Published to mark the Utree hundredth anniversaryin 1988 of the birUt of Emanuel Swedenborg.The writings of Emanuel Sweden...
A SWEDENBORG SCRAPBOOKSEMINAR BOOKS. LONDON.A Swedenborg Scrapbook. Brian Kingslake© Copyright. Seminar Books 1986Publishe...
A SWEDENBORG SCRAPBOOK         Brian Kingslake
Part 1      Birth and Family SurnamePart Il     The Young Emanuel SwedbergPart III    Assessor of Mines, Physicist, Anatom...
A Swedenborg Scrapbook                             interested me, and made my comments on                                 ...
A section From the original church register wherethe birth oF Emanuel Swedenborg is recorded.The entry reads as follows:p....
The CounciIIor lIordenhjelm who is registered as the first or thesponsors, was Pror. Anders Nilson Nordenhjelm (1663-1694)...
Some AbbreviationsA.C          =Arcana CoelestiaA.E.         =Apocalypse ExplainedA.R.         =Apocalypse RevealedB.E.   ...
PART 1. BIKTU AND FAMILY SURNAME.                            by dropping I l days. (September 2 was followed by           ...
means ~son of* (Simon Bar-Jonas, Nathaniel Bar­Tholomew).Consider Jespers male ancestry. His great-great­grandfather was n...
While on the subject ofnames, lII tum to a later page ofmy Scrapbook. Rev. Jesper Svedberg had risen tobecome Bishop of Sk...
For the Bishop to adopt "Swedenborg" would have been           does the professor think of our Iittle plan?" He wastantamo...
examiners in the summer of 1709, at the age of 21. ItPART Il. TUE YOUNG EMANUEL SWEDBEKG.                                 ...
14was sent to Uppsala for identification, and was found to   Stockholm aJone - a third of the entire population. Atbe thej...
15and the famous civil engineer Christopher Polhammer,who had just been persuaded to take him on as anapprentice!         ...
The voyage was adventurous. First the ship ran onto asand-bank; then it was boarded bya French privateer,and then fired at...
We know a good deal about this his first visit in 1710,from his correspondence with his brother-in-Iaw EricBenzelius. He d...
{~S~~ff[~~~~~~~lf1~~:~·called upon Penn, then resident in London, who gavethe two young travellers a letter to deliver to ...
After 2! years in England, Emanuel made for theContinent. ft was now 1713 and he was 25 years old.1713 was the date of the...
Towards the end of the year (1714) Sweden was in a         (Later, when the job was offered to him, he turned itturmoil. T...
mathematics and mechanical subjects, and he andEmanuel got on splendidly together. Emanuel showedhim an ecJipse of the moo...
which the Swedes now had under siege. The ships couldnot go by sea, because of the British Navy. Pol hem sentEmanuel to su...
to a chamberlain of the King. 1wonder what people willsay about this, inasmuch as she was engaged to me! Hissecond daughte...
control. Emanuel Svedber9- being known as a personal          proposed marriage eight years later (when 38) to StinaFriend...
Emanuel Swedenborg_25
.;                                  .:.                                        ....    P L.·/X       IJ F. I.. J l i /.I.J...
PART   m.       ASSESSOK OF MINES, PUYSICIST,ANATOMIST.As a civil servant and member of the House of Nobles,Swedenborg spe...
-,                                                              d.!-;   ~    i                        MAcHINA BltJ1andi .M...
a rope-end, advising owners on improved methods ofsmelting and extracting From the ore; settling quarrels         EMANUELI...
wood worms and termites, how to make fences, andmanufacture window-glass. During vacations from Parishe crossed the Alps a...
PART IV. TUB DAWN OF SPIRITUAL                             Swedenborg had had premonitions of psychicCONSCIOUSNBSS        ...
was composed of spiritual substance, not matter, he         work in anatomy was not mentioned. That night hewas so disturb...
his friends who had ~died" were still alive and active on     newly developed faculties. His work there was evidentlythe o...
crown. Within the temple was a pulpit on which lay the       1 believe, however, that the motto NUNC L1CET had aopen Word,...
Two months later, Swedenborg left Amsterdam for         PART V. TUB UOMBSTMI>.London, where he booked lodgings for six mon...
Swedenborgs hou se, on Homsgatan, Stockholm                                         37
An impression of the House and Garden.The loft up the little twisted flight of stairs contained   frames white. The box-tr...
A path led from the front of the house across a smallflower garden, and through a gate in the fence into themain garden or...
PART VI. A PILGRIMAGE.                                                  Across the road from the Boutique Giota is a small...
catalogue: "One of Milles most inspired interpretations                                             of an historie figure....
Swedenborg-s                                                                               coat of arms_   #   .-     --. ...
ln my mind 1had always assumed that the marbJe table            of bound volumes of manuscripts: sorne in handsomehad been...
protested that he could not possibly print so vast a        superior to the Uppsala men? More advanced? Orwas itwork- runn...
CATt"DR-ALE"   (               45
---A distant view of Uppsala as shown in another old engraving.46
Back in Stockholm, we did what ail good tourists do: we    Near-by is a restaurant ca lied Sollidan. On an inner wallwent ...
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Brian kingslake-a-swedenborg-scrapbook-seminar-books-london-1986

  1. 1. Published to mark the Utree hundredth anniversaryin 1988 of the birUt of Emanuel Swedenborg.The writings of Emanuel Swedenborgare published by:The Swedenborg Society.Swedenborg House. 20-21 Bloomsbury Way. London WelA 2THThe Swedenborg Foundatioll139 t:ast 23rd Street. New York. N.Y.lOOlO. U.S.A. 1
  2. 2. A SWEDENBORG SCRAPBOOKSEMINAR BOOKS. LONDON.A Swedenborg Scrapbook. Brian Kingslake© Copyright. Seminar Books 1986Published by The Missionary Society of the New ChurchSwedenborg House, 20 Bloomsbury Way,London WC1A 2THDistributed by New Church House34 John Dalton Street. Manchester M2 6LESet in 9/11 Benguiat by Gatehouse Wood Ltd, SevenoaksPrinted in England by John Whittingdale Ltd, Bishops StortfordDesigned by G. Roland SmithFirst published 1986ISBN 0 907295 16 9Picture AcknowledgementsThe pllblishers grateflilly acknowledge helpin the provision of pictllres from:The Author, The National Missionary Board of theGeneral Conference of the New Church, The SwedenborgSociety, and Miss Kathleen Prince.2
  3. 3. A SWEDENBORG SCRAPBOOK Brian Kingslake
  4. 4. Part 1 Birth and Family SurnamePart Il The Young Emanuel SwedbergPart III Assessor of Mines, Physicist, AnatomistPart IV The Dawn of Spiritual ConsciousnessPart V The HomesteadPart VI A PilgrimagePart VII Communicating with Spirits The Last JudgmentPart VIII The Writings of the New Church New-Church DayPart IX Amsterdam InterludePart X London Postlude Wesley and SwedenborgPart XI Death and Funeral The SkullPart XII ln EternityAddendum Chronological Table4
  5. 5. A Swedenborg Scrapbook interested me, and made my comments on them. 1 began with the notes 1 made for an address to the Swedenborg Society in London in celebration of Swedenborgs birtbday in January 1980 after which several people askedINTRODUCTION me to write them down on paper. As 1 typed out my notes, the material grew in bulk, asThis is not just another biography of Emanuel other points came to the forefront of my mindSwedenborg. There are plenty of excellent (but aU scrapbooks have a tendency toones already avaUable. (Over a hundred are increase in bulk).Iisted in Uydes Bibliography.) ln fact, much of The resuIt is that Parts l, Il, and III havewhat 1 have written here takes for granted that turned out to be largely biographicaI, as 1the reader is fairly famiIiar with the detaUs of traced bis development from birth to the ageSwedenborgs lite and work. If he isnt, 1 would of 60 when he attained to full spiritualrefer hint to "The Swedenborg Epie" by Cyriel illumination and began to write the "ArcanaOdhner Sigstedt - an incredible achievement Coelestia". If you are already familiar with thisof biography, packed full of facts and material, you can leap-frog over those partsinformation. Or to Signe Toksvigs equally (uniess you want to rcad them as a refresher­brilliant study, "Emanuel Swedenborg, course) and begin with Part IV "TheScientist and Mystie", which specializes on bis Uomestead", or Part V "A Pilgrimage." AlI theinteUectual and psycbic development. Both of rest of the book is non-chronological - a kindthese fine works have recenUybeen reprinted, of Iiterary montage. And it is these latterthe first in England and the other in America. pages that have given the book its name: AFor myself, 1 regard this Iitue Scrapbook as a SWEDENBORG SCRAPBOOK.companion to my own small volume: 1 could, of course, have covered a great deal"Swedenborg Explores the Spiritual more ground than 1 have done. Perhaps 1 shaUDimension:" published by Seminar Books, do, one day. But 1 believe that the points 1London, in 1981 • have touched on here wiJJ enable the studentWhat 1 have done here is to shine a spoUight of Swedenborg to get a c1earer view of theon a number of selected aspects and incidents mind and achievements of that remarkableof Swedenborgs lite which have particularly Servant of the Lord. 1 hope so, anyway.5 Brian Kingslake
