This is not a comprehensive list, but it does include the major official texts. Note that the teaching changed significantly over its history, because of the changing social, economic, and political realities. One can break this century into three periods: Industrial Revolution and its aftermath 2. Globalized world – in the 60’s and 70’s the teaching began dealing with issues involving not just relationships within nations but also between nations. Post Industrial world – John Paul II’s writings reflect the dramatic changes in technology, and communication that have transformed the world. The lack of documents between 1931 and 1961 is largely a reflection of the fact that Pope Pius XII did not issue social encyclicals like other Popes. Instead, he addressed social issues and social teaching in a series of Christmas radio addresses.
Begin by explaining Commutative Justice – between individuals – as in a one-to-one contract. Then introduce the concept of society – Distributive and Contributive Justice. Each involves the more complex and less obvious set of relationships and structures that make up society. Distributive justice – how the benefits and burdens of society are distributed. Examples – tax burdens, social security benefits, FHA loans Contributive justice – our duty to contribute to the common good. Examples – voting, paying taxes, etc.
The call of christians handouts
THIRD GRADING PERIOD FACING THE REALITY OF HUMAN SUFFERING TRUSTING IN GOD’S LOVE FREEDOM WRITERS CSR- Integral part of Christian Faith
“ Evil, however powerful it may appear doesn’t have the last say.” “ We still see so much suffering and pain around us.” The life brought to us by Jesus Christ is never complete.”
“ The Transfiguration of Jesus” (Mark 9:1-8) After six days Jesus took Peter, James, and John and led them up a high mountain apart by themselves. And he was transfigured before them, and his clothes became dazzling white, such as no fuller on earth could bleach them. Then Elijah appeared to them along with Moses, and they were conversing with Jesus. Then Peter said to Jesus in reply, "Rabbi, it is good that we are here! Let us make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah." He hardly knew what to say, they were so terrified. Then a cloud came, casting a shadow over them; then from the cloud came a voice, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him."
How did Mrs. Gruwell come down from the mountain? Compare and contrast the society in Jesus’ time with the Freedom Writers. Who were considered “Peter” in the movie?
BACKGROUND IN JESUS’ TIME: <ul><li>Discrimination of women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered unclean; second class citizens, their status depends upon their offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lepers were outcasts. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax collectors were sinful. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Jesus Christ defended them. In doing these to the suffering people, it brought Him to His crucifixion and death. God the Son came down to us to become human like us (humility) in Jesus Christ, God’s eternal Word made flesh (John 1:1-5;14) is God-with-us “Immanuel” </li></ul>
<ul><li>When did our call begin? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matthew 28:19-20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans 6:3-4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the power of the Holy Spirit, we continue Christ’s mission </li></ul>
We are SENT by GOD to proclaim His LOVE! <ul><li>“ You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.’ The second is this: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ There is no other commandment greater than these.” (Mark 12:30-31) </li></ul>
<ul><li>This is my commandment: love one another as I love you. No one has greater love than this, to lay down one’s life for one’s friends. </li></ul><ul><li>(John 15:12-13) </li></ul>
<ul><li>How did Mrs. Gruwell respond to the call of Christ? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were considered “Christ” in the movie? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Christ calls us to do our part and work toward fostering the Kingdom of God despite the sufferings that we experience in life. </li></ul>
LISTEN <ul><li>For all Christ’s followers, especially or us Filipinos, the instruction to listen means two things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is an order; to obey their instructions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Two Great commandments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It means to be attentive and alert to what is being revealed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus was responding to human sufferings all around Him, the mission given Him by the Father, a work of pure love of His Father for us. </li></ul></ul></ul>
MARY’S IMMACULATE CONCEPTION > Mary was conceived in the womb of her mother St. Anne, without any stain of sin.
<ul><li>Notice that after being transfigured and declared as the Son of God, Jesus went back to His ordinary ay of carrying out His saving mission. We must not remain in the mountaintop, removed from all sufferings. </li></ul><ul><li>To follow Jesus means to come down from the mountain, to carry on His mission among our neighbors, among ordinary people, particularly the poor- those who often are not treated with the respect. </li></ul><ul><li>To “listen” to Jesus is to question these oppressive actions that have actually formed sinful social structures. (existing injustices) </li></ul>
The Filipino Spirit of BAYANIHAN What is the common weakness about Filipino Generosity? What is NINGAS KUGON? Why do we do this action?
