La caja de pandora
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Nuevas herramientas comparativas y nuevas evidencias sobre equidad y educación

Nuevas herramientas comparativas y nuevas evidencias sobre equidad y educación

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  • 1. La caja de Pandora Nuevas herramientas comparativas y nuevas evidencias sobre equidad y educación Francesc Pedró
  • 2. Corrientes educativas
  • 3. Para qué • Teoría: – Mejorar nuestra comprensión de la educación para mejorarla • Práctica: – Informar la toma de decisiones: • Políticas • (Profesionales)
  • 4. familia Políticas públicas pares escuela resultados efectos
  • 5. familia Políticas públicas pares escuela Variables contextuales Variables institucionales/regulatorias resultados resultados efectos
  • 6. Equidad y modelos de gobierno 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 autónomo centralizado federal municipal OCDE Variación entre centros en los resultados de cultura científica (2006) Variación intra centros en los resultados de cultura científica (2006) 6
  • 7. Pandora
  • 8. Ayer y hoy teoría preguntas descripción de métodos políticas y análisis del juego de actores datos fenomenología de disponibles sistemas y estructuras
  • 9. Ayer y hoy teoría contexto comportamiento entradas dinámico de los preguntas sistemas procesos descripción de resultados métodos políticas y análisis del juego de Evaluación de sistemas actores datos fenomenología de disponibles sistemas y estructuras
  • 10. Cuatro medidas de equidad • Acceso: provisión de servicios • Procesos: tratamiento educativo • Resultados: compensación de desventajas • Efectos: acceso a competencias básicas
  • 11. Acceso: provisión de servicios
  • 12. Percentage of students frequently using a computer: At home Netherlands No se pueden tener 15 años sin estar conectado Turkey Japan 100 Iceland Norway Chile 80 Sweden Greece 60 Denmark Ireland 40 Canada Slovak Republic 20 Australia 0 Poland Finland Hungary Korea Italy Belgium Czech Republic Switzerland OECD Germany Spain Austria New Zealand Portugal
  • 13. Paradoja de la equidad de acceso 3 2 1 0 Equal start SES effect ICT effect Low SES High SES
  • 14. Procesos: equidad de tratamiento educativo 120 100 Variación de resultados dentro de las escuelas 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 Variación de resultados entre escuelas -60 -80 22 21 31 8 15 7 6 13 1 9 -100 21-25 19-24 3-10 10-20 5-9 4-9 11-16 9-11 s n o y n aly om d y a te wa de x ic pa lan an re gd It a Ja Ko rm e r Me Fin St Sw No Kin Ge d ite d ite Un Un
  • 15. Resultados: compensación de desventajas
  • 16. Compensación de desventajas Alto Finland Korea United Kingdom Sweden Norway Spain 600 Germany Rendimiento de los alumnos 550 500 450 400 350 Bajo 300 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Desventaja Ventaja Índice PISA de contexto social
  • 17. Efectos: acceso a competencias básicas
  • 18. Equidad correlaciona con calidad
  • 19. Pero no basta De la evaluación de sistemas a la evaluación de políticas
  • 20. Un programa de investigación comparativa en educación 1. Causalidad (series temporales)
  • 21. It is not as it used to be Approximated by percentage of persons with high school or equivalent qualfications in the age groups 55-64, 45-55, 45-44 und 25-34 years 1990s 1980s 1970s 1960s 100 % 90 1 80 13 70 60 50 40 30 20 1 27 10 0 Netherlands Slovenia Greece Switzerland Germany Finland Iceland Belgium Italy Russian Federation4 EU19 average France Ireland Korea Mexico Estonia Israel Norway Spain Austria3 Poland Brazil2 Slovak Republic Chile2 United Kingdom3 OECD average United States Turkey Sweden Denmark Luxembourg Hungary Canada New Zealand Australia Portugal Czech Republic 1. Excluding ISCED 3C short programmes 2. Year of reference 2004 3. Including some ISCED 3C short programmes 3. Year of reference 2003.
  • 22. Australia A world of change – college education Austria Czech Republic Denmark Finland Germany Greece Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Japan Cost per student Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Spain Sweden Graduate supply United Kingdom United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 23. A world of change – college education Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Cost per student United States Sweden Germany Japan Graduate supply Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 24. A world of change – college education Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Australia Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 25. A world of change – college education Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 26. A world of change – college education Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 27. A world of change – college education Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 28. A world of change – college education Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 29. A world of change – college education Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) United States Sweden Australia Germany Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 30. Poland raised its reading performance by 28 PISA points, equivalent to ¾ Between PISA 2000 and 2003 Poland delayed the separation-of of a school year What happened? % students into different school types Level 1 Below Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 beyond the age of 15 years 90 70 In 2003, performance variation among schools had Between 2000 and 2003 50 fallen from 51% to 16% showed the second-largest of increase in reading (17 points) the variation of student performance and a further 11 point 30 increase since 2003 But did this lead to genuine improvements of school 10 performance? 10 Most of that increase resulted from smaller proportions at the bottom level (23% in 2000, and 30 three-quarters in vocational tracks, 17%in 2003) Poland 2000 Poland 2003 Poland 2006 OECD 2006 Did this harm the better performers? OECD (2007), Learning for tomorrow’s world: First results from PISA 2006 , Table 6.1a
  • 31. -10 0 10 20 21 KOR KOR 20 GRC GRC 13 MEX MEX 11 ESP ESP 11 AUT AUT 9 ISL ISL 8 CZE CZE 8 PRT PRT 8 HUN HUN 7 DEU DEU 7 BEL BEL 6 FRA FRA IRL 5 IRL DNK 5 DNK POL 4 POL SWE 4 SWE AUS 3 AUS ITA 3 ITA NOR 3 NOR JPN 1 JPN CHE 1 CHE FIN 1 FIN CAN 0 CAN NZL -8 NZL OECD-24 6 OECD-24
  • 32. Change (2006-2000) in reading 40 scores LUX KOR 30 POL 20 DEU 10 HUN CHE PRT FIN 0 -0,02 DNK -0,01 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 CAN OECD-26 NZL BEL CZE -10 IRL SWE MEX AUS GRC AUT ITA -20 FRA NOR ISL JPN GBR -30 ESP -40 Change (2006-2000 in inequality (coefficient of variation) of reading scores
  • 33. Un programa de investigación comparativa en educación 1. Causalidad (series temporales) 2. Black box
  • 34. Efectos de una selección de variables sobre los resultados School principal’s positive evaluation of quality of Schools with more competing educational materials schools (gross only) (gross only) Schools with greater autonomy (resources) (gross and net) School activities to promote One additional hour of self- science learning study or homework (gross and net) One additional hour of science (gross and net) learning at school School results and net)publicly (gross posted (gross and net) Academically selective schools (gross and net) but no system- wide effect Schools practicing ability One additional hour ofnet) grouping (gross and out-of- Each additionallessons public school 10% of School principal’s perception (gross and net) funding that lack of qualified teachers (gross only) Effect after accounting for the hinders instruction (gross only) socio-economic background Measured effect of students, schools and countries OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies from Tomorrow’s World, Table 6.1a
  • 35. Un programa de investigación comparativa en educación 1. Causalidad (series temporales) 2. Black box – valor añadido – estrategias efectivas dentro del aula – la docencia, • Una profesión basada en la docencia • La formación del profesorado
  • 36. Más y mejores evidencias Otras herramientas Mayor complejidad Otra formación Ventana de Masa crítica oportunidad
  • 37. Muchas gracias Francesc.Pedro@OECD.org www.slideshare.com/francescpedro www.oecd.org/edu