  6. 6. A section From the original church register wherethe birth oF Emanuel Swedenborg is recorded.The entry reads as follows:p.178PARENTES. 1688 PATRINI INFANTES DIES BAPT.Mag. Jesjler. Hr. Hofrad Nordenhjelm. Emanuel, 1 Swedberg. F. Maria Sylvia. fodd d. 29 Jan. d. 2 Febr.H. Sara Behm. Gen. Auditeuren Fahlstrôm. F. Ingrid Behm. Hr. Johan Rhenstierna. w F. Marg. Zachariae d·r.PARENTS GOD-PARENTS CHILDREN DAY OF BAPTISM.Dr. Jesper. Mr. COllncillor Nordenlljelm. Emanuel, February 2 Swedberg. Mrs. Maria Sylvia. Born Jan. 29Wife: Sarah Aliditor General Fahlstrôm. Behm. Mrs. Ingrid Behm. Mr. Johan Rhenstierna. Mrs. Marg. Zachariae 1 daughter. 6
  7. 7. The CounciIIor lIordenhjelm who is registered as the first or thesponsors, was Pror. Anders Nilson Nordenhjelm (1663-1694), atthe lime instructor to the erown prince (Charles XII).lru Maria Sylvia was the wire or the officialing clergyman, PastorMatthias Wagner, who was the rector or St James and chaplain tothe court. She is entered here under her maiden name, as was thecustom with ladies or the nobility who had married outside theirrank.Auditor-General Fahlstrôm (Baron Ludwig fahlstrôm, 1655-1721) was a childhood rriend or Jesper Swedberg; he afterwardsbecame governor or the province or Westmanland,lru Ingrid Behm was the sister or Sarah Behm, Emanuelsmother, and widow or Major Erland Erling.Uerr Johan Wilhelm Rhenstiema (1659-1692) was a cousin orEmanuels mother, and was a chamberlain at the court or theQlIeen-dowager, Hedwig Eleanora. His sister, Anna Maria, marriedJesper Swedbergs eider brother, Peter, who, on being ennobled,assllmed the name Schônstrôm.lru Margareta Zacharias daughter (TroiIa) was the dallghter orZacharias Unosson Troillls, burgomaster or fahilln, and wire orMikael J Strômberg. a merchant in Stockholm. She was probablyone or the childhood rriends or Emanuels parents.The entry itselr was written by Jonas Anderson, the c1erk or St.James.7 Emanuel Swedenborg.
  8. 8. Some AbbreviationsA.C =Arcana CoelestiaA.E. =Apocalypse ExplainedA.R. =Apocalypse RevealedB.E. =Brief Exposition of the DoctrinesE.U. =Earths in the UniverseN.D. =Neavenly DoctrineIntercourse =Intercourse between Soul and BodyL.J. =Last JudgmentL.J.Cont. =Last Judgment (Continued)L.J. Post. =Last Judgment (Posthumous)N.C. =New ChurchN.J. =New Jerusalem5.0. =Spiritual DiaryT.C.R. =True Christian Religion8
  9. 9. PART 1. BIKTU AND FAMILY SURNAME. by dropping I l days. (September 2 was followed by September 14). Sweden changed gradually to the Gregorian dating round about 1740, whereas England did so by act of Parliament in 1752. So, by the dating now universally adopted by the Western World (barring questions of Daylight Savings, etc!) Swedenborgs birthday would fall on February 9th.On January 29th 1980 1 addressed the SwedenborgSociety in London. 1 began my remarks with the Even then 1 had not corrected ail the errors of myfollowing resounding statement: original statement. The child whose destiny we are considering was not named Emanuel Swedenborg but"fxactly 292 years ago today, on January 29th 1688, Emanuel Svedber~ his father being the Rev. Jespercheers rose from the throats of many, while cannons Svedberg.boomed and flashed over the snow of Stockholm, tocelebra te the birth of fmanuel Swedenborg. H Let us devote a page or two of our Scrapbook to this matter of his surname. Jesper had adopted the nameThen, after a few moments hesitation, 1 corrected Svedberg in his college days, in accordance with themyself: custom ofthe land-owning classes to take on the name"WelJ, actually the cannon-shots and rejoicing were to oftheir ancestral home. His ancestral home was a farmcelebra te the christening of the Iittle princess U1rica named Sveden near Fahlun in Dalarna (Sved meansf1eanora, who happened to have been born at about H "burnt land , From the Swedish svedja, to burn.)the same time as Swedenborg! She, of course, was in Jesper himself had presumably been born "Jesperthe royal palace, whereas he was in the army barracks, Danielson,H after his father Daniel. It had been thehis father being the Regimental Chaplain. H custom in the working classes From time Immemorial"And in fact: 1 went on, "it wasnt exactly 292 years aga for the child to take on the fathers first-name and addtoday, because the date January 29th in 1688 was H "sonH (if a boy) or "dotter (if a girl). Until recently it hascalculated according to the Julian Calendar, whereas been the same in lceland, where you get "Magnusson orour present dating is according to the Gregorian Magnusdotte~;and it used to be the same in EnglandCalendar. Prior to 1600 the Popes added or subtracted where you got "Johnson" or "Richardson My father was H •days and years to or From the calendar, as seemed Martin, so 1would have been "Brian Martinson·, and mynecessary according to their lunar reckonings; but daughter Margaret would be "Margaret Briandotter. HWeGregory XIII settled the matter once and for ail in 1582 find the same, of course, in the Bible, where Ben or Bar 9
  10. 10. means ~son of* (Simon Bar-Jonas, Nathaniel Bar­Tholomew).Consider Jespers male ancestry. His great-great­grandfather was named Otto. Ottos son Nils was calledNils Otteson. His son Isaak was Isaak Nilson, and so on.ottoNils OttesonIsaak NilsonDaniel IsaaksonJesper DanielsonEmanuel ...7By this reckoning, therefore, little Emanuel would havebeen named Emanuel Jesperson. Our Church wOüldnot be referred to as Swedenborgian, but Jespersonian:and the Swedenborg Society would be the JespersonSociety!This manner ofnaming children did not operate amongthe professional classes or the nobility. So, wh en DaniellIsaakson made a bit of money by reopening an oldcopper mine at Sveden, and sent Jesper to University,Jesper assumed the name Svedberg or Swedberg - aname adopted by his children. (When they pronounce il,it sounds Iike ~SVEE-RD BEY.)10 Jesper Svedberg, Swedenborgs father.
  11. 11. While on the subject ofnames, lII tum to a later page ofmy Scrapbook. Rev. Jesper Svedberg had risen tobecome Bishop of Skara - a very important position.IMeanwhile, King Charles XH was killed in battle, and theIittle ginl 1 spoke of - Princess Ulrika Eleanora - wascrowned Queen. She started off her brief reign byennobling 150 of her subjects, including the families ofmost of the bishops, probably to pack the House ofNobles in support of her rather shaky right to thethrone, which should really have gone to the son of herdeceased sister Hedwig - her nephew CharlesFrederick. So, in May 1719, the Svedberg family namewas changed to SWEDENBORG - the "en" in the middlebeing the definite article, and "borg" (meaning castle)instead of "berg" (meaning hill). Altogether a morearistocratie name!The Queen did not, of course, ennoble the bishopsthemselves, as they were on a parity with noblemen intheir own right. There were four "houses" in the Diet orGovernment: (1) Nobles, (2) Clergy, (3) Burghers, and(4) Peasants. Bishops, being automatically members ofthe House of Clergy, could not enter the House ofNobles. Their families, however, were commoners,unless specifically ennobled. So, when BishopSvedbergs family were given the noble name ofSwedenborg, Jesper retained his old name of Svedberg,perhaps slightly changing it to SWEDBERG.11 Sara Behm. Swedenborgs mother.
