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Michel Debes: la gestione del combustibile esaurito e dei rifiuti radioattivi dal punto di vista dell’operatore di centrali nucleari
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Michel Debes: la gestione del combustibile esaurito e dei rifiuti radioattivi dal punto di vista dell’operatore di centrali nucleari

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Intervento di MIchel Debes ( Head of International Relations, EDF Engineering and Generation Division) al convegno "La gestione dei rifiuti radioattivi" organizzato il 10 Marzo 2011 dal Forum Nucleare …

Intervento di MIchel Debes ( Head of International Relations, EDF Engineering and Generation Division) al convegno "La gestione dei rifiuti radioattivi" organizzato il 10 Marzo 2011 dal Forum Nucleare Italiano
http://www.forumnucleare.it


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  • 1. La gestione del combustibile esaurito e dei rifiuti radioattivi dal punto di vista dell’operatore di centrali nucleari Forum Nucleare Italiano Roma, giovedi 10 marzo 2011 Michel Debes EDF - Generation and Engineering division [email_address]
  • 2.
    • 58 PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors)
    • on 19 sites: 63 GW
    • Three standardized series: => a major safety and economic benefit
    • 900 MW: 34 units, 31 GW
    • 1300 MW: 20 units, 26 GW
    • 1500 MW (N4): 4 units, 6 GW
    • An experience as architect engineer and operator
    • of the French nuclear fleet unique in the world
    • safety and transparency as a major priority
    • average operation time: 24 years (11 to 33 years)
    • Experience feedback: ~ 1400 reactor years
    • Periodical 10 years safety reassessment process
    • ==> Long term operation: goal up to 60 years
    • Decommissioning program : 9 reactors
    • (6GGR, HWGCR Brennilis, Creys Malville, Chooz A)
    EDF Nuclear facilities in France All rights Reserved. EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011
  • 3. European Nuclear Generation Fleet
    • EDF generation (average 2006-2009): 472 TWh,
    • Total EDF capacity 96 GW: Nuclear 63 GW (65%), hydro 20 GW (21%), fossil 13.6 GW (14%)
    • 413 TWh nuclear (87.5 %), 42 TWh hydro (9 %), 17 TWh fossil (3.5%)
    • => A highly competitive generation mix
    • Total generation in France (average 2006-2009): 543 TWh
    • nuclear 77%; hydro 11%; fossil 10%; renewable: 2%
    • export: 51 TWh; net consumption in France: 452 TWh
    • A clean low carbon energy mix, 95% CO2 free
    • Nuclear:  4 g/kwh; EDF France  40 g/kWh;
    • EU average: 400 g/kwh
    • EDF share in nuclear generation in Europe:
    • EDF Energy in UK: 8.7 GW nuclear, 54 TWh (2009)
    All rights Reserved. EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011
  • 4.
    • Safety indicators
    • unplanned automatic trip: < 1 /unit/year
    •  Nine level 0 events (reported to ASN),  One level 1 event /unit/year
    • Radiological protection
    • ALARA progress, average collective dosimetry: 0.7 Man-Sv per reactor/yr
    • International assessments and peer reviews
    • IAEA Osart, WANO peer reviews (2 to 3 per year)
    • International controls
    • Safeguards, material accounting…
    • Internal control structures
    • General Inspectorate for Nuclear Safety at EDF Presidency
    • Nuclear Inspectorate at Nuclear Generation Division
    • Safety Quality Mission at each plant
    • ==> Under the control of Nuclear Safety Authority
    • (June 13, 2006 Act on nuclear safety and transparency )
    Safety: a priority at all levels All rights Reserved. EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011
  • 5. EDF strategy for sustainable nuclear generation Key Progress and Challenges
    • Remain an industry standard worldwide
    • - Nuclear safety and safety culture as a first priority at all levels
    • - Competitiveness, availability and operational performances
    • Plant Long Term Operation management
    • - Periodical Safety Reassessment: goal up to 60 years
    • Fuel cycle efficiency, reprocessing / recycling and waste management
    • - A major asset for sustainable nuclear energy
    • Succeed in the EPR Flamanville-3 and EPR Penly-3 construction project
    • - public debate and acceptance
    • - safety, quality, schedule, cost, etc.
    • Become a major actor in the international renaissance of the nuclear industry
    • - international cooperation
    • - New Nuclear Build projects: China, UK, USA, Italy, Poland, RSA …
    • Developing the skills and competences needed to achieve these objectives
    All rights Reserved. EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011
  • 6. All rights Reserved. EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011 South Africa Nuclear prospects
  • 7. All rights Reserved. EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011
  • 8.
