the Apostle declares that man isjustified by faith, and freely, these words are to beunderstood in the sense in which, by general con­sent, the Catholic Church has always held and 4
  17. 17. 5] DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHexpressed them ; to wit, that we are said to be justi­fied by faith because faith is the beginning of manssalvation, and the foundation and root of alljustification, without which it is impossible tosatisfy God and attain to the fellowship of Hischildren. Moreover, we are said to be justified freelybecause none of those things which precede justi­fication, whether faith or works, merit the actualgrace of justification; for if it be grace, it does notarise from works, otherwise grace would not begrace: Sess. VI, chap. 8. (b) Although no one can be righteous exceptthose to whom the merit of the passion of our LordJesus Christ is communicated, nevertheless thiscommunication is effected in justification when, bythe Merit of the same most holy passion, the loveof God is infused by the Holy Ghost into the heartsof those who are justified, and abides in them.Whence, in the act of justification, man receives,together with the remission of sins, all these thingsinfused into him at once by Jesus Christ, in Whomhe is ingrafted by faith, hope and charity. Forfaith, unless charity be added to it, neither unitesperfectly to Christ, nor constitutes man a livingmember of His body: Sess. VI, chap. 7, par. 3. (c) Christ is not only the Redeemer in Whomthey are to have faith, but also a Lawgiver Whomthey must obey: Sess. VI, chap. 16, can. 21. (d) Faith without works is dead and vain,because in Christ Jesus neither circumcisionavaileth anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithwhich works by charity; for faith without hope andcharity cannot avail unto eternal life; whereforethey hearken at once to the word of Christ: "Ifthou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments." 2 5
  18. 18. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [5Thus, being reborn instantly, and receiving trueChristian righteousness, they are bidden topreserve it white and unspotted, as their principalrobe given them by Jesus Christ in place of thatwhich Adam lost for himself and us by his disobe­dience, that they may present it before the judg­ment-seat of our Lord Jesus Christ and have eternallife: Sess. VI, chap. 7, par. 4. (e) There is a continual influx of power fromJesus Christ Himself into those who are justified,as from the head into the parts of the body, andfrom the vine into its branches. This power alwaysprecedes, accompanies and follows their goodworks, and without it these could not by any meansbe acceptable and meritorious in the sight of God.Wherefore, it is to be believed that nothing moreis wanting for those who are justified than that theybe adjudged to have fully deserved eternal life,which will be bestowed on them in due time, byvirtue of those works which were wrought in God :Sess. VI, chap. 16. (f) When we speak of our own righteousness,this is not said as though it were our own fromourselves; for that which is called our righteous­ness is the righteousness of God, because it isinfused into us by God through Christs merit.Far beit, therefore, from any Christian man totrust or glory in himself, and not in the Lord,Whose goodness towards us men is so great thatHe wills to regard those things as our deserts,which are His own gifts: Sess. VI, chap. 16. (g) For of ourselves, as from ourselves, we cando nothing; but with Him, Who strengthens us,co-operating, we can do all things. Thus man hasnot anything in which he may glory. All our glory 6
  19. 19. 5-6J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH is in Christ, in Whom we live, in Whom we have merit, in Whom we make satisfaction, bringing forth fruits worthy of repentance,_ which have theirefficacy from Him, are offered unto the Father byHim, and are accepted by the Father through Him :Sess. XIV, chap. 8. (h) If anyone shall say that man may be justifiedin the sight of God by his own works, which aredone either through the powers of human natureor through the teaching of the law, without divinegrace through Christ Jesus, let him be accursed:Sess. VI, can. 1. (i) If anyone shall say that man may believe,hope and love (that is, have faith, hope andcharity), as is necessary in order that the grace ofjustification may be conferred upon him withoutthe prevenient inspiration of the Holy Spirit aridHis assistance, let him be accursed: Sess. VI,can. 2. (k) If anyone shall say that man is justifiedwithout the righteousness of Christ, whereby Hehas acquired merit for us, let him be accursed :Sess. VI, ,can. 10. And many other passages there are which arenot mentioned here, principally relating to theconjunction of faith with charity or good works,and condemning their separation. 6. Concerning Free-will. (0) Free-will is by no means destroyed by Adamssin, although it is impaired and warped thereby :Sess. VI, chap. 1. (b) If anyone shall say that mans free-will, whenmoved and aroused by God, cannot at all co­operate by concurring with God Who stirs and 7
  20. 20. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [6-7calls it, so that man may dispose and preparehimself to receive the grace of justification; orthat he cannot dissent if he wishes, but like some­thing inanimate is merely passive and can donothing, let him be accursed: Sess. VI, can. 4. 7. The Doctrinals of the Roman Catholicsconcerning Justification, collected from the Decreesof the Council of Trent, may be summed up andarranged in a Series, as follows : ­ The sin of Adam is transfused into the wholehuman race, whereupon his state and from himthe state of all men-became perverted and alienatedfrom God, and thus they became enemies andchildren of wrath. Therefore, God the Fathergraciously sent His Son to reconcile, expiate,propitiate, make satisfaction, and thus to redeem(mankind), and that by these works He becamerighteousness. Christ accomplished and fulfilledall this by offering up Himself upon the cross as asacrifice to God the Father, thus by His passionand His blood. Christ alone has acquired merit,and this, His merit, from grace, is imputed, attribut­ed, applied and transferred to the man who is arecipient thereof, by God the Father through theHoly Spirit; in this way the sin of Adam is re­moved from man, concupiscence, however, stillremaining in him as the kindling point of sin. Justification is the remission of sins, from whicha renewal of the interior man takes place, wherebyman, from being an enemy, becomes a friend, andfrom being a child of wrath becomes a child ofgrace; thus, union with Christ is effected, andthe regenerate person becomes a living memberof His body. 8
  21. 21. 8-9J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH 8. Faith comes by hearing, when a man believesthose things to be true which are Divinely revealed,and trusts in the promises of God. Faith is thebeginning of mans salvation, the foundation androot of all justification, without which it is im-possible to please God and enter into the fellowshipof His children. Justification is brought about by faith, hope andcharity, and unless faith is accompanied by hopeand charity, it is not living but dead, and incapableof effecting union with Christ. It is mans dutyto co-operate; he has the power to approach andwithdraw. Otherwise, nothing could be given tohim, for he would be like an inanimate body. Inasmuch as the reception of justification renewsman, and as this is effected by the application tohim of Christs merit with mans co-operation,it follows that works are meritorious. But sincethey are done from grace, and by the Holy Spirit,and as Christ alone has merit, therefore God makesHis own gifts in man as meritorious; whence itfollows that no one ought to attribute anythingof merit t:) himself.THE DOCTRINALS OF THE PROTESTANTS CONCERNING JUSTIFICATION: FROM THE Formula Concordiae. 9. This book from which the following extractsare collected is called the Formula Concordiae.It was written hy men who took part in theAugsburg Confession. As the pages will be in-dicated where the quotations are to be found, Imay say that I have made use of the edition printedat Leipzig in the year 1756. 9