  12. 12. For the Bishop to adopt "Swedenborg" would have been does the professor think of our Iittle plan?" He wastantamount to admiUing that he was not a nobleman surprised. "What Iittle plan?" "The one you wrote to mealready! Thus there were different surnames for father about." "What did 1write to you about?" "Arent we to beand family, for husband and wife. bride and groom tomorrow?" "Ohl You must be SaraTo go back now to the Svedberg family in the Bergia?" They shook hands, and soon were in a lovingRegimental Barracks in Stockholm in 1688. Emanuels embrace - with mutual pleasure and contentment.true mother was Jespers first wife, Sara Behm. Sara Bergia became a good mother to Emanuel. Later,Emanuel was her third child, and alter him in due in the spiritual world, he met his two mothers, and lovedcourse came six more, making nine altogether. She them both equally. Her shares in several iron minesthen died of a fever, aged only .30. Her eldest child Albert brought wealth to the family, making Emanueldied with her. leaving Anna, the eldest daughter (who financially independent, and able to publish theeventually married Bishop Benzelius) and Emanuel, the Writings at his own expense. We see the hand ofeldest surviving son, aged 8. Alter them were Hedwig, Providence in this.Daniel, Eliezer, Catharina, Jesper (Jr) and Margaretha.Jesper (Sem) had now .been appointed by King CharlesXI as Dean and Professor ofTheology at the University ofUppsala, sorne 40 miles north of Stockholm. Naturallyhe had to marry again, to get a new mother for his eightchildren; and alter careful consideration his choice fellon another Sara - Sara Bergia - a wealthy widowwithout children (most eligible!). He had never met her,but she had been represented to him as being of anamiable disposition.Jesper tells his love-story in his manuscriptautobiography. He arrived by coach in Stockholm two9ays before the wedding, and was shown into a largeroom where a lady was seated alone, and he was leltwith her. He greeted her politely and they spoketogether for a while, no doubt discussing the weatherand the price of herring-roes. At last she asked; What12
  13. 13. examiners in the summer of 1709, at the age of 21. ItPART Il. TUE YOUNG EMANUEL SWEDBEKG. appears that he did not proceed further towards his degree, so that in fad he left the University without any formai academic qualifications, intending to complete his education abroad. (This fad is not generally realized.) His father Jesper was now Bishop of Skara - aOf Emanuels upbringing we know Iittle. Jesper, in his magnificent cathedral situated in central Sweden aboutthousand-page autobiography, is obsessed only with midway between Stockholm and Gothenburg. Hishimself, and says IiUle or nothing about his offspring. residence was an estate just beyond the easternEmanuel himselftells us that he used to play at ~holding suburbs of Skara, called Brunsbo, From which,his breath" for long periods during moming and nowadays, you can see the cathedral, a grain silo, and aevening prayers, as an aid to deep meditation - a water tower. (When we visited the estate, 1 was toldtechnique known in Yoga, and developed by these were symbolic of the three principall needs ofSwedenborg later to an extraordinary degree for man: food, drink and religion!)inducing his spiritual consciousness. (He says he cou Id Emanuel, alter leaving Uppsala, joined his family athold his breath ~for a short hour.") This fits in with bio­ Brunsbo, expeding to depart at once for England - tofeedback experiments in the U.S.A., slowing down the complete his education overseas. But Sweden was atbrain-waves to enter the so-called ~Alpha" state of war with France and Denmark (Charles XII was always atpsychic awareness, and, slower still, the ~Theta" state of war with somebody!) and the seas were closed. Soself-hypnosis and coma. Emanuel had to kick his heels for a whole year with hisAt the age of eleven, Emanuel entered Uppsala father and six younger brothers and sisters. With themAcademy or University (the normal age) and studied also was the young Dr Johan Moraeus, their cousin andscience and mathematics in the Department of tutor, whose daughter Elisabet later married CarlPhilosophy. (The other three departments were: Linnaeus the great botanist. (Many years afterwards,Theology, Medicine and Law. His father had the chair of Swedenborg met Moraeus in the Spiritual World, but hisTheology.) The degree he worked for was ~Master of face had become so beautiful that Swedenborg scarcelyPhilosophy: It involved a long series of tests, which recognized him!) The two young men explored themight cover several years. We have his first ~Exercise" ­ countryside around Skara, searching for fossils. Theya selection of maxims from the Latin authors, with his unearthed an enormous bone, which Swedenborgown comments, which he ~defended" before his thought was the thigh-bone of an antedeluvian giant. It 13
  14. 14. 14was sent to Uppsala for identification, and was found to Stockholm aJone - a third of the entire population. Atbe thejaw-bone of a whale, though no one could explain this very inauspicious time, in April 1710, a sea captainhow a whale got into central Sweden! It is now in the friend of the Svedbergs decided to attempt the voyageuniversity museum, called ~Swedenborgs Whale N • to England from Gothenburg in a small sailingship, andMeanwhile, bubonic plague stalked through Sweden offered to take Emanuel with him. The young mansfrom Turkey. Twenty thousand people died in sudden departure caused some ill-feeling between him
  15. 15. 15and the famous civil engineer Christopher Polhammer,who had just been persuaded to take him on as anapprentice! Uppsala. Swedenborg allended the University here. where his father held the chair of Theology • T
  16. 16. The voyage was adventurous. First the ship ran onto asand-bank; then it was boarded bya French privateer,and then fired at by an English patrol-boat in mistakefor the French vesse!. But the most serious danger forEmanuel was when they anchored at Wapping on theThames, and he and some Swedish friends broke thestrict quarantine regulations and ferried up to London.Finding he was From plague-ridden Sweden, theauthorities threatened him with hanging, but let him off,probably because of his personal credentials. Theepisode must have made an impression on him, formany years later, when the Lord first appeared toSwedenborg in Delft Holland, he was asked whether hehad a c1ean bill of healthlLondon had been almost entirely rebuilt since thedevastating fire of 1666. The palaces of the aristocracycontrasted with stinking siums and alleys. It was thevortex of the intellectual life of Europe. The world-wideBritish Empire was contro/led From London by the RoyalNavy. And when, at that time in history, astronomerswere laying out the fines of longitude on the globe, theytook it for granted that the meridian 0 should passthrough Londons Observatory at Greenwich - for wasnot London the centre of the world?Swedenborg visited London seven times during his Iife:in 1710, 1744, 1748, 1758, 1765, 1769 and 1771 (whenhe died there). Culturally urbane and cosmopolitan ashe was, he might even have been taken for a Londoner,except for his thick Scandinavian accent.Emanuel Swedenborg as a young man,an unverified portrait. 16
  17. 17. We know a good deal about this his first visit in 1710,from his correspondence with his brother-in-Iaw EricBenzelius. He deliberately lodged with variouscraltsmen, such as lens grinders and brass instrumentmakers, in order to learn their cralts, and attendedlectures by the great scientists of the day. He visitedGreenwich Observatory, and was allowed to watch theAstronomer Royat the Rev. John Flamsteed, doing hisobservations - a great honour for a young student. Itwas thus that he learnt how to calculate the eclipses ofthe sun and moon. He also went (by stage coach) toOxford to meet Edmond Halley, with whom hediscussed his own method of finding the Longitude atsea by observations of the moon.1 mention here two lesser-known incidents, both ofwhich are probable but neither of which can beproved:- (1) We know he visited the newly-completed St PaulsCathedral, and the assumption is that he c1imbed to theWhispering Gallery under the base of the dome, ta hearhis own voice reflected around the circle. By measuringthe interval between his voice and the echo, andknowing the circumference ofthe dome, he would havebeen able to calculate the velocity of sound! (2) He almost certainly met WILLIAM PENN, theQuaker who founded Pennsylvania. Emanuel wasentertaining his younger brother Jesper and their step-cousin the young Rev. Peter Hesselius, who broke theirjourney in London en route for America. We know they Eric Benzelius, Swedenborgs brotherin-Iaw and17 University Librarian.
