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  • Ovary – 2X1.5” in diameter. Located on pinched in face of ovary is ovulation fossa – unique anatomical feature of equine ovary. Oviducts = ~8-12”long. Uterus – Body & 2 horns. 8” wide X 3” wide Cervix – 2-3”. Longitudinal folds Vagina – 7-9” long & 4-5” diameter
  • Anestrus – The period when most mares show no signs of reproductive activity at all. Diestrus – The period when the mare is not receptive to the stallion (usually lasts 17-19 days) Estrous – Entire reproductive cycle. The average length of the estrous cycle is 21-23 days (from one ovulation to the next). Estrus – Refers to “heat”, the period when the mare is receptive to the stallion (usually lasts 5-6 days).
  • Photoperiod Effect Reproductive activity in spring is stimulated by an increasing photoperiod Mechanism Alteration of hormone secretion by the pineal gland and hypothalamus
  • Increased photoperiod stimulates the hypothalamus and pituitary Pituitary hormones (especially FSH) induce follicular development Note – Multiple follicles on ovary.
  • Note: 5 days estrus. To estimate the next cycle, count 21 days from the 1 st day of estrus or 15 days from the last day of estrus.
  • Ovulation normally occurs when follicle reaches 4-5 cm
  • Normalization of estrus in the early breeding season. Control of estrus in mares exposed to artificial light. Regulation of estrus in cycling mares. Appointment breeding. Estrus suppression in performance mares. Delaying foal heat. Pregnancy maintenance.
  • ADVANTAGES Cost No mare care or shipping expenses Genetics Potential access to higher quality Disease Decreased transmission of std’s DISADVANTAGES Cost Cost & shipment Veterinary/technician expenses Technology/management Competent individuals Stallion variability DISADVANTAGES Cost Cost & shipment Veterinary/technician expenses Technology/management Competent individuals Stallion variability
  • Summer 7-10 days shorter Winter - longer
  • Reproduction06

    2. 2. TERMINOLOGY <ul><li>BOOK </li></ul><ul><li>BOOKING FEES </li></ul><ul><li>STUD FEE </li></ul><ul><li>FOAL GUARANTEE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live Foal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WET/DRY CARE </li></ul><ul><li>BREEDER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoroughbred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DEATH & SALES CLAUSE </li></ul><ul><li>CHUTE FEE </li></ul>
    3. 3. Stallion Physiology 1-2 days Survival time with fertilizing capacity 6 # sperm/ejaculate X 10 9 30-800 ml Sperm concentration X 10 6 20-100 ml Semen volume/ejaculate Sperm output 2-4 days Life span of sperm in female tract 10-24 mo Onset of sexual maturity
    4. 4. Sperm Production <ul><li>Sperm Output and Production is influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testicular size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of ejaculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Number of Sperm Depends On: <ul><li>Seasonal Influences (Photoperiod) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effected Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculate volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm numbers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total sperm/ejaculate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm motility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness to breed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mounts before breeding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotal size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone production </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Mare Anatomy <ul><li>Vulva </li></ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul><ul><li>Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Oviducts </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul>Left Ovary Oviduct Left Uterine Horn Uterine Body Cervix Vagina
    7. 7. <ul><li>TERMS </li></ul><ul><li>Anestrus </li></ul><ul><li>Diestrus </li></ul><ul><li>Estrous </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus </li></ul><ul><li>MARE CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant </li></ul><ul><li>Open </li></ul><ul><li>Barren </li></ul><ul><li>Maiden </li></ul><ul><li>Wet </li></ul><ul><li>Dry </li></ul>MARES
    8. 8. The Open Mare <ul><li>Evaluate reproductive history </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the time of year to breed </li></ul><ul><li>Mare Plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnose possible problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement problem management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish estrus calendar </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Mares Cycle Percent
    10. 10. Photoperiod Effect <ul><li>Reproductive activity in spring is stimulated by an increasing photoperiod </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alteration of hormone secretion by the pineal gland and hypothalamus </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Receptors in eye Pineal gland Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Ovaries Increasing day length Decreasing day length Neuropathway Neuropathway Decreasing melatonin Increasing melatonin Increasing GnRH Decreasing GnRH Increasing gonadotropins Decreasing gonadotropins J F M A M J J A S O N D
    12. 12. Transition Period <ul><li>Increased photoperiod stimulates the hypothalamus and pituitary </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary hormones (especially FSH) induce follicular development </li></ul>
    13. 13. Transition <ul><li>1-3 waves of follicles develop & regress </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogens produced by developing follicles </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular/prolonged estrus exhibited </li></ul><ul><li>1 follicle eventually ovulates </li></ul><ul><li>Thereafter, mares ovulate at ~21-day intervals </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>21-day estrous cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus 5-7 d </li></ul><ul><li>Diestrus 14-16 d </li></ul>
    15. 15. Estrous Cycle 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Sat Fri Thu Wed Tue Mon Sun
    16. 16. Estrus <ul><li>Follicular Development & </li></ul><ul><li>Ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior Pituitary – FSH - follicular growth </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary – LH – maturation of follicle & ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Follicles reach 20-25 mm in diameter, secrete estrogen. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Prediction of Ovulation <ul><li>Number of days in heat </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rate of largest follicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average 3-5 mm/day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size of largest follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Softness of preovulatory follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasound image </li></ul>
