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Holderness Towns


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AS Geography

AS Geography

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  • 1. Holderness Towns
    AS Geography
  • 2. Flamborough Head
    • Steep Vertical cliffs of resistant Chalk, Contains headland features (Stump, stack, geos etc)
    • 3. Erosion rate of about 2mm a year
    • 4. Currently no coastal protection due to resistant Chalk
  • Bridlington
    • Small coastal Town Sits on chalk base has harbour and leisure facilities
    • 5. Erosion rates around 2mm a year
    • 6. Used by tourists and fisherman
    • 7. Little or no protection apart from promenade
  • Hornsea
    • Tourist destination Suffers from erosion of weak boulder clay and loss of beach due to LSD
    • 8. Complaints about loss of livelihoods lead to some hard engineering
    • 9. Building of sea wall and groynes
    • 10. Beach has grown and acts as a defence
    • 11. Issues have been created further down the coast at Mappleton due to removal of sediment.
  • Mappleton
    The sea defences at Hornsea have starved area of sand and beaches being washed away due to LSD
    Boulder Clay under cliff foot marine erosion (Hydraulic Action and Attrition)
    2 boulder Groynes built, and boulder revetments for £2m (Part funded by EU)
    More depositation and less LSD
    This has worked but caused major issues at Great Cowden further south
  • 12. Great Cowden
    • Erosion of boulder clay and glacial till has been very rapid 1 – 2m per year
    • 13. Properties and farms at risk
    • 14. High winter tides cut notches at the foot of cliffs and focuses marine energy leads to partial collapse
    • 15. (Rotational Slump)
    • 16. Becomes worse when saturated through rainwater
    • 17. These sub-aerial processes do a great deal of damage
    • 18. Retreat can be upto 20m a year
    • 19. Fastest erosion rates in the world.
  • Easington
    2 miles North of Spurn Head
    Easington Gas Terminal owned by British Gas and BP
    Built 1968 – 50m from shore with expected lifespan of 25yrs
    More gas found therefore now needs protecting to avoid falling into the sea.
    New defences built including
    Cliff drainage to avoid slumps and rotational slides,
    Cliff regarding and rock revetments
  • 20. Spurn Head
    Long history of settlement
    Used during WW1 as a look out post, connected to the mainland by railway
    This has been reduced to only a lifeboat station and the families attached to it by a single track road
    Also used by the Pilot boat men of the Humber Estuary
    On the Point there is a wildlife reserve
    Spit is moving westwards and may become an island.
    Eventually families will have to move, currently under review as to whether it should be protected or not.
    Removing the lifeboat station will result in their not being a station in the area
  • 21. Problems with Defending Towns
    Defences projecting from coast start to create natural ‘Groynes’ and creating places for sediment depositation
    Beaches will reorientate themselves parallel to the waves and wide bays created
    It could cause them to become ‘Headlands’ where we know wave energy concentrates
    High cost of maintenance of defences make them unsustainable
  • 22. Socio-Economic Problems
    Threat of house collapse (Stress – Negative Equity)
    Many settlements rely on tourism and undefended they will suffer from loss of trade
    Little local investment to change sustain communities
    Loss of jobs, houses, schools, shops and movement of people away from the area will follow
  • 23. Exam Question:
    Outline three pieces of evidence that indicate the direction of longshore drift along a coastline. (7 marks)
    For one scheme of coastal management that you have studied:
    Explain why it was thought necessary to introduce a management scheme (6 marks)
    Explain how the scheme is designed to overcome the problem(s) outlined above (6 marks)
    Describe and explain one scheme of coastal management. (7 marks)