  18. 18. {~S~~ff[~~~~~~~lf1~~:~·called upon Penn, then resident in London, who gavethe two young travellers a letter to deliver to theGovernor of Pennsylvania. Obviously Emanuel wouldhave accompanied them to meet the great man. This isinteresting, because Swedenborg mentions in his diary j,; .-", f-.:..·,:-,c.-::-"_"L._.<J:/""J,L.. r e1,/L<f;:. n·)I.l.:">(......1..L_)~.~ .._ ....,_"for November 1748, that Penn spoke to him in the ." - h" . :" ••:./_."" -I,.. ·,~. : 7/- ~i._<r.::.l,,;-r;,L_·~J,,:,..,Ir-;...•• ....Spiritual World, criticizing him for writing so harshly of ".r::; .If··... ·"he.· 1.,. ., -N-. .:,~ ,J!tfJ,r-:""·J·../!I t:;u.J ,/. "/:~.:,-.A· ..:.1-,y.". Ji t . "-f;: r"--~"" ,;J~~ . •."". :·~~~rr;:;~·>~~Ë~t2~~;}j~;~.;~;~;;~~:~~~;~:~::~~~Z~}the Quakers, saying there were good Quakers as weil asbad! Why Penn in particular, and not, say, George Fox?Probably because Swedenborg had met Penn in the q,,. ~ ~r.l···~·~·· ·:~.ïC:.,.!~ ,Nl/~ ..::j,._",,4l.. .. ~.J,.~ ,~ ...~J ~-#-. ..-1- ... .. • • / ... /­t1esh .While in England, Emanuel projected a number ofinventions, such as a hydraulicjack, a submarine, and aglider-type aircraft and an automatic air gun. Add tothese a ~universal musical instrument", playingmelodies marked on paperwith dots. AJso ~a method ofconjecturing the wills and affections of mens minds bymeans of analysis" (7 an anticipation of Freud!) It must . ,.",-1 .. _ J .... "i .. t_ .J7J.-- ..l~r-/.1 t( 1-..4 . ~ ri_ ~~ 1 .". .be admitted that these intriguing inventions remained .: ;.: .(_:.~~:( .~ :;:.::"~: .... ~ ~ ,;::.:;, ~;:;:-.-:~.~:;l::..d...:.."";.~.·.: :~:.;.:: ,... ,:>"on the drawing board, but they give evidence of the J."""" . j.. ...... 1 ··J:···~·r~r("fJI ..-r l: / ••••• - , ••• ". .. "- J-~ 1~/..I ~ ..".. r· . o., •• <.·).."..··1..,... ~ • . .,: . , . - ...... .y/ ..l·~r~- i-.".lf ~~.(fertile and exploratory character of his mind. He sent ~ ..;:~. .. , ~.:7~::·~ ,ftfr .; !:r~ ·! lV:~~the drawings to his father at Brunsbo, who, when askedfor them later on, said he couldnt remember what hehad done with them! So nothing really came of any of , . :. . , . - ;. ,h .. · " .. .l. , - -.... ! ~-rr: • L._ -_ l ~ r J ;-:. ~ ~ i.1 IT] 4~NL - ~ _;,1._ -FT-I-·r~·I ..,.,. _ l ) ,.<Ji,.8 , .... . J., " Ifr·/~· ,. ./ _ / I t v ~. • " , , ~/,. ï J. r--jï{"--f"".,. . , /. .....them. .. ,--,- . . . . ., ... ,.,4-.. .~ 1.· 1 . 1:1" « -.1 t- t "J." .- 101- .. --·1"7; ..· •. ·18 An early manllscript showing Swedenborgs sketch for a nying machine - Ilot entirely practicable but incorporating sound aerodynamic principles. iii,~:,Iiik~~i~·~~~<·~~:~;;!é;.::
  19. 19. After 2! years in England, Emanuel made for theContinent. ft was now 1713 and he was 25 years old.1713 was the date of the signing of the Treaty of Utrechtwhich ended the so-called "War of the SpanishSuccession,"and ambassadors from ail over Europewere gathering together in Utrecht Holland. Emanueljoined them there, no doubt hoping to gain some insight into European politics. He also visited Leyden tosee the world-famous observatory, and then proceededto Paris, the second city of the Western world. Here, unfortunately, he was laid up in bed for six weeks - oneof the very few occasions on which he suffered sickness;and it was not until the following year (1714) that he atlast set out for Sweden, staying for a while in thecharming liUle city of Rostock to recuperate.Look at the map and you wBl see the three towns ofRostock, Stralsund &:. Greifswald, close to the Island ofRugan, on the Baltic coast ofwhat is now East Germany.They are in fact quite near to the southem tip ofSweden, and today there is a ferry across. Rostock is inMecklenburg, but Stralsund and Greifswald are inPomerania, which was then a Swedish Province, not King Charles XII. 5wedenborgs patron who shared his mathematical and mechanical interests,ceded to Germany until a century later (1815). Here,among his fellow countrymen, Emanuel devotedhimself to composing Latin verses, some of which he mostly in praise of personalities whom he admired,published in Greifswald. including King Charles XII, the "Phoenix of the North." 1One doesnt think of Emanuel Svedberg as a poet. But 1 am assured by a Latinist that they are elegant andhave on my bookshelf a volume of 88 pages entitled wriUen in the best c1assical Latin. There was no end to N"Emanuelis Swedenborgii Opera Poetica pUblished by Emanuels versatility! (He could even play the organ, sothe University of Uppsala 1919. These poe ms are he tells us.) 19
  20. 20. Towards the end of the year (1714) Sweden was in a (Later, when the job was offered to him, he turned itturmoil. Their heroic King Charles XII had been down.)defeated by the Russians at Poltava (1709) and been While living at Brunsbo in Skara Emanuelhonourably imprisoned in Turkey (1709-14). He demonstrated his practical genius by installing aescaped, and after a breakneck ride incognito on speaking-tube From the living room on the first floor,horseback with only two companions for twenty days, down to the kitchen in the basement through which hehe arrived in Stralsund on November 22nd 1714, and could shout "Coffee!" and one ofthe seven Iittle servantset to work preparing to defend the city against his girls would run to bring it up. My wife and 1 visitedenemies the Danes and Germans. Not wishing to get Brunsbo in 1976, and we were taken down into theinvolved in the siege, Emanuel was fortunate in basement (the oldest part of the house) and shown theobtaining a passage across the straits in a Swedish great stove against the kitchen wall, designed by Bishopvessel in company with the wife of the Councillor of war Svedberg himself. On the other side of the wall, which(June 1715) and thus at last he reached his fathers got very hot was a platform on which the seven girlshouse in Skara, after an absence of nearly live years. slept alternately head to foot and feet to head, so thatThe King also made an ignominious escape when the alternate ones got hot heads and cold feet and theconditions in the besieged city of Stralsund got others got hot feet and cool heads! Whether it was ondesperate. Ashamed to meet his many critics in account of this stove or not the house was burnt downStockholm, the Phoenix of the North set up a temporary twice, in 1712 and 1730 - though the basement itselfcourt in Lund near Malmo on the southern point of his was undamaged, and remains so to this day.country, where Emanuel was to visit him later on. Now for work! Emanuel produced and published sixBack with his family, the young scientist began looking issues of a rather beautiful scientilic journal calledfor a job. He was 27 years of age. He thought he would "Daedalus Hyperboreus ("The Northern Inventor").Iike a professorship of mechanics and astronomy at This included accounts of his own inventions, and alsoUppsala, for which he was weil qualilied: but there was those of Christopher Polhammer, which heaJed the riftno such department the main emphasis of the caused by Emanuels sudden departure for England inuniversity being in theology and the humanities. He 1710 immediately after Polhammer had agreed to takesuggested that each of the existing eighteen professors him on as an apprentice. In fact Polhammer was soshould forego a seventh of his salary to raise enough pleased with the Daedalus Hyperboreus that he had amoney to finance a new Department with Emanuel set of the first four issues bound together, and tookSvedberg himself as professor! When he was advised them, and Emanuel himself, to Lund for presentation tothat this would not work, he said he was "only joking!· the King. Charles XII was extremely interested in20
  21. 21. mathematics and mechanical subjects, and he andEmanuel got on splendidly together. Emanuel showedhim an ecJipse of the moon, and explained otherastronomical phenomena. Together they worked out asystem of numbering based on 8 instead of 10.Polhammer had given the King a pewter dinner set, andEmanuel wrote a small treatise on ~Cleaning andRepairing Pewter".ln the end, the King graciously appointed EmanuelSvedberg "Assessor Extraordinary of the Board ofMines" - an unpaid supernumerary appointment,meaning that he would be given the post of Assessorwhen the next vacancy occurred. (The Board, or Collegeas it was ca lied, consisted of a President, twoCouncillors, and four Assessors.) ln the meantime hewas to serve as Polhammers assistant. it was at aboutthis time, in 1716, that the King ennobled Polhammerand his family, their name being changed to "Po/hem",the name by which the engineer is now generallyknown.Big construction work was on hand, such as theKarlscrona Canal, and the Trollhattan Locks as part ofthe plans for the famous Gôta Canaljoining Stockholmwith Gothenburg (a journey which 1took by canal boatin 1927). Unfortunately, however, Sweden was now atwar with Norway, and the King ordered Pol hem totransport sorne small gunboats overland fromStromstad for fifteen miles across the frontier down intothe Norwegian waters of the Idde(jord, to attack andreduce the town of Frederikshall at the head ofthe (jord,King Charles XII, a military portrait. 21
  22. 22. which the Swedes now had under siege. The ships couldnot go by sea, because of the British Navy. Pol hem sentEmanuel to superintend this operation - his firstcommission. There were two galleys, five long-boatsand a sloop. By the use of rotlers and sledges andrunning water, over hills and through valleys, andacross five small lakes, the portage was successfullyaccomplished; and to this day the area is known as "Thegalley bogs of Bohuslan".Actually the project resulted in tragedy, because theKing, while conducting the siege, was shot and killed.Sorne say he was shot in the back by his own soldiers,and there was even a rumour that Princess Ulrikashusband Frederic of Hesse had something to do with ilWe do know as a fact that the whole campaign was veryunpopular.Meanwhile Emanuel returned to the Polhemhousehold, where he was treated Iike a son, and mighteasily have become a son-in-Iaw. Pol hem had a sonGabriel. and three daughters. The eldest daughter wasMaria, born in 1698 and therefore about twenty; thesecond was Emerentia, born in 1703 and thereforeabout fifteen. The King had suggested that Emanuelshould marry Maria, and it was generally understoodthat he and she were engaged. But there really wasntmuch between them; and, perhaps with Emanuelscontrivance, she managed to get betrothed to theKings Chamberlain, a widower named ,Mannerstrom. Ina letter to Eric Benzelius, dated September 14th 1718,Emanuel writes: "Polhems eldest daughter is betrothed Christopher Polhammer. or Pol hem. the illustrious22 inventor and engineer with whom Swedenborg work.ed on several important projects.
