Long-term can be time and/or distance; it usually means both
Example: Slavery—the desire to escape slavery, the need to hide escape plans from the master resulted in the metaphorical style of AAVE
Arabic is spoken in Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia
Code-switching here is about moving from one standard language to another standard language.Code-switching is done in art quite frequently—literature and music
Why? Create laws—laws must be read, understood; otherwise there is a penalty; I must know the language; I must know the language if I want to receive any sort of the benefit the government may have for its citizens.
Home city—the home of the Romance Languages
Language achieving its reputation by its association
Reviews what a weak verb is and what a strong verb is
+ What factors determine whether a language eventually becomes a dialect or a totally new language? Page 16 (Sixth Edition) Page 19 (Fifth Edition)
+ slight separation of one segment of a community fromTheother segments of that same community can result in_____________, while a *long-term separation of onesegment of a community from another can resultin________________. 1. a new language, a dialect 2. a dialect, a new language
+Question for Discussion What causes segments of a community to separate from the main community?1. Social mandates: segregation (Jim Crow), one-child policy2. Natural disaster: drought, fire, earthquakes3. Social strife: war, persecution4. Economic conditions: seeking better jobs, better education, cheaper housing
Question for Discussion+In terms of language, what importance is there inunderstanding the reason(s) that one segment of acommunity separates from the main community? The reason(s) for the separation often explains why a language developed a certain way lexically, stylistically, structurally, phonetically, and semantically. Language does not develop randomly. Example: Slavery—the need to hide escape plans from the master resulted in the metaphorical style of AAVE
+Question: Linguistic Connections Even if one segment of a community separates itself from the main community and forms a new language, this new language will/will not retain characteristics of the old, parentlanguage? 1. will 2. will not page 15 (sixth edition) pages 19-20 (fifth edition)
+Parent Language Because a new language retains characteristics of the old, parent language, this means that it is possible to study English and identify its parent language, the ancient language from which it derives.
+ Parent Language A parent language is a language from which other languages have derived.
+ Which of these ancient languages below is considered to be the ancient parent language of English? 1. Balto-Slavic 2. Hellenic 3. Indo-European 4. Italic
+ Indo-European Indo-European is the parent language that linguists have identified as spoken by ancient people who spread into areas known today as Asia and Europe.
+ Indo-European From the Indo-European language, 11 major language groups emerged. (page 18, sixth edition) (page 23, fifth edition)
+The p in the word of a language,such as Latin, that derives fromthe Indo-European family will bereplaced with a f in the equivalentword of its Germanic relative likeEnglish.
+In Latin, the word Pisces means fish.Later, in Germanic languages such asEnglish, the same word is spelled with an f
+Another pattern that John Grimm foundwhich connects English with its "cousins" inthe Indo-European family involves t and th.
+While some words in Latin will uset, equivalent words in English will use th. Latin=tres English=three
+ Which group below represents the most widely spoken languages deriving from the Indo- European parent language? 1. English, French, and Spanish 2. English, Portuguese, Spanish 3. English, Italian, Spanish 4. English, German, Spanish
+ Esperanza Spalding (Milton Mascimento) Ponte De Areia
+ Learning LanguagesIn considering ancient parent languages, what factors go into the ease with which individuals learn a language?
+ It is usually easier for individuals to learn languages that derive from the same ancientparent language that to learn languages fromdifferent parent languages.Itis also usually easier “code-switching.”Italian and English
+What makes Italian unique whencompared with other Romancelanguages?(page 25, sixth edition)(page 29, fifth edition)
+ Romance languages such as French, Spanish, and Portuguese evolved as a result of migration from the home city of Rome.
+Italian evolved as a result of immigration to the home city of Rome.As a result, Italian, unlike the other Romance languages, is closest to _______?
+Quote: “[Italian] is particularly important as the language of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio and as the vernacular language in which the cultural achievements [of the Renaissance first found expression.” (Page 25, sixth edition) (Page 29, fifth edition)How does this quote explain the prestige associated with Italian and other Romance Languages?
