CRIMINOLOGYAn Introduction and Overview By FRANCIS C. POSTRADO BS Criminology
What is CRIMINOLOGY? Etymological Definition -Criminology (from Latin crīmen,"accusation"; and Greek -λογία, -logia)is the scientific approach to studyingcriminal behavior. The term was coined in 1885 byRaffaele Garofalo, an Italian lawprofessor.
What is CRIMINOLOGY? Classic Definition – According toEdwin Sutherland and Donald Cressey: Criminology is a body of knowledgeregarding crime as a social phenomenon.It includes within its scope the processesof making laws, of breaking of laws,and of reaction toward the breaking oflaws.
Making of laws Law is passed because of the consensus of the willof the public. In the Philippines, we have bicameral systemof legislation. It is called bicameral because it is composedof two houses; the Senate and the House ofRepresentatives. We have three major divisions orbranches in the government; the executive, vested on theoffice of the president; the legislative, cited and explainedabove; and the judiciary vested on the Supreme Court. Weare being represented by the legislative branch in makinglaws.
Early laws worldwide setting: 1. Code of Hammurabi- Babylon (1700 B.C.) 2. Mosaic Code- Israelites (1200 B.C.) 3. Draconian Code- Greece (17th century) 4. Hindu Code of Manu- India 5. Koran- Islamic Society 6. Law of twelve tables- Romans (451-450 B.C.) 7. Sumerian Code- Summer (3500 BC.) 8. Law of Moses ( 1500 B.C.-1900 B.C.)Early laws in the Philippines: 1. Maragtas Code (1215) -the oldest law of PanayIsland. 2. Kalantiaw Code (1433) -2nd code of criminaljustice.
Breaking of Laws· All violations of laws are violations ofthe will of the majority in the society. Violation of the provisions of thecriminal laws created by the public thrurepresentation is called CRIME.Crime- is an act or omission in violation ofcriminal law.Act- is outward movement tending toproduce effect.
Reaction of the society towards thebreaking of laws Society either reacts positively or negativelywhen someone commits crime. However, seldom has the society reactedpositively; it reacts negatively by imposingpunishment on the law-breaker. Phenomenon- observable; something whichcan be observed; any fact, circumstances, orexperiences which can be explained scientifically.
Objectives of Criminology The development of a body ofgeneral and verified principles andof other types of knowledgeregarding this process of law,crime, and its control andprevention, and the treatment ofthe youthful offenders.
Nature of Criminology Criminology continues to bring together in avery amorphous manner people who do thefollowing kinds of work: 1. academicians (often sociologists) whoteach students a subject called criminology,including those criminologists who also doresearch and write on the subject; 2. teachers who train other people forprofessional roles in crime control andcriminal justice work;
3. those who are involved in policy researchwithin the criminal justice system; and 4. those who apply criminology that is all thepeople who are employed in criminal justice agencies,ranging from policemen to lawyers to prison wardens tocorrectional workers. Even this list of broad groupings does not exhaustthe possibilities as criminology and criminal justiceincreasingly play prominent roles in the furtherdevelopment of society.
Criminology Distinguished from Other Related DisciplinesCriminology: An Interdisciplinary ScienceIt involves two or more academic fields,namely: 1. Sociology 2. Criminal justice, 3. Political science, 4. Psychology, 5. Economics, 6. Natural Sciences
Criminology Distinguished from Other Related DisciplinesCriminology and Criminal Justice Criminology Criminal justiceexplains the origin,extent, and nature of refers to agenciescrime in society of social controlCriminologist Criminal Justice Scholars-identify the nature, -seek more effectiveextent and cause of methods of crimecrime. control and offender rehabilitation
Criminology Distinguished from Other Related DisciplinesCriminology and Criminal JusticeOverlapping Area of Concern. Criminal justiceexperts cannot begin to design effective programsof crime prevention or rehabilitation withoutunderstanding the nature and cause of crime.They require accurate criminal statistics and data totest the effectiveness of crime control andprevention programs.
Criminology Distinguished from Other Related Disciplines Criminology and Deviance Studies Criminal Studies behaviorbehavior that departs from social norms NOTE: Not all crimes are deviant or unusual acts and not all deviant acts are illegal.
Criminology Distinguished from Other Related DisciplinesCriminology and DevianceOverlapping Area of Concern. There is athin line that distinguishes criminal act fromdeviant act. For example, when doessexually oriented material cross the linefrom merely suggestive to obscene andtherefore illegal?
Is Criminology a Science? There is at present a continuing argumentwhether criminology is a science or not. EdwinH. Sutherland and Donald Cressy bothAmerican Criminologist argued thatcriminology is not a science but it has hopes ofbecoming a science. However, George L. Wilker said thatcriminology cannot possibly become a sciencedue to lack of universal proposition of crimeand scientific studies of criminal behavior isimpossible.
So How Criminology become a Science? Criminology is a science in itself when applied to lawenforcement and prevention of crimes under the followingnature: 1. It is an applied science - in the study of the causes ofcrimes, anthropology, zoology, psychology, sociology and othernatural sciences may be applied. While in crime detection,chemistry, medicine, physics, mathematics, ballistics,photography, legal medicine, question documents examinationmay be utilized. This is called Instrumentation 2. It is a social science - in as much as crime is a socialcreation and that it exists in a society being a social phenomenon,its study must be considered a part of social science.