  22. 22. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF· THE [10-11 10. From the Formula Concordiae, concerning Original Sin. (a) Since the fall of Adam, all men, beingdescended from him according to nature, are bornin sin, which brings damnation and eternal deathon those who are not reborn. The merit of Christis the only means whereby they are reborn; con­sequently, the only remedy whereby they arerestored. Pages 9, 10, 52, 53, 55, 317, 641, 644 ;also Appendix, pages 138, 139. (b) Original sin is such a deep corruption ofnature that there is no spiritual soundness in mansbody or soul, or in his I::nergies. Page 574. (c) It is the source of all actual sins. Pages 317,577, 639. 640. 642. Appendix, page 139. (d) It is the total absence or deprivation of t)leimage of God.. Page 640. (e) We ought to distinguish between our naturesuch as God created it, and original sin whichdwells in our nature. Page 645. (f) Moreover, original sin is there called the workof the devil, spiritual poison, the root of all evils.an accident and a quality; whereas our nature isthere called the work and creature of God, thepersonality of man, a substance and an essence;and the difference between them is the same as thedifference between a man infected with a diseaseand the disease itself. 11. Concerning Justification by Faith. Thegeneral heads are these :­ (a) By the Word and the Sacraments the HolySpirit is given, Who produces faith whenever and (1) Latin U accidens"; i.e., an accident in the philosophical senseof a nOD-essential property; DOt in tbe sense of a misbap. 10
  23. 23. 11] DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHwherever it appears, in those who hear the gospel. (b) Contrition, Justification by faith, Renewaland Good Works, follow in order; they are to becarefully distinguished from each other. Contritionand good works contribute nothing towardssalvation; faith alone avails. (c) Justification by faith alone is remission ofsins, deliverance from damnation, reconciliationon the part of the Father, and adoption as sons.It is effected by the imputation of Christs meritor righteousness. (d) Hence faith is that very righteousness where­by we are accounted righteous before God, and itis trust in grace and reliance on it. (e) Renewal, which follows, is vivification,regeneration and sanctification. (f) This renewal is followed by good workswhich are the fruits of faith, being in themselvesworks of the Spirit. (g) This faith may be lost by grievous sins.THE GENERAL HEADS CONCERNING THE LAW AND THE GOSPELS ARE THESE : ­ (h) We must carefully distinguish between theLaw and the Gospel, and between works of theLaw and works of the Spirit, which are the fruitsof faith. (i) The Law is doctrine which shows that manis in sin, and therefore in damnation, and in thewrath of God; thus exciting terror. But theGospel is doctrine concerning atonement for sinthrough Christ, and deliverance from damnation;it is thus a doctrine of consolation. (k) There are three uses of the Law: to restrainthe wicked, to bring to men an acknowledgmentof their sins, and to teach the reborn the rules of life. 11
  24. 24. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [11-12 (l) The reborn are in the Law, yet not under the Law, but under Grace. (m) It is the duty of the reborn to exercise themselves in the Law because, while they live in the world, they are prompted to sin by the flesh, but they become pure and perfect after death. (n) The reborn are also reproved by the Holy Spirit, and undergo various struggles; neverthe­less, they keep the Law willingly; thus, being thechildren of God, they live in the Law. (0) With those who are not reborn, the veil ofMoses still remains before their eyes, and the oldAdam bears rule; but with the reborn the veil ofMoses is taken away, and the old Adam ismortified. 12. Particulars from the Formula Concordiaeconcerning Justification by Faith without the Worksof the Law. . (a) Faith is imputed for righteousness withoutworks on account of Christs merit, which is laidhold of by faith. Pages 78, 79, 80, 584, 689. (b) Charity follows the faith that justifies, butfaith does not justify to the extent that it has beenformed by charity, as the Papists allege. Pages 81,89, 94, 117, 688, 691. Appendix, page 169. (c) Neither the contrition which precedes faith,nor the renewal and sanctification which follow it,nor the good works then performed, have anythingto do with the righteousness offaith. Pages 688, 689. (d) It is foolish to imagine that the works of thesecond table of the Decalogue justify before God,for by that table we regulate our relations with men,not properly with God ; and in justification every­thing must be done in relation to God, and toappease His wrath. Page 102. 12
  25. 25. 12J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH (e) If, therefore, anyone believes that remission of sins is obtained because he has charity, he brings a reproach on Christ, for this is an impious and vain confidence in his own righteousness. Pages 87, 89. cn Good works are to be utterly excluded in treating of justification and eternal life. Page 589. (g) Good works are not necessary as a meri­ torious cause of salvation, and they do not enter into the act of justification. Pages 589, 590, 702, 704. Appendix, page 173. (h) The position that good works are necessary for salvation is to be rejected, because it takes away the consolation of the Gospel, gives occasion for doubt concerning the grace of God, and instils a conceit of ones own righteousness; also because good works are accepted by the Papists in support of a bad cause. Page 704. (i) The expression that good works are necessary for salvation is rejected and condemned. Page 591. (k) Expressions concerning good works as beingnecessary for salvation ought not to be taught anddefended; they should be derided and rejectedby the churches as false. Page 705. (I) . Works which do not proceed from a truefaith are in reality sins in the sight of God; thatis, they are defiled with sin because a corrupt treecannot bring forth good fruit. Page 700. (m) Faith and salvation are neither preservednor retained by good works, because they are ontyevidences that the Holy Spirit is present and dwellsin us. Pages 590, 705. Appendix, page 174. (n) The decree of the Council of Trent that goodworks preserve salvation, or that either theacquired righteousness of faith or faith itself is 13
  26. 26. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [12-13maintained or preserved, either in whole or at leastin part, by our works, must rightly be rejected.Page 707. 13. Particulars from the Formula Concordiaeconcerning the Fruits of Faith. (a) A difference is to be observed between worksof the Law and works of the Spirit. The workswhich a reborn person performs with a freeand willing spirit are not works of the Law, butworks of the Spirit which are the fruits of faith.This is because those who are reborn are notunder the Law, but under Grace. Pages 589,590, 721, 722. (b) Good works are the fruits of repentance.Page 12. (c) The reborn receive by faith a new life,new affections and new works; these are fromfaith in the course of repentance. Page 134. (d) After conversion and justification, man beginsto be renewed in his mind, and at length in hisunderstanding; then his will is not idle in thedaily exercise of repentance. Pages 582, 673, 700. (e) We ought to repent on account of originalsin as well as on account of actual sins. Page 321.Appendix, page 159. (f) With Christians repentance continues untildeath, because they have to wrestle with sinremaining in the flesh as long as they live. Page 327. (g) We must enter upon, and advance more andmore in, the practice of the law of the Decalogue.Pages 85, 86. (h) Although the reborn are delivered fromthe curse of the Law, they ought still to continueobserving the Divine Law. Page 718. 14
  27. 27. 13J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH (i) The reborn are not outside the Law, though not under the Law, for they live according to the law of the Lord. Page 722. (k) To the reborn the Law ought to be a rule of religion. Pages 596, 717. Appendix, page 156. (/) The reborn do good works of their ownaccord and freely, not by constraint, as though they had received no command, had heard of no threatenings, and expected no reward. Pages 596,701. (m) With them, faith is always employed indeeds, and he who does not thus perform goodworks is destitute of true faith; for where thereis faith there will also be good works. Page 701. (n) Charity and good fruits follow upon faithand regeneration. Pages 121, 122, 171, 188, 692. (0) Faith and works agree well together and areinseparably connected; but faith alone lays holdof the blessing without works, and yet it is notalone; hence it is that faith without works isdead. Pages 692, 693. (p) After man is justified by faith, his faith,being true and living, becomes effective throughcharity; for good works always follow the faiththat justifies, and are most certainly found with it.Thus, faith is never alone, but is always accompaniedby hope and charity. Page 586. (q) We grant that where good works do notfollow faith, it is a false and not a true faith.Page 336. (r) It is as impossible to separate good worksfrom faith as it is to separate heat and light fromfire. Page 701. 15