+Language achieving its reputation by its association What is the reputation of English?
+ What West-Germanic tribes invaded England? What made it possible, to a certain extent, for these tribes to invade England?
+ Language Timeline Old English: 450 to 1150 Middle English: 1150 to 1500 Modern English: 1500 to today
+ In terms of Grammar . . . Old English, Latin, and the Romance languages are described as syntheticlanguages.
+ In termsof Grammar . . . Modern English is described as an analytic language. Page 52, sixth edition Page 56, fifth edition
+ Synthetic languages are . . .said to be highly inflectional. In other words, inflectional elementsare addedonto words, usually the ends of words, to indicatetense, degree, gender, and *person.
+ Analytic languages have . . .few inflections. Instead of meaningbeing created through the addition ofinflectional elements, meaning comesfrom word order,prepositions, andauxiliary (helping) verbs.
+ Grammar: Person Quick Review: Synthetic languages usually add inflectional elements onto words whereas analytical languages add words such as prepositions to indicate tense, degree, gender, and *person.
+ In grammar, when we talk about the issue of "person," we are referring to 1. Gender Concerns 2. The Speaker/Writer Position 3. Verb Tense
+ Person The position of the writer/speaker Pronouns: I, you, he/she/it I (first person) You (second person) He/she/it (third person)
+ Person The position of the writer/speaker I(first person)= the writer/speaker is writing about herself/himself You (second person)= the writer/speaker is writing directly to someone He/she/it (third person)= the writer/speaker is writing about someone/something
+ If you are writing an autobiography, in what person are writing? 1. Second Person 2. Third Person 3. First Person
+ you work for a company and you write a Ifletter to the CEO of another company, you willprobably write that letter in 1. first person 2. second person 3. third person
+ Review Synthetic languages usually add inflectional elements onto words whereas analytical languages add words such as prepositions to indicate tense, degree, gender, and *person.
+ Inflections Inflections are elements that are added to words, usually to the end of words, in order to add meaning.
+Review Old English, Latin, and the Romance languages are described as syntheticlanguages. Modern English is described as an analytic language.
+In modern English, we .. . use few inflectional elements to indicate that we are moving from one person to another. In the present tense, we use an inflection only for third person.
+For example, . . . I live You live He/She/It lives We live You live They live
+ Because the Romance Language Spanish is synthetic, different inflectional elements are added as there is movement from one grammatical person to the other.
+ Spanish Yo vivo (I live) Tuvives (You live) El vive (He lives)
+ Latin is even more inflectional than the Romance languages.For example,Ducam= I will lead.Du= leadCam= I will
+ Synthetic languages use fewer words to express meaning than analytic languages? 1. True 2. False
+ What does this mean in terms of dictionaries for English compared with dictionaries for French, for Spanish?
+ English has becomes less inflectional throughout time. Old English was much more inflectional than modern English.
+ As an analytic language, modern English usually creates meaning, not with inflectional elements, but by word order, prepositions, and auxiliary (helping) verbs.
+ For example, the meaning of a noun in an analytic language is revealed by its placement or order in a sentence.
+ The stone house is impervious to hurricane-force winds. In the sentence above, the noun "stone" is acting as 1. an indirect object 2. an adjective 3. a direct object 4. a possessive
+ geologist showed the stone to the visitingThestudents.In the sentence above, the noun "stone" is acting as 1. an indirect object 2. a predicate noun 3. a direct object 4. a possessive
+ The direct object of a sentence explains what or whom the subject and action verb of a sentence are acting upon. The geologist showed the stone to the visiting students. (After the action verb, ask "what" or "who")
+He placed a flower on the stone.In the sentence above, the noun "stone," is actingas 1. a predicate noun 2. a possessive 3. a direct object 4. an indirect object
+ indirect object explains who or whatAnreceives or is impacted by the directobject He placed a flower on the stone. (Afterthe direct object "flower," ask "what," "where," or "to whom")
+ In modern English, the noun "stone" is spelled the same regardless of whether it is serving as an adjective, direct object, indirect object, or some other part of speech. In other words, the placement of the noun in the sentence, not the spelling of the noun, determines its grammatical role.