3. It is dynamic- criminology changes associal conditions changes. It is concomitant withthe advancement of other sciences that have beenapplied to it. 4. It is nationalistic - the study of crimesmust be in relation with existing criminal lawwithin a territory or country. Finally, the questionas to whether an act is a crime is dependent on thecriminal law of a country.
The Scope of Criminology1. Study of the causes of crimes and development ofcriminals.2. Study of the origin and development of criminallaws.3. Study of the different factors that enhances as: a. criminal sociology- study the effects of socialconditions on crime and criminals including the machinery ofjustice and the evolution of criminal law and punishment. b. criminal psychiatry- study of human mind in relationto criminality.
The Scope of Criminology c. criminal ecology- the study of criminality inrelation to spatial distribution on a community. d. criminal demography- study of therelationship between criminology and population e. criminal epideomology- study of therelationship between environment and criminality. f. Criminal physical anthropology- study ofcriminality in relation to physical constitution ofmen. g. Victimology- study of the role of the victimin the commission crime.
The Scope of Criminology4. Study of the various process and measuresadopted by society violation of criminal laws: a. the detection and investigation of crimes, b. the arrest and apprehension of criminals, c. the prosecution and conviction of the criminal in ajudicial proceeding, d. the enforcement of laws, decrees and regulations, e. the administration of the police and other lawenforcement agencies, f. maintenance of recreational facilities and otherauxiliary prevent the development of crimes and criminalbehavior.
Three Divisions of Criminology • Criminal Etiology- it is an attempt atscientific analysis of the causes of the crime. • Sociology of Law- which is an attemptat scientific analysis of the conditions whichpenal/criminal laws has developed as aprocess of formal and social control. • Penology- which is concerned with thecontrol and prevention of crime and thetreatment of offenders.
The Criminologist Criminologists are interested as how criminallaws are created, who has the power to create them,what are the purpose of such laws, how they areenforced and violated. The criminologists study the kinds of sanctionsor incentives that can best protect the environment.The criminologists study the relationship betweenideology and power in the making, enforcing, andbreaking of laws.
Criminologist, defined A Criminologist is a person who studies thecauses of crimes, its treatment and prevention usingscientific methods. Criminologists use scientific principles• Gather data• Create theories• Employ established method of social scienceinquiry• Experimental designs• Sophisticated data analyses
Is a Policeman considered a Criminologist? Generally speaking, a policeman is acriminology practitioner not acriminologist, because he is focused onlyin the enforcement of the law, which isonly one aspect in the work of acriminologist.
What is a Criminology Practitioner? A criminology practitioner is any person who is aconsumer of the knowledge and research ofcriminologists, applied in the prevention, control andtreatment of a crime. Examples: any member of any law enforcementagency of the government, crime laboratorytechnicians, correctional officers, and other workersof the criminal justice system.
What is then is a Licensed Criminologist? A licensed criminologist is a degree holderof Criminology or a Criminology practitionerwho passed the licensure (Board)Examination for Criminologist and isregistered with the Professional RegulationCommission (PRC).R.A. 6506- an Act Creating the Board ofCriminology in the Philippines and for otherpurposes
Criminology in the PhilippinesPhilippine College of Criminology Criminology Curriculum: Only 5formerly Plaridel College, 1956 subjects dealt with Criminology proper,1st Criminology School i.e. explaining etiology and nature ofSta Cruz, Manila crimeR.A. 6506 (July 1, 1972): Provides Recognized Crim Org: ProfessionalBoard Examinations to Criminology Criminologists Association of the Graduates and Guidelines in the Philippines (PCAP) & PhilippinePractice of Criminology Profession. Educators Association for Criminology Education (PEACE) More of Criminal Justice; Ched Memo Order (CMO) 21, Seriesofemphasized on operations of agencies 2005: Criminology is now under the of justice, specifically police umbrella of Criminal Justice Educationdepartments, courts, and correctional along with Law Enforcement facilities. Administration, Correctional Administration, Industrial Security Management, and Forensic Science
Oldest school introduced criminology in the Philippines ESCUELA DE DERECHO DE MANILA of 1898 established byFELIPE G. CALDERON of TANZA founder and first Dean, after his death,rename to MANILA LAW COLLEGE whose educational principles inCriminology was introduced in the Philippines on 1953 and took effect in1954 by establishing sister institution, THE PHILIPPINE COLLEGE OFCRIMINOLOGY.The Unveiled History of Law and Criminal Justice Educationsand Practices in the PhilippinesbyProf. Danilo I. Gregorio,1st ,Advance Edition, 2011Copyrighted 2010, (Unpublish)0929-386166645/0915-4403691
Practice of Criminology Profession(Republic Act No. 6506: Criminologist Law) Law enforcement administrator (Police, NBI, etc.) Forensic practitioner: Fingerprint Examiner, Forensic Ballistician, Forensic Photographer, etc. Correctional Administrator Industrial Security Officer/Consultant Instructor in schools offering criminology programs