The Case for      Ending Hawaii’s    Reef Wildlife Trade   A Review of the Impacts“…fish left on the reef benefit the reef...
In Hawaii, it’s illegal to take rocks from the ocean.         Corals are fully protected, too.But coral reef wildlife is t...
1953:Aquarium collecting permits required(trade focused on Oahu)1973:Concerns about impacts promptsadministration to issue...
1980’s – ’90’s Oahu:3 major storms + over-collecting leadto commercial collapse;collection shifts to West HawaiiLate 1990’...
38%   43%39%56%      97%            49%55%      42%            Tissot, Walsh, Hallacher (2004)                            ...
Fishery:  Achieve maximum sustainable yield  All animals considered dead, once taken  Ecosystem roles & socio-economic val...
Healthy coral reefs are essential to thesocio-economic well-being of Hawaii‟s residents               Educational         ...
Reef Wildlife Viewing (Snorkeling/Diving)    $306 million    Thousands employedProperty/Amenity Value    $40 millionAquari...
Hawaii’s coral reefs valued at $34 billion annually.                   Equal to ESPN and Gates Foundation’s market value* ...
Healthy coral reefs are essential to the    socio-economic well-being of Hawaii‟s residents   According to a 1998 DLNR rep...
Aquarium trade a main cause ofcoral reef degradation.Major impacts on Hawaii Islandand Oahu.            Other impacts incl...
Food web disruptionInterference with complex ecosystem   Significantly alters densities/ratios   High biodiversity key to ...
What happens to reefs that lose    too many herbivores?            80% of fish collected are herbivores.                  ...
Coral is broken and damaged when:                 Nets entangle it when set or retrieved                 Material is laid ...
Where Have All The Fish Gone?                      “Severe overfishing for the aquarium trade exists                      ...
11 million wild reef fish + millions of reef “janitors”*              annually purchased by U.S. wholesalers to supply jus...
Hawaii           #1                               #3: KONA COAST                                                 (147 Mile...
Kona volume is higher than U.S. imports fromAustralia, Solomon Islands, Fiji, Tonga and Kiribati reefs, combined.         ...
Up to 3 X more fish are taken from Kona’s narrow reefs than are taken from the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef ...
Catch Report Graph                          1,500,000                       1,000,000+                                    ...
Endemism: the ecological state of being unique to a placeAt 23 percent, Hawaii’s reefs have the highest rate of endemism o...
1.     Potter’s Angelfish     2.     Multiband Butterflyfish     3.     Milletseed Butterflyfish     4.     Hawaiian White...
Blue-Striped Butterflyfish   Bandit AngelfishHawaiian Lionfish                                                  23
Srategy Goals: “to not only protect current populations, but toalso establish further populations to reduce the risk of ex...
Center for Biological Diversity just petitionedNOAA to list 8 fish species, including theendemic Hawaiian Damselfish      ...
Threats to ALL Native Species                  Extreme Selective Harvesting                      Juveniles in 1” – 4” rang...
Examples of Depletion on West Hawaii Reefs 1999 Difference Between       Since 1999: combined Collected / Protected Reefs ...
More Examples of Depletion…Puako & Honaunau Butterflyfish      Abundance     75%          “Species routinely seen in the 1...
The First Sighting in Years…         Captured!A fish collector takes a Teardrop  Butterflyfish from Black Point     Caves ...
Yellow Tang Response to Area ClosuresRecovery:Within 4 years of the area closures(FRA’s), yellow tangs rebounded,doubling ...
Yellow Tang Response to Area Closures                                                                   Gap caused        ...
Yellow Tang Depletion  Difference Between Collected / Protected Reefs                                                     ...
Up to 40% of Hawaii’s wildlife dies before        reaching the hobbyist.        50% of Hawaii’s Top 20 fish:            AR...
Achilles Tang         Psychedelic Wrasse        Chevron Tang            Hawaiian Cleaner WrasseMultiband Butterflyfish    ...
On a reef:                                Waikiki Aquarium:Yellow Tangs can live for 40+ years                   Potter’s ...
Kona’s Ocean Rider captive-bred                     seahorses easily survive 100X longer in                     captivity ...