  23. 23. to a chamberlain of the King. 1wonder what people willsay about this, inasmuch as she was engaged to me! Hissecond daughter is in my opinion much prettier." 50,with Maria out of the running, Emanuel got himselfofficially engaged to Mrensa, with a document signedby the father. He was to marry her as soon as he got aproper job and Emerentia was a bit older.But the poor girl seems to have been scared by herbrilliant and uncomfortable suitor. After ail, he was, at30, twice her age! 50 she persuaded her brother Gabrielta get hold ofthe document and destroy il. That was theend of the little affair.With the death of King Charles XlI, Emanuel had lost hispatron. Worse than that his intimacy with the Jate Kingwas now greatly to his disadvantage. The whole feelingof the country had swung against the Kings party. Eventhe new Queen, Charless sister, was forced to renounceher hereditary right to the throne, so that she heId itonly at the good pleasure of the Diet. 5he was to bevirtually only a figurehead.ln reading 5wedish history, one cornes acrossreferences to the two parties, Hats and Caps, rather Iikeour Whigs and Tories. King Charles XlI had led the Hatsor Plumes - what we should cali the "Hawks", whoromanticized war and gloried in the 5wedish Empire,which had in fact reduced the country to bankruptcyand disgrace. The Hats had poured scorn on the PeaceParty or Doves, saying they put on their night-caps andwent to sleep when the c1arion trumpet-call summonedthe country to arms! The Cap or Peace party was now in Emerentia Polhem. The second of Polhems Three23 daughlers. 10 whom Swedenborg was once officiallv enQaQed.
  24. 24. control. Emanuel Svedber9- being known as a personal proposed marriage eight years later (when 38) to StinaFriend of the late Kin9- was naturally regarded as a ~HatN, Maja, daughter of Bishop Steuchias of Karlstad; but sheand every opposition was placed in the way of his turned him down and married Baron Cedercrantz. Alterbecoming a full member of the Board of Mines, which that, he gave up; rented his own apartment inwas an important State Committee. Actually, of course, Stockholm, and engaged a male servant.Emanuel was neither Hat nor Cap, neither Hawk nor 1 will end here by mentioning the strange case of SaraDove. Ifanythin9- he was a Dove, as he strongly opposed Hesselius, his step-cousin (sister to the Rev. Peterail aggressive warfare; but he was prepared to support Hesselius in the U.S.A. who had visited him in London.)the defence of his country if it was in danger. This Sara had apparentJy been desperately in love with1 have already reported how Ulrika Eleanora, on Emanuel, but he had failed to respond. Alter her ownbecoming Queen, ennobled the Svedberg family in May premature death, she Iiterally haunted him, urging him1719, sa that Emanuels name became SWEDENBORG, secretly to kill himself and sa join her in the spiritualand he took his seat in the House of Nobles. Even then, world. He had to hide his dagger in a drawer, so as tohowever, it was not until1724, when he was 36, that he avoid the temptation to use it! (Spiritual Diary 4530)was actually put on the pay-roll as Assessor of Mines. And this was before his illumination and the opening ofAs for Emerentia Pol hem, she eventually married a his eyes into heaven and hell.wealthy man named Reinhold Ruckerskôld and hadnine children. Alter her husbands death, she managedhis estate, and ordered the building of a large mansion;but unfortunately, while it was under construction, shefell From the scaffoldin9- broke her le9- and had to walkwith crutches for the rest of her life. She composed andpublished a book of poe ms, now losl Some time alterher death in 1760, three of her daughters visitedSwedenbor9- who told them that he olten met Mrensain the Spiritual World, and she was happy there.It is generally assumed that, alter his disappointmentover Emerentia Polhem, Emanuel showed no furtherinterest in women. But in fact he is known to have24
  25. 25. Emanuel Swedenborg_25
  26. 26. .; .:. .... P L.·/X IJ F. I.. J l i /.I.J~ ;JI:" ~TOCKH()J..I ... Ir .~ .,iw .1 .~.,IJ:·" J..Um ,1,·I.,IrI,../~.I:,.J.-I1" ," .1 ;1," ~)f)""> .1.. J,t"f.JlIII,I. . Stockholm, Swedens capital city where Swedenborg heId high office and spent most of the middle years of his Iife. > .".C. ~. Il ..... ,,-.~, > . " 26
  27. 27. PART m. ASSESSOK OF MINES, PUYSICIST,ANATOMIST.As a civil servant and member of the House of Nobles,Swedenborg spent most of the middle years ofhis Iife inStockholm, the capital of Sweden.Stockholm is a beautiful city, spreading over both sidesof the effluence of Lake Malaren into the Baltic Sea. Itcovers many rocky islands connected by bridges orferry-boats. In winter the nights are long and bitter, andsorne of the channels freeze over. But during the shortsummer months the sun scarcely dips below thenorthern horizon at midnight; the weather is warm, andwild flowers give bright colour everywhere. The whitesails ofboats fill the waterways, and the breezes are richwith the odour of pine forests and wood-smoke. For twelve years or so (from 1724 to 1736) Swedenborgdevoted most of his time to the work of the Cham ber of Mines, attending the regular meetings of the Board atthe big stone building in Mynt Square - rattling over thecobble-stones in his horse-drawn carriage. He workedas a chemist in the laboratory, assaying metals; andjoined the Board in the administrative office,recommending laws to the Diet dealing with exports of iron and copper, and taxes on the mines. He travelledaround Sweden, right up to Lapland (on horseback or ina coach) inspecting the pits, even going down shafts on27 Smelting equipment. an engraving from one of Swedenborgs earlier works.
  28. 28. -, d.!-; ~ i MAcHINA BltJ1andi .M.ETAJ.LA cjn --m~ ,kg Ve fJettilr.s .­ ,jn,w"ta. cW Gman: JlVedlJ-ew.Machine for raising ore_ invented by Swedenborg.28
  29. 29. a rope-end, advising owners on improved methods ofsmelting and extracting From the ore; settling quarrels EMANUELIS SWEDENBÜRGII, ASSESS. COLLICGIl METALLICI SAC. REGIJEamong owners in local courts, and judging industrial MAJICST. REGNIQ.UE SVECIJEdisputes. On three occasions he made long journeysabroad - mostly in Germany, to study mining methods REGNUM SUBTERRANEUMin other lands and introduce the best into Sweden. SI V EHe wrote voluminously on chemistry and physics MINERALE(especially, or course, on metallurgy); on the atomic DEstructure of matter, on crystals, on mathematics(including the first Swedish treatise on Algebra), on saltmanufacture, docks and sluices. He published VENA ET LAPIDEMiscellaneous Observations in 1721, and OperaPhilosphica in 1733 - both in Leipzig. These studies FER R 1, UT ETtook him to the top rank in his field - if it cou Id be saidwhat exactiy was his field! VARIIS EJUS PROBANDINot satisfied with his now encyclopaedic knowledge ofail aspects of the mineraI kingdom, he turned his MODIS.attention ta the human body. How did the body CLASSIS SECUNDA.function? What was the human SouJ or Spirit? Wherewas it situated, and how was it related to the body? Howdid the BRAIN come into this, and how did the brainoperate? Such questions led him to pursue the subjectof human anatomy and physiology. He took two yearsleave of absence From the Board in order to attend theMedical SchooJ in Paris. (1736)He travelled to France through Holland and Belgium,much of the way by canal boat. As usual, he kept aJournal of Travet commenting on the state of the DR ES DIE&- L lP S 1 JE,countryside through which he passed, with detailed APUD FRIDERICUM HEKELIUM,notes on ail sorts of things, such as how to deal with "SLIOIOL. «CIO. M DCC XXXIV. Tille page from one of 5wedenborgs metaliurgical works. 29
  30. 30. wood worms and termites, how to make fences, andmanufacture window-glass. During vacations from Parishe crossed the Alps and visited Venice, proceedingthrough ltaly to Rome, where he had an audience withthe Pope. Returning by way of Paris to Amsterdam, hepublished "The fconomy of the Animal ffingdom (or,as it should more accurately be called, "The Interactionor organisation of the Realm of the Soul") - this wasmostly on the blood system in the human body. Later,he projected a much Jarger work, to be called simply"The Animal Nngdom (or, "Realm of the Soul") whichwas to deal systematically with every organ ofthe body,and might extend (he thought) to about seventeenvolumes!But, despite aIL his searching, he never found the Soul.Eventually he came to realise that he never would find itby the physical approach, because the Soul was notphysical. It was on a different plane altogether, invisibleto the physical eyes. Yet itevidentJy constituted a replicaof the entire body in minute detail. But (and this was hisgreat achievement of Faith) he no longer believed thatthe Soul was created by the body, but rather that thebody was created by the soull The Sou! was the realperson, the body was only its c1othing. When a mandied, ail that happened was that he discarded hisclothing, which was thrown away, while his Soul went onliving, in the SPIRITUAL DIMENSION. Emanuel Swedenborg. engraved by Bernigroth as the frontispiece to Swedenborgs Principia,Engraving of an iron works. from Swedenborgswork on the subject. 31