  28. 28. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [13 (s) Because the old Adam is always inherent in our very nature, the reborn have continual need of the admonition, doctrine, threatenings, and even the chastisements of the Law; for they are re- proved and corrected by the Holy Spirit through the Law. Pages 719, 720, 721. (t) The reborn must wrestle with the old Adam, and the flesh must be subdued by exhorta- tions, threatenings and stripes, because renewal of life by faith is begun only in the present life. Pages 595, 596, 724. (u) With the elect and truly reborn there remains a perpetual wrestling between the flesh and the spirit. Pages 675, 679. (x) The reason Christ promises remission of sinsfor good works is because they follow reconciliation,and also because good fruits must necessarilyfollow, and because they are the signs of promise.Pages 116, 117. (y) Saving faith is not in those who have nocharity, for charity is the fruit which inevitablyand necessarily follows true faith. Page 688. (z) Good works are necessary for many reasons,but not as a cause of merit. Pages 11, 17, 64, 95,133, 589, 590, 702. Appendix, page 172. (aa) The reborn ought to co-operate withthe Holy Spirit by the new gifts and powers whichthey have received, but in the right way. Pages582, 583, 674, 675. Appendix, page 114. (bb) In the Confession of the Churches in theLow Countries, which was received in the Synod ofDort,l we read as follows: "Holy faith cannot (I) An Assembly of the Reformed Dutch Church held at Dort(present name Dordrecht) in Holland, in the years 1618 and 1619, torefute the tenets of the Armenians. 16
  29. 29. 13-14J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHbe inactive in man, for it is a faith working throughcharity, and works which proceed from a goodroot of faith are good and acceptable beforeGod, like the fruits of a good tree; for we areunder obligation to God to do good works. ButGod is no debtor unto us, inasmuch as it is GodWho does them in us." 14. From the Formula Concordiae concerningMerit. (a) It is false to suppose that our works meritremission of sins; false, also, that men areaccounted righteous by the righteousness ofreason ; and false to suppose that reasonof its own power is capable of loving God above allthings and of keeping the law of God. Page 64. (b) Faith does not justify because it is in itselfso good a work and so excellent a virtue, butbecause it lays hold of Christs merit in the promiseof the Gospel. P.ages 76, 684. (c) The promise of remission of sins and justifi­cation for Christs sake does not involve any con­dition of merit, because it is freely offered. Page 67. (d) Man, a sinner, is justified before God, orabsolved from his sins and from the most justsentence of damnation, and adopted into thenumber of the children of God, by pure grace,without any merit of his own, and without anyworks of his own, whether past, present or future;and this purely on account of the sole merit. ofChrist which is imputed to him for righteousness.Page 684. (e) Good works follow faith, remission of sinsand regeneration, and whatever pollution or im­perfection is in them is not accounted sinful or ·17
  30. 30. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [14 defective; and this for Christs sake. Thus the whole man, both as to his person and works, is rendered and pronounced righteous and holy from Christs pure grace and mercy shed, displayed andincreased, upon us; wherefore we cannot glory on account of merit. Pages 74, 92, 93, 336. (f) Whoever trusts in works as being meritoriousto himself, despises the merit and grace of Christ, and seeks a way to heaven by human power withoutChrist. Pages 16-19. (g) Works are not only unprofitable but evenharmful to such as desire to mingle good workswith the doctrine of justification, and by them tomerit the grace of God. Page 708. (h) The works of the Deca10gue are specified,and other necessary works, which God honourswith rewards. Pages 176, 198. (i) We teach that good works are meritorious,not indeed as regards remission of sins, grace andjustification, but as regards other bodily rewards,as also spiritual rewards in this life and after thislife; for Paul says that everyone will receive areward according to his work, and Christ says thatgreat will be your reward in heaven. Moreover, itis frequently said that to everyone will be renderedaccording to his works. Wherefore we acknowledgeeternal life to be a reward, because it is our dueaccording to the promise, and because God crownshis own gifts, but not on account of our merit.Pages 96, 13J-138. (k) When the good works of believers are donefor right reasons and directed to right ends, such asGod requires from the reborn, they are signsof eternal salvation ; and God the Father accountsthem acceptable and pleasing for Christs sake, 18
  31. 31. 14-l5J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHand promises them excellent rewards in this lifeand in the life to come. Page 708. (l) Although good works merit rewards, yetneither by their worthiness nor fitness do theymerit remission of sins or the glory of eternal life.Pages 96, 135, 139, etc. Appendix, page 174. (m) At the last judgment Christ will pass sen­tence on good and evil works as being the propereffects and evidences of mens faith. Page. 134.Appendix, page 187. (n) God rewards good works, but it is of gracethat He crowns His own gifts: this is asserted inthe Confession of the Churches in the LowCountries. 15. Concerning Free-will: from the FormulaConcordiae. (a) Man is altogether impotent in spiritualthings. Pages 15, 18, 219, 318, 579, 656, etc.Appendix, page 141. (b) By the fall of his first parents, man hasbecome so totally corrupt as to be by nature blindwith respect to spiritual things which relate toconversion and salvation, and so accounts theWord of God as a foolish thing. He is, and con­tinues to be, an enemy to God until by the powerof the Holy Spirit, through the preaching andhearing of the Word, he is converted, gifted withfaith, regenerated and renewed by pure gracewithout any co-operation on his part. Pages 656,657. (c) Man is altogether corrupt and dead to whatis good, so that in the nature of man since the falland before regeneration there is not so much as aspark of spiritual vigour subsisting or remaining 19
  32. 32. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [15 whereby he can prepare himself for the grace of God, or lay hold of it when offered, or of and by himself be capable of receiving it, or understand, believe, embrace, think, will, begin, perfect, act, operate or co-operate in spiritual things, or apply or accommodate himself to grace, or contributeanything towards his conversion, either in the whole, the half, or the least part. Pages 656, 658. (d) In spiritual and Divine things which regard the souls salvation, man is like the pillar of saltinto which Lots wife was turned, and like a stock or a stone without life and having neither the useof eyes, mouth, nor any of the senses. Pages 661, 662. (e) Still, man has the power of movement andcan govern his external members, attend publicworship and hear the Word of God and the Gospel;but in his private thoughts he despises all this assomething foolish, and in this respect he is worsethan a stock unless the Holy Spirit becomes effec­tive in him. Pages 662, 671, 672, 673. (f) Still, mans conversion is not just like theformation of a statue from stone, or the stampingof an impression on wax, which have neither know­ledge, sense nor will. Pages 662, 681. (g) In his conversion, man is a merely passivesubject, not an active one. Pages 662, 681. (h) In his conversion, man does not at all co­operate with the Holy Spirit. Pages 219, 579, 583,672, 676. Appendix, pages 143, 144. (i) Since the fall, man retains and possesses thefaculty of knowing natural things, also free-willin some measure to choose natural and civil good.Pages 14, 218, 641, 664. Appendix, page 142. (k) The assertions of certain of the Fathers and 20
