• Sustainably balancing future supply & demand – Improving Productivity using existing Knowledge – Raising the limits of Sustainable Production through the application of New Technology – Reducing Waste• Addressing Future Volatility in the food System – Managing risk• Ending Hunger – Through the provision of access to affordable, safe & nutritious food for all• Addressing the challenges of a Low-emissions World – Reducing GHG emissions – Increasing production efficiency• Maintaining Biodiversity & Ecosystem services whilst feeding the world – More Food per Acre = More room for Nature
GenomicsThe ability to decode and analyse the genetic make up (DNA)of living organisms Better informed breeding decisions – Earlier Identification of desirable / undesirable traits in an individual / population – More accurate selection for desirable traits i.e. production, feed conversion efficiency, disease resistance, longevity – Identification of lethal recessives avoid/reduce negative effects of inbreeding Vastly reduced ‘generation interval’ Faster genetic progress
Genomics2004 Bovine Genome Sequenced2007 50K SNP ‘chip’ commercially available2009 500K SNP Chip released2010 First ‘Genomically proven’ bulls actively marketed by AI companies around the world.
O-bee Manfred Justice The Most Influential Bull of the last 10 Years Born: Apr 1998 First Proof : Feb 2003 First Proven son : Jan 2009 1 Million Straws sold: Oct 2010 Died Feb 2011No.1 NM$ Bull in US for 7 consecutive years, with >40,000 registered daughters Many of world’s top proven AI sires are Oman sons or Grandsons His semen has always been ‘on allocation’
Genomic SelectionShortening the generation interval De-Su Fathom (GNM$ 793) & De-Su Franz (GNM$ 795) Are at the Very top of the 99th Percentile of the Holstein breed for production and health traits and are, currently, being used heavily as ‘sires of sons’They were Born, as a result of Embryo Transplant, on 25th September 2009 Their sire, Langs-Twin-B CR Cassino, (GNM$ £690 -99%ile).. ..Was born 1st September 2007 By the time Cassino receives his first daughter Proof, His First crop of grandsonswill be almost 1 year old, Genomically tested and themselves contracted as Sires of Sons.
Meta-Genomics• The Genomics of Whole ‘Ecosystems’• Meta-genomics Provides better understanding of the way complex biological environments (e.g the rumen) function through the genomic analysis of the entire system biomass.• Meta-Genomics will help improve Diet Formulation, accelerate the development of better Feeds & feed additives and more effective Pharmaceuticals & Vaccines...• ..improving Feed conversion efficiency and animal health & Welfare and reducing Enteric methane production.
Elvis is alive.. ..and was produced by ViaGen, a US company, in 2005, by cloning a Grade 1 Angus crossbred steer.. ..using a cell taken from it’s carcass.....proving that Castration & Death are no longer necessarily barriers to Genetic Progress!
Genetic modification “Brave New World” or “FrankenFood” ?
Genetic Modification of Dairy CowsGM research in New Zealand has focused on increasing the protein contentof milk, by inserting a second copy of the kappa-casein gene into dairycattle, resulting in a 25%, increase in K-casein levels in milk thus improvingboth it’s nutritional and commercial valueResearchers in China claim to have created a herd of 300 transgenic cowsthat produce milk containing a human protein called Lysozyme; anantimicrobial protein naturally found in large quantities in human breastmilk. Lysozyme helps to protect infants from bacterial infections during theirearly days of life.The cows produce another protein from human milk called Lactoferrin,which helps to boost the numbers of immune cells in babies. A third humanmilk protein called alpha-lactalbumin was also produced.Other research has focused on potential to produce milk containing high-value pharmaceutical or nutraceutical proteins.
GM Mastitis Resistance Researchers from University of Vermont & USDA have, produced genetically modified dairy cows resistant to a form of mastitis They produced a modified gene that enables animals to produce a naturally occurring enzyme, Lysostaphin, in their milk, which breaks down the cell walls of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, a major cause of mastitis. The gene was inserted into Jersey embryos and five transgenic cows carrying the Lysostaphin gene were produced.All showed resistance to Staph. Aureus and one, pictured above, never became infected. The transgenic cows, as agroup, exhibited an 80% reduction in the rate of infection compared to non-transgenic cows.Mastitis costs the US dairy Industry alone over $2 billion every year in discarded milk, veterinary costs and lostproductionThis research, if commercialised, could significantly reduce the incidence of mastitis, increasing productivity andaddressing key issues, such as reducing the current reliance on antibiotics and improving animal welfare.Further research is ongoing to determine whether other pathogenic infections could be controlled in this way
biotechnology offers practically unimaginable potential to improve the efficiency of food production from livestock..to reduce environmental impact per unit foodproducedto reduce the impact of diseaseTo improve animal welfareto enhance product quality and nutritional valueand to safeguard human health.
The developments we see today are just the beginning of what will bepossible and are unsophisticated in comparison to what will be possible inthe longer-term.