[ Note to trainer : For detailed help in customizing this template, see the very last slide. Also, look for additional lesson text in the notes pane of some slides.]
Here’s what’s going on in our example: Imagine that Excel is open and you’re looking at the &quot;Entertainment&quot; section of a budget for household expenses. Cell C6 in the worksheet is empty; the amount spent for CDs (compact discs) in February hasn't been entered yet.
[ Note to trainer : Steps—given in either numbered or bulleted lists—are always shown in yellow text.]
So if you ever wonder later on how you got the result you did, you can look in the formula bar to see the formula.
Note : You can use more than one math operator in a single formula. This course covers only single-operator formulas, but you should know that if there’s more than one operator, formulas are not just calculated from left to right. The rules of operator precedence and two example formulas are on the Quick Reference Card available at the end of this training presentation.
Clicking the AutoSum button uses the SUM function to add up the values. To save time, use the SUM function whenever you have more than a few values to add up, so that you don’t have to type the formula.
The next two lessons explain cell references and functions in more detail.
Notes: After you drag the fill handle over cell C7, the formula =SUM(C3:C6) will be visible in the formula bar near the top of the worksheet whenever cell C7 is selected. You can drag the fill handle to copy formulas only into cells that are next to each other, either horizontally or vertically. The AutoFill Options button requires no action and disappears when you next make an entry in any cell.
[ Note to trainer : With Excel 2003 installed on your computer, you can click the link in the slide to go to an online practice. In the practice, you can work through each of these tasks in Excel, with instructions to guide you. Important : If you don’t have Excel 2003, you won’t be able to access the practice instructions.]
By default, Excel uses a reference style called A1, which refers to columns with letters and to rows with numbers. The letters and numbers are called row headings and column headings. The table shows how to refer to cells by using the column letter followed by the row number. The rest of the lesson shows you what happens if the value in a cell changes after a total is calculated.
Note: You can revise a formula in a selected cell by typing either in the cell or in the formula bar.
What else is going on as you follow these steps: Instead of typing cell references, you click the cells that you want to include in the formula. As you click to select cells C4 and C6, a colored marquee surrounds each cell and then disappears when you press ENTER. The formula =SUM(C4,C6) appears in the formula bar near the top of the worksheet whenever cell C9 is selected. The parentheses are required to separate the arguments from the function. The comma, which is also required, separates the arguments.
Relative references In the first lesson about entertainment expenses, you could copy the January formula to add up February expenses because the references automatically changed as they were copied from column to column. As the example illustrated here shows, when the formula =C4*$D$9 is copied from row to row, the relative cell references change from C4 to C5 to C6. Absolute references As the picture shows, when the formula =C4*$D$9 is copied from row to row, the absolute cell reference remains as $D$9.
An example of a mixed reference: $A1 is an absolute reference to column A and a relative reference to row 1.
References are relative by default. Typing the dollar signs, as shown at number 2 in the picture, changes the reference type to absolute.
[ Note to trainer : With Excel 2003 installed on your computer, you can click the link in the slide to go to an online practice. In the practice, you can work through each of these tasks in Excel, with instructions to guide you. Important : If you don’t have Excel 2003, you won’t be able to access the practice instructions.]
The formula =MAX(F3:F6) appears in the formula bar near the top of the worksheet.
As always, the formula =MIN(F3:F6) would appear in the formula bar. And instead of using the AutoSum button, you could also type the formula directly into a cell.
You should know that cells with error values such as #NAME? may display a color triangle. If you click the cell, an error button appears to give you some error correction options. How to use that button is not covered in this course.
Details about using these functions goes beyond the scope of this training presentation, but this and the following slide describe how to get to functions in the Insert Function dialog box.
Click Help on this function at the bottom of the dialog box to find out more about any function.
[ Note to trainer : With Excel 2003 installed on your computer, you can click the link in the slide to go to an online practice. In the practice, you can work through each of these tasks in Excel, with instructions to guide you. Important : If you don’t have Excel 2003, you won’t be able to access the practice instructions.]
Using This Template This Microsoft Office PowerPoint ® template has training content about using Excel 2003 to enter formulas to perform simple calculations. It’s geared for you to present to a group and customize as necessary. This template’s content is adapted from the Microsoft Office Online Training course called “Audio course: Get to know Excel: Enter formulas.” Features of the template Title slide: On the very first slide, there is placeholder text over which you should type the name of your company. Or you can delete the text box altogether if you don’t want this text. Animations: Custom animation effects are applied throughout. These effects play in previous versions back to Microsoft PowerPoint 2000. They include the entrance effects called Peek and Stretch , and sometimes the Dissolve effect. To alter animation effects, go to the Slide Show menu, click Custom Animation , and work with the options that appear. If this presentation contains a Macromedia Flash animation: To play the Flash file, you must register a Microsoft ActiveX ® control, called Shockwave Flash Object, on your computer. To do this, download the latest version of the Macromedia Flash Player from the Macromedia Web site. Slide transitions: The Wipe Down transition is applied throughout the show. If you want a different one, go to the Slide Show menu, click Slide Transition , and work with the options that appear. Hyperlinks to online course: The template contains links to the online version of this training course. The links take you to the hands-on practice session for each lesson and to the Quick Reference Card that is published for this course. Please take note: You must have Excel 2003 installed to view the hands-on practice sessions. Headers and footers: The template contains a footer that has the course title. You can change or remove the footers in the Header and Footer dialog box (which opens from the View menu).