  33. 33. 15J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH modem Doctors that God draws man, though with his consent, are not in agreement with Holy Scripture. Pages 582, 583. (l) When man is born again by the power of the Holy Spirit, he co-operates, though very feebly, by means of the new powers and gifts which the Holy Spirit began to operate in him at his con­ version, not indeed forcibly, but freely. Pages 582, etc., 673-5. Appendix, page 144. (m) Not only the gifts of God, but also Christ.Himself, dwell by faith in the reborn, as in His temples. Pages 695, 697, 698. Appendix, page 130. (n) There is a vast difference between baptized persons and those not baptized ; for it is according to the doctrine of Paul that all who have been baptized have put on Christ and are truly regenerate, these having thereby acquired freedom of will, that is, made free again, as Christ testifies. Where­ fore, they not only hear the Word of God but are in truth also enabled, though very feebly, to assent to and embrace it by faith. Page 675. It should be observed that the foregoing extracts are taken from a book called Formula Concordiae, which was written by men of the Augsburg Confession. Nevertheless, the same doctrines concerning Justification by Faith Alone are main­ tained and taught by the members of the Reformed Church in England and Holland; wherefore the following treatise is intended for all. See also below, paragraphs 17 and 18.3 21
  34. 34. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [16 A SKETCH of theDOCTRINALS OF THE NEW CHURCH 16. Now follows a brief Exposition of theDoctrine of the New Church, meant by the NewJerusalem in the Revelation, chapters xxi and xxii.This Doctrine, which is not only a matter of faithbut also of life, will be divided in the maJofWOrK 1into tliree parts.THE FIRST PART will treat of : . (1) The Lord God the Saviour, and the Divine Trinity in Him. (2) The Sacred Scripture and its two senses, the Natural and the Spiritual, and its holiness thence. (3) .Love to God and love towards the neigh­ bour, and the agreement of these loves with each other. (4) Faith,anditsconjunction with those two loves. (5) The Doctrine of Life, from the Command­ ments of the Decalogue. (6) Reformation and Regeneration. (7) Free-will, and mans co-operation with the Lord by its means. (8) Baptism. (9) The Holy Supper. (10) Heaven and Hell. -- - - (11) The conjunction of men therewith, and the -- (I) The work alluded to is THE TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, publishedtwo years after the present work. In writing the larger work, the authoradheres in the main to the plan laid down here, yet more as regards thesubstance than the form. 22
  35. 35. 16] DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH state of their life..-after death according to thatc..Qn~n. ---- ­ (12) Eternal life. THE SECOND PART will treat of : (1) The Consummation of the Age, or end of the present Church. (2) The Coming of the Lord. (3) The Last Judgment. (4) T~w Church, which IS the New Jerusalem. THE THIRD PART will point out the disagreements between the tenets of the present Church and those of the New Church. But we will dwell a little upon these now, because it is believed both by the clergy and the laity that the present Church is in the very light of the Gospel and its truths, which cannot possibly be disproved, overturned orI(assailed, not even by an angel, if one should aescend from heaven. Neither does the present Church see otherwise, because it has withdrawn the understanding from faith, and yet has confirmed ifs tenets by a kind of sight beneath the understanding ; for in that sight falsities -can be confirmed until they appear as truths, and falsities tllere confirmed acquire a fallacious light in which the light of trut appears as thick darkness. For this reason, we shall here dwell a little upon this subject, mentioning the disagreements and illustrating them by brief remarks, so that those whose under­ standing has not been closed by blin aitli may see tbese differences in a kind of twill ht, after­ wards as in morning light, and at ength, in e major wor ,~ u I <la li ht. The disagreements in general are as follows : ­ 23
  36. 36. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [17-18 1. 17. The Churches which separated themselves at the Reformation from the Roman Catholic Church dissent in various points, but they all agree on the Articles concerning a Trinity of Persons in the Godhead, Original Sin from Adam, the Imputation of Christs Merit, and Justification by Faith Alone. BRIEF ANALYSIS 18. The Churches which separated themselves at the Reformation from the Roman Catholic Church are composed of those who call themselves Evangelicals and Reformed, likewise Protestants ; or, from their leaders, Lutherans and Calvinists. Among these the Church of England holds a middle place. We shall say nothing here concerning the Greek Church which was separated long ago from the Roman Catholic Church. That the Protestant Churches dissent in various points, particularly concerning the Holy Supper, Baptism, Election, and the Person of Christ, is well known to many people, but it is not generally known that they all a ee on the Articles concern­ ing a Trinity of Persons in the Godhead, Original Sin, the Imputation of Christs Merit:-and Justifi­I cation by Faith Alone. This is because few-people apply themselves to exploring the differences of the tenets maintained by the different Churches; consequently, neither do they inquire into those P9ints 0 hich they. agree. Only the clergy study the tenets of their Cn.urch; the laity rarely understand them interiorly, and so are unacquainted 24
  37. 37. l8-20J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHwith their differences. Nevertheless, they agree onthe four Articles above-mentioned, both as regardsthe general affirmation and as regards most of theparticulars therein. This appears evident from theirbooks, if they are consulted, and from theirsermons, if they are heard. This, however, ispremised for information on account of whatfollows. n. 19. The Roman Catholics held exactly the samebeliefs before the Reformation as the ReformedChurch did after it concerning the four Articlesmentioned above, namely, a Trinity of Persons inthe Godhead, Original Sin, the Imputation of ChristsMerit, and Justification by Faith therein: with the)sole difference that they united that Faith withChart)!. or Good Works. BRIEF ANALYSIS 20. That there is such a conformity between theRoman Catholics and the Protestants regardingthese four articles so that there is scarcely anyimportant difference between them, except that theformer conjoin faith and charity while the latterseparate them, is scarcely known to anyone;indeea, it "is so generally unknown that the learJledthemselves will be astonished at this assertion.The reason for this ignorance is that the RomanCatholics rarely approach God our SaviOiif ;instead of Him they look to the Pope as His vicar,and to the saints. Hence they have dee 1 buried --.-­ 25
  38. 38. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [20-22 in oblivion their tenets concerning the imputation{ of Christs merit and justification by faith. Never­ theless, such tenets are received and acknowledged by them, as clearly appears from the Decrees of the Council of Trent quoted above, nos. 3-8, and con­ firmed by Pope Pius IV, n. 2. If these be compared with the tenets advanced above from the Augsburg Confession and from the Formula Concordiae derived therefrom, nos. 9-12, the differences between them will be found to consist mor III woros than in substance. The Doctors of the Church may inoeeOsee some conformity between them by reading and comparing the above passages together, but still only obscurely. However, in order that they, as well as those who are less learned, and also the laity, may see this agreement, some illustrations will now be added. Ill. 21. The leading Reformers, Luther, MelanchthJn and Calvin, retained all the dogmas concerning a Trinity of Persons in the Godhead, Original Sin, the Imputation of Christs Merit, and Justification by Faith, just as they were and had been with the Roman Catholics; but they separated Charity or Good Works from that Faith, and declared that the were not conjointly saving, in order that they might be completely severed froiiit e Roman Catholics as to t every essentials of the Church, which are Faith and Charity. BRIEF ANALYSIS 22. The four articles mentioned above, as at 26