Collectors/wholesalers must sell the wildlifequickly because it has a very limited “shelflife”. ~ Alton Miyasaka, DLNRColl...
Fins and spines                                             are cut to avoid                                              ...
State law generally prohibits harmfultrade practices.Maui County’s 2011 landmark lawexpressly prohibits collectors from:  ...
“…asking permission prior to fishing, taking only what you need,    sharing your catch with your extended „ohana or commun...
High Cost / No Public BenefitNegative Impacts  Ecosystem  Socio-Economic  Wildlife  Employs Relatively Few Full Timers  Ma...
Trade’s environmental harm is well documented   Environmental impacts never assessed, though required by HEPA   2010 DLNR ...
Limit Areas (since 2000)  Populations & species still disappearingLimit Permits (nothing pending)  Caution! Florida permit...
White List  Negligible conservation gain for prohibited /  protected species  No high-volume species prohibited  Example: ...
White List  Negligible conservation gain for prohibited /  protected species  Real potential for accelerated population  d...
White list sample: all 40 species with similar issues / concerns                                                          ...
Limits on Certain Sizes of Yellow Tangs  + 2 others  Take limits on very young and very mature  yellow tangs proposed to s...
Enforcement?Trade generates far less in taxes and fees than is required       for program administration, effective resour...
2007 – 2009: statewide legislative efforts limiting take are blocked2010 – 2011: Maui County passes two landmark lawsFeb. ...
Poll shows overwhelming support for ending the trade:    • 66% statewide / 69% Big Island    • Top 3 concerns:        • En...
Remember…Within 4 years of area closures,yellow tangs rebounded.With the right protections in place,yellow tangs and other...
1) Donate to support our efforts.2) Tell Hawaii’s decision / lawmakers that you   support keeping wildlife on reefs / out ...
Mahalo!          53
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West Hawaii Aquarium Trade Impacts_2012

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The Kona Coast (aka West Hawaii) is the third largest supplier, behind the Philippines and Indonesia, of coral reef wildlife for the U.S. saltwater aquarium hobby. The U.S. trade annually imports over 11 million fish to supply 700,000 household aquariums and public display aquariums. This massive wildlife trade exacts a toll on the animals and their reefs. This presentation describes the impacts to Hawaii's coral reefs and wildlife.

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  • Property values within 100 meters of the coast. 1.5% of sale price attributable to marine ecosystem
  • All species taken are native but 45% are also endemic.
  • All species taken are native but 45% are also endemic.
  • All species taken are native but 45% are also endemic.
  • Kona Coast
  • These all occur on at least one trade list of animals unsuitable for the hobby or having high death rates/being very difficult to keep alive.
  • Reasons why premature deaths matter (Wood, 2001):1. Every fish that dies early puts extra pressure on natural resources because of the take of replacements. There is a general consensus in many countries that it is not ethical to trade in live animals, unless their health and welfare are ensured, Unnecessary and early deaths give the trade a poor image.
  • Stress, injury disease and early death result from these practices.The farther the destination from Hawaii, the more that arrive dead. These death rates would never be tolerated for any other animal in the pet trade.Flame Angel image from Marshall Islands import where it’s not uncommon for 100% of the shipment to arrive dead and average DOA is ~40% per Secretariat of the Pacific
  • Malamaaina: harvesting purely for economic gain, the inhumane treatment, high mortality and needless waste violates this core traditional Hawaiian value.What has been called a user conflict, to be resolved by dividing the reefs into collected vs. protected areas, was a band-aid measure that has failed to address the underlying issues that won’t be solved with set asides.
  • If action will likely have significant environmental effect, an assessment must be conducted prior to the activity
  • It is our kuleana to care for what is Hawaii's.Our responsibility to care for them doesn't end once they're scooped up and shipped off. Mainland consumer demand should not trump what is best for Hawaii’s wildlife and reefs. DAR is proposing additional management measures, agreed to in the compromise over a decade ago, but, to date, successfully stalled by the trade. One, called a “white list”, would limit the number of species taken from over 250 to just 40. It is part of a rule package currently being reviewed by the AG.The other is a program to cap the number of permits which DAR hopes would also reduce the number of collectors. This measure has been pulled from the rule package.Both would actually make matters worse: Common sense says that by focusing efforts onto fewer species, the “white list” will accelerate depletion of those 40 species, just as focusing collection efforts onto fewer areas has harmed those areas.  Capping permits would do little to reduce the impacts & concerns. Florida is a good example for us showing that despite a 50% reduction in the number of licenses issued since 1994, aquarium take is up 10-fold, and has prompted some scientists to issue a collapse warning.
