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Chapter 2


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  • 1. Chapter 2
    • Ethical, Legal, and
    • Professional Issues in Assessment
  • 2. Ethical Issues in Assessment
    • ACA and APA Code Review
      • Choosing Appropriate Instruments
      • Competence
      • Confidentiality
      • Cross-cultural Sensitivity
      • Informed Consent
    • ACA and APA Code Review
      • Invasion of Privacy
      • Proper Diagnosis
      • Release of Test Data
      • Test Administration
      • Test Security
      • Test Scoring and Interpretation
  • 3. Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d)
    • Choose appropriate instruments: test worthiness
    • Competence: Level A, B, and C; Read p. 22
    • Confidentiality--When to Break:
      • Danger of harming self or other
      • If parents have a right to information (usually they do)
      • If client asks you to break confidentiality
      • If bound by law (e.g., hired by courts to assess capacity to stand trial)
      • For supervision
      • Written agreement from your client to reveal information
  • 4. Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d)
    • Cross-cultural sensitivity
      • Know potential biases of assessment procedures when selecting, administering, and interpreting
    • Obtain Informed consent
    • Invasion of privacy
      • All tests do this, minimize by obtaining informed consent
    • Proper diagnosis
      • Be aware of repercussions of diagnosis
    • Release of test data
      • Only release to individuals who have the right to the data and won’t misuse it
      • Use signed release form
  • 5. Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d)
    • Test administration
      • Properly administer as they were standardized
  • 6. Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d)
    • Test security
      • Keep integrity of test content
    • Test scoring and interpretation
      • When scoring and interpret, understand limitations of test info.
    • See Appendix A for list of ethical code websites
    • See Appendix B for Assessment Sections of ACA’s and APA’s Codes of Ethics
  • 7. Standards for Responsible Testing Practices*
        • Standards of Qualification of test Users
        • Responsibilities of Users of Standardized Tests
        • Standards for Multicultural Assessment
        • Code of Fair Testing Practices (see Appendix C)
        • Rights and Responsibilities of Test Takers
        • Competencies in Assessment and Evaluation for School Counselors
        • Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing
    * See Purpose, Developed by, and Reference for on pp. 25-26
  • 8. Making Ethical Decisions
    • Moral Model
      • Autonomy
      • Beneficence
      • Nonmalficence
      • Justice or fairness
      • Fidelity (loyalty)
      • Veracity
  • 9. Making Ethical Decisions (Cont’d)
    • Corey, et al.’s Problem Solving Model:
      • Identify problem
      • Identify potential issues involved
      • Review relevant ethical guidelines
      • Know relevant laws and regulations
      • Obtain consultation
      • Consider possible courses of action
      • List consequences of various decisions
      • Decide best course of action.
  • 10. Making Ethical Decisions (Cont’d)
    • Cognitive Development
      • Cognitive development probably affects how one makes a decision
      • People on a continuum from:
        • rigid, non-reflective manner of looking at decision making, to
        • open, deeply reflective decision-making process
      • People can become more relativistic (less dualistic) over time
    • See Box 2.1, p. 27
    • Do Box 2.5, p. 36
  • 11. Legal Issues in Assessment
    • Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
      • Applies to all schools that receive federal funds
      • People have right to educational records, including test records
    • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
      • Restricts info shared without client consent
      • Allows clients access to their records except for process notes used in counseling
    • Privileged communication laws
      • Licensed professional has right to keep info confidential
      • Jaffee v. Redmond (Box 2.2, p. 29)
  • 12. Legal Issues in Assessment
    • Freedom of Information Act
      • Allows access to federal records
      • States have adopted similar laws
    • Civil Rights Acts (1964 and amendments)
      • Tests used for employment or promotion must be shown to be suitable and valid for the job in question
      • See Box 2.3 (p. 30): Civil Rights and High Stakes Testing
    • Americans with Disabilities Act
      • Accommodations must be made for individuals with disabilities who take tests for employment
      • Testing must be relevant to job in question
  • 13. Legal Issues in Testing
    • Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA)
      • Children 3 to 21 suspected of having disability must be tested at school’s expense
      • Child Study Team: Individuals Education Plan (IEP)
    • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
      • Testing for federally funded programs must be a reflection of individual’s ability, not disability
    • Carl Perkins Act of 2006
      • Assures rights of select disenfranchised groups to access vocational assessment, counseling, and placement for “special populations.”
  • 14. Professional Issues: Associations
    • ACA
      • Association for Assessment in Counseling and Education (AACE)
        • Journal: Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development
    • APA
      • Division 5: Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics
        • Journals: Psychological Assessment; Psychological Methods
  • 15. Professional Issues: Accreditation
    • Professional organizations created curriculum standards to ensure adequate training in assessment
    • Organizations w/ standards:
      • American Psychological Association
      • National Association of School Psychologists
      • Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs
  • 16. Professional Issue: Forensic Evaluations
    • Addresses need of accurate assessments for courts
    • Areas addressed: See Box 2.4, p. 34
    • Forensic psychologists and forensic evaluators credentialing:
      • Counselors and Social Workers: Certification through National Board of Forensic Evaluators (NBFE)
      • Psychologists: Diplomate in the Am. Board of Forensic Psychology
  • 17. Professional Issue: Assessment As A Holistic Process
    • Avoid using one test score in making decisions
    • Remember: individual's motivation, intention, and focus will affect scores
    • Assessment not a static process—ongoing
    • People do change!
  • 18. Professional Issue: Cross Cultural Issues in Assessment (Cont’d)
    • Examine Quality and Usefulness of Assessment Instruments and remember following ten points:
      • Assume that all tests hold some bias.
      • Be in touch with your own biases and prejudices.
      • Only use tests that have been shown to be constructed using sound research procedures.
      • Only use tests that have good validity and reliability.
      • Know there are times when it is appropriate to test and times when it is not.
  • 19. Professional Issue: Cross Cultural Issues in Assessment (Cont’d)
    • Examine Quality and Usefulness of Assessment Instruments and remember following ten points (Cont’d):
      • Know how to choose good tests that are relevant to the situation at hand.
      • Know how to administer, score, and interpret tests within the cultural context of the client.
      • Know and consider the implications that testing may have for the client.
      • Advocate for clients when tests are shown to be biased.
      • Treat people humanely during the assessment process.
  • 20. Embracing Testing and Assessment Procedures
    • If you have an aversion assessment procedures, and you act on it, then you are not being fair to your clients.
    • If clients are to get the most out of counseling all avenues to increased self-knowledge should be made available to them (including assessment!)