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William morris

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  • Think about talking on text, print, culture before –during—after/impact
  • Think about talking on text, print, culture before –during—after/impactLondon had been for centuries the biggest city in England, indeed in Europe. Industrial development fuelled the expansion of cities such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool and Newcastle. Although the ‘industrial revolution’ was not as instantaneous as sometimes imagined, there was a continuous drift away from the countryside into manufacturing centres. In 1837 there were just five cities outside London with populations of over 100,000; by 1891 this number had grown to 23. In 1851 more than half the population of England lived in towns, and many of them worked  in the new factories. Tall factory chimneys were supposed to draw the smoke away, but all too often it lay as a thick blanket, smothering any fresh air and blackening the buildings.
  • London had been for centuries the biggest city in England, indeed in Europe. Industrial development fuelled the expansion of cities such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool and Newcastle. Although the ‘industrial revolution’ was not as instantaneous as sometimes imagined, there was a continuous drift away In 1837 there were just five cities outside London with populations of over 100,000; by 1891 this number had grown to 23. In 1851 more than half the population of England lived in towns, and many of them worked  in the new factories. Tall factory chimneys were supposed to draw the smoke away, but all too often it lay as a thick blanket, smothering any fresh air and blackening the buildings.Architecture – glass materials; cold, straight inorganic composition and lines. Uniformity, (non-aesthetic). (line, color, ... See Ruskin...and 7 steps ...sacrifice
  • National inspiration—flags, people, fancy dress, nature—trees,
  • Industrialists are responsible for the effects they have on society – “it is your business to form the market, as much as to supply it.” Moral obligation to contribute beauty and shape society with fine products.Fidelity with naturewatercolour and body colour over graphite on wove paper created by John Ruskin
Blake, To see the world in a grain sand or heaven in a wildflower.Unity of art with NatureFidelity to the nature worldColor, detail, lines,
  • The Hireling Shepherd, Holman Hunt, 1851, Oil on canvas. Courtesy of Manchester City Art Gallery   Symbolism – ethos of Pre-RaphealitesSpecify the ethos and how it is represented in this painting.
  • Rossetti and Study of Man and Woman in Medieval CostumeHow is the pre-Raphaelite ethos, particulars, relate to this drawing? What aspects of medievalism relate to pre-Raphealites? Aestheticism? The Cult of Beauty? How does medievalism relate to this ethos? Oscar Wilde, Godwin,Walter CraneLiberty and Art Nouveau came out of this aestheticism that featured Orientalism, fans, palms, books and paintings.
  • William Morris, Burne-Jones,and Dante Gabriel Rossetti – Whistler. These were angry young reformers who explored new ways of living in defiance of the horrendous design standards of the age as revealed in the 1851 Great Exhibition. Edict was “art for art’s sake. Taken up in all artistic spheres – architecture, dance, music.Oscar Wilde, Godwin,Walter CraneLiberty exemplified collaboration between commerce and aestheticism – became known as Stile Floreale Art Nouveau came out of this aestheticism that featured Orientalism, fans, palms, books and paintings.Relate Cult of Beauty to pre-Raphaelite ethos, medievalism, and aestheticism.
  • Emery Walker – founded the societyMorris and his coterie succeeded in revitalizing and nurturing English taste. The demand for beautiful objects, finely crafted decorative objects and stylistic elements was flourishing. This image communicates a sense of a guild—what do the figures represent?
  • Moved into rural home outside of London, called “Red House” – renovated it and did most of the work himself. Designed wallpaper...Pattern inspired by the gardens at Red House -- square flowerbeds enclosed by wattle trellises for roses. Birds were drawn by Philip Webb. The design itself certainly has a medieval character – motifs drawn naïve style resembling woodcuts of 16th- and 17th-century herbals. Trellis, Daisy Fruit designs continue to appeal. How is Morris’s art derived from pre-Raphaelites? What aspects? ....color, fabric, subject, theme, ...organic unity?
  • ideals of Western medieval craftsmanship, IdealismHome...woodwork...design, pitched, high ceilings, handcarving...gothic elements? Banisters, and pointed tops...reminiscent of medieval castle.
  • The Ideal BookPage design, leading, calligraphy, margins, runningtitlesAdmired EPB and tried to reconstruct.Two pages at an opening must be regarded as a single unit, so adjoining inner margins should be narrower than outer --Rule of 20% difference,. Head margin larger than inner, fore margin wider still, and tail widest.Morris went for beautiful pattern more than legibilityDid not want running title, distracted from beauty of pagePoems difficult for Morris – so often set poem as prose, as a single block of text.Title pages—not furnished in 15thc., so he often did not use one, instead, as illustrated above, Morris printed title opposite first page with hand-lettering and decorative border.So, needed shouldernotesWanted minimal margin toward gutterThese requirements resulted in large margin at bottom.
  • Think about talking on text, print, culture before –during—after/impactFidelity with naturewatercolour and bodycolour over graphite on wove paper created by John RuskinPrivate Presses and Bindery.This image by Ricketts and Vale Press.Egratny...Pissaro’s press.
  • Think about talking on text, print, culture before –during—after/impactTrajectory of the Pre-Raphaelite ethos and William through the 19thc. through its current influenceMorris Chair, handmade, natural, quality materials, useful and beautifulHistoricize—how does Morris figure into the history of design, visual text and materiality?
  • Colophon...what elements of EPB did Morris use?
  • Transcript

    • 1. William MorrisA Profusion of Culture
    • 2. Pre-Morris:Effects of Industrial Mechanization
    • 3. The Great Exhibition, 1851: Soulless Mechanization?
    • 4. The Great Exhibition, 1851: National Inspiration?
    • 5. Ruskin,Art as Religion. Beware, Industrialists!
    • 6. Pre-Raphaelites: Hunt, Rossetti, Millais
    • 7. Pre-Raphaelites & Romantic Idealism
    • 8. Aestheticism: The Cult of Beauty
    • 9. William Morris:The Arts & Crafts Movement
    • 10. William Morris:Socialist, Designer, Craftsman, Printer
    • 11. Morris:Everything Useful and Beautiful
    • 12. Morris:Kelmscott Press
    • 13. Post-MorrisThe PrivatePress
    • 14. HistoricizingMorris: Design
    • 15. Florence M. Paisey Fall 2012