  • It is our kuleana to care for what is Hawaii's.Our responsibility to care for them doesn't end once they're scooped up and shipped off. Mainland consumer demand should not trump what is best for Hawaii’s wildlife and reefs. DAR is proposing additional management measures, agreed to in the compromise over a decade ago, but, to date, successfully stalled by the trade. One, called a “white list”, would limit the number of species taken from over 250 to just 40. It is part of a rule package currently being reviewed by the AG.The other is a program to cap the number of permits which DAR hopes would also reduce the number of collectors. This measure has been pulled from the rule package.Both would actually make matters worse: Common sense says that by focusing efforts onto fewer species, the “white list” will accelerate depletion of those 40 species, just as focusing collection efforts onto fewer areas has harmed those areas.  Capping permits would do little to reduce the impacts & concerns. Florida is a good example for us showing that despite a 50% reduction in the number of licenses issued since 1994, aquarium take is up 10-fold, and has prompted some scientists to issue a collapse warning.
  • It is our kuleana to care for what is Hawaii's.Our responsibility to care for them doesn't end once they're scooped up and shipped off. Mainland consumer demand should not trump what is best for Hawaii’s wildlife and reefs. DAR is proposing additional management measures, agreed to in the compromise over a decade ago, but, to date, successfully stalled by the trade. One, called a “white list”, would limit the number of species taken from over 250 to just 40. It is part of a rule package currently being reviewed by the AG.The other is a program to cap the number of permits which DAR hopes would also reduce the number of collectors. This measure has been pulled from the rule package.Both would actually make matters worse: Common sense says that by focusing efforts onto fewer species, the “white list” will accelerate depletion of those 40 species, just as focusing collection efforts onto fewer areas has harmed those areas.  Capping permits would do little to reduce the impacts & concerns. Florida is a good example for us showing that despite a 50% reduction in the number of licenses issued since 1994, aquarium take is up 10-fold, and has prompted some scientists to issue a collapse warning.
  • Sample only: all 40 species on the white list have similar issues: over 1/2 are known as especially poor survivors in captivity, making it a few months at best before dying; over 1/3 are species unique to Hawaii and considered by DLNR as highly threatened by the trade; and others already show declining populations.
  • It is our kuleana to care for what is Hawaii's.Our responsibility to care for them doesn't end once they're scooped up and shipped off. Mainland consumer demand should not trump what is best for Hawaii’s wildlife and reefs. DAR is proposing additional management measures, agreed to in the compromise over a decade ago, but, to date, successfully stalled by the trade. One, called a “white list”, would limit the number of species taken from over 250 to just 40. It is part of a rule package currently being reviewed by the AG.The other is a program to cap the number of permits which DAR hopes would also reduce the number of collectors. This measure has been pulled from the rule package.Both would actually make matters worse: Common sense says that by focusing efforts onto fewer species, the “white list” will accelerate depletion of those 40 species, just as focusing collection efforts onto fewer areas has harmed those areas.  Capping permits would do little to reduce the impacts & concerns. Florida is a good example for us showing that despite a 50% reduction in the number of licenses issued since 1994, aquarium take is up 10-fold, and has prompted some scientists to issue a collapse warning.
