APA Style fall 2012


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A review of the main points of APA style along with helpful links at the end.

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APA Style fall 2012

  1. 1. APA: The Inside Scoop Jody Bailey Reference/Instruction Librarian University of Texas at Arlington Library jbailey@uta.edu © Jody Bailey, 2012
  2. 2. My Experience 10 years as a professional copyeditor for APA, both in-house and as a freelancer. 5 years of teaching writing at LSU and VA Tech. 3 years as a reference/instruction librarian here at UTA. © Jody Bailey, 2012
  3. 3. APA Publication Manual, 6th edition  Be sure you are buying a copy that says “Second printing August 2009” or “Third printing: October 2009”. Do NOT buy a copy that says “First printing”! © Jody Bailey, 2012
  4. 4. Writing Style: The Basics Having trouble with expressing ideas? Read APA’s Publication Manual, 6th ed. (PM), pp. 65- 70. Main topics: continuity in presentation of ideas, smoothness of expression, tone, economy of expression, and precision and clarity. See also grammar and usage (active/passive verbs, s/v agreement, pronouns, misplaced or dangling modifiers, relative pronouns, and parallelism; PM, pp. 77-86). © Jody Bailey, 2012
  5. 5. Can You Spot the Problem? (Examples from the PM) The phenomena occurs every 100 years. Name the participant whom you found achieved scores above the median. The participant who I identified as the youngest dropped out. The investigator tested the participants using this procedure. After separating the participants into groups, Group A was tested. © Jody Bailey, 2012
  6. 6. Writing Style: Reducing Bias Very important! Avoid bias on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, racial/ethnic identity, disability, and age. Avoid “the” + adjective (e.g., “the elderly”; PM, pp. 71-77). Main point: Always call people what they wish to be called (e.g., Hispanic or Latino?), and always put the person before the disability or disorder (e.g., “people with disabilities” not “the disabled” and especially not “the wheelchair-bound”!). © Jody Bailey, 2012
  7. 7. Mechanics of Style Review all punctuation usage (PM, pp. 87- 96). Important! APA uses the serial comma. Spelling: House dictionary is Merriam- Webster’s Collegiate (2005). See Table 4.2 (PM, p. 99) for nonhyphenated prefixes/suffixes. Review capitalization (PM, pp. 101-104), italics (PM, pp. 104-106), and abbreviation rules (PM, pp. 106-111). © Jody Bailey, 2012
  8. 8. Mechanics: Numbers Use numerals: all numbers 10+, numbers that precede units of measurement, statistical/math functions, time, dates, ages, scores, points on a scale, money (PM, pp. 111-112). Use words: numbers at start of sentence, common fractions, universally accepted usage (PM, 112). Ordinals: use same rules as cardinals. Use metric system for measurements (PM, pp. 114-115). Statistical and mathematical copy (PM, pp. 116-124). © Jody Bailey, 2012
  9. 9. Heading Styles (PM, p. 62) © Jody Bailey, 2012
  10. 10. Style Mechanics “Spacing twice after punctuation marks at the end of a sentence aids readers of draft manuscripts [emphasis added]” (PM, p. 88). Dropped: the rule to use numerals for numbers below 10 grouped or compared with numbers above 10. New: OK to use “words for approximations of days, months, and years” (PM, p. 112) © Jody Bailey, 2012
  11. 11. In-Text Citations The PM’s section on in-text citations is extremely helpful (pp. 174-179). See also Table 6.1 (PM, p. 177).  Examples: Walker and Bailey (2000) compared reaction times. In a recent study of reaction times (Walker & Bailey, 2000) . . . .  Two authors? Cite both names every time.  Three to five authors? Cite all names the first time, then cite only the first author followed by “et al.” on subsequent citations.  Six or more authors? Cite only the first author followed by “et al.” on all citations. Always include the year in parenthetical citations. Provide page number if info comes from specific place in your text or if you are quoting. © Jody Bailey, 2012
  12. 12. Digital Object Identifier (DOI) “Provides a means of persistent identification for managing information on digital networks” (PM, p. 188) “A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string . . . to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet” (PM, p. 189) DOI is analogous to ISBN. © Jody Bailey, 2012
  13. 13. How is the DOI used? Go to http://crossref.org/ Put the DOI in the search box Retrieve full citation, abstract, and link to purchase article Try it! 10.1037/a0015860 © Jody Bailey, 2012
  14. 14. Reference List If a source has a DOI, always use it, no matter what type of source it is!  Periodical (print OR online): Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2007). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx- xxx. doi: xx-xxxxxxxxx  Online periodical with no DOI: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx- xxx. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx URL of open-access article or periodical’s home page © Jody Bailey, 2012
  15. 15. Reference List (cont’d.) Book:  Author, A. A. (1994). Title of work. Location: Publisher.  Author, A. A. (1998). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx  Author, A. A. (2008). Title of work. doi: xxxxxxxx  Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (1994). Title of work. Location: Publisher. Book chapter:  Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1994). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher. © Jody Bailey, 2012
  16. 16. Group Work!Pair up!Formulate a correct APA reference for each of the following sources © Jody Bailey, 2012
  17. 17. Johnson, A. M., Jent, S., & Reynolds, L. (2007).Library instruction and information literacy 2006.Reference Services Review, 35, 584-640. doi:10.1108/00907320710838408 © Jody Bailey, 2012
  18. 18. Mirza, R., & Seale, M. (2011).Watchers, punks and dashingheroes: Representations ofmale librarians in Generation Xmass culture. In M. K. Wallace,R. Tolley-Stokes, & E. S. Estep(Eds.), The Generation Xlibrarian: Essays on leadership,technology, pop culture, socialresponsibility and professionalidentity (pp. 135-146).Jefferson, NC: McFarland. © Jody Bailey, 2012
  19. 19. http://dspace.uta.edu/handle/10106/5651 Aaron, T. L. (2011). Closing the gap in higher education: African American male college students perceptions of advising at a two year college (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://dspace.uta.edu/handle/10106/5651 © Jody Bailey, 2012
  20. 20. Useful Resources From APA:  The PM—well, d’uh!  APA’s 2012 Style Guide to Electronic References: http://discover.uta.edu/?itemid=|uta-cat|1963538  APA Style home page: http://apastyle.apa.org/  APA Style Blog: http://blog.apastyle.org/  APA Style FAQ: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspx  Learning APA Style: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/index.aspx From UTA:  Our “Ask A Librarian” entry on APA style: http://ask.uta.edu/a.php?qid=64563  UTA’s 2-page brochure on APA style: http://www.uta.edu/library/help/files/cite-apa.pdf Other:  The OWL at Purdue: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/  Northern Michigan University’s APA Guide: http://library.nmu.edu/guides/userguides/style_apa.htm © Jody Bailey, 2012
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