History of turkish republic
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  • 1. Kübranur Toplar History of Turkey From 1923 - Present
  • 2. Content  The Establishment of Turkey Republic  Single-party period, 1923–1946  Chronology of Major Kemalist Reforms  Multi-party period, 1946–1961  1961-1980  1980 to the Present  References
  • 3. The Establishment of Turkey Republic  The Republic of Turkey was created after the overthrow of Sultan Mehmet VI Vahdettin by the new Republican Parliament in 1922.  The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923, with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president.
  • 4. Single-party period, 1923–1946  The government was formed from the Ankara-based revolutionary group, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues. The second constitution was ratified by the Grand National Assembly on April 20, 1924.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bH FApY9PGEs
  • 5. Chronology of Major Kemalist Reforms  November 1, 1922: Abolition of the office of the Ottoman Sultan.  October 29, 1923: Proclamation of the Republic of Turkey.  March 3, 1924: Abolition of the office of Caliphate held by the Ottoman Caliphate.  November 25, 1925: Change of headgear and dress.  November 30, 1925: Closure of religious convents and dervish lodges.  March 1, 1926: Introduction of the new penal law.  October 4, 1926: Introduction of the new civil code.  November 1, 1928: Adoption of the new Turkish alphabet.  June 21, 1934: Introduction of the law on family names.  November 26, 1934: Abolition of titles and by-names.  December 5, 1934: Full political rights, to vote and be elected, to women.  February 5, 1937: The inclusion of the principle of laïcité in
  • 6. Single-party period, 1923–1946  The first party to be established in the newly formed republic was the Women's Party (Kadınlar Halk Fırkası).  The actual passage to multi-party period was first attempted with the Liberal Republican Party by Ali Fethi Okyar.  The Liberal Republican Party was dissolved on 17 November 1930 and no further attempt for a multi-party democracy was made until 1945. Turkey was admitted to the League of Nations in July 1932.
  • 7. Single-party period, 1923–1946  Atatürk's successor after his death on November 10, 1938 was Ismet Inönü.  During World War II, Turkey maintained neutrality. Ambassadors from the Axis powers and Allies intermingled in Ankara.  In February 1945, Turkey declared war on Germany and Japan, while this was largely symbolic it allowed Turkey to join the future United Nations.  On October 24, 1945 Turkey signed the United Nations Charter as one of the fifty-one original members.  In 1946, Inönü's government organized multi-party elections, which were won by his party.
  • 8. Multi-party period, 1946–1961  The real multi-party period begins with the election of the Democratic Party.  The government of Adnan Menderes was very popular at first, relaxing the restrictions on Islam and presiding over a booming economy. In the latter half of the 1950s, however, the economy began to fail and the government introduced censorship laws limiting dissent. The government became plagued by high inflation and a massive debt.
  • 9. 1961-1980  On May 27, 1960, General Cemal Gürsel led a military coup d'état removing President Celal Bayar and Prime Minister Menderes, the second of whom was executed.  The army gave a memorandum warning the civilian government in 1971, leading to another coup which resulted in the fall of the Demirel government and the establishment of interim governments.  In 1974, under Prime Minister Ecevit in coalition with the religious National Salvation Party, Turkey carried out an invasion of Cyprus.  The governments of National Front, a series of coalitions between rightist parties, followed as Ecevit was not able to remain in office despite ranking first in the elections.
  • 10. 1980 to the Present  A military coup d'état, headed by General Kenan Evren, took place in 1980. Martial law was extended from 20 to all then existing 67 provinces of Turkey.  Starting in July 1987, the South-East was submitted to state of emergency legislation, a measure which lasted until November 2002. With the turn of the 1990s, political instability returned.  In 1997, the military, citing his government's support for religious policies deemed dangerous to Turkey's secular nature, sent a memorandum to Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan requesting that he resign, which he did.
  • 11. 1980 to the Present  A series of economic shocks led to new elections in 2002, bringing into power the conservative Justice and Development Party (AK Party) of former mayor of Istanbul, Recep Tayyip Erdogan.  AKP is after all the only government in Turkish political history that has managed to win three general elections in a row with an increasing amount of votes received in each one.  Alleged members of a clandestine group called Ergenekon were detained in 2008 as part of a long and complex trial.  On 22 February 2010 more than 40 officers arrested and formally charged with attempting to overthrow the government with respect to so- called "Sledgehammer" plot.
  • 12. References  Webster, The Turkey of Atatürk: social process in the Turkish reformation  Zihnioğlu, Yaprak. Kadınsız İnkılap. Metis Yayınları, 2003.  Çakır, Serpil. Osmanlı Kadın Hareketi. Metis Yayınları, 1994.  For example, see this 1942 Life magazine photograph  Glazer, Stevan A.. "Turkey after Atatürk". Turkey: A Country Study. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2 March 2011.  Amnesty International: Turkey Briefing, London, November 1988, AI Index Eur/44/65/88, ISBN 0- 86210-156-5, page 1; [1] an online edition with