Early Printed Book   Technology ~   Extending the Manuscript
OverviewThe Manuscript, Model for Early Printed BookPages and Their TechnologyLetterformsGutenberg and Moveable TypeFust &...
Written Manuscripts, Printed           BooksGutenberg did not so much start aninformation revolution as introduce a second...
Origins of Printing
Three Periods of PrintingPeriod One: Far East and Moveable Type   Mechanical printing started 8th century;11th century   i...
What is Printing?Duplicating images onto or into base throughmechanical techniques – base is usually paper.Among various t...
Paper TechnologyPaper, word derived from papyrus, initially created inChinaTook 7-10 centuries for West to acquireBrought ...
Laid Paper ProductionAfter beating rags, wet fibrous pulp placed on mould anddriedWet pulp shaken on mould & fibers adhere...
Laid Paper: ChainlinesLinear wire lines created by mouldRun parallel to each otherChange direction with different formats ...
Laid Paper: WatermarksWatermarks identify the paper millEach mill created their own designPosition on leaves varies with f...
The Manuscript,Model for the Printed       Book
Manuscripts & Printed BooksThe printed codex models the written manuscript  Alphabet: both technologies use alphabets  Let...
Manuscripts & CodexDirection of writing is a feature of script – emulated incodex.Typeface for the early printed book emul...
Letterforms
Letterforms and FunctionsFont form related to economics, aesthetics, legibility,spaceSquare Roman capitals, difficult to w...
Letterforms and ScriptsUncialsCharacteristics (rounding off)       Formal Texts       Majuscules       Shortened capitals,...
Letterforms and ScriptsLower Case letterforms   Semi-Uncials or Half-Uncial       Informal Texts       Minuscules       Ar...
Scripts to FontsScripts   Precursors of typefaces   Some majuscule, chiefly miniscule forms—   half uncials   Introduced t...
Scripts to FontsGothic ScriptNarrowed round formsUsed feet and couplings – clarity betweenwords, lines, paragraphs, and se...
Gothic ScriptsBasis for font in Gutenberg’s 42-line Bible.Regional Names --   Germany – Textura      Text of Gutenberg Bib...
Pages ~Technologies, Books
Pages and the CodexUnits of Writing   Major step in evolution of writing &   development of the codex   Crude? Chopping up...
Bound ManuscriptsBound Manuscripts  Models on which printed book was designed  Mechanical printing & hand-scripted  manusc...
Technologies of the BookPaperVellumTypeInkFormatsBindings
Evolution of FormatsFolio: One fold and 4 pagesQuarto: Two folds and 8 pagesOctavo: Three folds and 16 pagesDuodecimo: 24 ...
Illustration
Woodcuts and WoodblockKey technologies for illustration in the printedbook until the 19th century.Woodblock printing pre-d...
Gutenberg &Moveable Type
The HandpressThe printing press that Gutenberg invented isknown as a ―handpress‖ or moveable typeBed of the press holds th...
GutenbergBorn in Mainz, Germany in about 1397Lived in Mainz until 1428 and trained as agoldsmithTraining to work metal gav...
Gutenberg Returns to MainzNeeded money & obtained loan from merchant –FustOffered his print shop & all equipment ascollate...
Gutenberg’s TechnologiesFormat: FolioFont – Blackletter, TexturaInk – Gutenberg’s ink was new development -- oilbased unli...
The Gutenberg BibleSize and format: Royal Folio (pages are 20 by12.5 inches)Vellum copies of the Bible survive (the Bible ...
The Gutenberg BibleGutenberg Bible commercial success   All 180 copies sold immediately & many   survive today   Buyers we...
Fust &Schoeffer
The Mainz PsalterIn 1457, after the Gutenberg Bible appeared, Fust&Schoeffer printed illustrated psalter: The MainzPsalter...
Sacking Mainz
Printing Leaves MainzThe sacking of Mainz by a neighboring duchy,forced many printers to move onThis exodus of printers fr...
The Dispersal of Print ShopsPrinting arrived in France, Italy, Belgium, Spain &England among other countriesThe Netherland...
Early Printers ~   Cities
Noted Cities for PrintingEvolution of Print -- a few prominent printingcenters of the Early Printed Book included:   Paris...
Paris, Lyon: Pigouchet           Aimed to reproduce           elaborate medieval           manuscripts           through p...
