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Emanuel Swedenborg

Emanuel Swedenborg

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    Brian kingslake-a-swedenborg-scrapbook-seminar-books-london-1986 Brian kingslake-a-swedenborg-scrapbook-seminar-books-london-1986 Presentation Transcript

    • Published to mark the Utree hundredth anniversaryin 1988 of the birUt of Emanuel Swedenborg.The writings of Emanuel Swedenborgare published by:The Swedenborg Society.Swedenborg House. 20-21 Bloomsbury Way. London WelA 2THThe Swedenborg Foundatioll139 t:ast 23rd Street. New York. N.Y.lOOlO. U.S.A. 1
    • A SWEDENBORG SCRAPBOOKSEMINAR BOOKS. LONDON.A Swedenborg Scrapbook. Brian Kingslake© Copyright. Seminar Books 1986Published by The Missionary Society of the New ChurchSwedenborg House, 20 Bloomsbury Way,London WC1A 2THDistributed by New Church House34 John Dalton Street. Manchester M2 6LESet in 9/11 Benguiat by Gatehouse Wood Ltd, SevenoaksPrinted in England by John Whittingdale Ltd, Bishops StortfordDesigned by G. Roland SmithFirst published 1986ISBN 0 907295 16 9Picture AcknowledgementsThe pllblishers grateflilly acknowledge helpin the provision of pictllres from:The Author, The National Missionary Board of theGeneral Conference of the New Church, The SwedenborgSociety, and Miss Kathleen Prince.2
    • A SWEDENBORG SCRAPBOOK Brian Kingslake
    • Part 1 Birth and Family SurnamePart Il The Young Emanuel SwedbergPart III Assessor of Mines, Physicist, AnatomistPart IV The Dawn of Spiritual ConsciousnessPart V The HomesteadPart VI A PilgrimagePart VII Communicating with Spirits The Last JudgmentPart VIII The Writings of the New Church New-Church DayPart IX Amsterdam InterludePart X London Postlude Wesley and SwedenborgPart XI Death and Funeral The SkullPart XII ln EternityAddendum Chronological Table4
    • A Swedenborg Scrapbook interested me, and made my comments on them. 1 began with the notes 1 made for an address to the Swedenborg Society in London in celebration of Swedenborgs birtbday in January 1980 after which several people askedINTRODUCTION me to write them down on paper. As 1 typed out my notes, the material grew in bulk, asThis is not just another biography of Emanuel other points came to the forefront of my mindSwedenborg. There are plenty of excellent (but aU scrapbooks have a tendency toones already avaUable. (Over a hundred are increase in bulk).Iisted in Uydes Bibliography.) ln fact, much of The resuIt is that Parts l, Il, and III havewhat 1 have written here takes for granted that turned out to be largely biographicaI, as 1the reader is fairly famiIiar with the detaUs of traced bis development from birth to the ageSwedenborgs lite and work. If he isnt, 1 would of 60 when he attained to full spiritualrefer hint to "The Swedenborg Epie" by Cyriel illumination and began to write the "ArcanaOdhner Sigstedt - an incredible achievement Coelestia". If you are already familiar with thisof biography, packed full of facts and material, you can leap-frog over those partsinformation. Or to Signe Toksvigs equally (uniess you want to rcad them as a refresher­brilliant study, "Emanuel Swedenborg, course) and begin with Part IV "TheScientist and Mystie", which specializes on bis Uomestead", or Part V "A Pilgrimage." AlI theinteUectual and psycbic development. Both of rest of the book is non-chronological - a kindthese fine works have recenUybeen reprinted, of Iiterary montage. And it is these latterthe first in England and the other in America. pages that have given the book its name: AFor myself, 1 regard this Iitue Scrapbook as a SWEDENBORG SCRAPBOOK.companion to my own small volume: 1 could, of course, have covered a great deal"Swedenborg Explores the Spiritual more ground than 1 have done. Perhaps 1 shaUDimension:" published by Seminar Books, do, one day. But 1 believe that the points 1London, in 1981 • have touched on here wiJJ enable the studentWhat 1 have done here is to shine a spoUight of Swedenborg to get a c1earer view of theon a number of selected aspects and incidents mind and achievements of that remarkableof Swedenborgs lite which have particularly Servant of the Lord. 1 hope so, anyway.5 Brian Kingslake
    • A section From the original church register wherethe birth oF Emanuel Swedenborg is recorded.The entry reads as follows:p.178PARENTES. 1688 PATRINI INFANTES DIES BAPT.Mag. Jesjler. Hr. Hofrad Nordenhjelm. Emanuel, 1 Swedberg. F. Maria Sylvia. fodd d. 29 Jan. d. 2 Febr.H. Sara Behm. Gen. Auditeuren Fahlstrôm. F. Ingrid Behm. Hr. Johan Rhenstierna. w F. Marg. Zachariae d·r.PARENTS GOD-PARENTS CHILDREN DAY OF BAPTISM.Dr. Jesper. Mr. COllncillor Nordenlljelm. Emanuel, February 2 Swedberg. Mrs. Maria Sylvia. Born Jan. 29Wife: Sarah Aliditor General Fahlstrôm. Behm. Mrs. Ingrid Behm. Mr. Johan Rhenstierna. Mrs. Marg. Zachariae 1 daughter. 6
    • The CounciIIor lIordenhjelm who is registered as the first or thesponsors, was Pror. Anders Nilson Nordenhjelm (1663-1694), atthe lime instructor to the erown prince (Charles XII).lru Maria Sylvia was the wire or the officialing clergyman, PastorMatthias Wagner, who was the rector or St James and chaplain tothe court. She is entered here under her maiden name, as was thecustom with ladies or the nobility who had married outside theirrank.Auditor-General Fahlstrôm (Baron Ludwig fahlstrôm, 1655-1721) was a childhood rriend or Jesper Swedberg; he afterwardsbecame governor or the province or Westmanland,lru Ingrid Behm was the sister or Sarah Behm, Emanuelsmother, and widow or Major Erland Erling.Uerr Johan Wilhelm Rhenstiema (1659-1692) was a cousin orEmanuels mother, and was a chamberlain at the court or theQlIeen-dowager, Hedwig Eleanora. His sister, Anna Maria, marriedJesper Swedbergs eider brother, Peter, who, on being ennobled,assllmed the name Schônstrôm.lru Margareta Zacharias daughter (TroiIa) was the dallghter orZacharias Unosson Troillls, burgomaster or fahilln, and wire orMikael J Strômberg. a merchant in Stockholm. She was probablyone or the childhood rriends or Emanuels parents.The entry itselr was written by Jonas Anderson, the c1erk or St.James.7 Emanuel Swedenborg.
    • Some AbbreviationsA.C =Arcana CoelestiaA.E. =Apocalypse ExplainedA.R. =Apocalypse RevealedB.E. =Brief Exposition of the DoctrinesE.U. =Earths in the UniverseN.D. =Neavenly DoctrineIntercourse =Intercourse between Soul and BodyL.J. =Last JudgmentL.J.Cont. =Last Judgment (Continued)L.J. Post. =Last Judgment (Posthumous)N.C. =New ChurchN.J. =New Jerusalem5.0. =Spiritual DiaryT.C.R. =True Christian Religion8
    • PART 1. BIKTU AND FAMILY SURNAME. by dropping I l days. (September 2 was followed by September 14). Sweden changed gradually to the Gregorian dating round about 1740, whereas England did so by act of Parliament in 1752. So, by the dating now universally adopted by the Western World (barring questions of Daylight Savings, etc!) Swedenborgs birthday would fall on February 9th.On January 29th 1980 1 addressed the SwedenborgSociety in London. 1 began my remarks with the Even then 1 had not corrected ail the errors of myfollowing resounding statement: original statement. The child whose destiny we are considering was not named Emanuel Swedenborg but"fxactly 292 years ago today, on January 29th 1688, Emanuel Svedber~ his father being the Rev. Jespercheers rose from the throats of many, while cannons Svedberg.boomed and flashed over the snow of Stockholm, tocelebra te the birth of fmanuel Swedenborg. H Let us devote a page or two of our Scrapbook to this matter of his surname. Jesper had adopted the nameThen, after a few moments hesitation, 1 corrected Svedberg in his college days, in accordance with themyself: custom ofthe land-owning classes to take on the name"WelJ, actually the cannon-shots and rejoicing were to oftheir ancestral home. His ancestral home was a farmcelebra te the christening of the Iittle princess U1rica named Sveden near Fahlun in Dalarna (Sved meansf1eanora, who happened to have been born at about H "burnt land , From the Swedish svedja, to burn.)the same time as Swedenborg! She, of course, was in Jesper himself had presumably been born "Jesperthe royal palace, whereas he was in the army barracks, Danielson,H after his father Daniel. It had been thehis father being the Regimental Chaplain. H custom in the working classes From time Immemorial"And in fact: 1 went on, "it wasnt exactly 292 years aga for the child to take on the fathers first-name and addtoday, because the date January 29th in 1688 was H "sonH (if a boy) or "dotter (if a girl). Until recently it hascalculated according to the Julian Calendar, whereas been the same in lceland, where you get "Magnusson orour present dating is according to the Gregorian Magnusdotte~;and it used to be the same in EnglandCalendar. Prior to 1600 the Popes added or subtracted where you got "Johnson" or "Richardson My father was H •days and years to or From the calendar, as seemed Martin, so 1would have been "Brian Martinson·, and mynecessary according to their lunar reckonings; but daughter Margaret would be "Margaret Briandotter. HWeGregory XIII settled the matter once and for ail in 1582 find the same, of course, in the Bible, where Ben or Bar 9
    • means ~son of* (Simon Bar-Jonas, Nathaniel Bar­Tholomew).Consider Jespers male ancestry. His great-great­grandfather was named Otto. Ottos son Nils was calledNils Otteson. His son Isaak was Isaak Nilson, and so on.ottoNils OttesonIsaak NilsonDaniel IsaaksonJesper DanielsonEmanuel ...7By this reckoning, therefore, little Emanuel would havebeen named Emanuel Jesperson. Our Church wOüldnot be referred to as Swedenborgian, but Jespersonian:and the Swedenborg Society would be the JespersonSociety!This manner ofnaming children did not operate amongthe professional classes or the nobility. So, wh en DaniellIsaakson made a bit of money by reopening an oldcopper mine at Sveden, and sent Jesper to University,Jesper assumed the name Svedberg or Swedberg - aname adopted by his children. (When they pronounce il,it sounds Iike ~SVEE-RD BEY.)10 Jesper Svedberg, Swedenborgs father.
    • While on the subject ofnames, lII tum to a later page ofmy Scrapbook. Rev. Jesper Svedberg had risen tobecome Bishop of Skara - a very important position.IMeanwhile, King Charles XH was killed in battle, and theIittle ginl 1 spoke of - Princess Ulrika Eleanora - wascrowned Queen. She started off her brief reign byennobling 150 of her subjects, including the families ofmost of the bishops, probably to pack the House ofNobles in support of her rather shaky right to thethrone, which should really have gone to the son of herdeceased sister Hedwig - her nephew CharlesFrederick. So, in May 1719, the Svedberg family namewas changed to SWEDENBORG - the "en" in the middlebeing the definite article, and "borg" (meaning castle)instead of "berg" (meaning hill). Altogether a morearistocratie name!The Queen did not, of course, ennoble the bishopsthemselves, as they were on a parity with noblemen intheir own right. There were four "houses" in the Diet orGovernment: (1) Nobles, (2) Clergy, (3) Burghers, and(4) Peasants. Bishops, being automatically members ofthe House of Clergy, could not enter the House ofNobles. Their families, however, were commoners,unless specifically ennobled. So, when BishopSvedbergs family were given the noble name ofSwedenborg, Jesper retained his old name of Svedberg,perhaps slightly changing it to SWEDBERG.11 Sara Behm. Swedenborgs mother.
    • For the Bishop to adopt "Swedenborg" would have been does the professor think of our Iittle plan?" He wastantamount to admiUing that he was not a nobleman surprised. "What Iittle plan?" "The one you wrote to mealready! Thus there were different surnames for father about." "What did 1write to you about?" "Arent we to beand family, for husband and wife. bride and groom tomorrow?" "Ohl You must be SaraTo go back now to the Svedberg family in the Bergia?" They shook hands, and soon were in a lovingRegimental Barracks in Stockholm in 1688. Emanuels embrace - with mutual pleasure and contentment.true mother was Jespers first wife, Sara Behm. Sara Bergia became a good mother to Emanuel. Later,Emanuel was her third child, and alter him in due in the spiritual world, he met his two mothers, and lovedcourse came six more, making nine altogether. She them both equally. Her shares in several iron minesthen died of a fever, aged only .30. Her eldest child Albert brought wealth to the family, making Emanueldied with her. leaving Anna, the eldest daughter (who financially independent, and able to publish theeventually married Bishop Benzelius) and Emanuel, the Writings at his own expense. We see the hand ofeldest surviving son, aged 8. Alter them were Hedwig, Providence in this.Daniel, Eliezer, Catharina, Jesper (Jr) and Margaretha.Jesper (Sem) had now .been appointed by King CharlesXI as Dean and Professor ofTheology at the University ofUppsala, sorne 40 miles north of Stockholm. Naturallyhe had to marry again, to get a new mother for his eightchildren; and alter careful consideration his choice fellon another Sara - Sara Bergia - a wealthy widowwithout children (most eligible!). He had never met her,but she had been represented to him as being of anamiable disposition.Jesper tells his love-story in his manuscriptautobiography. He arrived by coach in Stockholm two9ays before the wedding, and was shown into a largeroom where a lady was seated alone, and he was leltwith her. He greeted her politely and they spoketogether for a while, no doubt discussing the weatherand the price of herring-roes. At last she asked; What12
    • examiners in the summer of 1709, at the age of 21. ItPART Il. TUE YOUNG EMANUEL SWEDBEKG. appears that he did not proceed further towards his degree, so that in fad he left the University without any formai academic qualifications, intending to complete his education abroad. (This fad is not generally realized.) His father Jesper was now Bishop of Skara - aOf Emanuels upbringing we know Iittle. Jesper, in his magnificent cathedral situated in central Sweden aboutthousand-page autobiography, is obsessed only with midway between Stockholm and Gothenburg. Hishimself, and says IiUle or nothing about his offspring. residence was an estate just beyond the easternEmanuel himselftells us that he used to play at ~holding suburbs of Skara, called Brunsbo, From which,his breath" for long periods during moming and nowadays, you can see the cathedral, a grain silo, and aevening prayers, as an aid to deep meditation - a water tower. (When we visited the estate, 1 was toldtechnique known in Yoga, and developed by these were symbolic of the three principall needs ofSwedenborg later to an extraordinary degree for man: food, drink and religion!)inducing his spiritual consciousness. (He says he cou Id Emanuel, alter leaving Uppsala, joined his family athold his breath ~for a short hour.") This fits in with bio­ Brunsbo, expeding to depart at once for England - tofeedback experiments in the U.S.A., slowing down the complete his education overseas. But Sweden was atbrain-waves to enter the so-called ~Alpha" state of war with France and Denmark (Charles XII was always atpsychic awareness, and, slower still, the ~Theta" state of war with somebody!) and the seas were closed. Soself-hypnosis and coma. Emanuel had to kick his heels for a whole year with hisAt the age of eleven, Emanuel entered Uppsala father and six younger brothers and sisters. With themAcademy or University (the normal age) and studied also was the young Dr Johan Moraeus, their cousin andscience and mathematics in the Department of tutor, whose daughter Elisabet later married CarlPhilosophy. (The other three departments were: Linnaeus the great botanist. (Many years afterwards,Theology, Medicine and Law. His father had the chair of Swedenborg met Moraeus in the Spiritual World, but hisTheology.) The degree he worked for was ~Master of face had become so beautiful that Swedenborg scarcelyPhilosophy: It involved a long series of tests, which recognized him!) The two young men explored themight cover several years. We have his first ~Exercise" ­ countryside around Skara, searching for fossils. Theya selection of maxims from the Latin authors, with his unearthed an enormous bone, which Swedenborgown comments, which he ~defended" before his thought was the thigh-bone of an antedeluvian giant. It 13
    • 14was sent to Uppsala for identification, and was found to Stockholm aJone - a third of the entire population. Atbe thejaw-bone of a whale, though no one could explain this very inauspicious time, in April 1710, a sea captainhow a whale got into central Sweden! It is now in the friend of the Svedbergs decided to attempt the voyageuniversity museum, called ~Swedenborgs Whale N • to England from Gothenburg in a small sailingship, andMeanwhile, bubonic plague stalked through Sweden offered to take Emanuel with him. The young mansfrom Turkey. Twenty thousand people died in sudden departure caused some ill-feeling between him
    • 15and the famous civil engineer Christopher Polhammer,who had just been persuaded to take him on as anapprentice! Uppsala. Swedenborg allended the University here. where his father held the chair of Theology • T
    • The voyage was adventurous. First the ship ran onto asand-bank; then it was boarded bya French privateer,and then fired at by an English patrol-boat in mistakefor the French vesse!. But the most serious danger forEmanuel was when they anchored at Wapping on theThames, and he and some Swedish friends broke thestrict quarantine regulations and ferried up to London.Finding he was From plague-ridden Sweden, theauthorities threatened him with hanging, but let him off,probably because of his personal credentials. Theepisode must have made an impression on him, formany years later, when the Lord first appeared toSwedenborg in Delft Holland, he was asked whether hehad a c1ean bill of healthlLondon had been almost entirely rebuilt since thedevastating fire of 1666. The palaces of the aristocracycontrasted with stinking siums and alleys. It was thevortex of the intellectual life of Europe. The world-wideBritish Empire was contro/led From London by the RoyalNavy. And when, at that time in history, astronomerswere laying out the fines of longitude on the globe, theytook it for granted that the meridian 0 should passthrough Londons Observatory at Greenwich - for wasnot London the centre of the world?Swedenborg visited London seven times during his Iife:in 1710, 1744, 1748, 1758, 1765, 1769 and 1771 (whenhe died there). Culturally urbane and cosmopolitan ashe was, he might even have been taken for a Londoner,except for his thick Scandinavian accent.Emanuel Swedenborg as a young man,an unverified portrait. 16
    • We know a good deal about this his first visit in 1710,from his correspondence with his brother-in-Iaw EricBenzelius. He deliberately lodged with variouscraltsmen, such as lens grinders and brass instrumentmakers, in order to learn their cralts, and attendedlectures by the great scientists of the day. He visitedGreenwich Observatory, and was allowed to watch theAstronomer Royat the Rev. John Flamsteed, doing hisobservations - a great honour for a young student. Itwas thus that he learnt how to calculate the eclipses ofthe sun and moon. He also went (by stage coach) toOxford to meet Edmond Halley, with whom hediscussed his own method of finding the Longitude atsea by observations of the moon.1 mention here two lesser-known incidents, both ofwhich are probable but neither of which can beproved:- (1) We know he visited the newly-completed St PaulsCathedral, and the assumption is that he c1imbed to theWhispering Gallery under the base of the dome, ta hearhis own voice reflected around the circle. By measuringthe interval between his voice and the echo, andknowing the circumference ofthe dome, he would havebeen able to calculate the velocity of sound! (2) He almost certainly met WILLIAM PENN, theQuaker who founded Pennsylvania. Emanuel wasentertaining his younger brother Jesper and their step-cousin the young Rev. Peter Hesselius, who broke theirjourney in London en route for America. We know they Eric Benzelius, Swedenborgs brotherin-Iaw and17 University Librarian.
