Consequences Of The Development Gap

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Development Gap - A2 Geography

Development Gap - A2 Geography

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  • 1. Consequences of the Development Gap
    A2 Geography
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    Understand what the DG means to people in the most deprived countries
    Be aware that poverty is becoming more concentrated in LEDC megacities
    Appreciate the fact that the DG has ethnic and religious dimensions
    Evaluate the positive and negative consequences of countries moving out of poverty
  • 3. Impact on Poor Countries
    Consequences Include:
    Social
    Economic
    Environmental
    Political
    Impacts vary Especially in Rural to urban areas
    Rural is based on the ability to produce food
    Though incidence of poverty is falling except sub Saharan Africa – it does not mean the Gap is closing.
  • 4. In many places in the world the incidence of poverty within individual countries is quite alarming
  • 5. The Caste System
    The DG can produce differences in many formats
    The Caste system in India can be one of the key factors affecting who gets access to public facilities and who doesn’t
  • 6. The Gap
  • 7. Women
    As we know the women in developing countries are:
    less likely to get paid jobs
    they have lower earnings
    Limited participation in politics and Government
    Though steps have been made still 64% of all illiterate people are women and 57% of children who still don’t receive a primary education are female
  • 8. Megacities
    Fastest growing economies – show the greatest urban growth
    Cities in LEDC’s grow rapidly as the develop
    As cities grow so does the cost of maintenance
    Migrants move in with little money and without a place to stay often build temporary living areas
  • 9. These temporary settlements are built often on:
    Too steep and polluted land for build
    Alongside major transport routes
    Close to city centres on derelict land
    On former abandoned farmland near city centre
  • 10. These dwellings are often illegal many often rent without a formal contract
    Therefore many megacities in the developing world often have high levels of inequality between rich and poor
  • 11. Deprivation
    What problems do you think face the Urban poor:
    Limited access to employment opportunities and income
    Reliance on informal economy
    Inadequate, insecure and overcrowded housing and services
    Violent and unhealthy environment due to density and location of settlement
  • 12. More Deprivation
    Little or no social protection mechanisms with few rights and help from Police
    Limited access to health and education facilities or infrastructure like telephone or internet
    Limited access to credit facilities
  • 13. The Environment
    Development is often at the expense of the environment
    Sustainable management is not a general consideration
    Cities are often engulfed in pollution
  • 14. Brown Agenda
    This refers to the environmental problems of third world cities
    Has 2 components
    Environmental Health issues associated with limited availability of good quality land, shelter and services
    Problems resulting from rapid industrialisation, such as waste, air, noise pollution as well as accidents due to poor H and S
  • 15. Green Agenda
    Focuses on impacts of development on the environment.
    Blue agenda looks at water quality
    Read the handout on Pollution problems and see if you can come up with links between them
  • 16. Social and Political Unrest
    Disparities can be seen to develop unrest none more so than in countries like South Africa and East Timor
    As both ethnic and religious divisions were linked inextricably to poverty.
  • 17. South Africa - Apartheid
    S. Africa has an abundance of resources, gold, diamonds, platinum and farmland
    Between 1948 -1990 the Govt operated Apartheid.
    This meant you were classed as one of 3 types
    White (European Origin)
    Black (African)
    Coloured (Any mixed decent)
    Coloured contained Asian and Indians and formed the middle tier
  • 18. Segregation
    Apartheid segregated the three groups in all areas of life including where they lived and ensured economic differences were maintained (Often Increased)
  • 19. Blacks resented the injustices
    They were kept under control by strict white police and army
    Eventually Apartheid was begrudgingly repealed
    Since 1990 the gap has eased however whites are very much still in control of power and wealth
  • 20. East Timor
    Small SE Asian country
    Until 1975 was a Portuguese colony
    After they withdrew Indonesia invaded
    The reasons for this were for oil and natural gas which had been discovered in the sea between the two
    Indonesia bullied and terrorised the country to vote in favour of Indonesian rule
    However in 2002 two thirds voted to turn the nation into a sovereign state
    Their economic future looks brighter
  • 21. Consequences of Development
    What do you feel is the consequences of development?
    Think about these in groups and begin to development a mind map of the consequences remembering cause and effect.
    Evaluate these consequences