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Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
Mexican Political History
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Mexican Political History

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Country Study: Mexico Unit III: Developing Democracies
    • 2. Introduction-a seat at the table <ul><li>Get into groups of whatever size you please </li></ul><ul><li>Send one or multiple representatives to Mr. To </li></ul><ul><li>You will attempt to get Mr. To’s attention to earn EXTRA CREDIT QUIZ points based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need of the group members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal rapport with Mr. To </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal character and charisma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outspokenness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bribery? </li></ul></ul>
    • 3. Introduction-a seat at the table <ul><li>You will be placed into 4 different groups </li></ul><ul><li>Select a leader to represent your group </li></ul><ul><li>Each group leader will enter into negotiations to receive extra credit QUIZ points for the entire group </li></ul><ul><li>Get into groups of whatever size you please </li></ul>
    • 4. Lecture Outline <ul><li>Mexico—SAP </li></ul><ul><li>Aztec and Spanish Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican Revolutions and Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Single-Party Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Democratization? </li></ul>
    • 5. I. Sovereignty, Authority and Power <ul><li>Historical Traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Political Culture: National Identities </li></ul><ul><li>Political Culture: Geographic Influences </li></ul>
    • 6. A. Historical Traditions <ul><li>Authoritarianism : Long history of dictators </li></ul><ul><li>Populism : Peasant-based rebellions (Revolutions of 1810, 1910, Zapatistas) </li></ul><ul><li>Power plays/Divisions within the elite (i.e., between caudillos; tecnicos vs. politicos ) </li></ul><ul><li>Instability and Legitimacy Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36 presidents in 20 years (1833-55) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assassination in 1994 (Luis Donaldo Colosio, PRI) </li></ul></ul>Lázaro Cárdenas Dec 1 , 1934 Nov 30 , 1940 Party of the Mexican Revolution (PRM) Manuel Ávila Camacho Dec 1 , 1940 Nov 30 , 1946 Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) Miguel Alemán Valdés Dec 1 , 1946 Nov 30 , 1952 PRI Adolfo Ruiz Cortines Dec 1 , 1952 Nov 30 , 1958 PRI Adolfo López Mateos Dec 1 , 1958 Nov 30 , 1964 PRI Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Dec 1 , 1964 Nov 30 , 1970 PRI Luis Echeverría Dec 1 , 1970 Nov 30 , 1976 PRI José López Portillo Dec 1 , 1976 Nov 30 , 1982 PRI Miguel de la Madrid Dec 1 , 1982 Nov 30 , 1988 PRI Carlos Salinas de Gortari Dec 1 , 1988 Nov 30 , 1994 PRI Ernesto Zedillo Dec 1 , 1994 Nov 30 , 2000 PRI Vicente Fox Dec 1 , 2000 Nov 30 , 2006 National Action Party (PAN) Felipe Calderón Dec 1 , 2006 PAN
    • 7. B. Political Culture—National ID <ul><li>Importance of Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Patron-Client networks ( camarillas ): PRI rule held by corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Dependency </li></ul>
    • 8. C. Political Culture—Geography <ul><li>Mountains/Deserts  Regionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Varied Climates  North/South Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: oil, silver—enriched nation, but not populace </li></ul><ul><li>Border with the U.S.  conflict, migration and dependency </li></ul><ul><li>100 million and urbanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico City (18 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural-to-Urban migration </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. II. The Aztec and Spanish Conquest <ul><li>Vast Aztec Empire destroyed by Spanish conquest/diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Heterogeneity </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish/Catholic Church dominance over mestizaje </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast haciendas created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal distribution of land and wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependency upon Spain </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. III. Mexican Revolutions and Constitutions <ul><li>Rebellion in 1810 under Father Miguel Hidalgo; Independence in 1821 </li></ul><ul><li>Instability (1821-1876) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36 presidents in 20 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military rule (Santa Anna) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign Interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US “steals” half of Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French invasion in 1864 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rule of Porfirio Diaz (1876-1911) </li></ul>
    • 11. D. The “Porfiriato” (1876-1911) <ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarianism: small elite empowered </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. and European FDI  economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Growing gap between rich and poor </li></ul>
    • 12. IV. Single-Party Rule (PRI) <ul><li>Revolution of 1911 overthrows Diaz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Caudillos”—military/political strongmen vie for control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emiliano Zapata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pancho Villa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created local patron-client networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cristeros Rebellion—caused by repression of Catholicism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberal Constitution of 1917 (amended, but still enacted) </li></ul>
    • 13. C. Institutional Revolutionary Party <ul><ul><li>Formed in 1929 and “institutionalized” revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardenas Reforms (1934-40) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land redistribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Import Substitution (ISI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalization of key sectors such as oil (PEMEX) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in public works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian corporatist system (peasant and labor org.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing regular elections (some competition, but PRI always wins; i.e., PAN) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Mexican Miracle”—based on natural gas/oil sales </li></ul></ul>
    • 14. “ Mexican Miracle”
    • 15. Economic Turmoil?
    • 16. V. Democratization? <ul><li>Olympic massacre (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake of 1985 – local organizations formed </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in oil prices leads to economic downturn </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of opposition parties (pro-technocrat/business PAN) </li></ul><ul><li>PRI loses local elections (Baja California, Mexico City, etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>Vicente Fox’s electoral victory leading the PAN to power </li></ul><ul><li>State of democratization today? (see articles) </li></ul>

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