    • {~S~~ff[~~~~~~~lf1~~:~·called upon Penn, then resident in London, who gavethe two young travellers a letter to deliver to theGovernor of Pennsylvania. Obviously Emanuel wouldhave accompanied them to meet the great man. This isinteresting, because Swedenborg mentions in his diary j,; .-", f-.:..·,:-,c.-::-"_"L._.<J:/""J,L.. r e1,/L<f;:. n·)I.l.:">(......1..L_)~.~ .._ ....,_"for November 1748, that Penn spoke to him in the ." - h" . :" ••:./_."" -I,.. ·,~. : 7/- ~i._<r.::.l,,;-r;,L_·~J,,:,..,Ir-;...•• ....Spiritual World, criticizing him for writing so harshly of ".r::; .If··... ·"he.· 1.,. ., -N-. .:,~ ,J!tfJ,r-:""·J·../!I t:;u.J ,/. "/:~.:,-.A· ..:.1-,y.". Ji t . "-f;: r"--~"" ,;J~~ . •."". :·~~~rr;:;~·>~~Ë~t2~~;}j~;~.;~;~;;~~:~~~;~:~::~~~Z~}the Quakers, saying there were good Quakers as weil asbad! Why Penn in particular, and not, say, George Fox?Probably because Swedenborg had met Penn in the q,,. ~ ~r.l···~·~·· ·:~.ïC:.,.!~ ,Nl/~ ..::j,._",,4l.. .. ~.J,.~ ,~ ...~J ~-#-. ..-1- ... .. • • / ... /­t1esh .While in England, Emanuel projected a number ofinventions, such as a hydraulicjack, a submarine, and aglider-type aircraft and an automatic air gun. Add tothese a ~universal musical instrument", playingmelodies marked on paperwith dots. AJso ~a method ofconjecturing the wills and affections of mens minds bymeans of analysis" (7 an anticipation of Freud!) It must . ,.",-1 .. _ J .... "i .. t_ .J7J.-- ..l~r-/.1 t( 1-..4 . ~ ri_ ~~ 1 .". .be admitted that these intriguing inventions remained .: ;.: .(_:.~~:( .~ :;:.::"~: .... ~ ~ ,;::.:;, ~;:;:-.-:~.~:;l::..d...:.."";.~.·.: :~:.;.:: ,... ,:>"on the drawing board, but they give evidence of the J."""" . j.. ...... 1 ··J:···~·r~r("fJI ..-r l: / ••••• - , ••• ". .. "- J-~ 1~/..I ~ ..".. r· . o., •• <.·).."..··1..,... ~ • . .,: . , . - ...... .y/ ..l·~r~- i-.".lf ~~.(fertile and exploratory character of his mind. He sent ~ ..;:~. .. , ~.:7~::·~ ,ftfr .; !:r~ ·! lV:~~the drawings to his father at Brunsbo, who, when askedfor them later on, said he couldnt remember what hehad done with them! So nothing really came of any of , . :. . , . - ;. ,h .. · " .. .l. , - -.... ! ~-rr: • L._ -_ l ~ r J ;-:. ~ ~ i.1 IT] 4~NL - ~ _;,1._ -FT-I-·r~·I ..,.,. _ l ) ,.<Ji,.8 , .... . J., " Ifr·/~· ,. ./ _ / I t v ~. • " , , ~/,. ï J. r--jï{"--f"".,. . , /. .....them. .. ,--,- . . . . ., ... ,.,4-.. .~ 1.· 1 . 1:1" « -.1 t- t "J." .- 101- .. --·1"7; ..· •. ·18 An early manllscript showing Swedenborgs sketch for a nying machine - Ilot entirely practicable but incorporating sound aerodynamic principles. iii,~:,Iiik~~i~·~~~<·~~:~;;!é;.::
    • After 2! years in England, Emanuel made for theContinent. ft was now 1713 and he was 25 years old.1713 was the date of the signing of the Treaty of Utrechtwhich ended the so-called "War of the SpanishSuccession,"and ambassadors from ail over Europewere gathering together in Utrecht Holland. Emanueljoined them there, no doubt hoping to gain some insight into European politics. He also visited Leyden tosee the world-famous observatory, and then proceededto Paris, the second city of the Western world. Here, unfortunately, he was laid up in bed for six weeks - oneof the very few occasions on which he suffered sickness;and it was not until the following year (1714) that he atlast set out for Sweden, staying for a while in thecharming liUle city of Rostock to recuperate.Look at the map and you wBl see the three towns ofRostock, Stralsund &:. Greifswald, close to the Island ofRugan, on the Baltic coast ofwhat is now East Germany.They are in fact quite near to the southem tip ofSweden, and today there is a ferry across. Rostock is inMecklenburg, but Stralsund and Greifswald are inPomerania, which was then a Swedish Province, not King Charles XII. 5wedenborgs patron who shared his mathematical and mechanical interests,ceded to Germany until a century later (1815). Here,among his fellow countrymen, Emanuel devotedhimself to composing Latin verses, some of which he mostly in praise of personalities whom he admired,published in Greifswald. including King Charles XII, the "Phoenix of the North." 1One doesnt think of Emanuel Svedberg as a poet. But 1 am assured by a Latinist that they are elegant andhave on my bookshelf a volume of 88 pages entitled wriUen in the best c1assical Latin. There was no end to N"Emanuelis Swedenborgii Opera Poetica pUblished by Emanuels versatility! (He could even play the organ, sothe University of Uppsala 1919. These poe ms are he tells us.) 19
    • Towards the end of the year (1714) Sweden was in a (Later, when the job was offered to him, he turned itturmoil. Their heroic King Charles XII had been down.)defeated by the Russians at Poltava (1709) and been While living at Brunsbo in Skara Emanuelhonourably imprisoned in Turkey (1709-14). He demonstrated his practical genius by installing aescaped, and after a breakneck ride incognito on speaking-tube From the living room on the first floor,horseback with only two companions for twenty days, down to the kitchen in the basement through which hehe arrived in Stralsund on November 22nd 1714, and could shout "Coffee!" and one ofthe seven Iittle servantset to work preparing to defend the city against his girls would run to bring it up. My wife and 1 visitedenemies the Danes and Germans. Not wishing to get Brunsbo in 1976, and we were taken down into theinvolved in the siege, Emanuel was fortunate in basement (the oldest part of the house) and shown theobtaining a passage across the straits in a Swedish great stove against the kitchen wall, designed by Bishopvessel in company with the wife of the Councillor of war Svedberg himself. On the other side of the wall, which(June 1715) and thus at last he reached his fathers got very hot was a platform on which the seven girlshouse in Skara, after an absence of nearly live years. slept alternately head to foot and feet to head, so thatThe King also made an ignominious escape when the alternate ones got hot heads and cold feet and theconditions in the besieged city of Stralsund got others got hot feet and cool heads! Whether it was ondesperate. Ashamed to meet his many critics in account of this stove or not the house was burnt downStockholm, the Phoenix of the North set up a temporary twice, in 1712 and 1730 - though the basement itselfcourt in Lund near Malmo on the southern point of his was undamaged, and remains so to this day.country, where Emanuel was to visit him later on. Now for work! Emanuel produced and published sixBack with his family, the young scientist began looking issues of a rather beautiful scientilic journal calledfor a job. He was 27 years of age. He thought he would "Daedalus Hyperboreus ("The Northern Inventor").Iike a professorship of mechanics and astronomy at This included accounts of his own inventions, and alsoUppsala, for which he was weil qualilied: but there was those of Christopher Polhammer, which heaJed the riftno such department the main emphasis of the caused by Emanuels sudden departure for England inuniversity being in theology and the humanities. He 1710 immediately after Polhammer had agreed to takesuggested that each of the existing eighteen professors him on as an apprentice. In fact Polhammer was soshould forego a seventh of his salary to raise enough pleased with the Daedalus Hyperboreus that he had amoney to finance a new Department with Emanuel set of the first four issues bound together, and tookSvedberg himself as professor! When he was advised them, and Emanuel himself, to Lund for presentation tothat this would not work, he said he was "only joking!· the King. Charles XII was extremely interested in20
    • mathematics and mechanical subjects, and he andEmanuel got on splendidly together. Emanuel showedhim an ecJipse of the moon, and explained otherastronomical phenomena. Together they worked out asystem of numbering based on 8 instead of 10.Polhammer had given the King a pewter dinner set, andEmanuel wrote a small treatise on ~Cleaning andRepairing Pewter".ln the end, the King graciously appointed EmanuelSvedberg "Assessor Extraordinary of the Board ofMines" - an unpaid supernumerary appointment,meaning that he would be given the post of Assessorwhen the next vacancy occurred. (The Board, or Collegeas it was ca lied, consisted of a President, twoCouncillors, and four Assessors.) ln the meantime hewas to serve as Polhammers assistant. it was at aboutthis time, in 1716, that the King ennobled Polhammerand his family, their name being changed to "Po/hem",the name by which the engineer is now generallyknown.Big construction work was on hand, such as theKarlscrona Canal, and the Trollhattan Locks as part ofthe plans for the famous Gôta Canaljoining Stockholmwith Gothenburg (a journey which 1took by canal boatin 1927). Unfortunately, however, Sweden was now atwar with Norway, and the King ordered Pol hem totransport sorne small gunboats overland fromStromstad for fifteen miles across the frontier down intothe Norwegian waters of the Idde(jord, to attack andreduce the town of Frederikshall at the head ofthe (jord,King Charles XII, a military portrait. 21
    • which the Swedes now had under siege. The ships couldnot go by sea, because of the British Navy. Pol hem sentEmanuel to superintend this operation - his firstcommission. There were two galleys, five long-boatsand a sloop. By the use of rotlers and sledges andrunning water, over hills and through valleys, andacross five small lakes, the portage was successfullyaccomplished; and to this day the area is known as "Thegalley bogs of Bohuslan".Actually the project resulted in tragedy, because theKing, while conducting the siege, was shot and killed.Sorne say he was shot in the back by his own soldiers,and there was even a rumour that Princess Ulrikashusband Frederic of Hesse had something to do with ilWe do know as a fact that the whole campaign was veryunpopular.Meanwhile Emanuel returned to the Polhemhousehold, where he was treated Iike a son, and mighteasily have become a son-in-Iaw. Pol hem had a sonGabriel. and three daughters. The eldest daughter wasMaria, born in 1698 and therefore about twenty; thesecond was Emerentia, born in 1703 and thereforeabout fifteen. The King had suggested that Emanuelshould marry Maria, and it was generally understoodthat he and she were engaged. But there really wasntmuch between them; and, perhaps with Emanuelscontrivance, she managed to get betrothed to theKings Chamberlain, a widower named ,Mannerstrom. Ina letter to Eric Benzelius, dated September 14th 1718,Emanuel writes: "Polhems eldest daughter is betrothed Christopher Polhammer. or Pol hem. the illustrious22 inventor and engineer with whom Swedenborg work.ed on several important projects.
    • to a chamberlain of the King. 1wonder what people willsay about this, inasmuch as she was engaged to me! Hissecond daughter is in my opinion much prettier." 50,with Maria out of the running, Emanuel got himselfofficially engaged to Mrensa, with a document signedby the father. He was to marry her as soon as he got aproper job and Emerentia was a bit older.But the poor girl seems to have been scared by herbrilliant and uncomfortable suitor. After ail, he was, at30, twice her age! 50 she persuaded her brother Gabrielta get hold ofthe document and destroy il. That was theend of the little affair.With the death of King Charles XlI, Emanuel had lost hispatron. Worse than that his intimacy with the Jate Kingwas now greatly to his disadvantage. The whole feelingof the country had swung against the Kings party. Eventhe new Queen, Charless sister, was forced to renounceher hereditary right to the throne, so that she heId itonly at the good pleasure of the Diet. 5he was to bevirtually only a figurehead.ln reading 5wedish history, one cornes acrossreferences to the two parties, Hats and Caps, rather Iikeour Whigs and Tories. King Charles XlI had led the Hatsor Plumes - what we should cali the "Hawks", whoromanticized war and gloried in the 5wedish Empire,which had in fact reduced the country to bankruptcyand disgrace. The Hats had poured scorn on the PeaceParty or Doves, saying they put on their night-caps andwent to sleep when the c1arion trumpet-call summonedthe country to arms! The Cap or Peace party was now in Emerentia Polhem. The second of Polhems Three23 daughlers. 10 whom Swedenborg was once officiallv enQaQed.