COMMON FILIPINO REASONS FOR EXTENDING HELP <ul><li>Reward and Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Outreach programs (compulsory); you join because you need the grades. They don’t see the real reason why the school is requiring them to attend. Sad to say, some of the students cannot go beyond their rating or academic requirement. “ Service must not always be an investment.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In contrast, there are some students who reach out to others because they can sympathize with people in need. They take what they do in their outreach program seriously. The challenge is how to sustain their commitment. </li></ul></ul>
COMMON FILIPINO REASONS FOR EXTENDING HELP <ul><li>Moral Obligation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They begin to realize that it is a responsibility of all human persons to take care of one another and the community in which they live. They value their outreach activities as putting in practice the Christian principle that all human persons are born with dignity worthy of respect and love for others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christian Faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Faith by its very nature and mission aims to foster a real, enduring commitment to serve others; the commitment to serve others to the point of sacrificing themselves. </li></ul></ul>
Whoever says “I know Him” but does not keep His commandments is a liar. -1 John 2:4
CONTINUING CHRIST’S MISSION <ul><li>We come to know God through our family and other people who belong to the Christian Community, the CHURCH . </li></ul><ul><li>We learn to love and receive love through the Church . </li></ul><ul><li>God calls us to struggle through life not as separate individuals but as members of a community bonded together in the worship of God and in the mission to become disciples of Jesus Christ and member of His Body, the Church , as God calls us to be. </li></ul>
IMAGES or NAMES OF THE CHURCH <ul><li>CHURCH AS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People of God (Vatican II) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body of Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacrament of Christ (continuously makes Jesus present) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom of God (on earth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church of the Poor (PCP II) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N.B. The Church is the Bride of Christ, ergo She has also two natures. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>"There was a rich man who dressed in purple garments and fine linen and dined sumptuously each day. And lying at his door was a poor man named Lazarus, covered with sores, who would gladly have eaten his fill of the scraps that fell from the rich man's table. Dogs even used to come and lick his sores. When the poor man died, he was carried away by angels to the bosom of Abraham. The rich man also died and was buried, and from the netherworld, where he was in torment, he raised his eyes and saw Abraham far off and Lazarus at his side. And he cried out, 'Father Abraham, have pity on me. Send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, for I am suffering torment in these flames . </li></ul></ul>“ THE RICH MAN AND LAZARUS” (Luke 16:19-31)
“ THE RICH MAN AND LAZARUS” (Luke 16:19-31) <ul><ul><li>Abraham replied, 'My child, remember that you received what was good during your lifetime while Lazarus likewise received what was bad; but now he is comforted here, whereas you are tormented. Moreover, between us and you a great chasm is established to prevent anyone from crossing who might wish to go from our side to yours or from your side to ours . He said, 'Then I beg you, father, send him to my father's house, for I have five brothers, so that he may warn them, lest they too come to this place of torment. But Abraham replied, 'They have Moses and the prophets. Let them listen to them. He said, 'Oh no, father Abraham, but if someone from the dead goes to them, they will repent.‘ Then Abraham said, 'If they will not listen to Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded if someone should rise from the dead.‘’ </li></ul></ul>
KEYPOINTS (IN THE PARABLE) <ul><li>The parable of Jesus clearly shows one serious thing that the rich man failed to do, that is, to help the poor man Lazarus. He simply ignored Lazarus. He failed to respond to the suffering of Lazarus. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus, in this parable, stresses the urgent need of awareness and concern for the suffering of others. </li></ul>
OPEN YOUR HEARTS AND SHARE… <ul><li>Awareness to the suffering of others is the first step needed to undertake in extending ourselves to others. Jesus is calling us to be aware, sensitive and concerned for those suffering around us. </li></ul><ul><li>These people may not necessarily be materially poor. They may be your family members who look for your attention. Or your classmates who are lonely. Let’s open our eyes and realize that there are people who really need a helping hand. </li></ul>
<ul><li>As Christians, we must respond to the needs of our neighbors according to our means and capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nemo dat quod non habet.” (literally means “No one can give what he doesn’t have.”) </li></ul><ul><li>We must learn to share our God-given blessings (talents, time, resources, etc.) </li></ul>