    18. 18. Diestrus <ul><li>Corpus Luteum Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus luteum - secretion of progesterone. </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone - responsible for keeping the mare out of heat and for maintaining pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Prostaglandin Release </li></ul><ul><li>Prostaglandin (PGF) - released from the uterus of a non-pregnant mare 14-16 days after ovulation </li></ul>
    19. 19. Postpartum Estrus <ul><li>Foal Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile as compared to other species. </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding may be necessary to maintain the 12 mo. Foaling interval. </li></ul><ul><li>May be necessary to back up foaling. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Signs of Estrus <ul><li>Most consistent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated tail raise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other supporting signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squatting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing still </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinating </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Manipulation Methods <ul><li>Artificial lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Shortening Late Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Inducing Ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus synchronization </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus Synchronization & Ovulation Induction </li></ul>
    22. 22. Light Stimulus <ul><li>16 hrs daylight per day </li></ul><ul><li>30-60 days </li></ul>
    23. 23. Progesterone or related compounds <ul><li>Regumate – most common </li></ul><ul><li>Normalization of estrus </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of estrus </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus synchronization </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term suppression of estrus </li></ul><ul><li>Delay foal heat </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy maintenance </li></ul>
    24. 24. PGF 2  Lutalayse or Estrumate <ul><li>Shorten the interval between estrous periods </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of a maintained corpus luteum </li></ul><ul><li>After foal heat </li></ul><ul><li>Estrous synchronization with prostaglandins </li></ul>
    25. 25. Breeding Methods <ul><li>Pasture Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Hand Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Insemination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh semen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooled, shipped semen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frozen semen </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Cooled Shipped Semen <ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Technology/management </li></ul><ul><li>Stallion variability </li></ul><ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to obtain semen </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality semen </li></ul><ul><li>Reordering semen </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to predict ovulation </li></ul>
    27. 27. Frozen Semen <ul><li>Success of Frozen Semen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertility of stallion’s semen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertility of the mare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill of the veterinarian/technician </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximum Success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose ideal candidate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History of stallion </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Embryo Transfer <ul><li>Synchronization of donor and recipient mare </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo flushing </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo transfer procedure </li></ul>
    29. 30. TEN FACTORS INFLUENCING PREGNANCY & PREGNANCY LOSS PER CYCLE <ul><li>MARE AGE </li></ul><ul><li>BARREN REPRODUCTIVE STATUS </li></ul><ul><li>EARLY BREEDING DATE </li></ul><ul><li>LATE BREEDING DATE </li></ul><ul><li>BREEDING FREQUENCY </li></ul><ul><li>PROSTAGLANDIN FACTOR </li></ul><ul><li>UTERINE CULTURE & CYTOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECT OF SEMEN EXTENDER </li></ul><ul><li>POST-BREEDING ANTIBIOTIC INFUSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>TWINS </li></ul>
    30. 31. Pregnancy Evaluation <ul><li>Ultrasound, 14-18 days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ID twins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ID placental development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Re-evaluate, 40 days </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor Placental function & fetal growth </li></ul>
    31. 32. Gestation Length <ul><li>Normal: 335-342 days </li></ul>
    32. 33. GROWTH CURVE Gestation age in days CR in cm
    33. 34. Late Pregnancy <ul><li>Abdomen greatly enlarged </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral edema </li></ul><ul><li>Mammary gland enlargement – 2-4 wk </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteal muscles relax – 7-10 d </li></ul><ul><li>Teats fill with milk – 4-7 d </li></ul><ul><li>Waxing of teat ends – 1-4 d </li></ul><ul><li>Vulva soft & relaxed – 1-2 d </li></ul>
    34. 35. Stages of Parturition <ul><li>Stage 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onset: initial uterine contractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End: rupture of chorioallantois (water bag) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onset: rupture of chorioallantois </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End: delivery of fetus </li></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Stages of Parturition <ul><li>Stage 3 ( < 3 hrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onset: delivery of fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End: passage of the fetal membranes </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. Foals and Immunity <ul><li>Colostrum (first milk) - antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 pts of high quality colostrum </li></ul><ul><li>If adequate passive transfer occurs there will be over 400-800 mg/dl IgG in foal’s blood </li></ul><ul><li>Takes ~ 12 hours for all antibodies ingested in colostrum to show up in the blood </li></ul>
    37. 38. Key points <ul><li>First two weeks- lay the groundwork by ensuring adequate colostrum </li></ul><ul><li>Preventative health program in place </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Problems must be addressed rapidly when they arise. No time for a “wait and see” attitude </li></ul>
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