Learning Objectives• To understand that water is a global issue and not just within certain countries• That lack of water is not the only issue in water insecurity and stress• Access to sanitation is linked to poverty• Development can hinder water quality, access and supply
Where do you feel there are areas that haveissues of water Insecurity.Jot them down
Asia and Pacific• 1/3 of pop’n lacks • Agriculture accounts access to clean for 90% of freshwater drinking water withdrawals in S. Asia• 500,000 infant related • Aquifer depletion in deaths through Asia has reduced diarrhoea water availability per• Levels of bacteria capita by over half from human sources • Withdrawals in W. is 10x higher than Africa far exceed recommended levels natural replacement levels
Africa• 25 out of the 57 countries will face either water stress or scarcity by 2025• Over 300 million lack access to clean water• Sub Saharan Africa this is much worse with over 51% without safe water and 41% without adequate sanitation• Agriculture accounts for 88% of all groundwater removed and has no protection
Europe and Central Asia• Lack of access to clean water in E. Europe and Central Asia• Over half of all European cities over-exploit their groundwater reserves• Declining water quality in countries with groundwater pollution (Aral Sea) – the Med and Scandinavian Lakes
Latin America and the Caribbean• Groundwater contamination and depletion from industrial, agriculture and mining waste• Poor sanitation on 2% of sewage is treated in Latin America• Economic Scarcity with conflict over access and use
North America• Aquifer depletion in increasing due to urban pop’n growth, develp’t of industry and agriculture (Cotton in Texas)• Water pollution from agricultural runoff has contaminated some surface waters. (Salton Sea)
Is that the whole world??
Evaluate what can be done about this?
What pattern do we see emerging?• The balance between human demand and availability is precarious• Access to clean water is not always guaranteed when it should be a fundamental right• Pop’n growth especially in the third world mean prospects are not good.• UNs world water development report
Water Security Crisis• 2nd world water forum in 2000 deemed water a key issue• Health, welfare and livelihoods depend on secure supplies• Demand and misuse are high• world water forum
Millennium Development Goals• In 2000 had a target to halve by 2015 the proportion of people without access to sustainable water supplies• By 2005 only 12% of developing countries had managed to do this• In some LEDC’s fresh and waste water aren’t even separated. (Cholera and dysentery)
How can Sanitation lead to better wellbeing• Using a large piece of paper decide how improved sanitation can help well being
International Year of Sanitation 2008 Lower Medical costs fewer days off work Improved Improved health and School well being attendance Better Sanitation Reduction in Reduced diarrhoea poverty and other diseases
Politics• Often politics and war can play a role in contamination and mass movement of people increasing the likelihood of water stress
Access• Poverty and access are inextricably linked (Measured by GDP)• Why?
Access to SanitationGlobal GDP’s
Access to SanitationGlobal HDI
Access Denied• Rajasthan India – Have enough water but Coca cola accused of extracting too much so farming has suffered.• Bolivia – Water supply company that is french owned was deemed too expensive 200,000 did not connect• 40,000 in Detroit were too poor to pay their water bills and resorted to water tapping at night
Quality• Development of LEDC’s and NIC’s has lead to a general decline in water quality• Manufacturing chemical waste often untreated and deposited into rivers only to be used further downstream for irrigation, cleaning and drinking water (R. Citarum West Java)• 40% of world’s agriculture comes from irrigated land – this has salinity issues
Activity• What are the factors that determine access to clean water?• How do you think women stand to gain most from improved sanitation?
What have we learnt That water is a global issue and not just within certain countries That lack of water is not the only issue in water insecurity and stress Access to sanitation is linked to poverty Development can hinder water quality, access and supply
Great Website• Inequity in access to clean water and sanitation