TWO POSSIBLE WAYS OF FACING COMMUNITY PROBLEMS? <ul><li>Acts of Charity (Acts 4:32-37) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When we directly help those in need or when we work to correct the evil effects of social problems, we perform acts of charity or works of mercy. (directly touching the individual victims) </li></ul></ul>
CORPORAL WORKS OF MERCY Give drink to the thirsty Feed the Hungry Clothed the naked Shelter the homeless Visit the sick Visit those in prison Bury the dead
SPIRITUAL WORKS OF MERCY Instruct the ignorant Admonish sinners Counsel the doubtful Comfort the sorrowful Bear wrongs patiently Forgive injuries Pray for the living and the dead
<ul><li>SOCIAL ACTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek to eliminate the causes of the problem </li></ul></ul>
What is CST? <ul><li>Catholic Social Teaching is the Church’s body of teachings on social realities based on the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gospel (Sacred Scriptures or the Bible) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church Tradition (Sacred Tradition) and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These Church’s teachings are not primarily technical solutions to specific problems, but rather: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral principles and priorities that can guide the response to ongoing problems (SEE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria for evaluating social systems in general and specific programs (JUDGE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations for the creative pursuit of the common good. (ACT) </li></ul></ul>
CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHINGS (CST) ENCYCLICALS > Are papal letters that are intended to circulate widely among members of the Church. OTHER CHURCH DOCUMENTS (not written by the Pope)
1891 Rerum Novarum Leo XIII 1931 Quadragesimo Anno Pius XI 1961 Mater et Magistra John XXIII 1963 Pacem in Terris John XXIII 1965 Gaudium et Spes Vatican II 1967 Populorum Progressio Paul VI 1971 Octogesima Adveniens Paul VI 1971 Justice in the World Synod of Bishops 1975 Evangelii Nuntiandi Paul VI 1981 Laborem Exercens John Paul II 1987 Sollicitudo Rei Socialis John Paul II 1991 Centessimus Annus John Paul II 2009 Caritas in Veritate Benedict XVI MODERN CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING
<ul><li>Since the turn of the 19 th century, particularly from the time of Pope Leo XIII (who wrote the first social encyclical “Rerum Novarum” or “On the Condition of Labor” in 1891 ), the Church has witnessed a significant shift on how to understand its social mission. It continues its works that directly address human needs . </li></ul>
But because of the worsening situation of the poor across the world and more complex social relations brought by the Industrial Revolution, the Church has realized its need to augment its charitable works with efforts for newly coined “SOCIAL JUSTICE”
<ul><li>If you want peace, work for justice.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pope Paul VI </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Social Justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This type of justice also speaks of the relationship between society and its members; but this time its focus is on the institutions, systems and structures of society that either facilitate or hinder the common good and exercise of human rights at the local, national and international levels. </li></ul></ul>
Society Individual Individual Commutative (Contractual) Distributive Contributive Justice Social
LISTENING TO THE “PROPHETS” <ul><li>A prophet (gk. “prophetes”- to speak in behalf) is one “who speaks in God’s name and under His inspiration”. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus was telling us to listen to the Word of God and believe and act. Our active work for charity or social action must be rooted deeply in faith’s call to serve those in need. It must be animated by the Word of God calling us to love and to become “messengers” of His Good News. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God’s Word can move us to reach out to others IF WE LISTEN AND ACCEPT IT. Faith is a free choice, and social responsibility is a very essential part of it. </li></ul></ul>
GROUP REPORTING: ENCYCLICALS <ul><li>Report to the class the social encyclicals assigned to your group. Kindly research for the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name of the encyclical, Author, Date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of Concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotable quotes (paragraphs, sentences from the encyclical) at least 2 </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>CLEd Book (pages 6-33) </li></ul><ul><li>Handouts (Advent and The Call of Christians) </li></ul><ul><li>Sunday Gospels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matthew 22:15-21 - Matthew 25:14-30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matthew 22:34-40 - Matthew 25:31-46 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matthew 23:1-12 - Mark 13:33-37 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matthew 25:1-13 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Encyclicals (Appendices of the CLEd Book) </li></ul>POINTERS TO REVIEW