    • Site selection: October 2004
    • First concrete: end of 2007
    • 99% contracted
    • Reactor building erection in progress
    • Electro-mechanical work
    • Start of electric generation: 2014
    EPR : Building in Progress at Flamanville-3 studies for Penly-3 (public debate completed in 2010)
    • An evolutionary and proven design, embedding improvements resulting from experience feedback and French German cooperation over more than 10 years
    On going safety analysis process with ASN: e.g.: demonstration for I&C and human machine interface All rights Reserved. EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011
  • 9. All rights Reserved. EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011
  • 10. The EPR and quantities of radioactive waste EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011
    • Taking the latest generation of EPR-type power plants as a reference model, such plants produce approximately 12 billion kWh in a year, equal to around 4 % of consumption of electricity in Italy.
    • To generate this amount of power, annual production of operational waste is around 80 m 3 of low and medium level waste (short lived). Additionally, 25 metric tons of spent fuel (heavy metal) would be produced, which would result approximately in:
      • around 60 m 3 of packaged high level waste (long lived), assuming that the fuel is not reprocessed and considered as waste (i.e. packaged spent fuel, volume varies depending on packaging mode for disposal );
    • or
      • 5 m 3 for high level waste (long lived) in vitrified fission products in standard canisters and 4 m 3 for medium level waste (long lived, compacted fuel structure in standard canisters), which amount to a total of 9 m 3 assuming that the fuel is reprocessed .
    All rights Reserved.
  • 11. Radioactive waste management in France
    • Radioactive waste quantities are known and classified
      • National inventory issued by ANDRA : waste half-life, activity level, location, etc.
      • Waste management route depends heavily on radioactive half-life waste, e.g. surface repositories are suited for short half-life waste
    • Radioactive waste is conditioned, possibly after some treatment
      • Packaging ensures containment of radioactivity
      • Treatment may be necessary for packaging or to reduce waste volume for disposal
    • Once packaged, each category of radioactive waste will be disposed of in specific repositories
      • As first step, radioactive waste may be stored, e.g., when the repository is still under development or when long-term storage is necessary to manage waste heat decay
    All rights Reserved. EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011
  • 12. Waste management in practice
    • Short-lived waste : a complete management route including disposal
      • Volume = 90%; activity < 1%
      • Origin: nuclear reactor, fuel cycle facilities operation and dismantling
    • 2. Long-lived waste: long-term storage; disposal under development
      • Volume = 10% ; activity > 99%
      • Origin: spent nuclear fuel
    • Sorted
    • Conditioned
    • Stored in two operating surface repositories
    • Fuel reprocessing
    • Waste conditioning
    • Packaged waste storage possible for ~ 100 years
    EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011 All rights Reserved.
  • 13.
    • Ensuring a safe and long lasting confinement of high level waste by vitrification in inert glass canisters,
    • for optimized storage and disposal in a reduced volume,
    • optimized packages, no fissile material (no safeguard)
    • reduced volume (150 to 200 m 3 /year for 430 TWh) and heat load
    • HLW passive storage (> 60yrs): 1 ha for 40 yrs EDF NPPs operation =>
    • Reducing the quantity of stored spent fuel,
    • 430 TWh / year => 1200 t spent fuel / year (  45 GWd/t)
    • 8 UO 2 spent fuel (4 t) result in 1 MOX fuel and 1 REPU fuel
    • Recycling of plutonium and uranium, getting back energy output
    •  1050 t/yr UO 2 spent fuel reprocessing => 120 t/yr MOX, 80 t/year Repu fuel
    • MOX fuel recycling (22 units; 30% core): 43 TWh/yr; Pu flux adequacy
    • REPU fuel recycling (4 units; 100% core): 26 TWh/yr;
    • Maintaining the possibility in the far future to fully use the uranium resource
    • storage of MOX spent fuel, reduced volume, full safeguards
    • reuse of MOX spent fuel (5% Pu) to start future GEN IV fast reactors and U-Pu closed fuel cycle
    The reprocessing recycling strategy All rights Reserved. EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011
  • 14. Half-life : 30 years Waste disposal routes EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011 All rights Reserved. Short lived Long lived VLLW Very Low Level Waste Very Low Level Waste:subsurface LILW Low to Intermediate Level Waste LILW short lived: subsurface
    • Graphite
    • LILW long lived
    HLW High Level Waste High Level Waste Deep repository (=> 2025) (vitrified canisters HLW)
  • 15. Deep geological disposal in France
    • Late 1980’s
      • Insufficient public acceptance lead to a moratorium on site selection for high-level waste disposal in a deep geological formation
    • 1991 Act: Research for 15 years
      • Three options for HLW long-term management:
        • separation/transmutation
        • Long-term storage
        • Deep geological disposal
      • Underground laboratory implemented in 1999 in the east of France
      • Independent national scientific committee oversees the research
        • Concludes that deep geological disposal is feasible on the basis of ANDRA research
    • 2005: Public debate
      • Deep geological disposal: under certain conditions
    • 2006 Act: Framework for implementing deep geological disposal
    EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011 All rights Reserved.