  • West Hawaii Aquarium Trade Impacts_2012

    1. 1. The Case for Ending Hawaii’s Reef Wildlife Trade A Review of the Impacts“…fish left on the reef benefit the reef, as well as Hawaii‟s economy.” -March 2008 Legislative findings by the Hawai`i State Senate in SB 3225 ForTheFishes.org October 2012
    2. 2. In Hawaii, it’s illegal to take rocks from the ocean. Corals are fully protected, too.But coral reef wildlife is taken in limitless numbers. 2
    3. 3. 1953:Aquarium collecting permits required(trade focused on Oahu)1973:Concerns about impacts promptsadministration to issue a moratoriumon collecting.Moratorium lifted two days prior tostart to allow for studies.1977:Environmental Quality Commissionand DLNR asked if EIS required.EQC: EIS may be appropriateDLNR: not necessary 3
    4. 4. 1980’s – ’90’s Oahu:3 major storms + over-collecting leadto commercial collapse;collection shifts to West HawaiiLate 1990’s West Hawaii:Studies show detrimental effects;thousands call for a ban;Compromise leads to 35% areaclosure beginning Jan. 1, 2000.2000 – 2010 West Hawaii:Yellow tangs increase in FRA’s butdecrease add’l 45% in open areas;common species become rare 4
    5. 5. 38% 43%39%56% 97% 49%55% 42% Tissot, Walsh, Hallacher (2004) 5
    6. 6. Fishery: Achieve maximum sustainable yield All animals considered dead, once taken Ecosystem roles & socio-economic values ignoredWildlife as Pets: Universally discouraged/prohibited Carries legal and ethical responsibilities Provide life sustaining care No harm, injury, killing without needCoral Reef Animals: Play essential & fundamental roles in ecosystem Have high aesthetic, recreational, cultural values 6
    7. 7. Healthy coral reefs are essential to thesocio-economic well-being of Hawaii‟s residents Educational Physical (protect coastal areas; food..) Social, Recreational For future generations Cultural & Spiritual Economic Biological, Ecological 7HCRI, NOAA – Economic Value of Hawaii’s Nearshore Reef
    8. 8. Reef Wildlife Viewing (Snorkeling/Diving) $306 million Thousands employedProperty/Amenity Value $40 millionAquarium trade $1.2 million < 50 full time collectors 6
    9. 9. Hawaii’s coral reefs valued at $34 billion annually. Equal to ESPN and Gates Foundation’s market value* Americans believe Hawaii’s coral reefs are worth protecting and restoring for future generations.*Forbes magazine 6
    10. 10. Healthy coral reefs are essential to the socio-economic well-being of Hawaii‟s residents According to a 1998 DLNR report, the aquarium trade is a major source of coral reef degradation in Hawaii* Significantly alters the ecosystem Takes essential algae & parasite eating fish Damages and breaks coral Focuses on Hawaii’s most beautiful & unique species Depletes populations of targeted species* DLNR 1998 State of the Reefs Report 10
    11. 11. Aquarium trade a main cause ofcoral reef degradation.Major impacts on Hawaii Islandand Oahu. Other impacts include: Alien species Sedimentation Pollution Climate Change! Ocean acidification! 11
    12. 12. Food web disruptionInterference with complex ecosystem Significantly alters densities/ratios High biodiversity key to stability Ecosystem services / Niche species Herbivores keep algae in check Cleaner wrasse removes parasites 12
    13. 13. What happens to reefs that lose too many herbivores? 80% of fish collected are herbivores. “…[herbivore ] removal can result in algal overgrowth of coral and catastrophic shifts in the ecosystem.” -2007 U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Working Group 13
    14. 14. Coral is broken and damaged when: Nets entangle it when set or retrieved Material is laid over it to block access to refuge Sticks are hit against it to herd fish into nets or out of hiding Equipment is set in it. Fins and legs kick it Anchors and chains land in it Collection vessel anchored in Kohala coast coral 2/15/11. Collector’s bucket and scooter in the coral 2/15/11.(DLNR, 1998; Stevenson, 2011) 14
    15. 15. Where Have All The Fish Gone? “Severe overfishing for the aquarium trade exists even in the United States.*” Hawaii’s aquarium trade has collected and sold over 8 million reef animals since 2007.*** U.S. Coral Reef Task Force 12** 2X under and non-reporting factored in