+In Old English, the noun "stone" has a different spelling depending on how it is being used. Direct object (Accusative Case): "stan" Indirect Object (Dative Case): "stan-e” Page 53, sixth edition
+VerbsIn the movement from Old English to modernEnglish, not only have nouns become lessinflectional, so too have verbs.
+ Quick Review:What does it mean fora language to be highly inflectional? 1.Meaning is created by word order, auxiliary words, and prepositions 2.Meaning is created by adding elements to a word, usually the end of words
+ In grammar, verbs are described as being either 1. strong (irregular) 2. weak (regular)
+ In modern English, most verbs are weak (regular)
+ Weak verbs (regular) have the same "- ed" ending in the past tense and the past participle. Verb: to play Present Tense: I play Past Tense:I played Past Participle: I have played
+ Unlike weak verbs(regular), strong verbs (irregular) change form as they move from past tense to past participle. Verb: to drive Present Tense: I drive Past Tense: I drove Past Participle: I have driven
+ Is the verb "to help" a strong verb or a weak verb? 1. Strong 2. Weak
+ Most verbs that were strong in Old English have become weak in modern English. Verb: to Help (Helpan) Present Tense: I help (healp) Past Tense: I helped (hulpon) Past Participle: I have helped (holpen)
+ Some strong verbs in old English remain strong in modern English. Verb: to Drive (Drifan) Present Tense: I drive (draf) Past Tense: I drove (drifon) Past Participle: I have driven ( drifen)
+ Is the verb "to awake" a strong verb or a weak verb? 1. Weak 2. Strong
+ Some strong verbs in modern English are transitioning. Verb: to awake Present Tense: I awake Past Tense: I awoke (awaked) PastParticiple: I have awaken (have awaked)
+Another transitioning strong verb Verb: to dive Present Tense: I dive Past Tense: I dove (dived) Past Participle: I have dived The past participle is weak already, but the past tense is transitioning.
+One last example of a transitioning strong verb. Verb: to dream Present Tense: I dream Past Tense: I dreamt (dreamed) Past Participle: I have dreamt (have dreamed)
+ Question What is the difference between studying language by examining historical or politicalrecords versus analyzing language via literature?
+ Unlike historical or political records, . . . literature provides an even better view of a languages power because literature uses figurative language, which requires the most skillful use of lexicon.
+Figurative language is the use of metaphors andsimiles that make direct or indirect comparisons thatare meant to be taken imaginatively, not literally.Figurative language must be distinguished from literal language.
+ Which of these is a figurative expression?1. He ran down the street fast.2. He ran like a hare down the street.
+ In studying Old English, linguists often prefer to examine literature-- writing that uses figurative language--even more than historical or political documents because literature represents the use of language at its highest skill language.
+Not only does literature highlight the skillfuluse of a languages lexicon, . . .it reveals also the cultural, philosophical, andreligious concerns of a community; it canhighlight environmental uniqueness of a time orplace.
+ Old English Literature What is the most famous piece of Old English literature?
+ Modern English translation of Beowulf What does the modern translation of Beowulf reveal about the cultural, philosophical, and religious concerns of Old English life?Origins of world?Roots of success?Nature of Evil?Basic/Central Battle?
+Middle English, theRenaissance, Modern English The Printing Press, Popular Education, Orthography, and Dictionaries
+ English has modernized, moving from Asold English to middle English, its changeshave dictated by the operationof analogy.(Read Chapter 7 as well)Page 154, sixth editionPage 159, fifth edition
+ The Operation of Analogy The process by which words and phrases are created or reformed according to existing patterns in language.
+ Verbs The operation of analogy explains why many verbs have moved from strong to weak. The pattern is to add -ed to the past tense and the past participle; therefore, many verbs are reformed according to this pattern.
+Another pattern involves creatingverbs from nouns by adding thesuffix"ize." For example Winter--Winterize Recognition--Recognize Authority--Authorize