8b stylefeatures&emotion

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8b stylefeatures&emotion

  1. 1. Chapter 8: Prelude: The Late Baroque Period Style Features of Late Baroque Music
  2. 2. Key Terms <ul><li>walking bass </li></ul><ul><li>harmonic rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>basic orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>festive orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>sequence </li></ul><ul><li>ornamentation </li></ul><ul><li>ritornellos </li></ul><ul><li>continuo </li></ul><ul><li>figured bass </li></ul><ul><li>affects </li></ul>
  3. 3. Style Features of Late Baroque Music <ul><li>extravagance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large-scale works for large ensembles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intense, dramatic emotional expression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thorough, methodical expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extracting maximum effect from material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uniting many elements to depict a single emotion </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Rhythm <ul><li>highly regular, determined motion </li></ul><ul><li>distinctive rhythms against a steady beat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>freer rhythms in upper voices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>walking bass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>steady harmonic rhythm </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dynamics <ul><li>rarely indicated; usually steady </li></ul><ul><li>dramatic contrast preferred </li></ul><ul><ul><li>either loud or soft ( f or p) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change at end of entire section, if at all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>performers still created subtle nuances </li></ul>
  6. 6. Tone Color <ul><li>new interest in sonority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distinctive Baroque sounds and instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>idiomatic writing—taking advantage of unique color of each instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><li>flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>works “for violin or oboe or flute” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rewriting earlier works for different performing forces </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Basic Baroque Orchestra <ul><li>a string orchestra with continuo </li></ul>
  8. 8. Festive Baroque Orchestera <ul><li>augments the basic with brass, woodwinds, and percussion </li></ul>
  9. 9. Melody <ul><li>tends toward complexity and difficulty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extended range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variety of rhythmic note values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intricate, unpredictable twists and turns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>irregular phrase lengths </li></ul></ul><ul><li>frequent use of sequence for forward motion </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ornamentation <ul><li>addition of fast notes, motives, or effects to a melody </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cadenzas; chording continuo instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>improvised during performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes written down to guide lesser performers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>even simple tunes lavishly ornamented </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Texture <ul><li>standard Baroque texture is polyphonic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes homophonic texture, for contrast only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>dense orchestral works use many moving contrapuntal lines </li></ul><ul><li>simple works for solo and continuo still feel contrapuntal (active bass) </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Continuo <ul><li>provides framework and support for melody and polyphony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bass line played by cello or bass viol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chords played by keyboard or plucked strings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>creates “polarized” texture </li></ul><ul><li>often written as figured bass </li></ul>
  13. 13. Playing the Continuo <ul><li>bass line played with left hand </li></ul><ul><li>chords improvised with right hand </li></ul><ul><li>chords “realized” in simple or complex manner, according to ability </li></ul>
  14. 14. Baroque Musical Form <ul><li>more standardized formal patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fugue, ritornello, dance form, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easier to compose on demand for patrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>patterns filled in orderly, logical manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>entire fugues constructed from single theme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often symmetrical ordering of movements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>meant to sustain rich musical experience over long time span </li></ul>
  15. 15. Emotional Expression <ul><li>powerful yet impersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque composers thought music should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mirror a wide range of emotions (affects). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depict those emotions consistently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take on a theatrical quality. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Affects <ul><li>Scientists studied and classified emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Composers catalogued musical elements for each “affect.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keys: D minor = serious; E minor = pathos, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>melodic and rhythmic figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instrumental and vocal types and genres </li></ul></ul>

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