  39. 39. 22-23J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHpresent taught in the Reformed Churches, werenot new, nor were they first hatched by thosethree leaders, but were handed down from thetime of the Council of Nicaea, and by writersafter that period, and preserved from that time inthe Roman Catholic Church, as is clear from bookson Ecclesiastical History. Why the RomanCatholics and the Reformed agree regarding thearticle on the Trinity of Persons in the Godhead isbecause they both acknowledge the three creeds,the A ostles, the Nicene and toe fthanasian;ln Iw c a Trinity is taught. That they agree on the article concerning the Imputation of Christs merit,is plain from the extracts from the Council ofTrent, nos. 3-8, compared with those from theFormula Concordiae, nos. 10-15. That they also agree on the article concerning Justification shall now be shown. 23. Concerning Justification by Faith, theCouncil of Trent declares as follows: "It hasalways been the agreed opinion of the CatholicChurch that faith is the beginning of humansalvation, the foundation and root of all justifica­tion, without which it is impossible to please Godand to come into the fellowship of His children" ;see above, n. 5 (a). Also it is said that" faith comesby hearing the Word of God," n. 4 (d). Moreover,the aforesaid Roman Catholic Council conjoinedfaith and charity, or faith and good works, as maybe clearly seen from the above quotations, nos. 4,5, 7, 8. But the Reformed Churches, followingtheir own leaders, have separated them,making salvation to consist in faith, and not at thesame time in charity or good works, to the end 27
  40. 40. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [23-24that they might be totally severed from the RomanCatholics as to the very essentials of the Church,which are faith and charity; this I have fre­quently heard from the aforesaid leadersthemselves. I have also heard that they established thisseparation by the following considerations : thatno one can do any good which avails for salvationof himself, nor can anyone fulfil the law; nor,again, can any merit of mans enter into faith.From these principles, and in view of the endstated above, they excluded the goods of charityfrom faith, and thereby from salvation. This isevident from the quotations given above from theFormula Concordiae, n. 12, among which arethese: "Faith, to the extent that it is formed bycharity, does not justify as the Papists allege,12 (b). The position that good works are necessaryfor salvation is to be rejected on many accounts ;and also because they are accepted by thePapists in support of a bad cause, 12 (h). Thedecree of the Council of Trent that good workspreserve and retain salvation must rightly berejected," 12 (n); besides many other pointsthere stated. However, the Reformed still conjoinfaith and charity into one for salvation, with thesole difference as to the quality of the works, aswill be shown in the following article. IV. 24. Nevertheless, the leading Reformers adjoinedGood Works, and even conjoined them, to theirFaith, but in man ps a passive suj:Jject,. whereas the 28
  41. 41. 24-26J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHRoman Catholics did so in man as an active subject;and yet there is actually a conformity betweenthelatter and the former as to Faith, Works and Merit. BRIEF ANALYSIS 25. Although the leading Reformers separatedfaith and charity, they still adjoined and at lengthconjoined them ; but they did not wish them to beregarded as one, or as conjointly necessary forsalvation; as is evident from their books, sermonsand declarations. For, after they have separatedthem they conjoin them, and even express thisunion in decisive terms, not in ambiguousexpressions. Note, for instance, the following:Faith following on justification is never alone, butis always accompanied by charity or good works;and if not, then such faith is not a living but adead faith; see above n. 13 (0, p, q, r, y, bb),Indeed, good works necessarily follow faith,n. 13 (x, y, z). The reborn person co-operates withthe Holy Spirit by new powers and gifts, n. 13(aa). That the Roman Catholics teach exactly thesame is clear from the passages collected from theCouncil of Trent; nos. 4-8;. 26. The Reformers profess nearly the samethings as the Roman Catholics concerning themerit of works, as is evident from the followingquotations from the Formula Concordiae. Goodworks are rewarded by virtue of the promise ~mdby grace, from which they merit rewards bothbodily and spiritual, n. 14 (i, k, I, n); andGod crowns His gifts with a reward, n. 14 (h, n).The same is asserted in the Council of Trent ;namely, that God by His grace makes His gifts 29
  42. 42. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [26-28to be merits, n. 5 (f); further, that salvation isnot from works, but from promise and grace,because God operates them by His Holy Spirit,n. 5 (e, f, g, h, i, k). 27. Comparing the one position with the other,it appears at first sight as though they were inentire agreement. Lest, however, this should beso, the Reformers distinguished between worksof the Law proceeding from mans purpose and will,and works of the Spirit proceeding from faith asfrom a free and spontaneous disposition. Thelatter good works they called the fruits of faith,as may be seen above, n. 11 (h, f) and n. 13 (a, i,f) and n. 15 (f). From this penetrating examina­tion and comparison there does not appear to beany difference in the works themselves, but only intheir quality; thus, in that the latter sort proceedfrom man as a passive subject, but the former asfrom an active subject. Consequently, the latterare spontaneous since they proceed from mansunderstanding and not at the same time from hiswill. This is said because man cannot be unawarewhen he is doing them, because he is doing them,and awareness is from the understanding.Nevertheless, as the Reformed also preach theexercises of repentance and wrestlings withthe flesh, n. 13 (d, e, f, g, h, k), and thesecannot be done by man except from his purposeand will, and thus by him as from himself, itfollows that there is still an actual agreement. 28. As regards free-will in conversion, or in theact of justification, it appears as if the RomanCatholics and the Reformed were entirely opposed; 30
  43. 43. 28-30] DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH but that they are still in accord may be seen if the passages transcribed from the Council of Trent, n. 6 (a, b), are rightly considered and compared with those from the Formula Concordiae, n. 15 (n). For in Christian countries all are baptized, and are thereby in a freed state of the will, so as to be able not only to hear the Word of God but also to assent to it, and to embrace it by faith; consequently, no one in the Christian world is like a stock. 29. From all this, then, the truth of what is asserted in nos. 19 and 21 appears; namely, that the Reformers derived their tenets concerning a Trinity of Persons in the Godhead, Original Sin, the Imputation of Christs merit, and Justification by Faith, from the Roman Catholics. These things have been advanced in order to show the origin of their tenets, especially of the separation of faith from good works, or the doctrine of faith alone, and to show that this was done with no other aim than to be severed from the Roman Catholics ; and to show that, after all, their disagreement is more in words than in reality. From the above passages, it clearly appears upon what foundation the faith of the Reformed Churches has been erected, and from what inspiration it arose. v. 30. The whole theology of the Christian World. at this day is ounded on the idea 0 three Gods, arising from the doctrine of a Trinity of Persons. 31
  44. 44. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [31-32 BRIEF ANALYSIS 31. Something shall first be said concerning thesource from which the idea of a Trinity of Personsin the Godhead, thus of three Gods, has proceeded.There are three creeds, called the Apostles, theNicene and the Athanasian, which specificallyteach the Trinity. The Apostles and the Niceneteach just the Trinity, whilst the Athanasianteaches a Trinity of Persons. These three creedsappear in many of the Books of Worship (LibrisPsalmorum) ; the Apostles Creed as a psalm whichis sung, the Nicene after the Decalogue, and theAthanasian apart by itself. The Apostles Creedwas written after the time of the Apostles. TheNicene Creed was composed at the Council ofNicaea, a city of Bithynia, to which all the bishopsin Asia, Africa and Europe were summoned by theEmperor Constantine in the year A.D. 325. TheAthanasian Creed was composed after thatCouncil by some person or persons in orderutterly to overthrow the Arians, and was after­wards received by the churches as <:ecumenical.From the first two creeds the confession of aTrinity clearly appeared, but from the third orAthanasian Creed proceeded the profession of aTrinity of Persons. That hence arose the idea ofthree Gods will be seen from what now follows. 32. That there is a Divine Trinity is manifestfrom the Lords words in Matthew: Jesus said, Go ye therefore, make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Matt. xxviii 19. Also from these words in the same Evangelist: When Jesus was baptized, . . . 10, the heavens were 32