Transcript
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Microsoft ® Office Excel ® 2003 Training Enter formulas Peace River Distributing presents:
After you try Excel, you’ll never go back to a calculator. In this course you’ll learn how to add, divide, multiply, and subtract by typing formulas into Excel worksheets.
Overview: Simple calculations in Excel Enter formulas You’ll also learn how to use simple formulas that automatically update their results when values change.
B3:B6 is the information, called the argument , that tells the SUM function what to add.
Enter formulas Using the AutoSum button to total column values By using a cell reference (B3:B6) instead of the values in those cells, Excel can automatically update results if values change later on.
Sometimes it’s easier to copy formulas than to create new ones. In this example, you’ll see how to copy the January formula and use it to add up the February expenses.
Start by selecting cell B7, which contains the January formula. Then position the mouse pointer over the lower-right corner of the cell until the black cross (+) appears.
Enter formulas It’s that simple. The formula is visible in the formula bar near the top of the worksheet whenever you select cell C6. Or you can double-click cell C6 to see the formula in cell C6. Then press ENTER to see the formula result again in the cell.
Cell references identify individual cells or cell ranges in a worksheet. They tell Excel where to look for values to use in a formula.
In this lesson you’ll see why Excel can automatically update the results of formulas that use cell references, and how cell references work when you copy formulas.
Enter formulas Cell references Cell references Refer to values in A10 the cell in column A and row 10 A10,A20 cell A10 and cell A20 A10:A20 the range of cells in column A and rows 10 through 20 B15:E15 the range of cells in row 15 and columns B through E A10:E20 the range of cells in columns A through E and rows 10 through 20
As the picture shows, when the value in cell C4 changes, Excel automatically updates the February total in cell C7 from 126.93 to 130.92.
Enter formulas Excel can automatically update totals to include changed values. Excel can do this because the original formula =SUM(C3:C6) in cell C7 contains cell references.
If you had entered 11.97 and other specific values into a formula in cell C7, Excel would not be able to update the total.
Enter formulas Excel can automatically update totals to include changed values. You’d have to change 11.97 to 15.96 not only in cell C4, but in the formula in cell C7 as well.
You can type cell references directly into cells, or you can enter cell references by clicking cells, which avoids typing errors.
In the first lesson you saw how to use the SUM function to add all the values in a column. You could also use the SUM function to add just a few values in a column, by selecting the cell references to include.
Enter formulas Selecting cell references to add a few values
Imagine that you want to know the combined cost for video rentals and CDs in February.
Enter formulas Selecting cell references to add a few values You don’t need to store the total, so you could enter the formula into an empty cell and delete it later. The example uses cell C9.
Now that you’ve learned more about using cell references, it’s time to talk about the different types of references that are used in formulas: absolute , relative , and mixed .
Enter formulas Relative and absolute cell references
Enter formulas Relative and absolute cell references
Relative references automatically change as they are copied down a column or across a row.
Absolute references are fixed; they don’t change if you copy a formula from one cell to another. Absolute references have dollar signs ($) like this: $D$9.
A mixed cell reference has either an absolute column and a relative row, or an absolute row and a relative column.
Enter formulas Relative and absolute cell references As a mixed reference is copied from one cell to another, the absolute reference stays the same but the relative reference changes.
Say you receive a package of entertainment coupons offering a 7 percent discount for video rentals. How much could you save in a month by using the coupons?
To figure it out, you could create a formula to multiply those February expenses by 7 percent, using absolute references to refer to cells that you don’t want to change as the formula is copied.
Type the discount rate of 0.07 in the empty cell D9, and then type a formula in cell D4, starting with =C4* . Then enter a dollar sign ( $ ) and D to make an absolute reference to column D, and $9 to make an absolute reference to row 9.
Enter formulas Using an absolute cell reference Your formula will multiply the value in cell C4 by the value in cell D9.
Next, copy the formula from cell D4 to D5 by using the fill handle .
Enter formulas Using an absolute cell reference As the formula is copied, the relative cell reference changes from C4 to C5, while the absolute reference to the discount in D9 does not change—it remains $D$9 in each row it is copied to.
Enter formulas As the formula is copied, the relative cell reference, C4, changes to C5. The absolute cell reference, $D$9, does not change; it remains the same in each row it is copied to.
SUM is just one of the many Excel functions . These prewritten formulas simplify the process of entering calculations, making it easy and quick to create formulas that might be difficult to build for yourself.
In this lesson you’ll see how to speed up tasks with a few easy functions.
Enter formulas Function names express long formulas quickly. Function Calculates AVERAGE an average MAX the largest number MIN the smallest number
Enter formulas The ##### error value ##### The column is not wide enough to display the contents of the cell. Increase column width, shrink the contents to fit the column, or apply a different number format. #REF! A cell reference is not valid. Cells may have been deleted or pasted over.
Excel offers many other useful functions, such as date and time functions and functions you can use to manipulate text.
You can see these other functions by clicking More Functions in the AutoSum list. This opens the Insert Function dialog box, which helps you search for a function and provides another way to enter formulas.
When the dialog box is open, you can type what you want to do in the Search for a function box, or select a category and then scroll through the list of functions.
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