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Holderness Towns
Holderness Towns
Holderness Towns
Holderness Towns
Holderness Towns
Holderness Towns
Holderness Towns
Holderness Towns
Holderness Towns
Holderness Towns
Holderness Towns
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Holderness Towns

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AS Geography

AS Geography

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  1. Holderness Towns<br />AS Geography<br />
  2. Flamborough Head<br /><ul><li>Steep Vertical cliffs of resistant Chalk, Contains headland features (Stump, stack, geos etc)
  3. Erosion rate of about 2mm a year
  4. Currently no coastal protection due to resistant Chalk</li></li></ul><li>Bridlington<br /><ul><li>Small coastal Town Sits on chalk base has harbour and leisure facilities
  5. Erosion rates around 2mm a year
  6. Used by tourists and fisherman
  7. Little or no protection apart from promenade</li></li></ul><li>Hornsea<br /><ul><li>Tourist destination Suffers from erosion of weak boulder clay and loss of beach due to LSD
  8. Complaints about loss of livelihoods lead to some hard engineering
  9. Building of sea wall and groynes
  10. Beach has grown and acts as a defence
  11. Issues have been created further down the coast at Mappleton due to removal of sediment.</li></li></ul><li>Mappleton<br />The sea defences at Hornsea have starved area of sand and beaches being washed away due to LSD<br />Boulder Clay under cliff foot marine erosion (Hydraulic Action and Attrition)<br />2 boulder Groynes built, and boulder revetments for £2m (Part funded by EU)<br />More depositation and less LSD<br />This has worked but caused major issues at Great Cowden further south<br />
  12. Great Cowden<br /><ul><li>Erosion of boulder clay and glacial till has been very rapid 1 – 2m per year
  13. Properties and farms at risk
  14. High winter tides cut notches at the foot of cliffs and focuses marine energy leads to partial collapse
  15. (Rotational Slump)
  16. Becomes worse when saturated through rainwater
  17. These sub-aerial processes do a great deal of damage
  18. Retreat can be upto 20m a year
  19. Fastest erosion rates in the world.</li></li></ul><li>Easington<br />2 miles North of Spurn Head<br />Easington Gas Terminal owned by British Gas and BP<br />Built 1968 – 50m from shore with expected lifespan of 25yrs<br />More gas found therefore now needs protecting to avoid falling into the sea.<br />New defences built including<br />Cliff drainage to avoid slumps and rotational slides,<br />Cliff regarding and rock revetments<br />
  20. Spurn Head<br />Long history of settlement<br />Used during WW1 as a look out post, connected to the mainland by railway<br />This has been reduced to only a lifeboat station and the families attached to it by a single track road<br />Also used by the Pilot boat men of the Humber Estuary<br />On the Point there is a wildlife reserve<br />Spit is moving westwards and may become an island.<br />Eventually families will have to move, currently under review as to whether it should be protected or not.<br />Removing the lifeboat station will result in their not being a station in the area<br />
  21. Problems with Defending Towns<br />Defences projecting from coast start to create natural ‘Groynes’ and creating places for sediment depositation<br />Beaches will reorientate themselves parallel to the waves and wide bays created<br />It could cause them to become ‘Headlands’ where we know wave energy concentrates<br />High cost of maintenance of defences make them unsustainable<br />
  22. Socio-Economic Problems<br />Threat of house collapse (Stress – Negative Equity)<br />Many settlements rely on tourism and undefended they will suffer from loss of trade<br />Little local investment to change sustain communities<br />Loss of jobs, houses, schools, shops and movement of people away from the area will follow<br />
  23. Exam Question:<br />Outline three pieces of evidence that indicate the direction of longshore drift along a coastline. (7 marks)<br />For one scheme of coastal management that you have studied:<br />Explain why it was thought necessary to introduce a management scheme (6 marks)<br />Explain how the scheme is designed to overcome the problem(s) outlined above (6 marks)<br />Describe and explain one scheme of coastal management. (7 marks)<br />

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