  45. 45. 32-33] DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH opened unto Him, and He saw the Holy Spirit descending like a dove and alighting upon Him; and 10, a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in Whom I am well pleased. Matt. iii 16, 17. The reason the Lord sent His disciples tobaptize in the name of the Father, Son and HolySpirit was because in Him, then glorified, was theDivine Trinity; for in the preceding verse, n. 18(Matt. xxviii), He says: All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth.and in the 20th verse: Lo, I am with you all the days, even unto the consum­ mation of the age.Thus, He spoke of Himself alone, and not of three.Again, it is written in John: ) The Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified. - John vii 39 The former words He spoke after His glorifica­tion, and His glorification yvas His complete unionwith His ather, Who was the Divine Itself inHim from conception; and the Holy Spirit wasthe Divine proceeding from Him after His glori­fication ; see John xx 22. 33. The reason the idea of three Gods proceededchiefly from the Athanasian Creed, where aTrinity of Persons is taught, is because the word" person" begets such an idea. Moreover, thisidea is further implanted by these words in theCreed: "There is one person of the Father,another of the Son, and another of the HolyGhost"; and later: "The Father is God andLord, the Son is God and Lord, and the HolyGhost is God and Lord"; but especiallyby these words in the Creed: "For like as 33
  46. 46. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [33-34 we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every Person by himself to be God and Lord, so we are forbidden by the Catholic Religion to say there are three Gods or three Lords." The import of these words is that by the Christian verity we are bound toconfess and acknowledge three Gods and three Lords, but by the Catholic religion we are notallowed to say, or to mention, three Gods and threeLords; consequently, we may have an idea ofthree Gods and three Lords, but we are not tomake oral confession thereof. Nevertheless, thedoctrine of the Trinity in the Athanasian Creedagrees with the truth if only there is substitutedfor a Trinity of Persons a Trinity of Person whichis in God the Saviour Jesus Christ, as may beseen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEMCONCERNING THE LORD, published at Amsterdamin the year 1763, nos. 55-61. 34. It is to be observed that in the ApostlesCreed it is said : "I believe in God the Father ...in Jesus Christ ... and in the Holy Ghost," and inthe Nicene Creed: "I believe in one God, theFather ... in one Lord Jesus Christ ... and in theHoly Ghost" ; thus, only in one God. But in theAthanasian Creed it is said: .. In God the Father,God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost" ; thus,in three Gods. Yet because the authors andfavourers of this creed saw clearly that an idea ofthree Gods would inevitably result from the ex­pressions used therein, in order that this might beremedied, they asserted that one substance oressence belongs to the three. But, in truth, fromthese expressions po other idea ~ tfuilL.L.fiat 34
  47. 47. 34-35] DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH there are three Gods of one mind and agreeing togetlier:-For when one indivisible substance or essence is attributed to the Three, it does not remove the idea of three, but confuses it. This is because the expression is a metaphysical one, and meta­J Rh sics with all its ingenuit cannot make oneout of three Persons, each of Whom IS God. It may, indeed, make a unity of them in utterance, but never in the idea. 35. That the whole Christian theology at this day is founded on the idea of three Gods, clearly appears from the doctrine of justification, which is the principal doctrine of the Church among Christians, both Roman Catholics and Protestants. This doctrine asserts that God the Father sent His Son to redeem and save mankind, and gives the Holy Spirit to perform this. Everyone who hears, reads, or repeats this cannot but divide God into three in his thought, that is, in his idea, and suppose that one God sent another and operates by a third. That the same notion of a Divine Trinity dis­ tinguished into three Persons, each of Whom is God, is continued throughout the rest of the doctrinal tenets of the present Church, as from a head into its body, will be demonstrated in the proper place. In the meantime, consider what has already been set forth concerning justification, consult theology in general and particular, and, at the same time, notice while in church listening to sermons, or while praying at home, whether you have any other perception and thought than of three Gods; especially when you are praying or singing separately to one, and then separately to the other two, as is the common practice. From 35
  48. 48. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [35-37these considerations the truth of the propositionis established that the universal theology in theChristian world at this day is founded on the ideaof three Gods. 36. That a trinity of Gods is contrary to HolyScripture is well known, for it is written : Am not I Jehovah ? and there is no God else besides Me ; a just God and a Saviour there is none besides Me. Isa. xlv 21, 22. I, Jehovah, am thy God ... and thou shalt acknowledge no God besides Me ; for there is no Saviour besides Me. Hosea xiii 4. Thus saith Jehovah the King ofIsrael, and His Redeemer, Jehovah Zebaoth : I am the First and I am the Last, and besides Me there is no God. Isa. xliv 6. Jehovah Zebaoth is His Name, and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel; the God of the whole earth shall He be called. Isa. liv 5. In that day ... Jehovah shall be King over all the earth; in that day there shall be one Jehovah and His Name One. Zech. xiv 9.There are also many more such passages. 37. That a trinity of Gods is contrary to en­lightened reason may appear from these con­siderations. What man of sound reason can bearto hear that three Gods created the world, or canbear to hear that creation and preservation,redemption and salvation, reformation and re­generation are the work of three Gods, not of One?On the other hand, what man of sound reason isunwilling to hear that the same God Who createdus also redeemed us and regenerates and saves us ?As the latter idea and not the former accords withreason, there is, therefore, no nation upon the wholeearth, possessed of religion and sound reason, 36
  49. 49. 37-39J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH which does not acknowledge one God. As is well known, the Mohammedans, also certain) nations in Asia and Afnca, abhor CfuistlaImy, becausrthey-bclieve---m:ere IS In It the worship of--three-uo-ds ; anolhe-onlyarrswerofTl1eCnnshans fo the cfiarge is that for the three there is one essence, thus one God. I can affirm, from the faculty of reason which has been given me, that I can clearly see that neither the world, nor the angelic heaven, nor the church, nor anything therein, could have come into existence or could subsist but from one God. 38. To what has been said shall be added the following from the Confession of the Churches in the Low Countries, received at the Synod of Dort: "I believe in one God, WholSOneessence wherein are three Persons in communicable properties, truly ~ndrealh dis..tinct from eternity ; namely, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Father is the cause, origin and beginning of all things visible and invisible; the Son is the Word, Wisdom and Image, of the Father; the Holy Spirit is the eternal Virtue and Power pro­ ceeding from the Father and the Son. However, it must be allowed that this doctrine far exceeds the comprehension of the human mina; rinfilct, we await a perfect knowledge of this in heaven." VI. 39. The dogmas of the aforesaid theology are seen to be erroneous after the idea of a Trinity of Persons, hence of three Gods, has been rejected, and 4 37
