Discovering the dominant communication channels in linguistics and joining that scholarly conversationFinding and evaluating information sourcesLearning to think for yourself and express your ideas
Pair share here too!
Take good notes when doing research!Cite sources.Get help from the writing center or PDDI!Read scholarly articles very closely; note their language (what they paraphrase, what they quote) to see how they avoid plagiarism.
Pull in something from LSA ethics guidelines??
Define common knowledge as anything that can be found easily in a general encyclopedia.
Questions: what does accurately mean?
Acknowledging Sources and Academic Integrity: Linguistics
Acknowledging Sources and Academic Integrity Jody Bailey, Reference/Instruction Librarian UT Arlington Central Library, Rm. 312 firstname.lastname@example.org 817.272.7516 Adapted with permission from “Acknowledging Sources”: http://library.uta.edu/plagiarism/index.html
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, California, 94041, USA.September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 2
What’s the point of a writing assignment? “Pair share” on this question!• Discovering the dominant communication channels in linguistics and joining that scholarly conversation• Finding and evaluating information sources• Learning to think for yourself and express your ideasSeptember 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 4
Intellectual Property • “Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, an d designs used in commerce.” (World Intellectual Property Organization, n.d.) • In the U.S., all intellectual property is automatically copyrighted as soon as it is created. • Acknowledging sources is thus mandatory.September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 5
What is plagiarism?• “When you take someone’s words or ideas and represent them as your own, you commit plagiarism. Plagiarism is using the work of others but not acknowledging the source.” (“Acknowledging Sources” 2011)September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 6
Plagiarism: Cultural Differences?• Students from Other • U.S. Academic Culture: Cultures: – Scholars work for years on – “When you really don’t know articles and books and other how to write your own research; if you use their composition, you can use words or ideas without other person’s paragraph or attribution, it’s viewed as sentences as a student.” (Shi stealing. 2006:275) – By not citing your fellow – “I want to use people’s scholars, you are denying expressions in English the them public attribution for same way because their work and hence sometimes I have no other hindering their scholarly words. . . . I think [copying] a advancement. few words or a short expression is OK.” (Shi 2006:273)September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 7
Examples of Plagiarism• Copying text from a website.• Copying a graphic element from a website.• Copying material from books or magazines.• Copying someone’s spoken words.• Copying a unique or distinctive phrase.• Changing the wording of a source slightly and not citing the source.• Buying or using a paper written by someone else.• Taking another person’s ideas and acting as though they are yours.• Copying someone’s computer program.• Including artwork or music in a project without getting permission or citing the source.• Writing a paper for Professor X’s class and using it again for Professor Y’s class; this is called “self-plagiarism.” (“Acknowledging Sources” 2011) You can use other people’s work in your own work as long as you give credit to the original author.September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 8
Scholastic Dishonesty at UT Arlington • See UTA’s Handbook of Operating Procedures, Subchapter STU 2-200: Administration of DisciplineSeptember 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 9
Effects of Plagiarism• See UTA’s Handbook of Operating Procedures, Section 2-301, Authorized Disciplinary ActionsSeptember 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 10
Effects of Plagiarism for Students• University expels 34 students for cheating: “Students not expelled were put on probation or suspended for an academic year, the second-harshest punishment, for offences such as plagiarism, or purchasing projects or papers and submitting them as their own.” (Khalaf 2010)• Harvard Faker Adam Wheeler Pleads Guilty to 20 Counts: “indicted on 20 counts of larceny, identity fraud, falsifying an endorsement or approval, and pretending to hold a degree.” (Yu & Zauzmer 2010)September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 11
Effects of Plagiarism: zu Guttenberg • Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg: elected to the Budestag (lower house of German parliament) in 2002. • “In February 2011, evidence was made public that Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg had copied numerous unattributed passages from sources such as newspaper articles, speeches or term papers in his dissertation.” • Degree revoked in late February 2011. • zu Guttenberg resigned from the Bundestag on March 3, 2011 (“zu Guttenberg” 2011).September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 12
Effects of Plagiarism: Zakaria• One of Time’s 100 Most Influential People in the World, 2011; contributing editor & columnist at Time; host of news shows on CNN and PBS.• Accused of “lifting several paragraphs from a New Yorker magazine essay and using them in his Time magazine column” in August 2012.• Suspended from Time and CNN for several weeks; reinstated after investigation found that this was “an isolated incident.” (“Zakaria,” 2012)September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 13