    16. 16. 11 million wild reef fish + millions of reef “janitors”* annually purchased by U.S. wholesalers to supply just 700,000 household aquariums and public display aquariums Trade also involves an unknown number of captive bred animals – estimated at 2% - 5% of total trade*hermit crabs, cleaner shrimps, molluscs, urchins etc… 16
    17. 17. Hawaii #1 #3: KONA COAST (147 Miles)#2 GREAT BARRIER REEF #1 Philippines #2 Indonesia #3 Kona Coast 17
    18. 18. Kona volume is higher than U.S. imports fromAustralia, Solomon Islands, Fiji, Tonga and Kiribati reefs, combined. Hawaii KONA COAST GREAT BARRIER REEF
    19. 19. Up to 3 X more fish are taken from Kona’s narrow reefs than are taken from the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef in the world, encompassing an immense area and vastly more diverse and abundant than Hawaii. Hawaii KONA COAST 349,000 fish GREAT BARRIER REEF 134,000 fish
    20. 20. Catch Report Graph 1,500,000 1,000,000+ 500,123 1,000,000 Estimated Actual:… 500,000 0 Reported Catch Underreporting + non-reporting = Actual take that may be 2 - 5 times higher* Reported Take Never Verified w/ Actual Take* Dan Polhemus, former DAR State Administrator, Dec. 09 20
    21. 21. Endemism: the ecological state of being unique to a placeAt 23 percent, Hawaii’s reefs have the highest rate of endemism on Earth. 21
    22. 22. 1. Potter’s Angelfish 2. Multiband Butterflyfish 3. Milletseed Butterflyfish 4. Hawaiian White-Spotted Toby 5. Psychedelic Wrasse 6. Saddle Wrasse 7. Hawaiian Cleaner Wrasse 8. Blue-Striped Butterflyfish 9. Hawaiian Dascyllus“… there is no replacement pool for many of thetargeted species, should over collection or ahabitat shift occur, as a result of the marineornamental trade.”Hawaii Audubon Society. 2004. “The Marine Aquarium Trade in the Western Hemisphere and the Indo-pacific Region.” 32pp 22
    23. 23. Blue-Striped Butterflyfish Bandit AngelfishHawaiian Lionfish 23
    24. 24. Srategy Goals: “to not only protect current populations, but toalso establish further populations to reduce the risk of extinction.” Aquarium collecting identified as the major threat to native / endemic species below: 24
    25. 25. Center for Biological Diversity just petitionedNOAA to list 8 fish species, including theendemic Hawaiian Damselfish Climate change impacts on their habitats. Ocean acidification impairs larval damselfish smell, vision, learning, behavior, and brain function. Hawaiian Damselfish are Leads to higher risk of mortality highly dependent on branching “Potentially catastrophic” long-term corals. future of coral reef- dependent fishes Hawaii’s branching corals are most susceptible to bleaching and sedimentation. 25
    26. 26. Threats to ALL Native Species Extreme Selective Harvesting Juveniles in 1” – 4” range Mature Males w/Distinct color Can Lead to: Interrupted Food Chains Reproductive Failure Altered Habitat Fisheries use Minimum Size Limits, Allowable Catch / Bag Limits, Permit Limits These Standards are Absent from Hawaii Collection Rules*From Ocean to Aquarium – The Global Trade in Marine Ornamental Species, United Nations Environmental Program**The Marine Aquarium Trade in the Western Hemisphere and Indo-Pacific Region. Impacts on coral reef ecosystems and a summary of governinglegal instruments and policy options, Hawaii Audubon, Bogiatto, et al. 2004 26
    27. 27. Examples of Depletion on West Hawaii Reefs 1999 Difference Between Since 1999: combined Collected / Protected Reefs Collected / Protected “It is apparent that a number of less- 46% abundant aquarium-targeted species have not responded to the increase in protected areas and have actually decreased in West Hawai’i since 1999.”- 54%- 42% - 58% 27DLNR 2010 Report to NOAA
    28. 28. More Examples of Depletion…Puako & Honaunau Butterflyfish Abundance 75% “Species routinely seen in the 1970’s, now very rare.” Diversity 28% Kona DAR, Species of Concern Presentation, 2008 28
    29. 29. The First Sighting in Years… Captured!A fish collector takes a Teardrop Butterflyfish from Black Point Caves on Feb. 15, 2011. Dive guide who took this photo reported it was the first Teardrop seen on this No. Kohala reef in years. 29
    30. 30. Yellow Tang Response to Area ClosuresRecovery:Within 4 years of the area closures(FRA’s), yellow tangs rebounded,doubling inside these newly protectedareas. Depletion: But the recovery was short-lived as the aquarium trade doubled their take, driving populations back down, even in the MPA’s (long term protected areas). 30