  31. 31. PART IV. TUB DAWN OF SPIRITUAL Swedenborg had had premonitions of psychicCONSCIOUSNBSS sensitivity since early childhood. His parents said that angels spoke with him," because he told them that he had had playmates in the garden house, when they knew he had been there alone. In later years he himself reported that From his fourth to his tenth year, he had several times revealed things at which his father and mother had marvelled. While writing his philosophical and anatomical works, he said he saw "joyful flashing lights when he uncovered a new truth. N lt was during this journey to Amsterdam that heIt is now 1743. Swedenborg is 55. He is back at home, regularly began to experience psychic phenomena,and has acquired a European reputation as seeing lights and hearing sounds, and being involved inphilosopher, physicist, anatomistand statesman, not to deep sleep and heavy dreams, which he interpretedmention being an influential member of the Board of symbolically, in a style recommended later by Freud ­Mines. As an author he isjust completing the first three they mostly related to his worldly ambitions, which hevolumes of his great work "Regnum Animale" The was beginning to see he must relinquish.Realm orthe Soul. As there are no adequate facilities inSweden for producing works of this magnitude, he is By far the most important event of this period tooksetting off again for Holland to have it published. place on April 6th 1744 in a hotel in Delft, Holland-so important that he marked the entry in his Journal "NBHe took his usual route: Stralsund, Hamburg and NB NB". On that night after a series of terribleAmsterdam. During the whole ofthisjourney, from July temptations, he had a Beatific Vision of the Lord Jesus1743 to Odober 1744, he kept a Journal, which Himself, whom he beheld face to face, and who actuallybecame less and less a record of scenery and events, spoke to him, with almost shattering effect. ThisIike his former Journals ofTraveL and more and more a experience places Swedenborg among the greatJournal of Dreams, by which title it is now known. But Mystics, and it can be regarded as the critical turningthe dreams were not ordinary dreams; they were in fad point of his life. From that day he began to have regularpsychic visions; and this Journal became a valuable open glimpses into the spiritual dimension.and important record of his transition into mysticism,and through mysticism into open spiritual Strangely enough, the first actual object he observed onenlightenment. the other side was a FLYl When he realized that the fly32
  32. 32. was composed of spiritual substance, not matter, he work in anatomy was not mentioned. That night hewas so disturbed that he couJd hardly bear it! dreamt that a big dog bit his leg with its terrible jaws,Having settled in Amsterdam and delivered Vols. 1and Il leaving him with a twisted foot- which meant he was to beware of self-love!of Regnum Animale to the printers, he had a vision of aship, which he interpreted as meaning that he must Having completed Vol. III of Regnum Animale,proceed to England for the publication of Vol. III. He Swedenborg began to write a book of an entirelysailed for Harwich on May 13th 1744 and arrived two different character - a blend of science, philosophy,days later, which, by the English calendar, was May 4th! religion and poetic imagination, called "The Worship NAnd so by coach across the pleasant fiat countryside of and Love of Ood But before this was completed, he •Essex, through Epping Forest and the East End of seems to have had another traumatic experience whichLondon. A fellow traveller on the coach was a Moravian confirmed the change which was already taking place ingentleman, who introduced Swedenborg to a fellow the course of his Iife. It was on April 6th 1745, exactly aMoravian, John Brockmer in Fleet Street with whom he year after the Lords first appearance to him, at Delft,took up lodgings. Holland. The story goes that he was enjoying a heartyHis Journal of Dreams continued. On September 21st meal at a small hotel in Bishopsgate, London. He hadhe saw a spirit-man sitting on a block of ice, who just finished eating, when the daylight seemed to growaddressed him rudely: "Hold your tongue or lII strike dim, and the floor became covered with disgustingyou!" (not a very favourable introduction to the creatures - snakes, frogs, beetles. A man appeared,in habitants of the other world!) But a week later, after sitting in a corner of the room, who said: "Eat not somuch suffering and temptation, Swedenborg saw the much!" Then the creatures disappeared with a loud popgable-end of a beautiful palace, which indicated to him or bang.that he had at last been accepted as a member of a "From that same night" (Swedenborg is reputed to havesociety in heaven - a privilege usually accorded only to informed his friend Robsahm, the bank manager ina man after he has died and left the natural world. This, Stockholm, to whom we are indebted for the wholewe are told, produced in him a state of great joy and story) "the World of Spirits, Hell and Heaven were fullypeace. opened to me, and 1 saw and recognized there manyThere was still the problem of his worldly ambition. In former acquaintances of every walk of Iife." He hadLondon, on October 18th, he attended a lecture at the previously, as a philosopher, convinced himself thatCollege of Medicine in Bloomsbury (close to the present there is a spiritual world, and that man has a soul orSwedenborg House) and was disappointed that his own spiritual body; but now he had seen for himself that ail 33
  33. 33. his friends who had ~died" were still alive and active on newly developed faculties. His work there was evidentlythe other side. This seems to have meant a great deal to highly appreciated, as, a year later, when one of the twohim. Councillors retired, the Board unanimously recommended Assessor Swedenborg for the vacantThe question remains: who was the man in the inn who Councillorship. However, realizing the increase insaid, ~Eat not so much"? It used to be thought it was the commitment which the new position would involve, andLord God Himself. But many scholars today believe with his eyes on other horizons, he decided to retirethere has been a confusion with Swedenborgs Beatifie From the Board altogether (he was now 59 years old). HeVision at Delft on the same date the previous year (April submitted his resignation to the King, who accepted it6th). More probably the whole story is a [ater version of only with the greatest reluctance, granting him athe account given by Swedenborg himself in Spiritual pension of half salary; and almost immediatelyDiary 397, headed: ~A Vision by day concerning thosewho are devoted to the Table and who thus indulge the Swedenborg left the country on yet another Foreign journey (J une 1747), probably to make a c1ean breakflesh. - 1745, April." Nevertheless something critical with the Board. As usual, he went first to Amsterdam,must have taken place at that time, because From then busily working on his Bible Indexes and the Wordonwards Swedenborg found himself living consciouslyin both the natural and the spiritual worlds, Explained.simultaneously. He also began at about this time to record his visionsFully aware now of his new situation and the and psychic experiences in what he called a Spiritualresponsibilities it brought with il, he gave up writing the Diary, which he kept for nearly twenty years (1747­Worship and Love of 00 d, and made his way back home 1765). Its translation into English occupies five bulkyto Sweden (July 1745). Here he studied Hebrew and volumes, which are a gold-mine for the researcher inGreek, and read the Bible in its original languages, spiritual phenomena, in addition to shining a brilliantseeing its meaning now in a totally new light. Being Iight on the inner Iife and development of SwedenborgEmanuel Swedenborg, he began to set it down in a himself. Unfortunately the first one hundred and fortymulti-volume expository work called Adversaria, or eight entries are missing; but we believe it was at about~The Word Explained". Side by side with this, he began this time - perhaps in February 1747 - that he saw onepreparing a Bible Concordance called "Index Biblicus v , of his most famous visions, fully described in ~Trueas a useful tool for further exposition. Christian Religion" No. 508.He was still a civil servant and naturally returned to his ln this vision he saw a magnificent square temple, withdesk in the Chamber of Mines, saying nothing about his walls of crystal and a gate of pearl, its roof being like a34
