Floods In Bangladesh
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Floods In Bangladesh

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Floods In Bangladesh - Case Study AS Geography AQA

Floods In Bangladesh - Case Study AS Geography AQA

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Floods In Bangladesh Floods In Bangladesh Presentation Transcript

  • Floods In Bangladesh
    AS Geography
  • Aims of today’s session
    To understand and appreciate the difference between human and physical causes of flooding
    To look at Bangladesh as a case study and separate human from physical factors
    To analyse and create an essay plan.
  • Activity
    Drawing a Venn Diagram like this and add the effects to each side and think of one’s that could be said to be both human and physical
    Both
    View slide
  • Bangladesh is a country in SE Asia that suffers annual flooding
    The floodwaters bring alluvial sediment which makes the delta and floodplains very fertile
    Floods frequentlysevere causing loss of life and economic damage
    Extreme poverty and geographic pressure increase the suffering
    Much of the country´s budget must be used for recovery
    View slide
  • The flood hazard is due to its geography: the country is one huge delta
    Floodplain contains 250 perennial rivers, of which 56 originate outside the country (Tibet, Bhutan, India and Nepal)
    Only 7,5% of the total catchment area is within the country and 90% of discharge originates elsewhere
  • There are Three main rivers in Bangladesh
    The Ganges, whose lower course is known as the Padma / basin area 1,1 million km, lenght 2478 km, average maximum discharge 299 000 cumecs
    The Brahmaputra, whose lower reaches are known as the Jamuna / basin area 0,9 km, lenght 2900 km, average discharge 317 000 cumecs
    The Meghna, east of the Padma-Jumana area, lenght 800 km, half of which lies in Bangladesh
  • Types of Floods in Bangladesh
    Flash floods carry a heavy sediment load, raising the level of river beds, and are caused by heavy monsoon rains falling on mountains and hill next to the floodplain
    River floods occur between May and September as a result of heavy regional storms or melting of the Himalayan snowpacks
    Rainfall floods result from localised precipitation during the monsoon rains, mostly in low-lying areas
    Cyclonic floods are sea floods and occur when cyclones from the Bay of Bengal create a storm surge which moves inland
  • The human causes of the floods
    Deforestation
    Dam building
    Urbanization
    Global warming
  • Solutions to the flood hazard
    Flood action plan 1990-1995 sponsored by World Bank involving:
    Surveying all main rivers and flood areas,
    raising embankments on west bank of the Brahmaputra.
    Upgrading of embankments on the east bank.
    five projects using mathematical models and remote sensing to model drainage basin flows.
    Studies of economic, enviromental and social problems
    Flood forecasting
    increaseradar stations in the hills and developing links to a flood forecasting centre
    Controlled flooding where landcan receive flood waters through sluice gates
    Coastel embankments and polders (low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments )
  • Self-help “flood-proofing“ which means the development of irrigated agrivulture during the dry season to avoid the monsoon risk , plus escape centres o high ground, specially designed school buildings, elevated roadds and market-places.
    Dredging the channels- but this is too expensive and the channels would soon become choked again in one season.
    Special bunds (embankment) to protect the capital city Dhaka
    Dam construction upstream and groundwater abstraction to crceate storage in the soil for monsoon rains
  • The impact of the flooding in 1998
  • Activity
    Using the three sheets handed to you design your own case study for the 1998 floods
    If you need to you may want to discuss this with your neighbour.
  • The Impacts and Responses
  • The short-term response to the floods:
    By the Bangladesh government
    Distributed money and 400 tonnes of rice
    Provided relief supplies of fresh water and sanitation services
    Appealed for national unity and calm in the wake of the disaster and the general strike which took place in response to the flooding and accusations that the government failed to get basic goods to the people affected
  • By the governments of other countries
    Many countries around the world gave aid to Bangladesh during the flood disaste. Some of the donors included:
    • The UK with steel bridge materials and 100 000 million tonnes of wheat
    • Canada with 12500 million tonnes of wheat and money for medicines, water tablets, house repair, sanitation and for rehabilitation of farming and fishing
    • Egypt with money for medicine
    • Saudi Arabia sent tw cargo planes with food, medicines, blankets and tents
  • By The Disaster Forum (a network of aid agencies)
    Provided boats to rescue people and move them and their belongings to higher land
    Supplied medicines to treat and prevent the spread of diseases
    Médecins Sans Frontiéres used six mobile teams in boats to travel around in one district where the population was literally living on the water
    Supplied clean drinking water by repairing wells
    Monitored the health situation and set up a mmedical treatment centre
    Distributed fodder for livestock
    Distributed food, plastic sheeting and water purification tablets
    Planned a rehabilitation programme to repair and construct housing and sanitation
  • Conclusion
    Managing the flood hazard is a challange for government and hydraulic engineers. In Bangladesh there is still uncertaintly over the main causes of the flood hazard, and further research is required to identify important factors and the effects of proposed structural solutions. Building embankments and bunds is particularly controversial: they can prevent floodwaters draining from fields and back into rivers, and they have an impact on fish stocks, a vital resource in a country where 5 million depend on fishing for their livelihood.
    Bangladesh faces triple problems in the future: sea level rises, delta subsidence and reduced delta growth. The net effect by 2100 could be a 3 metre rise of the sea level and a 2 km retreat of the shore, resulting in a 26% reduction of habitate land with 27% of the population displaced and GDP reduced by two-thirds.