    31. 31. Yellow Tang Response to Area Closures Gap caused by ~30 collectors In the open areas, collecting pressure drove populations down by anGreen line = the 65% of West Hawaii reefs open to collecting additional 45% 31
    32. 32. Yellow Tang Depletion Difference Between Collected / Protected Reefs Kona DAR’s Bill Walsh called the increasing disparity between collected and protected reefs, an “alarming pattern”. 1999 2010 47% 73% He also said, “The aquarium fishery for yellow tangs in West Hawaii is unsustainable over the long run – without additional management measures.”Dr. Bill Walsh, Kona DAR, 2010 32
    33. 33. Up to 40% of Hawaii’s wildlife dies before reaching the hobbyist. 50% of Hawaii’s Top 20 fish: ARE NOT guaranteed to arrive alive when purchased fm online retailers. Appear on other trade lists of species unsuitable for hobbyists with average to advanced skill level. The Average Hobbyist Is a beginner who drops out within a year.* Causes astronomical death rates.** Likely kills off most of their fish in the first month of care from mistakes, inappropriate tankmates, starvation...*Hobby/trade authorities: *Bob Fenner and**Kieron Dodds 33
    34. 34. Achilles Tang Psychedelic Wrasse Chevron Tang Hawaiian Cleaner WrasseMultiband Butterflyfish Ornate Wrasse Fourspot Butterflyfish Moorish Idol Teardrop Butterflyfish Potter’s Angelfish Bluestripe Butterflyfish 27
    35. 35. On a reef: Waikiki Aquarium:Yellow Tangs can live for 40+ years Potter’s Angel: 14 years(Bushnell & Claisse, 2007) Sailfin Tang: 15 yearsBluespine unicornfish can achieve 58.(HI Div. of Aquatic Resources) Raccoon Butterflyfish: 22 yearsParrotfish: at least 33(Choat & Robertson 2002) (Randall and Delbeek, Sept. 2009, from a list of species that lived from 13 – 24 years at the Waikiki Aquarium.) Household Aquarium: Relatively few live more than a year in captivity.(Bob Fenner, author, Conscientious Marine Aquarist) 35
    36. 36. Kona’s Ocean Rider captive-bred seahorses easily survive 100X longer in captivity than their wild-caught cousins, who die within weeks.Ocean Rider’s oldest seahorses, todate, are 13 years old, more thandouble the 5 year life span of theirspecies in the wild. 36
    37. 37. Collectors/wholesalers must sell the wildlifequickly because it has a very limited “shelflife”. ~ Alton Miyasaka, DLNRCollectors sell to wholesalers who waitseveral days before paying and only pay forthose fish still alive. Contributing factors: Stressors are cumulative Basic Needs Difficult to Meet 37
    38. 38. Fins and spines are cut to avoid extra packing material costs.Swim bladders pierced for faster surfacing Handling removes protective mucous coating Fish starved for 2 – 10 days prior to shipment. With each shipment, DOA’s are standard: up to 5% can arrive dead without chargeback to shipper. Starvation, stress and death continues Another 4% will likely throughout the chain of custody. die within days of arrival 38
    39. 39. State law generally prohibits harmfultrade practices.Maui County’s 2011 landmark lawexpressly prohibits collectors from: Piercing swim bladders Cutting fins/spines Withholding food for more than 24 hours for transport purposes Transporting in a manner resulting in injury or death. 39
    40. 40. “…asking permission prior to fishing, taking only what you need, sharing your catch with your extended „ohana or community and having respect for the sacredness of the process.” *“…the livestock necessary to drive purchases of lucrative dry-goods.” **“If we were to stop the importation of all wild-caught supply, we wouldsuffocate ourselves with a less-interested audience. No audience, nomoney.“* *** Brian Tissot, Washington State University,Integral Marine Ecology: Community-Based Fishery Management in Hawaii, 2005** Bob Fenner, trade expert/author defending the high mortalities on his website:www.wetwebmedia.com/marlifeusebiz.htm (2009) 40*** Pet Product News Editorial Blog: Sourcing from the Wild: Pro and Con, By Patrick Donston and David Lass (2102)
    41. 41. High Cost / No Public BenefitNegative Impacts Ecosystem Socio-Economic Wildlife Employs Relatively Few Full Timers Management & Enforcement Costs Far Exceed Revenues from Fees and Taxes.State Resource Use Policy Resource protection is highest priority Commercial use should only be allowed if doesn’t impinge upon resource or use by 31 general public.