Basel: Froben     Froben’s work is admired for his     scholarship &collaboaration with     Erasmus on Biblical & theolog...
Venice: Nichols JensonJenson printed about 150 books & becamelegendary for his types or fontsThe Eusebius type is noted fo...
Jensen & Eusebius Font                       Until 1465 – the                        language of the                     ...
Rome: Aldus ManutiusFounded the Aldine Press in 1494.Envisioned using print in reproducingclassic texts. Supported classic...
Rome: Aldus ManutiusThe visionary:   Employed great typographer, Griffo   Griffo created firstitalic font—     Not cursive...
Nuremburg: Koberger             Koberger printed               the extraordinary               Nuremberg               Ch...
Bruges: CaxtonCaxton printed first book in English in Bruges,Belgium.Le Fevre’s, Recuyell of the Histories of Troy,issued ...
Westminster: CaxtonCaxton opened a print shop in Westminster(London)Produced his first dated book: ―Dictes and Sayingsof t...
London: Pynson            Noted for           converting blackletter           to roman type.            Printed Boccacc...
Incunabula
Incunabula ends, 1501Incunabula   Refers to any book printed before 1501   The British Library holds the international   d...
Thank You!Florence M. Paisey, Fall 2011
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  • (stamping natural or cellulose fiber)
  • This work is said to represent a great technological achievement and aesthetic one – writing and illustrations are integrated exceptionally well
  • Early printed book

    1. 1. Early Printed Book Technology ~ Extending the Manuscript
    2. 2. OverviewThe Manuscript, Model for Early Printed BookPages and Their TechnologyLetterformsGutenberg and Moveable TypeFust &SchoefferThe Sacking of Mainz – Spread of PrintingNoted Printers of Early Printed BookIncunabula
    3. 3. Written Manuscripts, Printed BooksGutenberg did not so much start aninformation revolution as introduce a secondtechnology for the creation of the familiarcodex‖ (Brantley, 2007, p. 634).
    4. 4. Origins of Printing
    5. 5. Three Periods of PrintingPeriod One: Far East and Moveable Type Mechanical printing started 8th century;11th century introduced moveable typePeriod Two: West and Moveable Type Mid-15th century – carving & casting of letters & characters Mechanized press to the base (paper, vellum). Units of ―visible language‖ include letters, punctuation, characters, spacers) Units are assembled and reassembled to print many textsPeriod Three: Electronic text
    6. 6. What is Printing?Duplicating images onto or into base throughmechanical techniques – base is usually paper.Among various techniques there is: Letterpress: Gutenberg mechanized method Printing Press—moveable type Intalgio: Engraved image (lowered) produces a raised image (includes: etching, drypoint) Planographic: Image is flush with surface and produced through chemical process/oil vs. water
    7. 7. Paper TechnologyPaper, word derived from papyrus, initially created inChinaTook 7-10 centuries for West to acquireBrought to Spain by MoorsOver 2 centuries, production of rag paper spreadTechnology modernized by harnessing water asenergy source for stamping fiber to wet pulp
    8. 8. Laid Paper ProductionAfter beating rags, wet fibrous pulp placed on mould anddriedWet pulp shaken on mould & fibers adhereFibrous substance placed on a woolen felt and dried flat –(e.g. laid paper)Sizing applied to dried sheetsSheets hung to dry
    9. 9. Laid Paper: ChainlinesLinear wire lines created by mouldRun parallel to each otherChange direction with different formats of books
    10. 10. Laid Paper: WatermarksWatermarks identify the paper millEach mill created their own designPosition on leaves varies with format – folio,quarto, etc Folio (centered on recto) Quarto (centered in gutter) Octavo (top of inner margin of page) Duodecimo (more complex)
    11. 11. The Manuscript,Model for the Printed Book
    12. 12. Manuscripts & Printed BooksThe printed codex models the written manuscript Alphabet: both technologies use alphabets Letters combined into words Words combined into sentences Sentences into paragraphs Paragraphs into pages – as a codex Print is segmented into pages (vs. scrolls)