    • control. Emanuel Svedber9- being known as a personal proposed marriage eight years later (when 38) to StinaFriend of the late Kin9- was naturally regarded as a ~HatN, Maja, daughter of Bishop Steuchias of Karlstad; but sheand every opposition was placed in the way of his turned him down and married Baron Cedercrantz. Alterbecoming a full member of the Board of Mines, which that, he gave up; rented his own apartment inwas an important State Committee. Actually, of course, Stockholm, and engaged a male servant.Emanuel was neither Hat nor Cap, neither Hawk nor 1 will end here by mentioning the strange case of SaraDove. Ifanythin9- he was a Dove, as he strongly opposed Hesselius, his step-cousin (sister to the Rev. Peterail aggressive warfare; but he was prepared to support Hesselius in the U.S.A. who had visited him in London.)the defence of his country if it was in danger. This Sara had apparentJy been desperately in love with1 have already reported how Ulrika Eleanora, on Emanuel, but he had failed to respond. Alter her ownbecoming Queen, ennobled the Svedberg family in May premature death, she Iiterally haunted him, urging him1719, sa that Emanuels name became SWEDENBORG, secretly to kill himself and sa join her in the spiritualand he took his seat in the House of Nobles. Even then, world. He had to hide his dagger in a drawer, so as tohowever, it was not until1724, when he was 36, that he avoid the temptation to use it! (Spiritual Diary 4530)was actually put on the pay-roll as Assessor of Mines. And this was before his illumination and the opening ofAs for Emerentia Pol hem, she eventually married a his eyes into heaven and hell.wealthy man named Reinhold Ruckerskôld and hadnine children. Alter her husbands death, she managedhis estate, and ordered the building of a large mansion;but unfortunately, while it was under construction, shefell From the scaffoldin9- broke her le9- and had to walkwith crutches for the rest of her life. She composed andpublished a book of poe ms, now losl Some time alterher death in 1760, three of her daughters visitedSwedenbor9- who told them that he olten met Mrensain the Spiritual World, and she was happy there.It is generally assumed that, alter his disappointmentover Emerentia Polhem, Emanuel showed no furtherinterest in women. But in fact he is known to have24
    • Emanuel Swedenborg_25
    • .; .:. .... P L.·/X IJ F. I.. J l i /.I.J~ ;JI:" ~TOCKH()J..I ... Ir .~ .,iw .1 .~.,IJ:·" J..Um ,1,·I.,IrI,../~.I:,.J.-I1" ," .1 ;1," ~)f)""> .1.. J,t"f.JlIII,I. . Stockholm, Swedens capital city where Swedenborg heId high office and spent most of the middle years of his Iife. > .".C. ~. Il ..... ,,-.~, > . " 26
    • PART m. ASSESSOK OF MINES, PUYSICIST,ANATOMIST.As a civil servant and member of the House of Nobles,Swedenborg spent most of the middle years ofhis Iife inStockholm, the capital of Sweden.Stockholm is a beautiful city, spreading over both sidesof the effluence of Lake Malaren into the Baltic Sea. Itcovers many rocky islands connected by bridges orferry-boats. In winter the nights are long and bitter, andsorne of the channels freeze over. But during the shortsummer months the sun scarcely dips below thenorthern horizon at midnight; the weather is warm, andwild flowers give bright colour everywhere. The whitesails ofboats fill the waterways, and the breezes are richwith the odour of pine forests and wood-smoke. For twelve years or so (from 1724 to 1736) Swedenborgdevoted most of his time to the work of the Cham ber of Mines, attending the regular meetings of the Board atthe big stone building in Mynt Square - rattling over thecobble-stones in his horse-drawn carriage. He workedas a chemist in the laboratory, assaying metals; andjoined the Board in the administrative office,recommending laws to the Diet dealing with exports of iron and copper, and taxes on the mines. He travelledaround Sweden, right up to Lapland (on horseback or ina coach) inspecting the pits, even going down shafts on27 Smelting equipment. an engraving from one of Swedenborgs earlier works.
    • -, d.!-; ~ i MAcHINA BltJ1andi .M.ETAJ.LA cjn --m~ ,kg Ve fJettilr.s .­ ,jn,w"ta. cW Gman: JlVedlJ-ew.Machine for raising ore_ invented by Swedenborg.28
    • a rope-end, advising owners on improved methods ofsmelting and extracting From the ore; settling quarrels EMANUELIS SWEDENBÜRGII, ASSESS. COLLICGIl METALLICI SAC. REGIJEamong owners in local courts, and judging industrial MAJICST. REGNIQ.UE SVECIJEdisputes. On three occasions he made long journeysabroad - mostly in Germany, to study mining methods REGNUM SUBTERRANEUMin other lands and introduce the best into Sweden. SI V EHe wrote voluminously on chemistry and physics MINERALE(especially, or course, on metallurgy); on the atomic DEstructure of matter, on crystals, on mathematics(including the first Swedish treatise on Algebra), on saltmanufacture, docks and sluices. He published VENA ET LAPIDEMiscellaneous Observations in 1721, and OperaPhilosphica in 1733 - both in Leipzig. These studies FER R 1, UT ETtook him to the top rank in his field - if it cou Id be saidwhat exactiy was his field! VARIIS EJUS PROBANDINot satisfied with his now encyclopaedic knowledge ofail aspects of the mineraI kingdom, he turned his MODIS.attention ta the human body. How did the body CLASSIS SECUNDA.function? What was the human SouJ or Spirit? Wherewas it situated, and how was it related to the body? Howdid the BRAIN come into this, and how did the brainoperate? Such questions led him to pursue the subjectof human anatomy and physiology. He took two yearsleave of absence From the Board in order to attend theMedical SchooJ in Paris. (1736)He travelled to France through Holland and Belgium,much of the way by canal boat. As usual, he kept aJournal of Travet commenting on the state of the DR ES DIE&- L lP S 1 JE,countryside through which he passed, with detailed APUD FRIDERICUM HEKELIUM,notes on ail sorts of things, such as how to deal with "SLIOIOL. «CIO. M DCC XXXIV. Tille page from one of 5wedenborgs metaliurgical works. 29
    • wood worms and termites, how to make fences, andmanufacture window-glass. During vacations from Parishe crossed the Alps and visited Venice, proceedingthrough ltaly to Rome, where he had an audience withthe Pope. Returning by way of Paris to Amsterdam, hepublished "The fconomy of the Animal ffingdom (or,as it should more accurately be called, "The Interactionor organisation of the Realm of the Soul") - this wasmostly on the blood system in the human body. Later,he projected a much Jarger work, to be called simply"The Animal Nngdom (or, "Realm of the Soul") whichwas to deal systematically with every organ ofthe body,and might extend (he thought) to about seventeenvolumes!But, despite aIL his searching, he never found the Soul.Eventually he came to realise that he never would find itby the physical approach, because the Soul was notphysical. It was on a different plane altogether, invisibleto the physical eyes. Yet itevidentJy constituted a replicaof the entire body in minute detail. But (and this was hisgreat achievement of Faith) he no longer believed thatthe Soul was created by the body, but rather that thebody was created by the soull The Sou! was the realperson, the body was only its c1othing. When a mandied, ail that happened was that he discarded hisclothing, which was thrown away, while his Soul went onliving, in the SPIRITUAL DIMENSION. Emanuel Swedenborg. engraved by Bernigroth as the frontispiece to Swedenborgs Principia,Engraving of an iron works. from Swedenborgswork on the subject. 31
    • PART IV. TUB DAWN OF SPIRITUAL Swedenborg had had premonitions of psychicCONSCIOUSNBSS sensitivity since early childhood. His parents said that angels spoke with him," because he told them that he had had playmates in the garden house, when they knew he had been there alone. In later years he himself reported that From his fourth to his tenth year, he had several times revealed things at which his father and mother had marvelled. While writing his philosophical and anatomical works, he said he saw "joyful flashing lights when he uncovered a new truth. N lt was during this journey to Amsterdam that heIt is now 1743. Swedenborg is 55. He is back at home, regularly began to experience psychic phenomena,and has acquired a European reputation as seeing lights and hearing sounds, and being involved inphilosopher, physicist, anatomistand statesman, not to deep sleep and heavy dreams, which he interpretedmention being an influential member of the Board of symbolically, in a style recommended later by Freud ­Mines. As an author he isjust completing the first three they mostly related to his worldly ambitions, which hevolumes of his great work "Regnum Animale" The was beginning to see he must relinquish.Realm orthe Soul. As there are no adequate facilities inSweden for producing works of this magnitude, he is By far the most important event of this period tooksetting off again for Holland to have it published. place on April 6th 1744 in a hotel in Delft, Holland-so important that he marked the entry in his Journal "NBHe took his usual route: Stralsund, Hamburg and NB NB". On that night after a series of terribleAmsterdam. During the whole ofthisjourney, from July temptations, he had a Beatific Vision of the Lord Jesus1743 to Odober 1744, he kept a Journal, which Himself, whom he beheld face to face, and who actuallybecame less and less a record of scenery and events, spoke to him, with almost shattering effect. ThisIike his former Journals ofTraveL and more and more a experience places Swedenborg among the greatJournal of Dreams, by which title it is now known. But Mystics, and it can be regarded as the critical turningthe dreams were not ordinary dreams; they were in fad point of his life. From that day he began to have regularpsychic visions; and this Journal became a valuable open glimpses into the spiritual dimension.and important record of his transition into mysticism,and through mysticism into open spiritual Strangely enough, the first actual object he observed onenlightenment. the other side was a FLYl When he realized that the fly32
    • was composed of spiritual substance, not matter, he work in anatomy was not mentioned. That night hewas so disturbed that he couJd hardly bear it! dreamt that a big dog bit his leg with its terrible jaws,Having settled in Amsterdam and delivered Vols. 1and Il leaving him with a twisted foot- which meant he was to beware of self-love!of Regnum Animale to the printers, he had a vision of aship, which he interpreted as meaning that he must Having completed Vol. III of Regnum Animale,proceed to England for the publication of Vol. III. He Swedenborg began to write a book of an entirelysailed for Harwich on May 13th 1744 and arrived two different character - a blend of science, philosophy,days later, which, by the English calendar, was May 4th! religion and poetic imagination, called "The Worship NAnd so by coach across the pleasant fiat countryside of and Love of Ood But before this was completed, he •Essex, through Epping Forest and the East End of seems to have had another traumatic experience whichLondon. A fellow traveller on the coach was a Moravian confirmed the change which was already taking place ingentleman, who introduced Swedenborg to a fellow the course of his Iife. It was on April 6th 1745, exactly aMoravian, John Brockmer in Fleet Street with whom he year after the Lords first appearance to him, at Delft,took up lodgings. Holland. The story goes that he was enjoying a heartyHis Journal of Dreams continued. On September 21st meal at a small hotel in Bishopsgate, London. He hadhe saw a spirit-man sitting on a block of ice, who just finished eating, when the daylight seemed to growaddressed him rudely: "Hold your tongue or lII strike dim, and the floor became covered with disgustingyou!" (not a very favourable introduction to the creatures - snakes, frogs, beetles. A man appeared,in habitants of the other world!) But a week later, after sitting in a corner of the room, who said: "Eat not somuch suffering and temptation, Swedenborg saw the much!" Then the creatures disappeared with a loud popgable-end of a beautiful palace, which indicated to him or bang.that he had at last been accepted as a member of a "From that same night" (Swedenborg is reputed to havesociety in heaven - a privilege usually accorded only to informed his friend Robsahm, the bank manager ina man after he has died and left the natural world. This, Stockholm, to whom we are indebted for the wholewe are told, produced in him a state of great joy and story) "the World of Spirits, Hell and Heaven were fullypeace. opened to me, and 1 saw and recognized there manyThere was still the problem of his worldly ambition. In former acquaintances of every walk of Iife." He hadLondon, on October 18th, he attended a lecture at the previously, as a philosopher, convinced himself thatCollege of Medicine in Bloomsbury (close to the present there is a spiritual world, and that man has a soul orSwedenborg House) and was disappointed that his own spiritual body; but now he had seen for himself that ail 33
    • his friends who had ~died" were still alive and active on newly developed faculties. His work there was evidentlythe other side. This seems to have meant a great deal to highly appreciated, as, a year later, when one of the twohim. Councillors retired, the Board unanimously recommended Assessor Swedenborg for the vacantThe question remains: who was the man in the inn who Councillorship. However, realizing the increase insaid, ~Eat not so much"? It used to be thought it was the commitment which the new position would involve, andLord God Himself. But many scholars today believe with his eyes on other horizons, he decided to retirethere has been a confusion with Swedenborgs Beatifie From the Board altogether (he was now 59 years old). HeVision at Delft on the same date the previous year (April submitted his resignation to the King, who accepted it6th). More probably the whole story is a [ater version of only with the greatest reluctance, granting him athe account given by Swedenborg himself in Spiritual pension of half salary; and almost immediatelyDiary 397, headed: ~A Vision by day concerning thosewho are devoted to the Table and who thus indulge the Swedenborg left the country on yet another Foreign journey (J une 1747), probably to make a c1ean breakflesh. - 1745, April." Nevertheless something critical with the Board. As usual, he went first to Amsterdam,must have taken place at that time, because From then busily working on his Bible Indexes and the Wordonwards Swedenborg found himself living consciouslyin both the natural and the spiritual worlds, Explained.simultaneously. He also began at about this time to record his visionsFully aware now of his new situation and the and psychic experiences in what he called a Spiritualresponsibilities it brought with il, he gave up writing the Diary, which he kept for nearly twenty years (1747­Worship and Love of 00 d, and made his way back home 1765). Its translation into English occupies five bulkyto Sweden (July 1745). Here he studied Hebrew and volumes, which are a gold-mine for the researcher inGreek, and read the Bible in its original languages, spiritual phenomena, in addition to shining a brilliantseeing its meaning now in a totally new light. Being Iight on the inner Iife and development of SwedenborgEmanuel Swedenborg, he began to set it down in a himself. Unfortunately the first one hundred and fortymulti-volume expository work called Adversaria, or eight entries are missing; but we believe it was at about~The Word Explained". Side by side with this, he began this time - perhaps in February 1747 - that he saw onepreparing a Bible Concordance called "Index Biblicus v , of his most famous visions, fully described in ~Trueas a useful tool for further exposition. Christian Religion" No. 508.He was still a civil servant and naturally returned to his ln this vision he saw a magnificent square temple, withdesk in the Chamber of Mines, saying nothing about his walls of crystal and a gate of pearl, its roof being like a34
    • crown. Within the temple was a pulpit on which lay the 1 believe, however, that the motto NUNC L1CET had aopen Word, encompassed by a halo of Iight which much broader reference than merely to intellectua!illuminated the whole puJpit. ,ln the centre of the temple freedom in matters of Dogma previously imprisoned inwar a shrine, hidden at first bya veil which at that time the ancient creeds. Just as the Lord made His originalwas being withdrawn, revealing a cherub of gold incarnation in Palestine to redeem mankind Fromwielding a vibrating sword. As Swedenborg meditated bondage to HelL so, by coming again in His New Church,on these things, he was instructed that the Temple he would once again Iiberate the human mind, whichsignified a New Church which was about to be was losing its freedom again, owing to the uprise of Hell.established on earth. The pulpit represented its A tremendous increase of influx was about to pour intopriesthood and preaching; the open Word upon the mens hearts, From heaven and From hell, presenting apulpit indicated a revelation of the Spiritual Sense of vastly greater responsibility of personal choice to New­the Word; the cherub of gold was the Word in its literai Age Man. The Church, Iike the human race itself, hadsense; the vibrating sword was the capacity of the literai reached adulthood, no longer under tutelage. In thesense to be turned in every direction so as to favour areas of sex, politics, the arts, the intellect and in everyparticular truths; and the Shrine indicated the way, including Religion, the individual would henceforthconjunction of the Church on earth with the innennost be responsible for his or her own chosen development.heaven. Inscribed over the gate were the words NUNC NUNC L1CET - a ~Pennissive Society" indeed!L1CET ("Now it is permitted") and Swedenborg was told On August 7th 1747, a month after his arrivai inthat this meant ~Now it is permitted to enter Amsterdam, Swedenborg noted in his diary: ~There is aintelJectually into the mysteries of faith". change of state in me, into the Celestial Kingdom." This is taken to be the final step in his full illumination. HeRemember: if (as 1 believe) Swedenborg witnessed this was also being led to perceive that the Lord was makingvision early in 1747, it was before he himself had begun His Second Advent into the world, throughto reveaL through the press, the Spiritual Sense of the Swedenborgs instrumentality in unveiling the SpiritualWord. (Vol. ~ of the Arcana Coelestia came out in 1749.) Sense of the Word. In ail humility, he recorded in hisIt is doubtful whether, at that early date, he had begun diary for September lst 1748: ~Very many good spiritsto realize what his own part would be in the are gJorilYing the Lord on account of His Advent; andinauguration of the New Church on earth. Was this there is so much joy that some are saying they canpowerfuJ vision vouchsafed to him, so that when the hardly bear it! Next morning, everything was in a state oftime of his cali came, he would understand something tranquility, so that 1 perceived nothing but a tranquilof what would be involved? silence around me, which still continues." (Sp. D. 3029) 35