  50. 50. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [39-40the idea of one God, in Whom is the Divine Trinity,received instead. BRIEF ANALYSIS 40. The reason why the dogmas of the present Church, which are based upon the idea of three Gods, derived from the doctrine of a Trinity ofPersons, literally understood, are seen to beerroneous after the idea of one God in Whom is the Divine Trinity has been received instead, is becauseit is not possible to see what is erroneous before this has been done. For it is like one who in thenight, by the light of a few stars, sees variousobjects, especially statues, and believes them to beliving men; or, like one who in the twilightbefore sunrise, as he lies in bed, beholds, as it were,spectres in the air, and believes them to be angels;or, again, like one who sees many things in thefoolish light of phantasy, and believes them tobe real. Such things, as is well known, do notappear for what they really are, and are notperceived as such, until the man comes into thelight of day; that is, until his. understanding iswide awake. It is similar with the spiritual thingsof the Church, which have been erroneously andfalsely perceived and confirmed, when genuinetruths are presented to view in their own light,which is the light of heaven. Who cannot understand that all dogmas foundedon the idea of three Gods are erroneous and falsefrom within? I say, from within, because theidea of God enters into all things of the Church,of religion and of worship; also because theo­logical matters reside higher than all others in thehuman mind, and among these the idea of God is 38
  51. 51. 40-42J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHsupreme. Wherefore, if this is false, all thingsthat follow from this initial falsity from whichthey flow are false or are falsified. For what issupreme, being also the inmost, constitutes thevery essence of all that is derived from it; andthe essence, like a soul, forms them into a bodyafter its own image; and when, in its descent, itcomes upon truths, it even infects them with its ownblemish and error. The idea of three Gods intheology may be compared to a disorder seated inthe heart or in the lungs, when yet the invalidfancies himself to be in health, because his physician,not knowing his disease, persuades him that he isso. But if the physician knows of the disease,and still persuades the patient that he is healthy,he deserves to be charged with excessive malignity. VII. 41. Then truly saving Faith, which is Faith in oneGod united with Good Works, is acknowledged andreceived. BRIEF ANALYSIS 42. Thoe reason why this faith, which is a faithin one God, is acknowledged and received as trulysaving when the former faith in three Gods isrejected is because, until this is done, a faith in oneGod cannot be seen in its proper aspect. For thefaith of the present day is preached as the onlysaving faith, because it is a faith in one God, and ina Saviour. But there are two aspects to this present­day faith, one internal, the other external. Theinternal is formed from the perception of three 39
  52. 52. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [42-43Gods; for who perceives or thinks otherwise ?Let everyone examine himself. But the external isformed from the confession of one God. Again,who acknowledges or says otherwise? Let every­one examine himself. These two aspects are alto­gether discordant with each other,so that theexternal is not acknowledged by the internal ; noris the internal known by the external. Because ofthis discord and discrepancy when the one iscompared with the other, a confused idea of themeans of salvatiqn has been conceived and broughtforth in the Church. It is otherwise when the internal and externalaspects agree, and when they mutually regard andacknowledge each other as a concordant unity.That this is the case when one God in Whom is aDivine Trinity is not only perceived by the mindbut also acknowledged by the mouth, is self­evident. Then the dogma concerning the alienationof the Father from the human race is abolished,together with that of His reconciliation, and quiteanother doctrine results concerning imputation,remission of sins, regeneration and thence salvation.This will be clearly seen in the major work, in thelight of reason illuminated by divine truths fromthe Sacred Scripture. This faith is called a faithunited with good works, because without thisunion it is impossible to have faith in one God. VIII 43. This Faith is Faith in God the Saviour JesusChrist, which in its simplest form is as follows: 40
  53. 53. 43-44J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH (1) THERE IS ONE GOD IN WHOM IS THE DIVINE TRINITY, AND HE IS THE LORD JESUS CHRIST. (2) A SAVING FAITH IS TO BELIEVE ON HIM. (3) EVIL ACTIONS OUGHT TO BE SHUNNED BECAUSE THEY ARE OF THE DEVIL AND FROM THE DEVIL. (4) GOOD ACTIONS OUGHT TO BB DONE BECAUSE THEY ARE OF GOD AND FROM GOD. (5) AND THESE SHOULD BE DONE BY MAN AS OF HIMSELF, YET IT OUGHT TO BE BELIEVED THAT THEY ARE FROM THE LORD, WITH HIM AND THROUGH HIM. BRIEF ANALYSIS 44. This is the Faith of the New Church insimple form. It will appear more fully in theAppendix, and in still greater fulness in the firstpart of the major work, treating of the Lord Godthe Saviour, and of the Trinity in Him; of love toGod and love towards the neighbour; of faith,and its conjunction with those two loves. Thisfaith will also be treated of in the remaining partsof that work, which will follow in their properorder there. But it is important that this pre­liminary account of the above-mentioned faithshould be shown here to some extent. The first Article, viz., that there is one God inWhom is the Divine Trinity, and that He is the LordJesus Christ, is shown by the following summary.It is a sure and abiding truth that God is one, thatHis essence is indivisible, and that there is a Trip,ity.Since, therefore, God is one, and His essence isindivisible, it follows that God is one Person; andthat, since He is one Person, the Trinity is in thatPerson. That this Person is the Lord Jesus Christ isevident from the following statements: He was 41
  54. 54. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [44conceived of God the Father, Luke i, 34, 35 : thus,as to His soul and essential life, He is God. There­fore, as He Himself said, the Father and He areone, John x 30. He is in the Father, and theFather in Him, John xiv 10, 11. He who sees Himand knows Him, sees and knows the Father,John xiv 7, 9. No one sees and knows the Fatherexcept He Who is in the bosom of the Father,John i 18. All things of the Father are His, John iii35 and xvi 15. He is the way, the truth and thelife, and no one comes to the Father but throughHim, John xiv 6; consequently by Him, becauseHe is in Him, thus is He Himself. According toPaul, in Him dwells all the fulness of the Godheadbodily, Colossians ii 9 ; and according to Isaiah, Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given, Whose name is God, Father of eternity. Isa~ ix 6.Further, He has power over all flesh, John xvii 2 :whence it follows that He is the God of heaven andearth. The second Article, viz., that a saving faith isto believe on Him, is shown by these sayings : Jesus said ... He that believeth on Me shall never die, but shall live. John xi 25, 26. This is the will of My Father, that everyone who believes on the Son may have eternal life. John vi 40. God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on Him should not perish, but have everlasting life. John iii 16. He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life, but he that believeth not on the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him. John iii 36. There is no need to illustrate and prove theremaining Articles, which are that evils ought tobe shunned because they are of the devil and from 42
  55. 55. 44-46] DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHthe devil, that good. actions ought to be donebecause they are of God and from God, yet thatman ought to believe that they are from the Lordwith him and through him; for the wholeSacred Scripture from beginning to end confirmsthem and, in short, teaches nothing else thanshunning evils and doing goods, and believing onthe Lord God. Besides, without these threethings there is not any religion, for religionbelongs to life, and life is to shun evils anddo goods; and man cannot do the one orthe other except as of himself. Wherefore, ifyou remove these three things from the Church,you remove the Sacred Scripture, and religion also;in which case the Church ceases to be a Church. For a further account of the Faith of the NewChurch in its universal and particular forms; seebelow, nos. 116 and 117. All this will be demon­strated in the major work. IX 45. The Faith of the present day has separatedreligion from the Church: for religion consists inthe acknowledgment of One God, and in the worshipof Him from the Faith of Charity. BRIEF ANALYSIS 46. What nation is there upon the earth,possessed of religion and sound reason, that doesnot know and believe that there is one God;that to do evil is contrary to Him, and that to dogood is to be in accord with Him ; also that manmust do good from his soul, his heart, and 43