    42. 42. Trade’s environmental harm is well documented Environmental impacts never assessed, though required by HEPA 2010 DLNR Sought HEPA Exemption Population Assessment estimated at $200,000 & 7 mo. / species Equates to $52 million and 152 years in “man hours” for statewide population assessments of the ~260 species taken by the trade Population Assessment DOES NOT include ecosystem / environment assessment Earthjustice files lawsuit requiring state to comply with HEPA 32
    43. 43. Limit Areas (since 2000) Populations & species still disappearingLimit Permits (nothing pending) Caution! Florida permits down by 50%; take is up 10-fold.Limit Species (pending) Controversial 40 Species White List Drafted by Aq. Trade & their Supporters 33
    44. 44. White List Negligible conservation gain for prohibited / protected species No high-volume species prohibited Example: if White List was applied to 2011 reported take it would have: Protected fewer than 4,000 fish (1% of total) Reduced trade value by about $13,000 / .009 of reported value; half from just 3 species (Cleaner Wrasse, Flame Angelfish, Bandit Angelfish) 33
    45. 45. White List Negligible conservation gain for prohibited / protected species Real potential for accelerated population depletion for White List species Unlimited take of 40 species By an unlimited number of collectors Hawaii take would still be #3 in the world and outpace Great Barrier Reef 3 to 1, and more 33
    46. 46. White list sample: all 40 species with similar issues / concerns 46
    47. 47. Limits on Certain Sizes of Yellow Tangs + 2 others Take limits on very young and very mature yellow tangs proposed to stop depletion Size data not included in catch reports, so determining the impact of these limits is impossible. 33
    48. 48. Enforcement?Trade generates far less in taxes and fees than is required for program administration, effective resource management and enforcement Ending the trade saves $$ for state / taxpayersFederal Lacey Act is triggered when states protect wildlife Illegal to sell or purchase protected wildlife Federal FWS helps states with enforcement 48
    49. 49. 2007 – 2009: statewide legislative efforts limiting take are blocked2010 – 2011: Maui County passes two landmark lawsFeb. 2011: statewide bill to end the trade statewide is blocked • Overwhelming community support • Call to end the trade continues to growOct. 2011: Hawaii County Council Passes Resolution to BanNov. 2011: Kauai County Council Passes Resolution to Ban2012: Poll Shows Public Supports Ban 49
    50. 50. Poll shows overwhelming support for ending the trade: • 66% statewide / 69% Big Island • Top 3 concerns: • Environmental Impact • Disrespect of native Hawaiian values • Cruel and inhumane treatment of reef wildlife • Big Island specific: • 88% support passing Maui style laws • 72% agree only captive-bred animals should be kept in saltwater aquariums1400+ postcards supporting a ban have been sent to the Governor. 50
    51. 51. Remember…Within 4 years of area closures,yellow tangs rebounded.With the right protections in place,yellow tangs and other impactedspecies can be restored andmaintained at a natural balancefor the benefit of all.This balance will help bufferHawaii’s coral reefs against theoncoming stressors of climatechange and ocean acidification. 51
    52. 52. 1) Donate to support our efforts.2) Tell Hawaii’s decision / lawmakers that you support keeping wildlife on reefs / out of tanks.3) Speak out / submit testimony at the public hearing(s).4) Spread the word – many are unaware of the trade and it’s impacts.5) Sign up for Action Alerts!6) Ask aquarium owners you know to stop buying wild caught animals: there are many captive bred species available for purchase & no need to take wild ones! 52
    53. 53. Mahalo! 53

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