    • Two months later, Swedenborg left Amsterdam for PART V. TUB UOMBSTMI>.London, where he booked lodgings for six months. Heabandoned the Word Explained (which had beenlargely of an exploratory nature) and now, with calm Swedenborg actually took possession of theassurance and full authority, he began his great work Homestead (41-43 Hornsgatan) in March 1743; buton the Spiritual Sense of Genesis and Exodus, the what with his being out of the country, and alterationsARCANA COELE5T1A. The Writings of the New Church and improvements being required, it was not until threewere launched. years later - the Spring of 1746 (when he was 58) that he actually moved in. There had been a caretaker previously. The house itselfwas quite small, almost a log cabin. The guttering at the bottom of the steeply-sloping roof was only about nine feet above the ground. Two rooms constituted the ground floor, and a small kitchen: ail heated by a blue-patterned porcelain stove reaching from floor to ceiling, burning charcoal. One of the rooms, apparently, was his bedroom - the bed being so short he had practically to sleep sitting up - his wig on the bed-post. The other room was his study. Imagine him sitting mumed in a reindeer-skin coat using a feather pen, with his pen-knife by his side on the table; a porcelain ink-pot and a sprinkler of dry sand for blotting. Ali lit at night (and most of the day in the northern winter months) bya smelly whale-oil lamp or tallow candies. The furnishings included the famous inlaid marble table and a small pipe organ, which he played to unwind his tense mind. What music would he have played? Handel, and J.S. Bach, possibly - they were both just three years his senior. Much more Iikely Buxtehude, who, though a Dane, was born and lived not far away in Southern Sweden, and died in 1707..36
    • Swedenborgs hou se, on Homsgatan, Stockholm 37
    • An impression of the House and Garden.The loft up the little twisted flight of stairs contained frames white. The box-trees in the front garden weretrays of neatly labelled seedlings, sent to him by his known as Swedenborgs grenadiers Alongside the N •friend Wretman in Amsterdam, who imported them road was the carriage house, and adjoining it the homefrom the Dutch East Indies; and from the new Swedish of his gardener and housekeeper (husband and wife).settlement in Pennsylvania of which Swedenborgs Shortly before his death, Swedenborg made a list of hisfather, Rev. Jesper, had been non-resident Bishop. This possessions:-propagation of exotic plants would undoubtedly havebeen studied with great interest by young Carl Unné Silver Service. Chandelier. Collee Pot and(Unnaeus) who married Swedenborgs niece, Sara Sugar bowl, lIilk Can. Fine Teaspoons andElisabet Moraeus. Tongs. Two CandIesticks. JeweUed Tray, SixThe outside appearance of the house was bright and Precious SnutI-Boxes. Uebrew Bible.cosy: the woodwork painted red-ochre and the window­ lIicroscope38
    • A path led from the front of the house across a smallflower garden, and through a gate in the fence into themain garden or orchard. It then continued straight forfifty-five yards ta the summer-house against the rearwall. Half way along was a small pavilion, copied frommanor houses in England; through it at right angles tathe main path was another path, leading ta an aviarymade of brass wire ta the left, and a house of mirrors tathe right. (In winter, the birds were taken up ta the loft ofthe house.) ln the far left-hand corner was a maze (alsowith mirrors) ta amuse the children who often visitedthe garden on their way home from school. On the farright was a small Iibrary and store-room.The summer-house was a cubical structure, with roofsloping up ta a square skylight. and a bail ornament ontop in the middle. Three stone steps led up ta the frontdoor; and ta the left and right of the door were twowindows with hinged shutters. The woodwork waspainted yellow, the front door green, and the shuttersred - ail very neat and gay. A desk and chair were in thefront room, the rear one being only a store-cupboard. Inwet weather it was possible ta reach the summer-houseunder a covered way, leading from the far side of thehouse along the left-hand wall of the garden, enteringthe summer-house bya side door leading into the backroom. This interesting little building has beenrenovated and is on show in Skansen, as my wife and Jwere ta see on our pilgrimage. 5wedenborgs 5ummer-house,39
    • PART VI. A PILGRIMAGE. Across the road from the Boutique Giota is a small grassy park containing one of the only busts of Swedenborg on public display anywhere in the world.· It stands on a stone plinth bearing the single word1 first went to Sweden, and by train up to Lapland - the "SWEDENBORG", Below it on the plinth is an embossed"Land of the Midnight Sun," in 1927, when 1 was 20. bronze figure of a wigged 18th-century gentlemanLater, in 1976, my wife and 1 made a Pilgrimage to holding up what looks Iike a framed portrait of a childs"Swedenborg Country" - Stockholm, Uppsala, Skara, face. In front of him stands a little girl (back view) who isGôteborg. In Stockholm we soon found Hornsgatan a gazing up at the "portraW. You and 1knowvery weil thatmain road running along the cliff-top on the south side the gentleman is Swedenborg himself, and the "framedof the waterway, and searched for plots 41-43, the portrait" is a mirror, and the Iittle girl whose face isaddress of Swedenborgs homestead. Its ail built up reflected is Greta Askbom, a neighbours child, who hasnow, of course; but we found a handsome plaque asked to see an ange!! But why hasnt the Parkscommemorating his residence there, over a shop now Department who were responsible for the otherwiseoccupied by a Pakistani. Above the shop next door excellent memorial, added an explanation interpretingswung a free-hanging notice board, "BOUTIQUE the scene for the casual observer?GIOTN. If you want something a bit more sophisticated, youRound the corner were sorne steps going up, past an must seek out the works of Carl Milles, Swedensold house which closely resembled extant pictures of greatest sculptor, which are on display at Millesgarden,Swedenborgs own house; and so to the top of the cliff, a fantastic collection of sculptures in beautifulfrom which was a breath-taking view across the surroundings sloping down to Lake Vartan, Here we findwaterway to the Old City, with the lace steeple of the Emanuel Swedenborg: kneeling, eyes c1osed, agonizedRoyal Church (Riddarholmskyrkan) and c1usters of fine expression on his face, right arm stretched out",public buildings, towers and steeples, and the white undoubtedly a work of genius, but does this representsails of shipping. We admired the famous City Hall, the Swedenborg we know?reputed to be the finest in Europe; but Swedenborg 1 once asked a Swedish girl in a train what they hadwould not have seen this, as it was not built until1923. taught her in school about Swedenborg. Her eyes brightened as she said, "He was a crazy man, , . he sawThere used to be one in Lincoln Park, Chicago. cast by Adolph ghosts!" Did she get that idea from Carl Milles? Or didJonsson the sculptor; but one night it disappeared. Presumably it wasstolen for the copper. Carl Milles get it from people Iike her? It says in the40
    • catalogue: "One of Milles most inspired interpretations of an historie figure. Originally ordered by the English Swedenborg Association, but never purchased." (What 1 wonder, is the "English Swedenborg Association"?) There are two famous portraits of Swedenborg: one by Brander in the Northern Museum, Stockholm, with a copy in the Royal Academy of Sciences; the other by Krafft in Gripsholm Castle. Both were painted about 1770, when he was 82. They are so much alike that the Krafft portrait might have been copied from the Brander. ln Brander, Swedenborg is holding a scroll in his right hand, bearing the title "Apoca/ypsis Reve/ata". ln the Krafft, he is holding in his left hand a large thin hard­ back volume, on which a later hand has tried to copy the wording from the Brander, with two mistakes in the Latin! (Relevata for Revelata) As a work of art the Krafft is probably finer than the Brander. While in Stockholm, we visited the Cham ber of Commerce in Mynt Square which used to be the Chamber of Mines where Swedenborg worked for thirty years. Here we saw the famous inlaid marble table, which he presented to the Board in 1761, together with a small treatise on "Inlaying Marble". The interesting thing about this treatise is that he wrote it while his spiritual eyes were opened and he was working on "The Interior Sense ofthe Prophets and Psalms". The subject matter is utterly different but the hand-writing is the same, which has a bearing on the nature of his - ~ . inspiration.Bronze plaque on the plinth of a bust ofSwedenborg near to the site of his home inStockholm. 41
    • Swedenborg-s coat of arms_ # .- --. _ ~~~ro.- :..#..- - ..,- ~..~ __ ._ _ 4. • The HOllse of Nobles where Swedenborg took hisseat as a member of the The Swedish Diet. Inside the Great Hall.42
    • ln my mind 1had always assumed that the marbJe table of bound volumes of manuscripts: sorne in handsomehad been made in !taly. 1 told the caretaker so, but he leather bindings, others in parchment. Mostly they werecontradicted me and said quite definitely that it had very tall and narrow. Thousands of pages of antique­been made in Hol/and. 1 persisted "This is not Dutch looking handwriting, done with a quill! We werework, it is Italian". He was equally adamant, and so we impressed by the number of scratchings-out andparted. 1 have since discovered that we were both right: correction of words and even whole sentences.the table had been made by an ltalian craft:sman who Obviously here was a conscientious scholar, strugglinghad set up a workshop near Amsterdam, and ta express in the best possible way the profound truthsSwedenborg had purchased it there! which in his unique enlightenment he had been permitted by the Lord to understand. There was noOn the bookshelf of the Iibrary 1 was delighted to find a evidence here of verbal dictation from God, let alonecopy of the first Latin edition of "Apocalypse Revealed". automatic writing. My impression was that SwedenborgBut, surprisingly, there were none of Swedenborgs himself was inspired, certainly; but his Writings weregreat works on Iron and Copper and other scientific definitely NOT inspired - that is to say, they were thesubjects. Had the Board of Mines taken them with them words of Swedenborg, not the Word of God. In short, hiswhen they vacated the premises? was a rational revelation, not a verbal one.We also visited the House of Nobles in RidderholmSquare. It contained ten rows of seats cushioned with On the back of page of the Arcana Coelestia we sawblue velvet - actually long forms without backs, and what appeared to be a shopping list with the cash totalled up. This brought Swedenborg the man verywider than one would expect Dozens of coats of arms close to us over the two centuries!were painted in colour on the walls, and we foundSwedenborgs. The Diet, with its House of Nobles, was Among the other books were the manuscript volumesdissolved in the 1860s, and an English style of of the Latin Apocalypse Explained, with the wordParliament was insUtuted in its stead, so that the grand "Londini 1759" at the foot of the title page,old building which we visited had degenerated (so we countersigned by Robert Hindmarsh. Obviouslywere told) into a kind of "Snob Club". Swedenborg had intended and expected to publish theOn our way to Uppsala, we stopped at the Royal A.E. in London in 1759, following the five smaller works:Academy of Science building at Freskate, which had Heaven and Hel/, Earths in the Universe, LastJudgment,been moved here from Stockholm. A young librarian The Heavenly Doctrines, and The White Horse (knowntook us up to the fifth floor in the lift, and showed us into as "The London Five"). We also know that he had seta large hall full of book-shelves. Soon we saw "Em. aside 10,000 dalers for the purpose. But the project fellSwedenborg" over a metal frame, live shelves high, full through, probably because the printer, John Lewis, 43
    • protested that he could not possibly print so vast a superior to the Uppsala men? More advanced? Orwas itwork- running to at least four fat volumes, for that kind for a more personal reason, that he needed toof money! So Swedenborg changed his mind, took the dissociate himself From his commitments on the Boardmoney back to Sweden, invested it at 6% interest and of Mines? After ail, he was still a civil servant and wasset to work writing a more compact treatise covering expected to be at his post! He was entering a new field ofmuch the same ground - the Apocalypse Revealed, research: let it be done in a totally new environment!which he actually published in Amsterdam in 1766. We entered the Anatomical Theatre. and climbed theMany years later the abandoned manuscript (the one steps which joined the observation circles, one aboveon the shelf before us) found its way back to England the other. There were no seats; the students wouldand was published by Robert Hindmarsh between 1785 stand and lean forward on the rail, looking down on theand 1790 - hence his signature on the title page. It was professor with his dead victim spread out on the slab insubsequently returned ta the Royal Academy of the centre below. Our host and guide, Rev. RagnerSciences in Stockholm in 1842. Boyesen, obliged me by Iying on the slab (whichSo we continued our journey to Uppsala, and, of course, reminded me of a sacrificial altar) and 1photographedmade our pilgrimage to the famous sarcophagus in the him from one of the higher circles, where Swedenborgbeautiful red-brick Cathedral; also to the University and himself may have at one time stood to observe aail the other sights. dissection.What perhaps struck us most was a high cylindricalbuilding, prominent among the other roofs, whichturned out to he the Anatomical Theatre or dissectingHall. Ali my Iife 1had been told thal, when Swedenborgwished to study anatomy in his search for the souL hehad found it necessary to go to Paris, where dissectionwas permitted in the medicaJ schooL whereas (1 hadbeen told) it was illegal in Sweden. Imagine myastonishment to discover that in fact, dissection hadbeen practised here in Uppsala since 1650, and theyactually had a special building for il, the second in An old engraving of Uppsala Cathedral. part of theEurope after Padua in ltaly! Why. then. had Swedenborg university with the distinctive dome of thegone to Paris? Was it that the professors there were Anatomical Theatre can be seen on the left.44
    • CATt"DR-ALE" ( 45
    • ---A distant view of Uppsala as shown in another old engraving.46
    • Back in Stockholm, we did what ail good tourists do: we Near-by is a restaurant ca lied Sollidan. On an inner wallwent to 5kansen. This is a small island in the outlet to is a large coloured mural painting of Swedish life. Itthe Baltic Sea, to the east of the main waterway between shows miners digging, and beneath them isthe north and south parts of the city - you can Swedenborg himself, holding up a large crystal. So,approach it across a bridge From the north-east. It is a besides being a philosopher and naturalistunique open-air museum. Typical old buildings of ail Swedenborg is featured as a scientist interested insorts have been brought here From ail over Sweden and crystals! Little attention seems to be paid to his uniquehave been re-erected with as much Jocal colour as spiritual enlightenment and his wonderful theologicalpossible: old farmhouses, manor houses, windmills, writings.charcoal-burners furnaces, a Lapp hut ancient Viking However, 1 felt better when 1 read a poem by Hjalmanrunes. There is a glass-blower at work, a candIe maker, Gullberg, which is supposed to be spoken by thean antique printing press. There is folk music and folk summer-house. It moved me deeply. Here is adancing, ail in authentic costume; and a zoo of animais translation: ­associated with Sweden. And there, in the Rose garden,quite near the S.W. corner entrance, is Swedenborgs"Lusthus" or pleasure house (summer-house). On it is anotice stating that "Emanuel Swedenborg, 1688-1772, "1 am a pavillon wbÏch men pass by.famous philosopher and naturalist built this summer­ 1 stood in Stockholm in my masters garden.house in about 1750, at 41-43 Hornsgatan, and laid Dis augels filled me wiU1 U1eir harmonies,out a magnifrcent garden. This summer-house served And spiritual values flourished in my care,as a background to the layout of the garden Iike a A mighty man of research, prophet, sage,cupboard against a wall. It is shown here containing Ue used my simple shelter as a home.furniture From Swedenborgs time, including a small Uere he beheld U1e gIory of U1e heavens,organ which belonged to him. Part of the rose-garden And here was buiIt a New Jerusalem.around the summer-house is stocked with plants which For U1e Spirit now fled 1 was a sheD,are known to have grown in Swedenborgs garden ­ Now 1 stand forsaken in my grief.such as larkspur, sweet william, flax, sweet-scentedwhite roses, bleeding hearts, violets, tulips and But harp and cymbal filled me, whenhyacinths." God came to visit wiU1 our Swedenborg." 47
    • After leaving Stockholm and Uppsala, my wife and 1took wife Sara both died in 1720! Why D.J. Swedberg? Thetrain across country to Skara, where we were shown "OH may stand for the original name of Danielson, or it Hover the beautiful cathedral. Here Bishop Jesper may sim ply be "Dr or Doctor. Probably the latter.Swedbergs memory is still green, and the organistplayed some of his hymns for us, sung in the originalSwedish, 1 went up into the ornate pulpit to get the feelof it! (The organ is not the one Emanuel claims to haveplayed, but a grand new one,) Not far from Skara is the ancient monastery of Varnhem, where the remains of the Bishop and his second wife Sara Bergia were interred. We found a big black Iron door (Iocked, of course) at a corner of the outer wall of the monastery. Over the mausoleum is the following inscription, in Swedish, on an oval stone: "The resting-place of Bishop D.J. Swedberg and his belovedwife Sara Swedenborg, anno 1720. Sara (Emanuels H stepmother) had died on March 3rd 1720, and the mausoleum had actually been prepared for her. Her husband the Bishop had lived for another fifteen years,which he had spent with his third wife, ChristinaArrhusia, who survived him. But Jesper had leftinstructions that he should occupy the mausoleum withSara No. 2. He had characteristically written a detailedaccount indicating how his own funeral should beconducted: who should carry the coffin, the funeraloration, and so on. So, when hedid actuallydie, in 1735,aged 82, his instructions were carried out to the letter.Christina had his body put in the mausoleum with Sara,and the inscription was sim ply left as it was, although itimplies, quite falsely, that the Bishop and his second The author standing on the steps of the mausoleum at Varnhem, containing the remains48 of Bishop Jesper 5wedberg. Emanuels father.