  34. 34. crown. Within the temple was a pulpit on which lay the 1 believe, however, that the motto NUNC L1CET had aopen Word, encompassed by a halo of Iight which much broader reference than merely to intellectua!illuminated the whole puJpit. ,ln the centre of the temple freedom in matters of Dogma previously imprisoned inwar a shrine, hidden at first bya veil which at that time the ancient creeds. Just as the Lord made His originalwas being withdrawn, revealing a cherub of gold incarnation in Palestine to redeem mankind Fromwielding a vibrating sword. As Swedenborg meditated bondage to HelL so, by coming again in His New Church,on these things, he was instructed that the Temple he would once again Iiberate the human mind, whichsignified a New Church which was about to be was losing its freedom again, owing to the uprise of Hell.established on earth. The pulpit represented its A tremendous increase of influx was about to pour intopriesthood and preaching; the open Word upon the mens hearts, From heaven and From hell, presenting apulpit indicated a revelation of the Spiritual Sense of vastly greater responsibility of personal choice to New­the Word; the cherub of gold was the Word in its literai Age Man. The Church, Iike the human race itself, hadsense; the vibrating sword was the capacity of the literai reached adulthood, no longer under tutelage. In thesense to be turned in every direction so as to favour areas of sex, politics, the arts, the intellect and in everyparticular truths; and the Shrine indicated the way, including Religion, the individual would henceforthconjunction of the Church on earth with the innennost be responsible for his or her own chosen development.heaven. Inscribed over the gate were the words NUNC NUNC L1CET - a ~Pennissive Society" indeed!L1CET ("Now it is permitted") and Swedenborg was told On August 7th 1747, a month after his arrivai inthat this meant ~Now it is permitted to enter Amsterdam, Swedenborg noted in his diary: ~There is aintelJectually into the mysteries of faith". change of state in me, into the Celestial Kingdom." This is taken to be the final step in his full illumination. HeRemember: if (as 1 believe) Swedenborg witnessed this was also being led to perceive that the Lord was makingvision early in 1747, it was before he himself had begun His Second Advent into the world, throughto reveaL through the press, the Spiritual Sense of the Swedenborgs instrumentality in unveiling the SpiritualWord. (Vol. ~ of the Arcana Coelestia came out in 1749.) Sense of the Word. In ail humility, he recorded in hisIt is doubtful whether, at that early date, he had begun diary for September lst 1748: ~Very many good spiritsto realize what his own part would be in the are gJorilYing the Lord on account of His Advent; andinauguration of the New Church on earth. Was this there is so much joy that some are saying they canpowerfuJ vision vouchsafed to him, so that when the hardly bear it! Next morning, everything was in a state oftime of his cali came, he would understand something tranquility, so that 1 perceived nothing but a tranquilof what would be involved? silence around me, which still continues." (Sp. D. 3029) 35
  35. 35. Two months later, Swedenborg left Amsterdam for PART V. TUB UOMBSTMI>.London, where he booked lodgings for six months. Heabandoned the Word Explained (which had beenlargely of an exploratory nature) and now, with calm Swedenborg actually took possession of theassurance and full authority, he began his great work Homestead (41-43 Hornsgatan) in March 1743; buton the Spiritual Sense of Genesis and Exodus, the what with his being out of the country, and alterationsARCANA COELE5T1A. The Writings of the New Church and improvements being required, it was not until threewere launched. years later - the Spring of 1746 (when he was 58) that he actually moved in. There had been a caretaker previously. The house itselfwas quite small, almost a log cabin. The guttering at the bottom of the steeply-sloping roof was only about nine feet above the ground. Two rooms constituted the ground floor, and a small kitchen: ail heated by a blue-patterned porcelain stove reaching from floor to ceiling, burning charcoal. One of the rooms, apparently, was his bedroom - the bed being so short he had practically to sleep sitting up - his wig on the bed-post. The other room was his study. Imagine him sitting mumed in a reindeer-skin coat using a feather pen, with his pen-knife by his side on the table; a porcelain ink-pot and a sprinkler of dry sand for blotting. Ali lit at night (and most of the day in the northern winter months) bya smelly whale-oil lamp or tallow candies. The furnishings included the famous inlaid marble table and a small pipe organ, which he played to unwind his tense mind. What music would he have played? Handel, and J.S. Bach, possibly - they were both just three years his senior. Much more Iikely Buxtehude, who, though a Dane, was born and lived not far away in Southern Sweden, and died in 1707..36
  36. 36. Swedenborgs hou se, on Homsgatan, Stockholm 37
  37. 37. An impression of the House and Garden.The loft up the little twisted flight of stairs contained frames white. The box-trees in the front garden weretrays of neatly labelled seedlings, sent to him by his known as Swedenborgs grenadiers Alongside the N •friend Wretman in Amsterdam, who imported them road was the carriage house, and adjoining it the homefrom the Dutch East Indies; and from the new Swedish of his gardener and housekeeper (husband and wife).settlement in Pennsylvania of which Swedenborgs Shortly before his death, Swedenborg made a list of hisfather, Rev. Jesper, had been non-resident Bishop. This possessions:-propagation of exotic plants would undoubtedly havebeen studied with great interest by young Carl Unné Silver Service. Chandelier. Collee Pot and(Unnaeus) who married Swedenborgs niece, Sara Sugar bowl, lIilk Can. Fine Teaspoons andElisabet Moraeus. Tongs. Two CandIesticks. JeweUed Tray, SixThe outside appearance of the house was bright and Precious SnutI-Boxes. Uebrew Bible.cosy: the woodwork painted red-ochre and the window­ lIicroscope38
  38. 38. A path led from the front of the house across a smallflower garden, and through a gate in the fence into themain garden or orchard. It then continued straight forfifty-five yards ta the summer-house against the rearwall. Half way along was a small pavilion, copied frommanor houses in England; through it at right angles tathe main path was another path, leading ta an aviarymade of brass wire ta the left, and a house of mirrors tathe right. (In winter, the birds were taken up ta the loft ofthe house.) ln the far left-hand corner was a maze (alsowith mirrors) ta amuse the children who often visitedthe garden on their way home from school. On the farright was a small Iibrary and store-room.The summer-house was a cubical structure, with roofsloping up ta a square skylight. and a bail ornament ontop in the middle. Three stone steps led up ta the frontdoor; and ta the left and right of the door were twowindows with hinged shutters. The woodwork waspainted yellow, the front door green, and the shuttersred - ail very neat and gay. A desk and chair were in thefront room, the rear one being only a store-cupboard. Inwet weather it was possible ta reach the summer-houseunder a covered way, leading from the far side of thehouse along the left-hand wall of the garden, enteringthe summer-house bya side door leading into the backroom. This interesting little building has beenrenovated and is on show in Skansen, as my wife and Jwere ta see on our pilgrimage. 5wedenborgs 5ummer-house,39
  39. 39. PART VI. A PILGRIMAGE. Across the road from the Boutique Giota is a small grassy park containing one of the only busts of Swedenborg on public display anywhere in the world.· It stands on a stone plinth bearing the single word1 first went to Sweden, and by train up to Lapland - the "SWEDENBORG", Below it on the plinth is an embossed"Land of the Midnight Sun," in 1927, when 1 was 20. bronze figure of a wigged 18th-century gentlemanLater, in 1976, my wife and 1 made a Pilgrimage to holding up what looks Iike a framed portrait of a childs"Swedenborg Country" - Stockholm, Uppsala, Skara, face. In front of him stands a little girl (back view) who isGôteborg. In Stockholm we soon found Hornsgatan a gazing up at the "portraW. You and 1knowvery weil thatmain road running along the cliff-top on the south side the gentleman is Swedenborg himself, and the "framedof the waterway, and searched for plots 41-43, the portrait" is a mirror, and the Iittle girl whose face isaddress of Swedenborgs homestead. Its ail built up reflected is Greta Askbom, a neighbours child, who hasnow, of course; but we found a handsome plaque asked to see an ange!! But why hasnt the Parkscommemorating his residence there, over a shop now Department who were responsible for the otherwiseoccupied by a Pakistani. Above the shop next door excellent memorial, added an explanation interpretingswung a free-hanging notice board, "BOUTIQUE the scene for the casual observer?GIOTN. If you want something a bit more sophisticated, youRound the corner were sorne steps going up, past an must seek out the works of Carl Milles, Swedensold house which closely resembled extant pictures of greatest sculptor, which are on display at Millesgarden,Swedenborgs own house; and so to the top of the cliff, a fantastic collection of sculptures in beautifulfrom which was a breath-taking view across the surroundings sloping down to Lake Vartan, Here we findwaterway to the Old City, with the lace steeple of the Emanuel Swedenborg: kneeling, eyes c1osed, agonizedRoyal Church (Riddarholmskyrkan) and c1usters of fine expression on his face, right arm stretched out",public buildings, towers and steeples, and the white undoubtedly a work of genius, but does this representsails of shipping. We admired the famous City Hall, the Swedenborg we know?reputed to be the finest in Europe; but Swedenborg 1 once asked a Swedish girl in a train what they hadwould not have seen this, as it was not built until1923. taught her in school about Swedenborg. Her eyes brightened as she said, "He was a crazy man, , . he sawThere used to be one in Lincoln Park, Chicago. cast by Adolph ghosts!" Did she get that idea from Carl Milles? Or didJonsson the sculptor; but one night it disappeared. Presumably it wasstolen for the copper. Carl Milles get it from people Iike her? It says in the40