    13. 13. Manuscripts & CodexDirection of writing is a feature of script – emulated incodex.Typeface for the early printed book emulated manuscriptManuscript page organization emulates manuscriptsBasis for letters in early printed book was Roman: Left to right Geometric, filled out, harmonious composition
    14. 14. Letterforms
    15. 15. Letterforms and FunctionsFont form related to economics, aesthetics, legibility,spaceSquare Roman capitals, difficult to write The restraint of the form prompted simpler letterforms. Simpler meant: Fewer strokes Fewer pen lifts More control over writing – faster writingSame principle prompted changes in EPB typefaces
    16. 16. Letterforms and ScriptsUncialsCharacteristics (rounding off) Formal Texts Majuscules Shortened capitals, less space Simple strokes, rounded Saved space, time, and money
    17. 17. Letterforms and ScriptsLower Case letterforms Semi-Uncials or Half-Uncial Informal Texts Minuscules Artistic - Elegant Basis for lower case typeface Tighter, saved space, time
    18. 18. Scripts to FontsScripts Precursors of typefaces Some majuscule, chiefly miniscule forms— half uncials Introduced to impose homogeneity of form Aesthetic & harmonious rhythms, legible Carolingian Script
    19. 19. Scripts to FontsGothic ScriptNarrowed round formsUsed feet and couplings – clarity betweenwords, lines, paragraphs, and sections.Variant forms associated with regions
    20. 20. Gothic ScriptsBasis for font in Gutenberg’s 42-line Bible.Regional Names -- Germany – Textura Text of Gutenberg Bible France – Lettre de Form England – BlackletterHistory & Comparison of Gothic BlackletterGothic Script or Blackletter History & VariationsCompared
    21. 21. Pages ~Technologies, Books
    22. 22. Pages and the CodexUnits of Writing Major step in evolution of writing & development of the codex Crude? Chopping up a scroll? Forming Pages Sewing them together Codex did for writing text what alphabet did for writing – articulation of the text Staged the elements of the printed book
    23. 23. Bound ManuscriptsBound Manuscripts Models on which printed book was designed Mechanical printing & hand-scripted manuscripts were not discrete separate technologies of written expression Early printed book aimed to replicate manuscripts Letterforms of first printers, including Gutenberg, copied manuscript letterforms, pages, size, bindings
    24. 24. Technologies of the BookPaperVellumTypeInkFormatsBindings
    25. 25. Evolution of FormatsFolio: One fold and 4 pagesQuarto: Two folds and 8 pagesOctavo: Three folds and 16 pagesDuodecimo: 24 pages. Complicated folding – Onesheet is cut or folded across its long side into thirds;one of the thirds is cut away. Then the piece of 2/3’sis folded twice the other way. And then the final pieceof 1/3 was folded and quired into the folded sheet.Common duodecimos were folded by removing anoff-cut (one of the outer thirds).
    26. 26. Illustration
    27. 27. Woodcuts and WoodblockKey technologies for illustration in the printedbook until the 19th century.Woodblock printing pre-dated printed book – wellbefore the 14th centuryAlso applied to other materials including textilesWhat is a print?Book Illustration Timeline
    28. 28. Gutenberg &Moveable Type
    29. 29. The HandpressThe printing press that Gutenberg invented isknown as a ―handpress‖ or moveable typeBed of the press holds the formefor inking sorts(cast letters) and printing
    30. 30. GutenbergBorn in Mainz, Germany in about 1397Lived in Mainz until 1428 and trained as agoldsmithTraining to work metal gave him skill needed tocut and cast letterformsMoved to Strasbourg due to a dispute with tradeguildIn Strasbourg about 1439, court records indicatethat he was inventing the handpress, cutting andcasting letters
    31. 31. Gutenberg Returns to MainzNeeded money & obtained loan from merchant –FustOffered his print shop & all equipment ascollateralNeeded another loan – ultimately unable to repaydebts & Fust foreclosed, taking the printing shop& all contents.Fust hires craftsman, Schoeffer, to help run thepress & produce Bible
    32. 32. Gutenberg’s TechnologiesFormat: FolioFont – Blackletter, TexturaInk – Gutenberg’s ink was new development -- oilbased unlike most that was water basedOil-based ink was necessary to cling to the press& not run off -- ink has a high metal contentPaper not necessary for invention of printing(vellum could be used), but commercial successrequired paper