  56. 56. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [46 his strength, although good inflows from God; and that religion consists in this? Who,therefore, does not see that to confess three Personsin the Divine, and to assert that in good worksthere is nothing of salvation, is to separate religionfrom the Church? For it is declared that in thoseworks there is nothing of salvation, as in thesestatements: "Faith justifies without good works,"n. 12 (a, b). "Works are not necessary forsalvation, nor for faith, because salvation andfaith are neither preserved nor retained by goodworks," n. 12 (g, h, rn, n). Consequently, there is nobond of conjunction of faith with good works. If itis afterwards said that good works neverthelessfollow faith spontaneously, as fruit from a tree,n.13 (I, n), who then does them; nay, who thinksof them, or who is spontaneously led to them, whilehe knows and believes that they contribute nothingto salvation, and, further, that no one can do anygood of salvation from himself? and so on. It may. be said that, nevertheless, they haveconjoined faith with good works. We reply thatthis conjunction, when closely inspected, is notconjunction, but mere adjunction; and this onlylike a superfluous appendage that neither coheresnor adheres in any other manner than as a darkbackground to a portrait which serves to give itmore of the appearance of life. Moreover, becausereligion belongs to life, and this consists in goodworks according to the truths of faith, it is clearthat religion itself is the portrait and not anappendage. Indeed, with many, religion is as ahorses tail which, because it is of little value, maybe cut oft at pleasure. Who can rationally concludeotherwise while he understands such expressions 44
  57. 57. 46-48] DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHas the following according to their obvious mean-ing? "It is folly to imagine that the works of thesecond table of the Decalogue justify in the sightof God," n. 12 (d). "If anyone believes he willnecessarily obtain salvation because he has charity,he brings a reproach upon Christ," n. 12 (e). " Goodworks are to be utterly excluded in treating ofjustification and eternal life," n.12 (f): besidesmany other statements there. Who, therefore,when he reads afterwards that good works neces-sarily follow faith, and that, if they do not follow,the faith is false and not true, n. 13 (p, q, v), withmore to the same effect, attends to these sayings ;or, if he attends to them, does so with any per-ception? Yet the good which proceeds from manwithout perception has no more life in it than if itcame from a statue. But, if we enquire more deeply into the groundsof this doctrine, it will appear that the leaders ofthe Church first laid down faith alone as theirruling principle, in order that they might besevered from the Roman Catholics, as mentionedabove, nos. 21-23, and afterwards adjoined worksof charity lest their principle should be contraryto Sacred Scripture, and so that it might appearto be religious and sound. X. 47. The Faith of the present Church cannot beunited with Charity, or produce any fruits which areGood Works. BRIEF ANALYSIS 48. Before this proposition is demonstrated,we will first explain the derivation and nature of 45
  58. 58. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [48-49charity, of faith, and of good works which arecalled fruits. Faith is truth; wherefore the doc­trine of faith is the doctrine of truth, and thedoctrine of truth is in the understanding, thence inthe thought, thence in the speech. Wherefore, itteaches what should be willed and what should bedone; thus, that evils are to be shunned, andwhich evils in particular: and that good actionsare to be done, and which in particular. When mandoes good from faith, goods unite themselves withtruths, because the will is then united with theunderstanding; for good belongs to the will andtruth to the understanding. From this conjunctionarises the affection of good, which in its essence ischarity, and the affection of truth, which in itsessence is faith; and these two united make amarriage. From this marriage good works areproduced as fruits from a tree; whence theybecome the fruits of good and the fruits of truth.The latter are signified in the Word by grapes, theformer by olives. 49. From this derivation of good works, it isevident that faith alone cannot possibly produceor beget any works which are called fruits, any morethan a woman can produce of herself any offspringwithout the man. Wherefore, the expression" fruits offaith " is mere words, devoid of meaning.Besides, throughout the whole world nothing everwas or is produced save from a marriage unionin which one part has relation to good and theother to truth; or, in the case of the oppositekind, one part has relation to evil, the other towhat is false. Consequently, no works can beconceived, much less born, save from such a 46
  59. 59. 49-51J DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCHmarriage union ; good works from the marriageof good and truth, evil works from the marriage ofevil and falsity. 50. The reason why charity cannot be unitedwith the faith of the present Church, and why nogood works can be born from any such marriage,is because imputation supplies everything, remitssins, justifies, regenerates, sanctifies, and impartsthe life of heaven, thus salvation; and all thisfreely, without any works of man. In such a case,what is charity, whose union should be with faith,but something superfluous and vain, an accessoryand token of imputation and justification, which,however, avails nothing? Besides, a faith foundedon the idea of three Gods is erroneous, as has beenshown above, nos. 39, 40 ; and with an erroneousfaith charity that in itself is charity cannot beunited. It is believed that there is no bond of unionbetween the above-mentioned faith and charityfor two reasons; one, because the leaders of theChurch make this faith spiritual, but charity theymake natural-moral, imagining that there can beno union between what is spiritual and what isnatural. The other reason is, lest anything fromman, and so anything of merit, should flow intotheir faith, which alone they regard as saving.Moreover, no bond of charity is possible with thatfaith; but there is a bond with the new faith, asmay be seen below, nos. 116, 117. XI. 51. From the Faith of the present Church thereflows forth a worship of the mouth and not of the 47
  60. 60. A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE [51-52life.. when yet the worship of the mouth is acceptedby the Lord only so far as it accords with worshipwhich is of the life. BRIEF ANALYSIS 52. This is shown by experience. How many are there at this day who live according to the precepts of the Decalogue, and the other precepts of the Lord, from a religious principle? And how many are there at this day who desire to look their own evils in the face and perform actual repentance, and thus enter upon worship which is of the life? Or who, among those who practise piety, perform any other repentance than that of the mouth and speech, confessing themselves to be sinners, and praying from the doctrine of the Church that Godthe Father, Who from compassion on account ofthe Son Who suffered upon the cross for their sins,took away their damnation and atoned for themwith His blood, would mercifully forgive theirtransgressions so that they might stand unspottedbefore His judgment-seat? Who does not see thatthis worship is of the lungs only, not of the heart ;thus, external, not internal? For in such worship aman prays for remission of sins, and yet is notconscious of a single sin in himself; and if heshould know of any, he would envelop it withfavour and indulgence, or with a faith supposedlypurifying and absolving, without any works on hispart. But this may be compared to a servant who,approaching his master with his face and clothesbedaubed with soot and filth, should say to him:" Master, wash me." Would not his master sayto him: "Thou foolish servant, what are yousaying? See, there is water, soap and a towel. 48

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