19th Century Timeline 1850 1862 1864Bessemer Homestead Act- a U.S. law that Sand Creek Massacre- Most ofProcess- A cheap provided 160 acres in the west to the Cheyenne had peacefullyand effective any citizen or intended citizen who returned to Colorado’s Sanprocess for making was head of household and would Creek reserve for winter butsteel. cultivate the land for five years; a General S.R. Curtis sent a law whose passage led to record telegram to militia colonel John numbers of U.S. settlers claiming Chivington that read “I want no private property which previously peace till the Indians suffer had been reserved by treaty and more.” So Chivington and his by tradition for Native American troops descended on the nomadic dwelling and use; the Cheyenne and Arapho camped same law strengthened in 1889 to at Sand Creek; the attack at encourage individuals to exercise dawn on November 29 killed their private property rights and over 150 inhabitants, mostly develop homesteads out of the women and children. vast government.
1866 1867 1869 1870Buffalo Soldiers- Oliver Kelley- On National Farmer’s John D. Transcontinentathey were the November 15, he Alliance- It was started l Railroad- a Rockefeller- Heoriginal members of laid the groundwork by the Grange and was railroad line founded thethe U.S. 10th Cavalry to build a new an agrarian economic linking the Standard OilRegiment of the foundation for movement; farmers Company and Atlantic andU.S. Army formed American agriculture joined together to Pacific coasts of aggressively ran iton September 21 at through the decrease debt, poverty, the U.S. until he officiallyFort Leavenworth organization of the and low crop prices retired.Kansas. Grange, of which he through education, was the first economic cooperation secretary. and organizing, and asserting their power in electoral politics.
Telephone- most Battle of Little Big dramatic invention Horn- an armed unveiled by engagement Alexander Graham between combined Belland and Thomas forces of Lakota, Watson; it opened Northern Cheyenne the way for a and Arapho tribes worldwide against the 7th communications Cavalry Regiment of network the U.S. Army. 1872 1876 1877 1878Credit Mobilier- the Nez Perce- Native Gilded Age- the Jim Crow Laws-exposed deception American people period following the state and local lawsby the Union Pacific living in the Pacific civil war. The term in the U.S. thatof over charging Northwest region of was coined by mandated racialconstruction costs to the United States writers Mark Twain segregation in alltaxpayers and who got in a war and Charles Dudley public facilities inmanipulating the with the U.S. Warner in “The southern states ofshare prices of Government. Gilded Age: A Tale the formerCrédit Mobilier of of Today” satirizing Confederacy.America. an era of social problems hidden by a thin layer of gold.
Interstate Commerce Commission- a regulatory body in the U.S. created by the interstate commerce Haymarket Affair- Samuel Gompers- act. The original the aftermath of a he founded the purpose was to regulate bombing that took American Federation railroads to ensure fair place at a labor of Labor and served rates, to eliminate rate demonstration on as that discrimination, and to Tuesday May 4th at organization’s regulate other aspects Haymarket Square president until his of common carriers. in Chicago. death. 1884 1886 1887Eugene V. Debs- he Colored Farmer’s Dawes Act- broke William Randolphwas a member of up reservations Hearst- he was an Alliance- a group ofthe Democratic and gave some of American black farmers whoParty and was the reservation newspaper publisher formed their ownelected as a land to individual who built the alliance to fill theirDemocrat to the Native Americans- nation’s largest needs.Indiana General 160 acres to each newspaper chainAssembly. head of household and whose methods and 80 acres to profoundly each unmarried influenced American adult. journalism.
Ghost Dance- a Sherman Antitrust religious movement Act- First measure which was passed by the U.S. incorporated into Congress to prohibit numerous Native trusts. American belief systems. Sherman Antitrust Booker T. Washington- Act- this act made it he was the dominant illegal to form a trust leader in the African that interfered with American community in free trade between the United States. states or with other countries 1888 1890 1891George Eastman- Populist- a member Wounded Knee- Onhe was an American December 28, the Seventh of a United Statesinnovator and Cavalry rounded up about 350 political party formedentrepreneur who starving and freezing Sioux primarily tofounded the represent agrarian and took them to a camp atEastman Kodak Wounded Knee Creek in interests and toCompany and South Dakota. The soldiers advocate the freeinvented roll film coinage of silver and made them give up theirwhich was the basis weapons. A shot was fired and government controlfor motion picture within minutes, the Seventh of monopoliesfilm. Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed Native Americans including several children; the soldiers left the bodies to freeze on the ground.
1892 1894 1896 1897Omaha Platform- Plessy vs. “Cross of Gold Ragtime- an Pullman Strike- aThe party program Ferguson- a case in Speech”- original nationwide conflictadopted at the which the supreme delivered by musical genre between the newformative court ruled that William Jennings that had a American Railwayconvention of the separation of the Bryan at the syncopated or Union and railroadsPopulist Party races in public National “ragged” that occurred in theheld in Omaha, accommodations Convention in rhythm. United States.Nebraska on July was legal, thus Chicago on July4th. establishing the 9th. In the speech “separate but equal” he supported doctrine. bimetallism.
1903 1909 1917Orville and Wilbur W.E.B. Dubois- one Literacy Test- theWright- they built of the co-founders of government practicethe world’s first the National of testing the literacysuccessful airplane Association for the of potential citizensand the first Advancement of at the federal level,controlled, powered Colored People. and potential votersand sustained at the state level.heavier-than-airhuman flight onDecember 17th.