  • 16. The legislative framework: 2006 Planning Act
    • Set a framework for implementation of deep geological disposal
      • Decision in 2015 on the basis of a detailed study on a selected site
      • Operational in 2025
      • Disposal will have to be reversible for at least 100 years, under conditions to be defined in 2015
    • Reinforce evaluation and information about research and studies
    • Foster economical development for areas around the laboratory and the deep geological disposal facility
    • Secure financing of long-term waste management and decommissioning
      • Nuclear operators have to constitute specific assets allocated exclusively with respect to long-term waste management and decommissioning liabilities
      • Control by Public Authorities
    EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011 All rights Reserved.
  • 17. Spent Fuel Interim Storage – The Technology Options There are a range of technologies available, some with many years of accumulated operating experience worldwide EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011 All rights Reserved. Wet pool storage - a proven solution - flexibility for accommodation of long term fuel evolution (burn up, cooling time..) Interim Storage Wet Storage Dry Storage Canisters Vault Metal Casks
  • 18. Widespread use of both wet and dry storage BELGIUM Pool (Tihange) Casks (Doel) FRANCE Pool (La Hague) USA both technologies mainly dry cask out of reactor SWEDEN Pool (CLAB) FINLAND Pool (Olkiluoto, Loviisa) GERMANY Casks (Gorleben) Casks (Ahaus) JAPAN Pool (Rokkasho Mura) Casks (Mutsu) HUNGARY Vault (Paks) CHINA Pool SWITZERLAND Casks Pool (Gösgen) All rights Reserved. EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011
  • 19. Five key points for waste management
    • Waste management is a key issue for sustainable nuclear development and operation; it is a long process and thus should be carried out as soon as possible. A national plan for waste and spent fuel management should be elaborated in association with all stakeholders involved.
    • A waste management plan should be set up within the nuclear legislative / regulatory framework, featuring:
      • Waste classification
      • Waste management routes for each kind of waste (short / long-lived)
        • Waste repository development is a key issue, for both long and short-lived wastes
      • Long-term liabilities financing
      • Site selection process, with appropriate measures regarding involved communities
    • For waste from plant operation and decommissioning, by far the largest amount, surface repository is a rather simple technical solution already in operation with a truly satisfactory feedback.
    • For high level waste and spent fuel (if considered as waste), deep geological disposal is considered the best solution and will be necessary in the very long term. However, in the meantime, long-term storage should be implemented, while keeping the reprocessing option open.
    EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011 All rights Reserved.
  • 20. 5 th point: Consistency between organizational and financial responsibilities
    • Nuclear operator bears it waste liabilities , as part of its industrial responsibility
      • The operator must provide funding for all costs of decommissioning and end of the fuel cycle, including risk remuneration.
      • Financial and operational responsibilities must go hand in hand
      • - If the operator has to pay without control over the services provided, he would loose the necessary balance between costs and quality-level of safety.
      • - E.g.: An independent entity that provides interim storage or underground storage must be financially responsible; the funds transferred by the operators to this entity would include the appropriate risk premium.
      • - Similarly, the operator cannot just be subject to the management of the dedicated asset fully outsourced; it must be consulted on the level of risk management and associated allocations.
    EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011 All rights Reserved.
  • 21.
    • Nuclear development projects have a major role to play for security of supply and long-term competitiveness
    • Nuclear energy represents one of the clean energy sources, mature and able to fulfill industrial needs
    • Safety, environmental protection and waste management issues must be taken into account from the very beginning
    • Industrial solutions do exist for safe long-term management of spent fuel and waste
    • Following the principle of waste producer responsibility, the cost for managing nuclear waste is provisioned from the start
    Conclusion EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011 All rights Reserved.
  • 22. Grazie mille for your attention and for your questions… EDF – ROME- FNI- 10 03 2011 All rights Reserved.