  40. 40. catalogue: "One of Milles most inspired interpretations of an historie figure. Originally ordered by the English Swedenborg Association, but never purchased." (What 1 wonder, is the "English Swedenborg Association"?) There are two famous portraits of Swedenborg: one by Brander in the Northern Museum, Stockholm, with a copy in the Royal Academy of Sciences; the other by Krafft in Gripsholm Castle. Both were painted about 1770, when he was 82. They are so much alike that the Krafft portrait might have been copied from the Brander. ln Brander, Swedenborg is holding a scroll in his right hand, bearing the title "Apoca/ypsis Reve/ata". ln the Krafft, he is holding in his left hand a large thin hard­ back volume, on which a later hand has tried to copy the wording from the Brander, with two mistakes in the Latin! (Relevata for Revelata) As a work of art the Krafft is probably finer than the Brander. While in Stockholm, we visited the Cham ber of Commerce in Mynt Square which used to be the Chamber of Mines where Swedenborg worked for thirty years. Here we saw the famous inlaid marble table, which he presented to the Board in 1761, together with a small treatise on "Inlaying Marble". The interesting thing about this treatise is that he wrote it while his spiritual eyes were opened and he was working on "The Interior Sense ofthe Prophets and Psalms". The subject matter is utterly different but the hand-writing is the same, which has a bearing on the nature of his - ~ . inspiration.Bronze plaque on the plinth of a bust ofSwedenborg near to the site of his home inStockholm. 41
  41. 41. Swedenborg-s coat of arms_ # .- --. _ ~~~ro.- :..#..- - ..,- ~..~ __ ._ _ 4. • The HOllse of Nobles where Swedenborg took hisseat as a member of the The Swedish Diet. Inside the Great Hall.42
  42. 42. ln my mind 1had always assumed that the marbJe table of bound volumes of manuscripts: sorne in handsomehad been made in !taly. 1 told the caretaker so, but he leather bindings, others in parchment. Mostly they werecontradicted me and said quite definitely that it had very tall and narrow. Thousands of pages of antique­been made in Hol/and. 1 persisted "This is not Dutch looking handwriting, done with a quill! We werework, it is Italian". He was equally adamant, and so we impressed by the number of scratchings-out andparted. 1 have since discovered that we were both right: correction of words and even whole sentences.the table had been made by an ltalian craft:sman who Obviously here was a conscientious scholar, strugglinghad set up a workshop near Amsterdam, and ta express in the best possible way the profound truthsSwedenborg had purchased it there! which in his unique enlightenment he had been permitted by the Lord to understand. There was noOn the bookshelf of the Iibrary 1 was delighted to find a evidence here of verbal dictation from God, let alonecopy of the first Latin edition of "Apocalypse Revealed". automatic writing. My impression was that SwedenborgBut, surprisingly, there were none of Swedenborgs himself was inspired, certainly; but his Writings weregreat works on Iron and Copper and other scientific definitely NOT inspired - that is to say, they were thesubjects. Had the Board of Mines taken them with them words of Swedenborg, not the Word of God. In short, hiswhen they vacated the premises? was a rational revelation, not a verbal one.We also visited the House of Nobles in RidderholmSquare. It contained ten rows of seats cushioned with On the back of page of the Arcana Coelestia we sawblue velvet - actually long forms without backs, and what appeared to be a shopping list with the cash totalled up. This brought Swedenborg the man verywider than one would expect Dozens of coats of arms close to us over the two centuries!were painted in colour on the walls, and we foundSwedenborgs. The Diet, with its House of Nobles, was Among the other books were the manuscript volumesdissolved in the 1860s, and an English style of of the Latin Apocalypse Explained, with the wordParliament was insUtuted in its stead, so that the grand "Londini 1759" at the foot of the title page,old building which we visited had degenerated (so we countersigned by Robert Hindmarsh. Obviouslywere told) into a kind of "Snob Club". Swedenborg had intended and expected to publish theOn our way to Uppsala, we stopped at the Royal A.E. in London in 1759, following the five smaller works:Academy of Science building at Freskate, which had Heaven and Hel/, Earths in the Universe, LastJudgment,been moved here from Stockholm. A young librarian The Heavenly Doctrines, and The White Horse (knowntook us up to the fifth floor in the lift, and showed us into as "The London Five"). We also know that he had seta large hall full of book-shelves. Soon we saw "Em. aside 10,000 dalers for the purpose. But the project fellSwedenborg" over a metal frame, live shelves high, full through, probably because the printer, John Lewis, 43
  43. 43. protested that he could not possibly print so vast a superior to the Uppsala men? More advanced? Orwas itwork- running to at least four fat volumes, for that kind for a more personal reason, that he needed toof money! So Swedenborg changed his mind, took the dissociate himself From his commitments on the Boardmoney back to Sweden, invested it at 6% interest and of Mines? After ail, he was still a civil servant and wasset to work writing a more compact treatise covering expected to be at his post! He was entering a new field ofmuch the same ground - the Apocalypse Revealed, research: let it be done in a totally new environment!which he actually published in Amsterdam in 1766. We entered the Anatomical Theatre. and climbed theMany years later the abandoned manuscript (the one steps which joined the observation circles, one aboveon the shelf before us) found its way back to England the other. There were no seats; the students wouldand was published by Robert Hindmarsh between 1785 stand and lean forward on the rail, looking down on theand 1790 - hence his signature on the title page. It was professor with his dead victim spread out on the slab insubsequently returned ta the Royal Academy of the centre below. Our host and guide, Rev. RagnerSciences in Stockholm in 1842. Boyesen, obliged me by Iying on the slab (whichSo we continued our journey to Uppsala, and, of course, reminded me of a sacrificial altar) and 1photographedmade our pilgrimage to the famous sarcophagus in the him from one of the higher circles, where Swedenborgbeautiful red-brick Cathedral; also to the University and himself may have at one time stood to observe aail the other sights. dissection.What perhaps struck us most was a high cylindricalbuilding, prominent among the other roofs, whichturned out to he the Anatomical Theatre or dissectingHall. Ali my Iife 1had been told thal, when Swedenborgwished to study anatomy in his search for the souL hehad found it necessary to go to Paris, where dissectionwas permitted in the medicaJ schooL whereas (1 hadbeen told) it was illegal in Sweden. Imagine myastonishment to discover that in fact, dissection hadbeen practised here in Uppsala since 1650, and theyactually had a special building for il, the second in An old engraving of Uppsala Cathedral. part of theEurope after Padua in ltaly! Why. then. had Swedenborg university with the distinctive dome of thegone to Paris? Was it that the professors there were Anatomical Theatre can be seen on the left.44
  44. 44. CATt"DR-ALE" ( 45
  45. 45. ---A distant view of Uppsala as shown in another old engraving.46
  46. 46. Back in Stockholm, we did what ail good tourists do: we Near-by is a restaurant ca lied Sollidan. On an inner wallwent to 5kansen. This is a small island in the outlet to is a large coloured mural painting of Swedish life. Itthe Baltic Sea, to the east of the main waterway between shows miners digging, and beneath them isthe north and south parts of the city - you can Swedenborg himself, holding up a large crystal. So,approach it across a bridge From the north-east. It is a besides being a philosopher and naturalistunique open-air museum. Typical old buildings of ail Swedenborg is featured as a scientist interested insorts have been brought here From ail over Sweden and crystals! Little attention seems to be paid to his uniquehave been re-erected with as much Jocal colour as spiritual enlightenment and his wonderful theologicalpossible: old farmhouses, manor houses, windmills, writings.charcoal-burners furnaces, a Lapp hut ancient Viking However, 1 felt better when 1 read a poem by Hjalmanrunes. There is a glass-blower at work, a candIe maker, Gullberg, which is supposed to be spoken by thean antique printing press. There is folk music and folk summer-house. It moved me deeply. Here is adancing, ail in authentic costume; and a zoo of animais translation: ­associated with Sweden. And there, in the Rose garden,quite near the S.W. corner entrance, is Swedenborgs"Lusthus" or pleasure house (summer-house). On it is anotice stating that "Emanuel Swedenborg, 1688-1772, "1 am a pavillon wbÏch men pass by.famous philosopher and naturalist built this summer­ 1 stood in Stockholm in my masters garden.house in about 1750, at 41-43 Hornsgatan, and laid Dis augels filled me wiU1 U1eir harmonies,out a magnifrcent garden. This summer-house served And spiritual values flourished in my care,as a background to the layout of the garden Iike a A mighty man of research, prophet, sage,cupboard against a wall. It is shown here containing Ue used my simple shelter as a home.furniture From Swedenborgs time, including a small Uere he beheld U1e gIory of U1e heavens,organ which belonged to him. Part of the rose-garden And here was buiIt a New Jerusalem.around the summer-house is stocked with plants which For U1e Spirit now fled 1 was a sheD,are known to have grown in Swedenborgs garden ­ Now 1 stand forsaken in my grief.such as larkspur, sweet william, flax, sweet-scentedwhite roses, bleeding hearts, violets, tulips and But harp and cymbal filled me, whenhyacinths." God came to visit wiU1 our Swedenborg." 47

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