    33. 33. The Gutenberg BibleSize and format: Royal Folio (pages are 20 by12.5 inches)Vellum copies of the Bible survive (the Bible wasproduced with both paper – 135 copies – &vellum – 45 copies)Several compositors or typesetters worked onsetting the type into words, lines, columns, andpagesGatherings vary in the number of leaves amongthem
    34. 34. The Gutenberg BibleGutenberg Bible commercial success All 180 copies sold immediately & many survive today Buyers were ecclesiastical customers near Mainz Wealthy gentry – the Bible was expensiveGutenberg was the visionaryFust &Schoeffer – firm commercial footingSchoeffer reputed as technical talent &typographer
    35. 35. Fust &Schoeffer
    36. 36. The Mainz PsalterIn 1457, after the Gutenberg Bible appeared, Fust&Schoeffer printed illustrated psalter: The MainzPsalterMainz Psalter bears first instance of their colophonMainz Psalter noted for two-color printed initialsTextura font usedBecame archetypal model of a printed book forabout 15 years following its production
    37. 37. Sacking Mainz
    38. 38. Printing Leaves MainzThe sacking of Mainz by a neighboring duchy,forced many printers to move onThis exodus of printers from Mainz effected thespread of printing through EuropeFrom 1450-1470, there were only 14 cities withprinting shops.By 1480, the number grew to more than 400
    39. 39. The Dispersal of Print ShopsPrinting arrived in France, Italy, Belgium, Spain &England among other countriesThe Netherlands started printing enterprises in1473Netherlands important for the English speakingpopulation
    40. 40. Early Printers ~ Cities
    41. 41. Noted Cities for PrintingEvolution of Print -- a few prominent printingcenters of the Early Printed Book included: Paris Basel Venice Rome Nuremberg Bruges Westminster/LondonEach city boasted a talented printer
    42. 42. Paris, Lyon: Pigouchet Aimed to reproduce elaborate medieval manuscripts through print. Printed an exemplary color version of a Livre de Heures
    43. 43. Basel: Froben Froben’s work is admired for his scholarship &collaboaration with Erasmus on Biblical & theological texts  Hans Holbein created illustrations  One of the earliest publishers whose objective turned on scholarship of the text &, in particular, controversial Protestant texts
    44. 44. Venice: Nichols JensonJenson printed about 150 books & becamelegendary for his types or fontsThe Eusebius type is noted for its elegance,composition, arrangement of letters & closeresemblance to the handwritten manuscript
    45. 45. Jensen & Eusebius Font  Until 1465 – the language of the printed book was exclusively Latin Eusebius Font  Jensen produced first type in Greek
    46. 46. Rome: Aldus ManutiusFounded the Aldine Press in 1494.Envisioned using print in reproducingclassic texts. Supported classicsscholars—Erasmus was one—employedErasmus to edit texts.Manutius completed Dante’s ―DivineComedy‖ in the vernacular, Italian.
    47. 47. Rome: Aldus ManutiusThe visionary: Employed great typographer, Griffo Griffo created firstitalic font— Not cursive Based on Chancery Cursive ScriptPurpose of creating italic: Smaller lettering Smaller book, portable Enabled first technology for octavo
    48. 48. Nuremburg: Koberger  Koberger printed the extraordinary Nuremberg Chronicles  One of the first lavishly illustrated early printed books  Some woodcuts were created by Albrecht Durer
    49. 49. Bruges: CaxtonCaxton printed first book in English in Bruges,Belgium.Le Fevre’s, Recuyell of the Histories of Troy,issued about 1475From: Recuyell of Histories ofTroy
    50. 50. Westminster: CaxtonCaxton opened a print shop in Westminster(London)Produced his first dated book: ―Dictes and Sayingsof the Philosophers‖Issued first edition of Chaucer’s ―CanterburyTales,‖ 1478Printed more than 100 books.
    51. 51. London: Pynson  Noted for converting blackletter to roman type.  Printed Boccaccio’s ―Fall of the Princes,‖ translated by John Lydgate  Technical mastery, one of England’s greatest early printers
    52. 52. Incunabula
    53. 53. Incunabula ends, 1501Incunabula Refers to any book printed before 1501 The British Library holds the international database for 15th century European printing Incunabula Short Title Catalogue Additional Resources: Essays on the Diffusion of Print The Woodcut
    54. 54. Thank You!Florence M. Paisey, Fall 2011

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