    • Having worked ail that out we continued our pilgrimageto Gothenburg (Gôteborg) - a large port on the WestCoast. There we visited Sahlgren House, Nos. 14-16North Harbour Street. This was the building whereEmanuel Swedenborg spent Saturday afternoon, July19th 1759. He had just arrived back from England in asailing ship. He had recentJy published Neaven andNeW and the rest of the "London Five", in London, andhe had the unfinished manuscript of the "ApocalypseExplained in his travelling case. He was visiting his Nfriend William Castel here in Sahlgren House, and therewere fifteen other guests. Every New-Churchman knowswhat happened - how he was suddenly conscious thata dangerous fire was raging through the largely woodenbuildings in South Stockholm - 300 miles away. Beingpsychic and clairvoyant he was able to give a runningcommentary on the progress of the fire, until (hereported) it had burnt itself out quite close to his ownhome.To get something of the feel of what had, happened in that house, 1 picked up the telephone and dialled our good friends in Stockholm. No, there was no major fire raging in Stockholm just then! NeveJtheless, if there had been a fire, 1could have reported on it by telephone,just as easily as Swedenborg did it by psychicawareness and clairvoyance. . . and no lessmiraculously!For note this: clairvoyance is not the same as havingones eyes opened into the spiritual world. TheStockholm fire was not in the spiritual world, but here Sahlgren House. Gothenburg, the scene of Swedenborgs clairvoyant experience of the Stockholm rire. 49
    • Gothenburg.50
    • on earth! There are many psychics who practise Among the last words he wrote are the following:­clairvoyance, telepathy and other PSI phenomena, but -The New Church is not being estabIished bydo not have their spiritual eyes opened as Swedenborg means of miracles. In place of them, the spiritualdid. Even animais may be psychic. So, do not let us build sense of the Word has been revealed to me, andup Swedenborgs reputation on his clairvoyance, whichwas of comparatively minor significance! my spirit and body have been iotromitted ioto the spiritual world, in order that 1 might know the nature of heaven and heU; and that through enIightenment from the Lord 1 might imbibe the Truths of Faith by which man is led to etemallife. This is more excellent than any miracle." (Invitation VII and Coronis.) 51
    • PART VII. COMMUNICATING WITU SPIRITS. The subject of SHAME was being considered, and the question arose as to whether "shame" could exist in a person without a sense of "reverence". Swedenborg comments that, among men on earth, such a subject could not be dealt with except by means of reasonings from evidence and examples, and still the answer would"A certain man, newly arrived in the other world, heard be in doubt. But in less than a minute the angels hadme speaking about the spirit or sout, and asked: "What laid out ail the possible degrees and varieties ofShame,is a spirit? - supposing himselfto be still alive on earth. and, by the side of these, ail the possible degrees andAlter some explanation and further discussion, 1 was varieties of Reverence; so that it could be seen at oncepermitted to tell him that he himselfwas now a spirit, as where they overlapped and where they did not.he might know from the fact that he was over my head, There were some remarkable observations aboutand was not standing on the ground! 1 asked him N LOVE. "Among friends , says Swedenborg, "our delightwhether he could not perceive this; and he then fied is in companionship; whereas with lovers it isaway in terror, crying out: / am a spirit, / am a spirit!" conjunction. In friendship we want to give ail we(A.c. 447) possess to the other, except ourseJves. In love, we wantThis vivid and amusing little anecdote presents H to give ourseJves "Conjugial Love is Iike a rose­ •Swedenborg as entirely at home now in the Spiritual garden", he remarks, "which produces new rosesWorld, even able to help new-arrivais settle in! From his indefinitely". (How did this confirmed bachelor know soSpiritual Diary, we find him moving in and out of the much?) "Alter the death of a partner in a happyspiritual dimension, conversing freely with spirits of ail marriage, that partner remains in intimate contact withsorts and conditions. (They called him "Wonder-man" the one still on earth, until the death of the other, alterand enquired of him "What news from the earth?N) He whicl1 they meet again in the spiritual world and loveeven went down into hell - with special Divine each other more tenderly than before."protection. Spirits could see through his eyes into this Swedenborg mentions several individuals, includingworld, and even tasted the food he ate. his aunt Brita Behm and Polhem and King FrederickHe discussed many topics with them. For example, he (husband of Ulrica Eleonora), who witnessed their ownasked some angels about thejoys ofheaven, and one of funerals through his eyes. Usually a few days elapsedthem observed, "There are 4 78 genera and species of between death and resurrection, but he met Countfelicities in heaven". (He could have used the round Brahe on the other side within twelve hours of hisnumber 500, but no! There were exactly 478!) execution.52
    • He met his former London printer. John Lewis, in the stars and pla nets there as weil as here. For Swedenborgspiritual world (He calls him "Levi the printen and to visit spirits from distant worlds required a kind ofmany other quite inconspicuous individuals, good and space-travel, as he describes in his book "Earths in thebad. But on the other hand he warns us not to take it for Universe 6 :granted that those in the other world are always who "In a state of wakefulness, 1was led in the spirit by thethey say they are! He olten saw spirits who genuinely Lord to a certain earth in the universe, accompanied bybelieved themselves to be certain individuals on earth, some spirits from our world. The progression tookinto whose memories they had entered - they place towards the right and lasted for two hours (ofimpersonated these men to the Iife, spoke in their tone earth-time). Near the boundary of our solar systemofvoice, used their gestures, knew ail they knew, and, of there appeared first a whitish but dense cloud, and altercourse, spoke in their language. We are warned, it a fiery smoke ascending from a great gulf: this was antherefore, not to place too much faith in the identity of immense chasm, separating our solar system on thatspirits purporting to be our friends. Alter a while in the side from certain systems of the starry heaven. The fieryspiritual world, spirits usually forget completely who smoke appeared over a considerable distance. 1 wasthey were on earth - they still possess their natural conveyed across the middle of il, and then therememories, but under normal conditions are appeared beneath, in that gulf or chasm, very maliyunconscious of them. people, (who of course were spirits) talhing with oneSometimes the latent earth-memory of a spirit leaks another; but whence they were, or of what character, itthrough or spills over into the memory of the man or was not given me to know. One of them, however, toldwoman with whom that spirit is consorting. This me that they were guards to prevent spirits passingaccounts for "long memory" - when a person in this without permission from one system of the universe toworld thinks he remembers a past Iife, and attributes it another. If anyone attempted this, the fiery smoketo Reincarnation whereas in fact it is the past Iife of his which exhaled from the chasm tortured him so that heattendant spirit. cried out wildly that he was perishing, and struggled IikeThere are hundreds of earths in our universe, persons in the agony of death."containing human inhabitants who, Iike us, pass over On another such space-journey, Swedenborg wasinto the spiritual world at death. Being utterly different accompanied by Dr Scriverius, a famous preacher from Nin character from spirits from our earth, they inhabit Stockholm who had recently "died Alter ten hours of •regions far distant from ours. This produces a kind of traveL they reached an earth so far distant that our sununiverse-in the spirit realm, corresponding to our solar looked only Iike a distant star in the sky. The inhabitantssystem and starry heaven. In other woras, there are of that earth regularly spoke with spirits, so 53
    • Swedenborg and his companion had no difficulty in TUE IAST JUDGMENTconversing directly with people actually living there.(They communicated, of course, by thought­transference.) He refers to one particular girl, who wasvery beautifully dressed in a simple garment with atunic hanging gracefully behind her and brought up The central focus ofSwedenborgs "Spiritual Diary, #andover her arms; she had a chapletofflowers on her head. what most amazed his readers when they came to studyFor Dr Scriverius it was a case of love at first sight. "He il, was the accolmt he gave of the LAST JUDGMENT. Hetook her by the hand and spoke affectionately to her; became known ironically in some quarters as "the manbut she, perceiving that he was not from her earth, who daims to have witnessed the Last JudgmenW Hewithdrew and hurried away" - which was probably a was indeed a crazy man, because obviously, if the Lastgood thing for ail concerned! However, it upset the good Judgment had taken place, everybody would have beendoctor sa much that Swedenborg had difficulty in involved! However, Swedenborg saw il, not in this world,holding him back from following her! - and even after but in that middle region of the Spiritual World, whichthey had moved on, his shadow still remained where his lies alongside our earth, and which everyone first entersthoughts were. (A.C.10. 754; f.U. 62.) after death. The Church on earth in the mid-Eighteenth century was at a very low ebb, both catholic and Protestant. Many Religious leaders and others, on arrivai in the World of Spirits, had surrounded themselves with fake heavens - cities oozing with phony prosperity, prisons and torture chambers for carrying on the Inquisition - ail devoted, in the name of Religion to the suppression of everything good and creative and true. There were corrupt monks and nuns, living together in ornate monastic complexes, with pomp and ceremony, worshipping bogus saints ... ail devised to conceal the worship of themselves. (Spiritual substance being highly responsive to thought-force, everyone in the Spiritual World tends to produce around him a visible and substantial projection ofhis thoughts and desires.) 54
    • By the middle of our eighteenth century, the pressure of buildings were tottering and collapsing. Rocks wereevif was becoming intoJerable. It had been permitted by splitting, forming deep chasms, into which millions ofProvidence to continue thus far, like the tares in the souls were flinging themselves. Trumpets were blaring,wheat-field of our Lords parable, "Until the time of flames were crackling, while a powerful wind washarvest the end of the age. And now, Iinked up with the H , blowing everything away, sterilizing who le areas whererevelation of the spiritual sense of the Word in the wickedness had flourished for centuries. Then at lastvolumes of the "Arcana Coelestia the pent-up forces of H , the Lord could make ail things new - in the SpiritualJudgment were released. Swedenborg witnessed ail World if not yet on Earth.this in his inner consciousness, and reported il, live, like Il have already suggested that Swedenborg himself hada foreign correspondent speaking over the phone to his been unconsciously involved in the mechanism of thiseditor. Through his words one hears the rumble of an Judgment. His opening-up of the Word had helped toearthquake, and smells a whiff of sulphur. "The Last bring an inflow of new truth from the Lord into the HJudgment Swedenborg declares, "was commenced at , cosmic situation, which had stripped away ail fakes andthe beginning of the year 1757, and was fully shams. The evif were beginning to appear outwardly as Haccomplished by the end of that year • they already were inwardly. And was it not perhaps, a1757! A key date for New-Churchmen, and a critical year relief to them, no longer having to act a rôle?in universal history, whether the world knows it or not! On one occasion, he saw thousands of spirits in the airSwedenborg, psychologically sensitive as he was, had a above him, 100 king like a great dragon which was tryingpremonition ofit early in his illumination period. Under to sweep away the stars with its tail. Eventually theydate Feb. 13th 1748 he records in his diary: "There was were ail cast into the pit. In the end, the wholeshown to me, in a vision, the number 57. It appeared Intermediate Region between Heaven and Hell waswritten before my eyes, but what it signifies 1 do not c1eared, leaving only the good spirits, who were Hc1early know. He thought it must have meant 1657, but somewhat dazed, Iike prisoners released from acouldnt think of anything particular in connection with dungeon, or like dead men rising From their tombs.that date. Weil, 1757 was now upon him, and vast They were gathered together by special angels, andevents were afoot. With increasing violence, mountains were led away with joy to form a new heaven.in the World of Spirits were sinking into the ground,leaving marshy plains and deep pools of filthy black There will be no more general Judgments. Ali thewater. Great cities over there were fo/ding up - the heavens are now complete, and ail the hells aremiddle sinking down into the abyss, and the sides complete - three of each, corresponding to the threebending over together, shutting everything in. High degrees of the human mind. They are aU "open now;H 55
    • that is to say, anyone alter death can go to any ofthem. PART VIIl. TUE WRlTlNGS Of TUE NEW CUURCU.Moreover, the machinery of Judgment (the trumpet thebright light of truth, and the wind that blows awayhypocrisies) is still fully operating in the World of Spirits, Swedenborg witnessed the Last Judgment in theand it will never again cease to operate; which means Spiritual World from his summer-house in Stockholm.that every individual is now judged immediately alter He must have been busy with his pen at that time, fordeath. Spirits cannot accumulate and establish during the following year 1748 he went to Londonthemselves in the Intermediate Region as they used to where he published simultaneously no less than fivedo. When a man dies, he begins to move on at once to books with John Lewis the publisher in Paternoster Rowhis final home in Heaven or in Hell. That probably near St. Pauls - where he had previously published theexplains why the effects of this Judgment are eight volumes of the Arcana Coelestia. (Knowing as r docontinuing on and on in this world, and power is flowing the excitement and strain involved in publishing onlydown freely into mens hearts from Heaven and from one small book, my mind boggies at the stunningHell. The dead weight has been removed forever; hence achievement of putting out five at the same time!) Thethe unprecedented ferment in the world today. London Five have already been enumerated: (1) EarUts in the Universe (2) Ueaven and Uell (3) Ueavenly Docbines (4) The LastJudgment (5) The White Uorse Swedenborg had also written most of the ~Apocalypse Explained", which, as 1 have reported, remained unpublished until alter his death. These books, and ail the Writings of the New Church, were originally published in Latin - the language of the educated classes in those days. The first appearance of the new teachings in any modern language was in English: part of Vol. Il of Arcana Coelestia, translated as an experiment by John Marchant, Lewiss proof-reader, covering Genesis chapter 16 - to be sold in parts. But the experiment does not appear to have been successfuL as it was discontinued. 56