Linguistic Society of America Ethics Statement• “Linguists are subject to the standards of conduct found in other disciplines. They should practice honesty (e.g., by not plagiarizing or fabricating data) and carefully cite the original sources of ideas, descriptions, and data.” http://www.lsadc.org/info/pdf_files/Ethics_Statement.pdfSeptember 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 14
How to Avoid Plagiarism?September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 15
Linguistics Citation Style• Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America, “Style Sheet”: http://lsadc.org/info/pubs-lang-style.cfm• See also the “Unified Style Sheet for Linguistics Journals”: http://linguistlist.org/pubs/tocs/JournalUnifie dStyleSheet2007.pdfSeptember 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 16
Sample Citations (from Language “Style Sheet”)• Journal article: Hale, Kenneth, and Josie White Eagle. 1980. A preliminary metrical account of Winnebago accent. International Journal of American Linguistics 46.117-32.• Book: Dorian, Nancy C. (ed.) 1989. Investigating obsolescence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 17
Sample In-Text Citations• “Give only a brief citation in parentheses consisting of the authors surname, the year of publication, and page number(s) where relevant: (Rice 1989) or (Yip 1991:75-6).” – “a. If a cited publication has more than two authors, use the surname of the first author, followed by et al.” – “b. If the authors name is part of the text, then use this form: Rice (1989:167) comments ...” (“Style Sheet,” Language)September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 18
What do I cite?• Quotations? YES• Common knowledge? NO• Graphics, charts, tables ? YES• Your original ideas? NO• Your original research (e.g., surveys, experime nts)? NO• Paraphrases of others’ ideas? YESSeptember 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 19
Tips for Quoting & Paraphrasing • Quote accurately! • Paraphrase correctly; do not use the structure or language of the original – Pretend to explain the source to someone else – Summarize the source without looking at it – If it’s too hard to paraphrase, then quote! – Don’t just replace a word here and there using a thesaurus!September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 20
Correct ParaphrasingSource: Paraphrase: Which is better?• “Currently, the two language • Greek-Cypriots speak both varieties employed by GCs Standard Modern Greek and [Greek-Cypriots] in their daily the Greek-Cypriot dialect; the interactions are Standard former is considered higher Modern Greek (SMG) and the prestige and formality level. Greek-Cypriot Dialect (GCD). • The two language varieties SMG is the official and used by Greek-Cypriots in their prestigious language variety daily life are Standard Modern that is learnt through Greek and the Greek-Cypriot schooling and employed in dialect. Standard Modern formal environments and in Greek is more prestigious and writing” (Papapavlou & official. Sophocleous 2009).September 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 21
What do faculty do if they think someone has plagiarized?• TurnItIn.com• Google/Google Scholar• Wikipedia• Linguistics databasesSeptember 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 22
“How to Tell If You’re a Plagiarist” 1. DID YOU WRITE IT? [Yes/ No] 2. DID YOU CITE IT? [Yes/ No] ANSWER KEY • If you answered Yes, No, you are an honest student. • If you answered No, Yes, you are an honest student. • If you answered No, No, you are a plagiarist. • If you answered Yes, Yes, that doesnt even make sense. (Nolan, 2010) • http://gawker.com/5602360/h ow-to-tell-if-youre-a-plagiaristSeptember 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 23
ReferencesACKNOWLEDGING SOURCES. 2011. University of Texas at Arlington Library. Online:http://library.uta.edu/plagiarism/index.htmlFAREED ZAKARIA RESIGNS FROM YALE UNIVERSITYS GOVERNING BOARD. 2012. Huff Post College. Online:http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/20/fareed-zakaria-resigns-yale-board_n_1814199.htmlHANDBOOK OF OPERATING PROCEDURES. 2012. University of Texas at Arlington. Online:https://www.uta.edu/policy/hop/KHALAF, HALA. 2010. University expels 34 students for cheating. The National. Online:http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/education/university-expels-34-students-for-cheatingLINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 2009. Ethics statement. Online:http://www.lsadc.org/info/pdf_files/Ethics_Statement.pdfNOLAN, HAMILTON. 2010. How to tell if youre a plagiarist. Gawker. Online: http://gawker.com/#!5602360/how-to-tell-if-youre-a-plagiaristPAPAPAVLOU, ANDREAS and ANDRY SOPHOCLEOUS. 2009. Relational social deixis and the linguistic construction ofidentity. International Journal of Multilingualism 6.1-16.SHI, LING. 2006. Cultural backgrounds and textual appropriation. Language Awareness 15.264-282.WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION. What is intellectual property? Online: http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/YU, XI, and JULIE M. ZAUZMER. 2010. Harvard faker Adam Wheeler pleads guilty to 20 counts. Harvard Crimson.Online: http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2010/12/16/harvard-wheeler-college-guilty/KARL-THEODOR ZU GUTTENBERG. 2011. Wikipedia. Online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl-Theodor_zu_GuttenbergSeptember 22, 2012 Jody Bailey 24