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Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
Population Factors Encouraging Growth
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Population Factors Encouraging Growth

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AS Geography

AS Geography

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  • 1. Factors Encouraging Growth And Debt
  • 2. Firstly a step back <ul><li>Can you name all nine types of aid? </li></ul><ul><li>What is invisible trade? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you understand the term cumulative causation? </li></ul><ul><li>Name two NIC’s and 2 RIC’s? and tell what the difference is? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you name 3 trade blocs? </li></ul>
  • 3. Nine types of AID <ul><li>Bilateral </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral </li></ul><ul><li>Food Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Aid and trade provision </li></ul><ul><li>Debt relief </li></ul><ul><li>Programme aid </li></ul><ul><li>Project aid </li></ul><ul><li>Tied aid </li></ul>
  • 4. Invisible Trade <ul><li>Import and export of services including such items as banking, insurance and tourism </li></ul>
  • 5. cumulative causation <ul><li>A model that explains why wealth becomes concentrated in certain places and not in others </li></ul>
  • 6. two NIC’s and 2 RIC’s <ul><li>NIC </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>RIC </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Chile </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul>
  • 7. 3 Trade Blocs <ul><li>OPEC – Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries </li></ul><ul><li>EU – European Union </li></ul><ul><li>NAFTA – N. American Free Trade Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>APEC – Asian Pacific Economic Co-operation </li></ul>
  • 8. Debt <ul><li>LEDC’s often get into enormous debt </li></ul><ul><li>Owe money to World Bank and the IMF investments have failed and left them with huge sums to repay </li></ul><ul><li>1997 total debt owed by South to North = £1.5 trillion </li></ul><ul><li>Each day £475 million is repaid just to service the debt </li></ul><ul><li>Every new born child owes £300 </li></ul><ul><li>Aid given is often dwarfed by debt owed </li></ul>
  • 9. &nbsp;
  • 10. LDCs most dependent on foreign aid (As a percentage of GDP, 2006)
  • 11. Factors Encouraging Aid
  • 12. Globalisation is a complex process <ul><li>Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul>
  • 13. 1700 – 2 yrs to navigate the globe in 3 mast ships 1930’s - 8 days to navigate the globe, propeller aircraft 1990’s – 31 hrs in Concorde
  • 14. <ul><li>200 AD first sailing ship </li></ul><ul><li>1500 – 1700 Industrial canals and stagecoach routes </li></ul><ul><li>1800 – first steam ship (Crosses Atlantic in 29 days) </li></ul><ul><li>1866 – Telegraph wires laid across the Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>1900’s – early Ford Motor car company 1903 / first TV 1926 / first commercial flight 1928 </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1900’s – first mobile phones – 1980’s / Internet 1989 onwards. </li></ul>
  • 15. Globalisation is a complex process <ul><li>Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>The growth in telecommunications has aided businesses with instantaneous communication </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband has allowed the quick movements of data around the world in seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Air Travel pioneer cheap travel for all and movement of large amounts of people quickly </li></ul><ul><li>GIS and GPS help to transmit data around the world on locations and pinpoint cargo’s </li></ul>
  • 17. &nbsp;
  • 18. <ul><li>Cluster – Geographical concentrations of similar businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative Causation – Wealth becoming concentrated in one area. Globalisation increases this as local people can find markets for their products </li></ul><ul><li>Global Hub – A settlement that has a global influence e.g. Megacities. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplier Effect – Positive spin offs from an initial investment </li></ul><ul><li>Technopole – Cluster of technology lead businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Trickle Down – Positive impacts on the peripheral regions e.g. improved infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Export Processing Zone – Small industrial area usually on the coast that attracts TNC’s due to tax exemptions or over incentives </li></ul>

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