    • Afier the "London Five", ail the future Latin editions Since those early days, works by Swedenborg havewere published in Amsterdam, with the sole exception been translated and issued in the following languagesof the "Intercourse between Soul and Body", which was (in addition, of course, to English):­published in London in 1769. The Amsterdam dates Arabie, Burmese, Chinese, Czech, Danish, Dutch,were as follows:­ Esperanto, Finnish, French, German, Greek,The Four Leading Docmnes, The Last Judgment Gujarati, Uindi, ltalian, lcelandie, Japanese,Continued, and The Divine Love and Wisdom Lettish, Magyar, Norwegian, PhiIippino, Polish,(another major publishing spree!) ail in 1763: The Portuguese, Russian, Serbo-Croat, Sotho,Divine Providence in 1764: Apocalypse Revealed Spanish, Swedish, TamiL Welsh, Zulu.in 1766: Conjugial Love in 1768: BriefExpositionin 1769: and True Christian Religion in 1771.An English version of Brie! Exposition (translated, verybadly we are told, by John Marchant) was published inLondon in 1769. Duringthe same year, Manoah Sibleyissued a Latin-English edition of "Intercourse betweenSoul & Body". It was re-translated by Hartley andCookworthy the fo/,lowing year. They evidently didntIike the emotive word "Intercourse" (1 would havepreferred "Interaction") so instead they issued theirwork under the astonishing title "A TheosophieLucubration on the Nature of Influx, as it Respects theCommunication and Operation of Soul and Body". 57
    • UNIVERSA THEOLOGIA NOVI C~LI ET NOV lE ECCLE511E. 01 fio., fIII 04 On_ _- Api .cced""" Apoc;. XIX: 9, hoc f.Clum cn Ncn(C Junio, OteIJ9, Anao 1770. Hoc: inreUC{lum eIl rcr hzc Dotnini "r~ .. A""., _JIII""J j., Jrlld 1 8 . .r..... tIflf" 1I/faJ • ",..., c. . . . "".,., U M:I.I:Lb. XXJY: 3 1 • ft,.· • • • • 792 • De M ......~·"!"Ji Ifto. e! ln fi.......i 010" de CA<LO 6: J"... ~o, iR quo l;k:(c,ipn (une u,a ,RidS Mund•• &: qUI1 OmOb horna p>ll mortcm ln Ilium Mu~um venir. rcripcui edam enSr~tu. ho~inum ibi. Oui, noo novic" aul: none pcndt quod bomo plf morœra Vivat, qui Q3lUI efl: noma, crc..IUl Iln:l· 10 Dci, ~ qUia DominUi il! VCJbo (uo id c!oa."l; Itd q~aliJ VÎra ci (UU"3 ~ll, hXlcnus lpolum fuir C1"Cdirvm cR, quod tunc dkt ADlma, de qua non ahim kkam (oVC1Unc, quam 4cul de z:dlCTe lut lere,lci quod fit Pneuma 1 quidt homo~:< orc ("rpiru. dUID IDOriaUl. in quo [illien vir;tle qUI rdidct J rel quod lie ill>r~I": ~Ju qu:llis en oculi. Ib~UC auditu qualil cft auril, & abrq~ loque;. qu;.li. e~ orls._ cum rllOft borna ........ ~ eft homo &: IIbs horno~ ur non (nu :ah· 1er qUlIIm quod Gr in priori Nunc!o; vider, •...sil. loquicur ~ rtCJc in pri. ori Murdo; Imbuar turrit, reda. fieut in priorc MunJo; cubat, dormi. " ...·i~il•• fi<ll In priori MuncI<! i edi.6: bibi< lieu. i. priori Mol>Jo; deli.io con­ ._6 jUl"li fNitUf Geur iD priori MUD.Io; vcrbo, cft homo qUOld omnia &: fi"ttub. Es. ~. quod Nan . . fit cdlia&io. (cd cOIMiDulrio viœ, & quoJ Be .-Jo Quod homo lit ..... homo poli A , luIle cor.... """Ha "..­ <UrJlCIIi! _ appara, <oDfbre potdI .. A-iI ifi. Abr.hlmo, 1"1;­ ri Giud<œi, Danieli, &: .butilam Pt<JlJheri., CT ;"1"11 vifi. iD S."ulch,o 00­ mIni, ~ paRa lanlrodes JOhanIIi, ~ quibus in ArocALYPIf tUmprimis ex Ipro Domino ~ quod cdtr Homo. ~t pet utlum &: ptt crum, & c:I.m:n co­ nm ocul~ ilIoN.. iDccDfpicuue haut cft. lIis polCft it.:l ddiruC, ut non agno­ r<:l, quin, ......fi lnc:œfPiewa •. ~ homo fuerir: Quod viderin. Ipfum, <nt C,JIU(I i quia ruOC apc;:rCi runr 0CUli .~NI illonIm, " Cum hi aperiunrur ~ app.l­ mK i la. ~ iD Munda rpirhuali ruar t zque clare, qUftnadmndum ml, Q;J.1( iD Monde> N..onli. DitIeralia iaIa bomiDcID ln Muado ..,onli, 6: bomin.:m la Mol>Jo rpirituoD dl, t":l * homoÇorpotc rubllaRtioli indu... n" ille 0­ ~t~l~ i:m~ ..:bIC: :acco:r::,cf:: =~·c~:ia~. ~~c rtw~: minml mar_lem: Ad . . DOfdl hoato fubftaMiallt vidrre hominem m:ucri3­ If_ km t nec homo ....rcrtaIi (ubftantiilem, ~ di6erentiam inter ma­ œriIIc 6: rubllantiole, quaIio dl, dercribl porâl, rcd oon pauei.. 704- E< .ilijlG lOt -1.polIUm r.......". rdme, quod in Mo"n r. ..,;. tuIJi lin< _ T _ 0 io .taiIIll. quod.... rm< Pbnlin 6: V.lk•• -M...... 6:ColIea~ &:_ 0lI~" ":.... il; quod fin. P.odi"., 1I00li, Lucl &: hl••; ~ - Uitloï, & laibi P.Ia". &: DoiDuo; mm quod IInl S<rlp­ . . . &~(bI;" " ~ ~; 6: quod font Au,u,n, a: A~" ........ , "-~l""" iD CaID _ ..... _6ai ......... &neuf., ~_co"l"" in ... poo:rfealan. S<d difrCr<nli, en; .. ..... ~ ~ il -=- _"1 • =:..:-~~ _ .. ... . 1IIrIIuaIl (po6ontur, lia< . . . - 0 cml•• Domino • ~, &qu"!,I ~, eoI comrPOllden.i.,n .• ~ii.::o t . . . r.. ~Jœa &: inde cOl:,iudo· ialunII fpotIUIUf, a r<llliD< ",iRDI eadta& ;9J.58
    • TIIF. OELlOUT8 0 .. WIBDOIl ( . () N .f U 0 1 A LLO V E TUF. 1J,E,SURt;S 01 INSANITY .9"~ !olCOltlAlOUY LOVE . ." eV. " /~.,/tu.#.:- ~~q-~--- ...... ~Vr-A-y fI/(l,ll THE 1..4 TIN Il ~/!j EMANIIEL SWEI>t:NBORG -tu­ ~2/_ lliE ~Wf,llt;NfJOlln SOCIETY (bl ""If!l«1.1.lJ10) :~ 1I1,.l)lI!oIHIIUIlY >:-TH":Jo7l, I."NHON 11191A spread From the original Latin edition oF True Title page and ny leaf from an English translationChristian Religion. of Conjugial Love. The inscription, with itsParagraph No. 791 may be translated: curious spelling, indicates that this copy wasAfler this book was tinished, The Lord called presented by Eisak Pitman, an inventor oFtogether his twelve disciples; and the next day he 5horthand.sent them Forth into the whole spiritual world topreach the gospel that the Lord God Jesus Christreigns, whose kingdom shall be for ever and ever: 59
    • NBW-CUURCU DAY Questions arise: Was Judas Iscariot included? (He was one of the twelve who followed Jesus in the world.) And what actually took place on June 19th - the "gatheringIt is not the intention of the Scrapbook to coyer every together", or the "sending forth"? Anyway, the Newdetail of Swedenborgs life. However, 1 will pause for a Church has adopted June 19th as NEW-CHURCH DAY,moment in the year 1770, when he hadjust completed irrespective of the shift from the Julian to the Gregorianthe manuscript of his last great work, "True Christian Calendar"Religion" - an encyclopaedia of ail the main doctrines 1wonder whether the twelve disciples, when they set out(except perhaps "Conjugial Love" and "Divine on this other-world crusade, remembered the detailedProvidence",) And, just as the Last Judgment was instructions given to thern by Jesus, when He sent themreleased in the spiritual world immediately after the forth on the previous occasion in Galilee, sornecompletion of "Arcana Coelestia", so, after the seventeen-hundred years previously, to proclaim thecompletion of "True Christian Religion", another major Coming of the Kingdom of God? (Matthew 10, Mark 6,event occurred in the spiritual world, which many Luke 9.) Travel was much easier in the spiritual worldpeople believe to have been the beginning of the Lords than it had been in ancient Palestine; but the area nowNew Church. to be covered ("the whole spiritual world") must haveSwedenborg first announced it as a Memorandum at been daunting! Are they still at it?the close of the chapter on The Consummation of theAge (True Christian Religion No. 791) and repeated it inthe re-write of the manuscript llos. 4 and 108, asfollows:­-Alter this work was finished, the Lord calledlogether uis twelve disciples who bad followedUim in the world; and the next day Ue sent themforth throughout the whole spiritual world, lopreach the gospel that the Lord God Jesus Christreigns, whose kingdom shall be for ever andever ... This look place on the 19th day of June,in the year 1770." (almost Midsummer Day. whenmaypole dances were being held ail over Sweden.)60
    • PARTIX.AMSTERDAMINTEKLUDE. Swedenborg had been publishing his books in Amsterdam since his scientific days, and was weil known there. His friend John Cuno gives us in his diary one of our most cherished insights into the old gentlemans priva te Iife. He describes him as being dressed, when at home, in a brownjacket; but in a c1ose­ fitting black velvet coat and breeches wh en out visiting, and carrying a curious hilted sword. Whisps of white hair would protrude from under his full-bottomed wig. At night he shed his wi9- of course, and wore a velvet skull-cap. He had a large mouth and smiling blue eyes; and when conversing with people, oit seemed as if theA few weeks after 19th June 1770 ("New-Church Day") truth itself was speaking through him.Swedenborg set out on his twelfth overseas journey,leaving Stockholm for the last time. He was now 82 ­ But on this visit in the autumn of 1770, Swedenborgtoo old, one would think, for the rigours of 18th century was too busy for the social round. He was "working in atravel; but he was hale and hearty. With the manuscript super-human manner" (reported Cuno) making a fairof True Christian Religion" in a stout box, he crossed copy of "True Christian Religion" for the prin ter. andSweden by stage coach to Gothenburg (300 miles proof-reading il. He would prepare ten large sheets ofapproximately) and took passage from there on a manuscript for the press each week and correct thesailing ship to Amsterdam, where he obtained lodgings previous weeks galleys. At this rate, the whole volumewith a family who owned a shop selling chintz and was completed and published by June 1771- exactly amuslin. year after the completion of the first draft in Stockholm.Amsterdam, like Stockholm, is a city of waterways: but The publication of T.C.R. was in a sense the fulfilment ofin Amsterdam these are narrow canals with tow-paths Swedenborgs Iifes work. He wrote to Dr Beyer on Apriland hump-back bridges. Carillons and church bells fill 30th: "After this book appears, the Lord will opera tethe air with music from a dozen steeples. There are both mediately and immediately to establishmerchants offices handling trade from the Dutch East throughout the whole of Christendom the New ChurchIndies; warehouses, ships chandlers, diamond cutters, based upon this theology. The New Heaven, out ofprinters and book binders. Amsterdam was indeed one which the New Jerusalem is to descend, will soon beof the publishing centres of Europe. completed." 61
    • PART X. LONDON POSTWDE. other occasions. His English friends had actually urged him to spend his last days among them; they did not want to Iionize him, as the Amsterdammers did, but to sit at his feet and drink the spiritual waters which flowed out through him from the Lord. Two of these friendslt was now the year 1771 and Swedenborg was 83 years actually offered to provide him with a financialold. The "True Christian Religion" was off the press; and, allowance, but he had ample means of his own toexcept for tying up a few loose strings, his lifes work was supply his frugal needs. ln London he was popular withcompleted. Ali he needed now was a state of peace, so working people and with the lower middle classes, whothat he could enjoy his other-world contacts without called him "The Baron", or "The New Jerusaleminterruption, and round off the Writings of the New Gentleman". ,He was cheerful, friendly and talkative, butChurch. Where should he spend his final days? stammered slightly. One report had it that at 81 he wasStockholm was out of the question. No prophet has growing a new set ofteeth! - But this was probably onlyhonour in his own country! The religious establishment a hardening of the gums.in Sweden was solidly against him; his doctrines were Arriving in Clerkenwell in North London, he took a cabdeclared heretical and violently wicked. Two college to Wellclose Square, and made for the home of theprofessors in Gothenburg, Ors. Beyer and Rosen, who wigmaker, Richard Shearsmith, No. 26 Cold Bath Fields,supported Swedenborg and were conducting the first where he had lodged on a previous occasion. HeNew-Church study groups, had been ordered to occupied two communicating rooms, the rear onerepudiate the Doctrines. They had refused to do so, and containing his bed and the front one a round foldinghad both been consequently deprived of their jobs. The table for his writing materials.matter had been referred to the King, and was rumblingendlessly in the law-courts. Wellclose Square was on the outskirts of the city in those days. It was a spa where the wei Ho-do came toSwedenborg might of course, have remained in drink medicinal waters. There was a bath-house in aAmsterdam; but here was the opposite situation. He park, and you passed numerous inns and places ofhad so many friends and supporters here in high entertainment offering (had he needed them) suchsociety, that he had hardly any privacy; he was diversions as bear-baiting, cock-fighting and boxing!perpetually on display. But the district was quiet on the whole, with the songs ofSo his thoughts began to turn nostalgically to London, birds, tinkling water, and the laughterofchildren sailingwhere he had been happy in his youth and on many their boats on the pond.62
    • Being Swedenborg, he couldnt stop writing; and injected almost unconsciously into the teachings of thegradually additional sheets of an "Appendix"to the True contemporary old-church establishments. HistoricallyChristian Religion began to pile up on his table. Some of in England these two approaches were calledthese sheets he lent to a friend (Dr Messiter) and never Separatism" and "Non-Separatism", and weregot back. The material which survived occupies 165 associated in the first place with Hindmarshpages in the English edition of his posthumous works. (Separatism) and Clowes (Non-Separatism). In AmericaHe called it "The Coronis to the True Christian Religion". they became, roughly, the Academy and theThe name does not imply that his crowning work Convention. For another hundred years or 50, ourneeded a crown! Actually the word "coronis" meant the theologians will probably be experimenting on how toflourish of the pen made to indicate the end of a letter, blend or synthesize these two opposite approaches.chapter, or other document; or the elaborate squiggle Here is support for an exclusive attitude, taken from "Anwhich people drew under their signatures in those Ecclesiastical History of the New Church" (my copy ofmore leisurely days. Thus Swedenborgs "coronis" was the Coronis p. 144):­the squiggle under the autograph of the T.C.R.! When the BriefExposition was published (in 1769) theBut the Coronis is not to be dismissed as a mere angelic heaven, from east to west and from south tosquiggle - it had great intrinsic value, if only because it north, appeared of a deep crimson colour, with mostrepresents our prophets last words, and his own beautiful tlowers. This took place before myself andassessment ofhis Iifes work. For example, 1see in these others. At another time it appeared flamy, beautifully so.pages signposts pointing in the two almost opposite On ail the copies of the book in the Spiritual World wasdirections in which the New Church was destined to written The Advent ofthe Lord. 1 also wrote the same,develop. One way was towards an exclusive by command, on two copies in Holland: HIC LIBER ESTSwedenborgianism, such as one finds supported in the ADVENTUS DOMINI. (This book is the Advent of theT.C.R. in the section on the Consummation of the Age. Lord)" ln Holland? Presumably this was at the("The Second Coming of the Lord takes place by means publishers in Amsterdam.of a man before whom He has manifested himself inPerson, and whom He has filled with His Spirit to teachfrom Him the Doctrines ofthe New Church by means ofthe Word:) The other way was towards a broad andnon-distinctive ecumenism, the Doctrines being 63
    • And here is Swedenborgs basis for Ecumenicity, taken coma for some weeks, but afterwards recovered. (1From "Invitation to the New Church* (my copy of the wonder whether he was conscious in the spiritual worldCoronis, p. 85);­ during that time, choosing the site for his future home?)~Hereaftermen are not to be styled Evangelicals, A circle oftrusted friends visited him From time to time.Reformed, and still less Lutherans and Calvinists, but Among these were the Swedish Lutheran Pastor, Rev.CHRISTIANs". (Presumably this would include Arvid Ferelius; the Anglican Clergyman, Rev. ThomasSweden borgians.) Hartley; the Swedish Consul, Christopher Springer; thePeople who féivour this inclusive, non-sectarian view of Physician, Dr Husband Messiter; and (occasionally) the Quaker Chemist From Plymouth, William Cookworthy,the New Church, remember Swedenborgs own modestdisclaimer in "Summaries of the InternaI Sense of the said to have been the father of the British porcelainProphets and Psalms"; ~A New Church is now being industry. Through the efforts of these good men, and ainstituted" (he wrote in 1763) ~which is called in the few others, by translation From the Latin, and publication, and personal testimony - the newApocalypse the NEW JERUSALEM, to which the thingsthat are being published by me at the present day will teachings took root in England, and this country became the mother of the New Church throughout thebe of service. It is also being instituted elsewhere." world.To return now to the wigmakers house in Cold Bath One of the first known ~Swedenborgians"was StephenFields, London. Here the aged Swedenborg enjoyed thepeace and privacy he craved. Cared for by Mrs Penny of Dartmouth, who obtained a copy of the ArcanaShearsmith and her maid Elizabeth Reynolds, he was Coelestia through an advertisement, and wrote to thehappy and content. The young woman Elizabeth publisher, John Lewis, expressing his appreciation. ItReynolds was probably closer to him than any other was probably Stephen Penny who introduced the Writings to his friend William Cookworthy.mortal at that time; she eventually became RichardShearsmiths second wife. We see her fingermark on anaffidavit made by those two before the Lord Mayor ofLondon at the Guildhall in 1785, testifying thatSwedenborg did not recant his beliefs before dying, ashad been rumoured,Shortly before Christmas (1771) the ~New Jerusalem The 5wedish C1lUrch in London whereGentleman" suffered a paralytic stroke and lay in a 5wedenborgs remains were rirst laid to rest.64
    • 65
    • ta the assembled company, as follows: " have beenWESLEY AND SWEDENBORG informed in the World of Spirits that you have a strong desire to converse with me. 1shall be happyto see you, if you will favour me with a visit. 1 am, Sir, your humble servant Eman. Swedenborg." Wesley admitted that he had indeed felt such a desire, but commented that he had never spoken of it to a single sout! He wrote back to Swedenborg, saying that unfortunately he was about toIt was at about this time that the Rev. John Wesley, leave on a six-months journey, but he would visit himFounder of Methodism, first began to be aware of on his return. To this Swedenborg replied that it wouldSwedenborg, and was even fascinated by him. He had a then be too late, as he was to depart this Iife on Marchkind oflove-hate attitude. ln his diary he wrote: "1 began 29th (which of course he did).with huge prejudice in favour of Baron Swedenborg. Wesley seems to have been deeply impressed with thisknowing him to be a pious man, one of strong evidence of ESP, for, visiting Liverpool shortJyunderstanding. of much learning, and one who afterwards, and staying with his old friend Richardthoroughly believed himself. But 1 could not hold out Houghton, now one of Swedenborgs followers, he islong! Any one of his visions put his real character out of reported to have declared in the most solemn manner:doubt. He is one of the most ingenious, Iively, "We might burn ail the old books of theology, for Godentertaining madmen that ever set pen to pa pero But his has sent us a teacher from heaven, and in the works ofwaking dreams are so wild, so far remote from both Swedenborg we might learn ail that is necessary for usScripture and common sense, that one might as easily to know."*swallow the stories of Tom Thumb or Jack the Giant This favourable opinion, however, did not outlastKiller." Wesleys subsequent study of the "True ChristianThen an event occurred that somewhat changed Religion", for, on almost every point of doctrine thereWesleys opinion. It was in February 1772, when the expounded (the Trinity, Faith and Charity, the Vicariousaged Swedenborg (fifteen years Wesleys senior) was Atonement and so on) he found himself in violentbed-ridden in Shearsmiths home in ClerkenwelI. disagreement. Swedenborg. he concluded, was starkWesley, also in London, was planning one of his staring mad, and he warned his followers against him inrevivaJist tours, when an astonishing letter was a series of bitter and heavily biased articles in hisdelivered to him from Swedenborg. He read it out aloud "Arminian Magazine", which do more discredit to their See Comptons Lire or Clowes,66
    • author than to his victim! Needless to say, these articles idea!) A pity they didnt get together while on earth; butproduced an equally violent reaction and defence From they surely will have met up long ago in the SpiritualNew-Church authors of the day. The battle was joined, World. And each will now be using his influence with hisand only now are Wesleyans and Swedenborgians followers on earth, to co-operate with the Lord (whombeginning to come to terms with one anothers view­ they both ,Ioved with heartand soul) in the making ofallpoints. things new.Apart from Wesleys nervous and foolish assault on theNew-Church Doctrines in the "Arminian Magazine, 1donot wish to disparage either the man or his work. 1believe that both Swedenborg and Wesley were, in theirown ways, instruments of the Lords Second Coming,first.-fruits of the Last Judgment. But Wesley was notinterested in any New Church. He took for granted theauthority of St.Paul and the accepted theology of theEstablishment, and he was indignant with Swedenborgbecause he didnt. Wesleys principal concern was notwith theology at ail, but with PEOPLE (and maybe we inthe so-called New Church could usefully learnsomething From him in this respect). He gave toPEOPLE, mostly the middle and lower classes, a dignityas sons and daughters of God - a consciousness of"sins forgiven, man restored", and a yearning for ac10ser union with God through Christ.Wesleys work was vital at that crisis in history; it savedthe human race. It blew the embers of the old dyingChurch into flame, providing living material From whicha New Church could eventually be built up. Actually,Wesley and Swedenborg were, without realizing it,complementary to one another (though Wesley, in hislater state of mind, would have been horrified at the 67
    • PART XI. DBATU AND fUNERAL. But his main legacy, of course, was spiritual. He bequeathed il, free oftax, to ail mankind! You and 1 are among the legatees. But we must daim our inheritance before we can receive it: and we do this by studying the Doctrines outlined in his writings; and, in the LordsSwedenborg predicted to Elizabeth Reynolds the exact strength, by living according to them. If we do this, wedate ofhis death. She said afterwards, "He seemed to be shall become spiritual milJionaires.as pleased as if he were going on a merry-making"!When the day arrived, March 29th1772, he asked herand Mrs Shearsmith what time it was. They answeredFive odock". He thanked them, and slipped quietlyaway into the spiritual realm, never again to return.Previously he had required, as it were, a Visitors Visa"to enter there; now he was to become a permanentresident.The funeral of his material body took place on April 5th1772. It was conducted by Pastor Ferelius, in the so­called Ulrica Eleonora Church in the Ratdiffe Highway,Princes Square, east of the Tower of London. (NoteUlrica Eleonoras name again; it appeared at thebeginning of this Scrapbook. She was the little princesswho was almost Swedenborgs twin!) There werethirteen mourners and two coaches. The church wasfull. The choir sang two anthems. The body was sealedin a lead container which was placed in a wooden coffin,and depo~ited in the vaults of the church.Swedenborg left behind him .L400 plus some smallchange, a gold watch, a gold-headed walking stick. hisHebrew Bible, and four or five large manuscript books,one as large as a bakers shop book".68
    • TUE SKULL Nothing further happened until 1817, forty-five years alter Swedenborgs death. One day in July of that year, the funeral was being conducted of Baroness Mary von Nolcken, widow of the late Swedish Ambassador, andIt is ironical that Swedenborg had far more attention her remains were being interred in the vaults of thepaid to his physicaJ body alter he had died and lelt il, Swedish Church. One of the mourners was a certainthan he ever enjoyed while he was alive in il ln fact Ludvig Granholm, a retired captain of the Swedish Navy,millions of people might never have heard of now resident in Lonûon. Glancing idly at the coffins inSwedenborg at ail, had it not been for the newspaper the vault he noticed one with a loose lid, and read theheadlines concerning the sale of his skull! name on it: "Swedenborg Hoping ta make something N •Altogether, it seems that his coffin has been opened out of il, he slipped back into the vault alter the partyand his body examined no less than seven or eight had lelt, opened the coffin, and absconded with thetimes to date. The first time was about eighteen years skull under his overcoat. He took it ta the house of thealter his death, when in 1790 a ~foreign gentleman of lawyer J.I. Hawkins, a well-known New-Churchman, sonthe Rosicrucian sect probably DrThomas Thorild From N , of Rev. Isaac Hawkins, andtried ta sell it ta him as a relie,Sweden, visited his fellow countrymen c.R. but was driven away. He took it ta several other New­Nordenskjold and C.B. Wadstrom, New-Church Church people, with the same result. It was still in hismembers then resident in London, and told them that possession when he died about a year later, Januaryin his opinion, Swedenborg had not really died; that the 28th 1819.funeral had been a sham and there was no corpse in the The pastor of the Swedish Church, Rev. Johan Wahlen,coffin. To test out this ridiculous notion, the three men being cha plain of the Swedes in London, attended hiswent to the Swedish Church in Ratcliffe Highway and deathbed, and learned of the skull. Naturally hepersuaded the sexton to allow them to open the coffin. retrieved il, and we have a record that he presented it toThis meant removing the wooden lid and sawing a meeting of the Church Council on July 4th 1819. Theythrough the lead envelope above the shoulder. It was decided to wait until the vault was opened for anotherimmediately evident from the stench that Swedenborg funeral before bothering to replace the skull. In thehad been no (ess mortal than other men! A few days meantime it was loaned to the distinguished New­la ter, five or six other New-Churchmen, including Robert Churchman Charles Augustus Tulk, M.P., for displayHindmarsh, hearing what had been done, were among many other skulls in his phrenological museum.prompted by curiosity to go along and see the bodily Hearing of the situation, a New-Church friend ofTulksremains for themselves. in Sweden, Countess Margaretha von Schwein, wrote to 69
    • him earnestly requesting that the skulJ should be Uppsala cathedral, where it now lies. The sarcophagusreturned at once to its proper place. So, on March 25th was dedicated on November 19th, 1910.1823, Tulk, together with Wahlen and Nordenskjold, Owing, however, to the persistent rumour of the "otherwalked with the precious relic to Ratcliffe Highway. On sku1l", the coffin had previously been opened on Maythe way they stopped at a studio in Holborn and had a 29th 1908, in the presence of the cathedral Chapterplaster cast made, which was used to make the and representatives ofthe Royal Society of Science; andcelebrated bust. Incidentally, Tulk seems to have kept the skeleton, with particular reference to the skull, wasback the smalJ bones of the ear, which eventually came submitted to a thorough and exhaustive examinationinto the possession of the Swedenborg Society. by the anatomist Dr J. Vilh. Hultkrantz. The work wasSorne time later, a rumour began to circula te, and even completed by June 13, and a full account of thereached the Times Newspaper, that the wrong skuli had investigation, with numerous photographs, wasbeen taken from the phrenological museum, whereas published by the Royal Society of Uppsala on May 6th,"the authentic skulJ of Emanuel Swedenborg" was on 1910.sale at an antique shop in the East End of London. No one who has studied this highly technical andSome effort was made to trace this second skull, but the professional report can have the slightest doubt thatonly person who seemed to know about it was by this the skull in the coffin, and therefore in the sarcophagus,time locked away in a mental asylum! Still the rumour was the genuine one. It fitted the lower jaw (which hadspread. not been removed by the thief); it harmonized perfectlyln October 1853 the outer wooden case of the coffin with the skeleton; and photos of a plaster model madewas found to be so damaged that a new one was made. of il, fiUed neatly over the portraits painted of the SeerThen, in 1908, the Swedish Church in Ratcliffe Highway during his Iifetime.was itself demolished; and, on April 8th of that year, However, in fact, the rival skull (still claiming to beSwedenborgs mortal remains were conveyed to genuine) was discovered in London in March 1912. ItPaddington station and so by train to Dartmouth where was sent to Uppsala and thoroughly examined; but itthey were placed aboard the Swedish cruiser Fylgia, and was found to have been suffering from a congenitalshipped to Karlskrona, the Swedish naval base on the disease called Scaphocephaly, which effectively put itBaltic, arriving on April 18th. Alter some discussion as out of the running. What the authorities eventually didto the coffins final resting place, it was conveyed by with the skull, 1 dont know.train to Uppsala on May 19th, and eventually placed in asarcophagus next to that ofcarl von Linne (Linnaeus) in70
    • Swedenborgs remains being conveyed from theSwedish Church in London to be returned to hishomeland, 71
    • Casket containing 5wedenborgs remains on the deck of the 5wedish frigate Fulgia,72
    • So now we come down to the nineteen-sixties, whenthe world press and TV (normally so taciturn aboutSwedenborg) suddenly broke their conspiracy ofsilence to announce that yet another of his"authentic" skulls has turned up, somewhere inWales! It was offered for sale by auction at Sothebysin London, who listed it in their catalogue as: "Anoriginal Skull, apparently of Emanuel Swedenborg(1688-1772) the celebrated Swedish scientist,savant, philosopher and theologian." The auctiontook place on 6th March 1978, and the skull waspurchased by the Royal Academy of Science,Stockholm, for ;fl,500. A representative of theSwedish Embassy is reported to have said that itwould be returned to its "rightful" place in UppsalaCathedral; we are left to presume that it ended upwith the other skull in Swedenborgs sarcophagusthere.Recently we have heard that the auctioneersdeliberately refrained from submitting their bill tothe Royal Academy of Sciences, so that theythemselves bore the entire cost. If this is true, then itis was a remarkable and perhaps unique act ofgood-will on Sothebys part.But was the skull in fact Swedenborgs7 Probably weshall never know for sure. How many skulls did hehave anyway7 Others may be forthcoming in thefuture - quite a draw at ;fl,500 each!Never mind - it doesnt really matter. 73
    • Sale ofskullends a200-yeartalelh our ,-Tt SalfAtorrt~pc)nd"llm: ~"ULL .r Emaml.1~~~ ,·d ..nbors. h~ S>C"1.-ntt5t..il ~l rlo oph€"T, 1 nd theologll n •~;.;"old al Solheb)"~ ye-slrr·da for l1.~O. Il ••,. bnu~hlb th .. S",rdbh Royal At.d·(!lI (Ir Sclf"rt, 11 1111) Jaln th,. nst ur thrno})I(m.n·~ remains ln llpp..jl:ll ralhf"dral or tW! kepl _th• "m..JI .. ol~dlon of hi.s rcll(~,.. . nrd b) lbt" acadtmy ln .tockholnt. T tt ,..lt ~nfh an tltr.,onUn.I"" and nlanbrr se""o. f»ofnt.!. wharh llarled 500naftr.-r SWfflrnborJ!:M dratb lnLAndon ln 1;;%. lit wu bUfj,.c1 in the Sw~lsh Churc:h lnPrlll((S Squ.n, London. bullhl grlvr WI oplnec! ln Tbe Swedlnborg .kuU whlch was 50101 for iJ,lI~O H Sothebys ye.terd ay.,Imut 178ft .... CIU".. cml~tugfl1( ha~d lhlt Ihe body ron(f.rnln~ Ihe ,kull hln not llltmp. on lh. cronlulft. Cllurch, or N.w Cllurob,/1 ... 11 bt("n litoltn h .n .blt 10 luml h, Indll" "othlb)". c.I.logu. dH wllith hll .dhor~nts ln 8rl, du. Il " Onel proo" or Identlly crlbe. th. ,"ull II· uDlllually 1.ln, Ill.. ConUnent. 11101 th.. Thu ln 1816 or 1817 Ih..I.ull "L .lol~n-. S",odl.h or Ihl. kull ,,Ith S.. ed.n· horlll:5 traniunl. But to&etbtr Ion, .1lCI narro., , 0 dor" hory colour, l.whone 1••k1nJ:, unlled 81a~•.rna-.lA"r mlrln,.r " ... AWipeclMof the: trime. Th.. rf~l or tb.remaina wrrt exhumNi ln Ille y cl" "" slron, D Incll· collon ln thl. dlrecUon thal .nd .1111 mar" 0 a ~c.nl IrepaltDJn, ..hen • porllon or 8at l_.her aho • 1".1 pbl· odnll.t, hel~· Ins r..",.rkable Yle.. altoul1908 .nd .. I.. n 10 UppsaJ.f"alhfdnl Il thr rtqutll orthe ~"tdbh (;o~rnm"nt. Th. Ibey m.y Ile r.,ardod Il proc­ linl1y cofttIUJiIH!." Thl. me nI Ih.1 a ."ull ~~~:d olllerwi ;::.1C1~:Ji1:~~~~ .~": ln , .... c.ndlll.... unellen. 0 mo".ular phy"" and tII. Ihe Ilra1n wllith .~r< contlrlled .nly ln Ihis."ull _,1" known at lhb tin... ..hleh had ~en ...lIh Ihe resl w1lh an .UreeU•• paU ....•co .... In Ihe hand.luUqut dra.tr. n0 or lh. rem.lno Il Uppsala "10 a lullolltute. S denbor., .kull _uld lie 0 1 Inl.rest 10 a pbre­ c~nlury. 111 HI. d_endDta. who Il... Sw~en. r.,rett~ 111l~r· "(lroU"«: t~t. .~r. donti)n ft Irom UIRf la li... Ind Th• •knll "". IOld ,e.l<r· n.loll. beca .r Uae "an. day. . . 1.., a.r.re It Sethebys Newspaper cuttinglhe Ialal report, pubU.bed b, ~~ :to u:;,~ri~:d rl~o;:c~w::; ..tro.rdJnary .,llIn., Il. la .e· I:ad .. lIm.lad hal th... kullhe .cad.IllY 0 Sclen.e ln 1~60, ..Id,; • The hlalOrlcol, r.lhw. Re .... In~rntM .. phr... IOID, th• • It-· .r 1II~",b<lnl~ . . a Uaeel.llan .h_ Ylewo - . . ",prIS" • hl"", rthelI.x. HI. r... l1li.111 re~1I up le 1.,480. SeUa.._,. alM ..Id Y r· and photograph concerning Ihe Swedenborg skull, day a lar.e . . .ber el ...anllomlral. thtmJal, and ph.loleRlcal In.flI,lpU.... ~..s.:s ~~vlUi.!:."::-: Ie_ ,,. _ u _ ..._ . .tIl, Ide ......_ ~~_.~~~,eaWI . . on
    • PART XII. IN ETEKNITY. modest and ever ready to serve. H And again (interestingly): ·Swedenborgs name has been changed, to one which expresses his high position and office, and his most beautiful character (Another H • change ofname?) "He is exceedingly happy, and alwaysSomeone has said: "If you want to find a friend at a busy in helping others. (A pity his final name could not Hparty, you wont look for him in the doakroom where he be recorded in earth script!)has left his overcoat; you will look for him on the da(lce Hfloor. But is he still a bachelor? No one seems to have brought back any information concerning his wife! YetSo, ifyou want to find Emanuel Swedenborg today, you according to Swedenborgs own testimony, given in hiswont look for him in the coffin or sarcophagus (with or book "Conjugial Love all the angels are married pairs: H ,without the skull). Vou will expect to find him busy and so naturally there has been speculation among hishappy in one orthe uplands ofheaven. Doubtless he will followers as to the identity of Swedenborgs ownbe living in a pleasant but modest homestead consort. Who is this angel woman who shares hiscontaining a laboratory, a Iibrary, a sanctuary, and an intellectuallife, who motiva tes him by her love? Had sheoffice with a large writing table, pursuing his Iifes work been one of his friends or acquaintances on earth?of channelling the Lords love and wisdom into theuniversal New Church -" in heaven and on earth. 1can It was rumoured that Charles Augustus Tulk had toldimagine him also relaxing sometimes by playing Garth Wilkinson that he had heard someone say thatheavenly music on his Iittle organ in a celestial summer­ Swedenborg had confided in someone that his consorthouse! on the other side might be a lady named Elizabeth Sljarncrona, Countess Gyllenborg. The Gyllenborgs hadWill he be living aJone, 1 wonder? - or will he have been intimate with Swedenborg in Stockholm for aacquired a wife? number of years, and Elizabeths husband, CountSince his "death there have been psychics, such as H , Frederick Gyllenborg, had been President of the BoardArthur Ford of Philadelphia, and the Indian Sadhu of Mines. He had died in 1759, and SwedenborgSundar Singh, who daim to have contacted reported that he had rapidly degenerated in theSwedenborg in the spiritual world. As recently as 1928­ spiritual world, revealing that inwardly he had been ofa29, The Sadhu reported that he had often met the hypocritical disposition, consumed with self-love. He"Venerable Swedenborg there. "He occupies a high H was actually now in one of the lower regions, andplace wrote the Sadhu. "He is a glorious man, but H , therefore completely divorced from his former wife. 75
    • Elizabeth survived the Count by ten years, during which LIST OF VALUABLESshe was Swedenborgs close neighbour in HOrflsgatan, 1. A beautiful red chest,Stockholm. She is said to have been of a devout nature; consisting of live rows,she herself composed and published a volume of live drawers in each row.meditations from the Word, entitled: "Marys - theBetter Part _She is known to have presented a copy to 2. A handsome dress and a handsome cap.Swedenborg, which he, not she, autographed! - the 3. A liWe crown with live small diamonds,opposite to what present-day authors are expected to which is wom in heavendo when they give away copies of their books! on one side of the head.Shortly after the Countess passed on, in 1769, 4. A beautiful liWe roseSwedenborg left Stockholm for the last time, to go to containing a very brilliant diamond,Amsterdam to publish "True Christian Religion-. Three whicb laler was set in a golden ring.years later, he himself died in London. S. A tiara, or decoration for the head.His heirs found, written in his own hand in his personal 6. A necklace of diamonds,copy of the Latin T.C.R., a List of Valuables, such as and a pendant of gold with a diamond.people make of their jewellery in their wills. This is the 7. A bracelet of diamonds.nearest to a will that Swedenborg ever got. 8. Ear-rlngs of three diamonds each side. 9. A box in a casket wherein are shining crystals, signifying regeneration 10 elemity. 10. Something precious, whicb was placed in a beautiful box on November 28th. 1770. Il, A jewelled pendant containing a beautiful diamond. 12. A handsome hat for me. 13. Something precious which cannot be seen by spirits but only by an angel. May 28th. 1771. 14, A cane with a beautiful gold knob,Swedenborgs Summerhouse as it now standspreserved in Skansen, Stockholm. August 13th. 177 I.76
    • (On the dates mentioned - Nov. 1770, May and August1771 - Swedenborg was in Amsterdam, seeing T.C.R.through the press.)For whom were these "Valuables· intended? The capand gold-headed cane were obviously for his own use;but the other objects mentioned were apparently for alady - his future bride perhaps? And she must havebeen an angel - see No. 13.It is rather touching that this crusty old bachelor of 84should be so tenderly contemplating his future wife,and lovingly imagining her resplendent in jewellery,including a Iittle crown with five small diamonds wornon one side of her head!After Swedenborgs decease his heirs greedily searchedeverywhere for these Valuables. Ali they could find washis cane, which is now in the possession of theSwedenborg Society in London. But we can close thisScrapbook picturing him as he undoubtedly is NOW ­blissfully happy and content in a high heaven with hisbeautiful angel wife (whoever she may bel - he and sheseeming from a distance to be one complete individual,radiant with Iight reflected From the Sun of heaven. Swedenborg as deplcted on his Sarcophagus in Uppsala Cathedral. 77
    • 78
    • SWEDENBORG - CURONOLOGICAL TABLEYear Age 1688 STOCKHOLM. Emanuel Swedberg born in royal barracks, 29 January. Rev. Jesper Swedberg, Regimental and Royal Chaplain,( his father ). 9 1 STOCKHOLM 1690 2 1 3 2 4 Jesper, pastor of VINGAKER for a few months, then appointed Professor of Theology at Uppsala University. 3 5 UPPSALA 4 6 5 7 6 8 Jesper appointed Rector of University, and Bishop of Swedish churches overseas. Sara Behm, Emanuels mother, dies. 7 9 Jesper marries Sara Bergia. 8 10 House in Uppsala destroyed by fire. New house built and dedicated. 9 11 UPPSALA 1700 12 1 13 2 14 3 15 Jesper appointed Bishop of SKARA; family moves to Brunsbo Estate. Emanuel stays at Uppsala University, living with Erik Benzelius. 79
    • 1704 16 UPPSALA 5 17 6 18 7 19 8 20 9 21 Emanuel defends and publishes his Graduation thesis, and then (in June) joins his family at Brunsbo. Aiso publishes sorne Latin verses. 1710 22 At BRUNSBO. Studies organ. Sends whale skeleton to Uppsala. Visits Polhammer at Stjernesund. In September, leaves for London. 1 23 LONDON. Practical crafts and trades. Astronomy. Latin verses. 2 24 Brass instrument. Aigebra, Geometry. The Longitude. Visits Oxford. ln the autumn, to Holland. 3 25 HOLLAND. Congress of Utrecht. Glass grinding in Leyden. To Paris, where he is sick (July to August). 4 26 To ROSTOCK, via Hamburg. List of mechanical inventions. Charles XII arrives at Stralsund, having escaped from imprisonment in Turkey (Nov. 21) Prepares for siege. (Queen Anne dies in England.) 5 27 Publishes Latin poems in Griefswalde. Escapes From siege of Stralsund. Returns home to Brunsbo (Aug.) Visits Stockholm and Uppsala. 6 28 BRUNSBO (March) Publishes first volume of "Daedalus Hyperboreus". ln December, to Lund, to Charles Xlls court. Polhammer ennobled, name changed to Po/hem. The King, on Polhems recommendation, appoints Emanuel "Assessor Extraordinary" to College of Mines, and Assistant to Polhem.80
    • 1717 29 Fully occupied with "Daedalus" and assisting Polhem in big engineering projects. Visits Gothenburg, Stjernsund, Stockholm. Meets Maria and Emerentia Pol hem. 8 30 Publishes works on Aigebra, finding the Longitude, and motions of the earth and planets. Siege of Fredrikshall. Emanuel organizes portage of ships, Sept. 1718. Charles Xii killed. 9 31 Queen Ulrica Eleonora (Charles Xlls sister) ennobled the Swedberg family ­ name changed to SWEDENBORG. Emanuel writes scientific treatises.1720 32 Sara Bergia dies (April). Jesper marries Christina Arrhusia (Dec.) Emanuel begins writing on anatomy. 1 33 (2nd foreign journey) Copenhagen Hamburf} Amsterdam, Aix, Cologne. Emanuel writes on Geometrie expia nation of Chemistry and Physics and fire. 2 34 Leipzig. "Mliscellaneous Observations", Mines of Saxony, and in Hartz Mts. Back through Stralsund to Stockholm. Writes on mining methods. 3 35 Presents memorials to Diet on financial reforms, rolling mills, etc. 4 36 (July) Formally appointed "Assessor" at the College of Mines. Work on his own mines at Axmar. 5 37 Writes on the mechanism of soul and body; cosmology, anatomy. 6 ·38 STOCKHOLM. Working in College of Mines, with visits to provinces. 7 39 8 40 9 41 81
    • 1730 42 (Bishop Jespers residence, Brunsbo, destroyed by fire) 1 43 Sick, April-May. 2 44 3 45 (3rd foreign journey) Stralsund, Berlin Dresden Prague, Carlsbad; back to Prague, and thence to Leipzig. 4 46 At Leipzig, publishes "Opera Philosophica" and "Prodromus". Home to Stockholm, via Brunswick. 5 47 (Death of Bishop Jesper, aged 82) 6 48 (4th foreign journey) via Linkoping, to Copenhagen Hambur~ Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, PARIS. Singular dreams recorded. 7 49 PARIS. Studies anatomy at University. 8 50 Visits ltaly via Lyons. Turin (March) Milan (danger From vetturino) Bergamo, Verona, Vicenza, Padua, to VLNlCE. Thence to Florence, Pisa, Siena, to ROML. Interview with Pope Clement XII. 9 51 From Rome back to Paris, via FIorence and Qenoa. On to Amsterdam (Dec.)1740 52 AMSTERDAM. Publishes Part 1 of "Economy". Saw flashing Iights. Psychic experiences begin. Returns to STOCKHOLM (Oct.) Controversy with Celsius re Declination of magnetic field. Wrote on Brain and Fibres. 1 53 STOCKHOLM, College of Mines. "Hieroglyphic Key". "Rational Psychology", "Economy" Part II. 2 54 STOCKHOLM. "Ontology". "Generative Organs". "Five Senses".82
    • TRANSITION PERlOn 1743 55 Buys 43 Hornsgatan. Begins 5th foreign journey - recorded in "Journal of Dreams". (July 1743-0ct. 1744) Ystad, Stralsund, ffamburfJ; Amsterdam (Oct.) Regular psychic experiences, interpreted in "Journar. 4 56 The ffague. Publishes "Animal Kingdom". pts 1 & II. The Lord appears to him in Delft. April 6-7, marked in Journal "N.B. N.B. N.B.". To London (May 16) Lodged with Brockmer. Begins "Worship & Love of God". (Oct.) 5 57 LONDON. "Animal Kingdom" Pt. III. "Worship & Love of God" Pts 1 & Il. Vision at Inn (April) Eyes opened into spiritual world. Home to Stockholm (July). Begins "Adversaria N • N 6 58 "Adversaria and "Index Biblicus". Moved into 43 Homsgatan. 7 59 STOCKHOLM. Finishes "Adversaria". Begins "Spiritual Diary". Vision of "Nunc Licet" (Feb). Retires from the College of M,ines. Departs for Amsterdam (6th foreign journey). Full illumination Aug. 7th.FULL ILWMINATION 8 60 AMSTERDAM. "Glorification throughout the whole spiritual worJd re Advent of the Lord" (Sept. lst) To London (Oct.) with manuscript of "Arca na Coelestia" Vol. 1. 9 61 LONDON. "AC.!." published. Index to AC. begun. Spends summer and autumn in Holland, and winter in Aix-la-Chapelle. 1750 62 AIX. Germany, home to Stockholm. AC. Vol. Il published in London, in parts, in Latin and English translation by Marchant. 83
    • 1751 63 STOCKHOLM. Arcana Vol. III published in London (Latin only) 2 64 Vol. IV 3 65 Vols. V and VI 4 66 Vol. VII 5 67 (No Arcana) Memorial on Liquor trame. 6 68 Arcana Vol. VIII published in London (Completed work) 7 69 LAST JUDGMENT in Spiritual World. 8 70 To LONDON (7th foreign journey) Publishes the ~London Five", viz (1) Earths in Universe, (2) Heaven and Hell, (3) Last Judgment (4) N.J. & Heavenly Doctrine (5) White Horse. Begins writing ~Apocalypse Explained", - abandoned before completion. 9 71 Returns to Stockholm, via Gothenburg ­ ~sees" Stockholm fire from Gothenburg (July). 1760 72 STOCKHOLM. Memorials on metal currency. Writes ~L.J. Post". 1 73 Various tracts. Marteville Receipt and Queens Secret. 2 74 To Amsterdam (8th journey) with manuscripts for publication. (Death of Peter III) Returns home. Begins writing ~Prophets & Psalms". 3 75 Completes ~Prophets & Psalms" (not published.) Writes ~Inlaying Marble". (June) back to Amsterdam (9th journey). Publishes (1) Four Leading Docts. (2) Last Judgment Continued. (3) Divine Love and Wisdom. 4 76 (4) Divine Providence. On to London to interview Royal Society. Back home to Stockholm.84
    • 1765 77 STOCKHOLM. Finishes "Spiritual Diaryn. (lOth journey) via Gothenburg (Tells Bolander about fire in his mill) to Amsterdam. 6 78 Amsterdam, publishes "Apocalypse Revealed". To London, to see Royal Society about Longitude. Back home to Stockholm. 7 79 STOCKHOLM, writing "Conjugial Love". 8 80 (llth journey) Elsinore, Zurich, AMSTERDAM. Publishes "Con. Love". Trouble begins to brew in Gothenburg with Beyer and Rosen. 9 81 AMSTERDAM. Pub. "Brief Exposition" (Hic Liber). (April) to Paris for a French edition of "B.E." Refused. n To London, where an English ed. of "B.E. is published, (translated by Marchant). Writes and publishes "Intercourse. (Swed. is called "The N.J. Gentleman".) Returns home to Stockholm (Oct). 1770 82 STOCKHOLM. Conflict re Beyer and Rosen rages. Swedenborg appeals to the king. Writes "True Christian Religion", New-Church Day, 19th June 1770. To Amsterdam (July). 1 83 AMSTERDAM. Publishes T.C.R. in June. (Aug) to The Hague. (Sept) to London. Lodged with Shearsmith. An attack of paralysis before Christmas. Wrote "Ecclesiastical History" and "Coronis". 2 84 LONDON. Note to Wesley. Died March 29th. Buried, Princes Square, April 5th. (Coffin removed to Uppsala April 7th 1908)After the "London Five" (1758) ail the Latin Editions were published in Amsterdam except "Intercourse", whichwas published in London. 85
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    • Cover: StillLife. An Allegory 0/ the Mznities 0/Human Lifeby Harmen SteenwyckRejJroduced by courtesy 0/ theTrustees, TheNational Gallery, London. Ol ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ........