Mind Force Human Attractions   Franco Orsucci
Complexity vs Ockam
Complexity vs Ockam 2
Phylosophy   and the arts <ul><li>Plato, Symposium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Androginus mith, narrated by Aristophanes </l...
MF modern story 1 <ul><li>Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>Every time we think we change our brain, W. James </li></ul><ul><li>...
MF story 2 <ul><li>Kurt Lewin,  Lewin, who was well known for his terms &quot;life space&quot; and &quot;field theory”, pr...
Bipersonal field
MF story 3 <ul><li>“ Minds are located, unextended, incorporeal, capable of acting on bodies, dependent on body and capabl...
Psychoanalysis <ul><li>G draft </li></ul>
Object relations & attachment
 
Freeman <ul><li>“ consciousness is not merely ‘like’ a force; it is a field of force that can be understood in the same wa...
History of Synchrony <ul><li>Androsthenes, scribe of Alexander the Great, gave a first written description during the four...
Sync: a powerful paradigm <ul><li>The theory of  coupled oscillators (dynamic attractors) . Coupled oscillators can be fou...
Biological Evidence <ul><li>Fireflies have a cluster of neurons in their brains which allow sync. </li></ul><ul><li>Menstr...
Examples of Biological Evidence <ul><li>Fireflies have a cluster of neurons in their brains which allow sync.  </li></ul><...
Hidden regulators
Couplings <ul><li>We used RQA and KRQA (Cross Recurrence) also to measure the coupling and synchronization during the conv...
Inter  vs  Intra Synchronization <ul><li>Inter -Subject  synchronization is what makes possible a dialogue. </li></ul><ul>...
Linguistic Evidence <ul><li>Conversation synchrony: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information, discourse, turn taking, movement. <...
Discourse
Foundation semiotics <ul><li>Structural coupling  is a process that occurs when two structurally plastic systems repeatedl...
Results: Natural conversation
Results: Clinical interview
Adult Attachment Interview, evolution sample AAI181
Speech and rhythmic behaviour
Categorical Recurrence Analysis  of Child Language Rick Dale and Michael J. Spivey, Department of Psychology, Cornell Univ...
Some conclusions on foundation semiotics <ul><li>We were be able to detect determinism in  mesoscopic  dynamics (embedding...
Psychomotor sync
Implicit knowledge
Mirrors (reflex, reflect)
Psycho-Social Evidence <ul><li>Sociogram </li></ul><ul><li>3 Women   </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping  </li></ul><ul><li>and dre...
Evolution
Perspectives: coevolution
Modeling Attractions <ul><li>We are like wheels within wheels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro level: molecules and cells, </l...
Dynamics (individual) <ul><li>Dynamics comprehend the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Founda...
2D Cycle of change Reflective cascading Decoupling Entrainment signals Synchronization E-Mergence
3D Cicle of change
MF definition <ul><li>MF is beyond  Res Cogitans  and  Res Extensa  in dynamical and structural terms. We might say that i...
MF definition 2 <ul><li>A logical consequence is that MF, in its structure (that we are going to recognize in random netwo...
MF def 3 <ul><li>If we are able to accomplish this reframing of our perceptual and cognitive habits in order to recognize ...
trees create the form of the wind Zenrin Kushu
Mind Force Models Franco Orsucci Everything should be made  as simple as possible,  but not simpler. Albert Einstein
 Sympathy of clocks <ul><li>The origin of the word  synchronization  is an ancient Greek root,  sun-cronos,  whi...
Sync & Complexity <ul><li>The theory of  coupled oscillators (dynamic attractors) . Coupled oscillators can be found throu...
Movement, music, dance! <ul><li>E. T. Hall (1983) has been important in noticing that humans in all cultures are engaged i...
Complex Systems <ul><li>When more than two  oscillators are   coupled , however, the range of possible behaviors becomes m...
Molecular oscillators
Ultradian rhythms Rhythm Period, Frequency, Amplitude Coupling Comments heart rate  3 hour [FO1]    newborn  sleep cycle d...
Daily rhythms
Attractors
Examples of Biological Evidence <ul><li>Fireflies have a cluster of neurons in their brains which allow sync.  </li></ul><...
Recurrence  Quantification Analysis <ul><li>A recurrence plot is a  2-dimensional N x N pattern of points  where N is the ...
Basic structures <ul><li>Figure shows a combined analysis of American poems (AMP), Italian poems (ITP), American transcrip...
Conversation
Results: Natural conversation
Results: Clinical interview
Adult Attachment Interview, evolution sample AAI181
Speech and rhythmic behaviour
Categorical Recurrence Analysis  of Child Language Rick Dale and Michael J. Spivey, Department of Psychology, Cornell Univ...
Some conclusions on foundation semiotics <ul><li>We were be able to detect determinism in  mesoscopic  dynamics (embedding...
Modeling Attractions <ul><li>We are like wheels within wheels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro level: molecules and cells, </l...
Perspectives: coevolution
Reflective cascading in sync Pecora & Carroll
Network theory
6 degrees of separation
Fields & landscapes
MF: a global challenge of co-evolution
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Mind Force 2008

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Presentation at the Mind Force conference, Siena, Italy, 2008

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  • [Primeval man] could walk upright as men now do, backwards or forwards as he pleased, and he could also roll over and over at a great pace, turning on his four hands and four feet, eight in all, like tumblers going over and over with their legs in the air; this was when he wanted to run fast…Terrible was their might and strength, and the thoughts of their hearts were great, and they made an attack upon the gods... Doubt reigned in the celestial councils. Should they kill them and annihilate the race with thunderbolts, as they had done the giants, then there would be an end of the sacrifices and worship which men offered to them; but, on the other hand, the gods could not suffer their insolence to be unrestrained. At last, after a good deal of reflection, Zeus discovered a way. He said: &apos;Methinks I have a plan which will humble their pride and improve their manners; men shall continue to exist, but I will cut them in two and then they will be diminished in strength and increased in numbers; this will have the advantage of making them more profitable to us. They shall walk upright on two legs, and if they continue insolent and will not be quiet, I will split them again and they shall hop about on a single leg.&apos; — Aristophanes, Plato’s Symposium In his Elective Affinities, Goethe posed this problem in a new perspective: the dialectics between elective choice in human relations and the scientific and emotional constraint of affinities . Attractions, in his vantage point, act just as chemical-physical laws, bounding our freedom in the mesh of social and emotional relationships. One of the main characters in his novella , ( Die Wahlverwandtschaften , 1809:35) the Captain, summarizes in quasi mathematical terms this perspective: “Imagine an A closely bound to a B and by a variety of means and even by force not able to be separated from it; imagine a C in a similar relationship with a D; now bring the two pairs into contact…” and imagine a reaction. Goethe was also considering examining whether or not the science and laws of chemistry undermine or uphold the institute of marriage, as well as other established human relations: “None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free.” Goethe, as in his works on color theory, was very interested in a scientific approach to complex qualitative problems which would become scientifically treatable just recently. The atmosphere of the scientific and economical revolution was pushing forward and redressing in scientific language the problem of human attractions [F1] , though the term itself was based on the older notion of alchemical affinities as was used by those as Albertus Magnus (1250), Francis Bacon (1620), Robert Boyle (1661), Isaac Newton (1704) and Étienne François de Geoffroy (1718) and later expanded by Carl Gustav Jung and his school. In[F2]  the late 19th century, the German sociologist Max Weber (who, incidentally, had read the works of Goethe at the age of 14) used Goethe&apos;s conception of human elective affinities to formulate a large part of his sociology within this framework. In his metaphorical perspective bounds based on affinity became an “iron cage” in the misleading English translation by Talcott Parsons of the original Weber’s Stahlhartes Gehäuse metaphor in The Protestant Ethic And The Spirit Of Capitalism (). A more straightforward translation would have instead been just “shell as hard as steel”, in this way conveying the meaning of a protective niche, hard and flexible, modern and cool (Baher, 2001).   [F1]Underline: strong and weak definitions…links to Weber
  • CH 4 MIND FORCE [FO1]   Remarkably little has been written about consciousness in the theory of biological evolution. Richards (1987) captures the core of the problem in his summing up of an argument originally formulated by James (1879, 1890 [FO2]   ): “ Consciousness is a manifest trait of higher organisms, most perspicuously of man; like all such traits it must have evolved; yet it could have evolved only if it were naturally selected; but if naturally selected it must have a use; and if it have a use, then it cannot be causally inert. Mind, therefore must be more than an excretion of brain; it must be, at least in some respect an independently effective process that is able to control some central nervous activity” (Richards, 1987: 431). We might add that mind must have a power control over the effectiveness of man on reality. The idea that an immaterial entity can influence a material entity (reality and the body) is not compatible with an old notion of causality according toclaiming thatwhich every change in the natural world which is produced by contact of spatially extended bodies. This argument was raised by many of Descartes contemporaries. Their primitive antiquated conception of matter as something spatially extended and the relatedconnected notion of causality (as restricted to action by contact) was outpaced by subsequent developments in physics. It has however not however, entirely lost entirely its influence in scientific debate and common views. For example P. S. Churchland argues against the existence of “soul stuff” that is not “spatially extended” (1986: 318). Dennett discusses what he calls the standard objection which was all to familiar to Descartes (Dennett 1991: 33) reformulating it in modern terms. In his illustration of this modern criticism, the incoherent “Casper the Friendly Ghost” is both gliding through walls and grabbing falling towels. These contradictory events seem more of a problem for the adherents of mechanistic notions than to those who are familiar with modern physics. The analogy between mind and forces is not an entirely new concept. Previously,Already Gilbert (1544-1603) in De Magnete (1600) “had compared the interaction between magnetic force and a loadstone to that between soul and body” (Watkins, 1974: 410 [FO3]   ). Afterwards, Hobbes and Leibniz identified a component of mind which they called conatus, will or endeavor, with a physical force. We might also recall also the case of the so -called Aanimal Mmagnetism. The term&apos;s most common usage today, refers to a person&apos;s sexual attractiveness or raw charisma. YetBut Animal Magnetism [fen4] (French: magnétisme animal ) originally signified a magnetic fluid or ethereal medium residing in the bodies of animate beings, as postulated by Franz Mesmer. The term translates Mesmer&apos;s magnétisme animal . Mesmer chose the word &amp;quot;animal&amp;quot; to distinguish his supposed vital magnetic force from those referred to at that time as mineral magnetism, cosmic magnetism and planetary magnetism [fen5] . The existence of Mesmer&apos;s magnetic fluid was scientifically examined by a French Royal Commission set up by Louis XVI in 1784. Whilst the cCommission agreed that the cures claimed by Mesmer were indeed cures [fen6] , the commission also concluded there was no evidence of the existence of his magnetic fluid, and that its effects derived from either the imaginations of its subjects or through charlatanry. In those same years, Abbé Faria introduced oriental hypnosis to Paris [fen7] . He was the first to affect cause a breach in the theory of the &amp;quot;magnetic fluid,&amp;quot; to place in by placing relief in the importance of suggestion, and to demonstrating the existence of &amp;quot;autosuggestion.&amp;quot; The term Mesmerism , named after Mesmer himself and hypnosis (as the term is now understood) have nothing in common except their shared historical roots. , and furthermore, the experience of the mesmerized subject is significantly different from that of the hypnotized subject.
  • We have seen that in different ways some of the founders of modern psychology, such alike Sigmund Freud, William James and Carl Jung, were presenting issues in favour of Mind Force (MF). The history of this construct was progressing during the following years. During the late 40s, a social psychologist, Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) born in Germany, immigrated to the USA because of World War II. He established also the Research Center for Group Dynamics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology [fen8] . Lewin stated that: ‘One should view the present situation—the status quo —as being maintained by certain conditions or forces’ (Lewin, 1943a: 172). Lewin, who was well known for his terms &amp;quot;life space&amp;quot; and &amp;quot;field theory”, proposed to view the social environment as a dynamic field that affected human consciousness. In turn, the person&apos;s psychological state influences the social field or milieu. Lewin was well known for his terms &amp;quot;life space&amp;quot; and &amp;quot;field theory&amp;quot;. He wasIn addition to his expertise on theories, he was perhaps, even better known for the practical use of his theories in examiningstudying group dynamics, solving social problems related to prejudice, and group therapy (t-groups). Lewin aimedsought to describe group life, and to investigate the conditions and forces, which bring about change or resist change in groups. In his field theory, a ‘field’ is defined as ‘the totality of coexisting facts which are conceived of as mutually interdependent’ (Lewin 1951: 240). In the field or (or &apos;matrix&apos; ) approach, Lewin believed that in order forfor change to take place, the total situation musthas to be taken into account. If only part of the situation is considered, a misrepresentation of theed picture is likely to develop. The whole psychological field, or ‘lifespace’, within which people acted had to be viewed, in order to understand human behaviourbehavior. Within this, individuals and groups could be seen in topological terms (by utilizingusing map-like representations). Individuals participate in a series of life spaces, (such as the family, work, school and church),. and t These spaces were constructed under the influence of various force vectors (Lewin 1952). We might recall his approach as summarisesummarized in a motto: &amp;quot;Learning is more effective when it is an active rather than a passive process: if you want to truly understand something, try to change it.&amp;quot; (Lewin, 1952). In a a paper revisiting Lewin’s approach in the light of recent advancements in complexity theory and self-organisation, Bernard Burnes (2004: 309-325) concludes that “if the complexity approach is the way forward future for organizations, then they may have to return toneed to revisit Lewin’s work in order to implement it: [fen9] very much a case of ‘back to the future’. Harry S. Sullivan ( [fen10] ), like Lewin, was concerned to use about using theoretical constructs that had falsifiable reference in interpersonal behavior. While Sullivan may not have read Lewin, Wertheimer, Kohler, or Koffka, he almost certainly would have had welcomed their general approach, since he was proposing a psychological field theory similar to their physical field theory. He may have seriously intended only a loose heuristic function in casting interpersonal relations as occurring in a “field.” Nevertheless, he was intrigued by this notion. It seemed to him that the field provided an accurate and useful description of effects. Though he didin’t write much about fields and mind forceMind Force [fen11] during his brief lifespan, he left a wonderful sketch presented during one of his last lectures [fen12] (INSERT SKETCH about here from LaForge [FO13]  ). More recently, the philosopher Karl Popper has emphasiseemphasized in a more direct way, the similarities between mind and forces: “Minds are located, unextended, incorporeal, capable of acting on bodies, dependent on body and capable of being influenced by bodies. (…) Now, I say, things of this kind do exist, and we all know it. So, what are these things? These things are forces.” (Popper, 1993: 168). Popper seems to go further than a mere analogy, and he proposes, as a hypothesis “that the complicated electro-magnetic wave fields which, as we know, are part of the physiology of our brains, represent the unconscious part of our minds, and that the conscious mind – our conscious mental intensities, our conscious experiences – are capable of interacting with this unconscious physical force fields, especially when problems need to be solved. tThat need is what we call “attention” (Popper, 1993: 179). Here Popper sees to view views the unconscious as synonymous with the physical force fields. In the figure [FO14]  (::::::::::  ) there is an area of mind/brain overlap. Popper points out that conscious mind may “sink into physiology” and become unconscious: “a mergent process, a process where (unconscious) mind and brain are no longer distinguishable” (Popper 1993: 171). He recallsminds the example of learning a complex psychomotor skill (playing the pianowe have already seen the example of grasping a mug, but we might mention a lot of other similar activities like driving a car or playing golf [FO15]  a multitude of others: sport practice, computer usage, playing a musical instrument etc.). In the first stages of the learning process learning stages, we are very conscious and our attention is focused on each single step in the new skills to learn. This stage, sooner or later, disappears and we no longer think about each single step in playing or driving. The skills are now embodied, merged in our being. For exampleYet, iIf we play music, we are thinking to piece we are presenting, not to each single finger movement. [fen16] In the same way Similarly, when we drive we react and adapt to traffic events without thinking aboutto everyach single movement we do. This process is part of the constitution of the procedural memory ion which a good part of modern neuroscience has shed light on. There is no need to postulate a mind forceMind Force to explain procedural memory. Also the proposal of founding mind forceMind Force on electromagnetic interactions is unlikely for [FO17]  for physical reasons. But some of Popper remarks and his endorsement of the MF theory are certainly important. PLACE FIGURE HERE Benjamin Libet had also proposed the hypothetical existence of a “Cconscious Mmental Ffield” ( CMF; Libet 1993b, 1994). The CMF [fen18] would emerge as a function of neural activities in the brain and it would have the attribute of a conscious subjective experience. Libet also proposed suggested that it could act back on certain neural activities and would therefore affect the behavioral outcome, as in a willed action. It would account for the unity of a subjective experience, even though the latter emerges from the myriad of activities of billions of nerve cells and their synaptic and non-synaptic interplays. In Libet’s opinion “The CMF, like the subjective experiences constituted in it, would be accessible only to the individual having the experiences it could not be directly observed by any external physical device except indirectly, by any effects it introduces on behavioral outcomes (just as conscious will is evidenced).” (Libet 1996: 223). Now Libet 123… Libet added in ahis response to Lindahl &amp; Arhem (1996) Lindahl [fen19] that he liked “Popper’s idea of viewing the mind as a kind of force field”. Such a CMF force would have been different from all known physical forces, though Popper’s hypothesis does not appear to spell out any attributes of that conscious physical force field except in its ability to interact with another entity. The electromagnetic field representing the unconscious mental functions is “doubtful based on evidence available.”. Consciousness, following Libet’s experiments, can simply be a function of the duration of cerebral activations to achieve awareness. Libet is stressingstresses that, “Evidence suggests that conscious functions involve some special neural activities that are simply added to those involved in conscious functions” (1996: 224). Libet poses is proposing some important questions: first, how does the CMF arise out of mental activities; and second, exactly how does the CMF acts on the physical brain. NeverthelessAnyway, it seems that in bringing these issues to lightposing these questions, Libet is forgetting about the dynamical nature of the CMF and the self-organising nature of its power. He does revisit the issue ofis anyway, reminding, “wWhether electromagnetic fields are representative of unconscious mental functions could be tested in principle by experimentally distorting and/or disrupting or modifying such fields in the putative relation to unconscious functions”. Sperry ( [fen20] ) had already tried such experiment in quite a deterministic way by cutting the monkey cortex in slices. However, Sperry’s vertical cuts in the cortex may not have affected larger field currents as electrical pathways over and below the cuts were still present as a potential role for over-arching electric fields therefore remains possible. Lindahl &amp; Arhem (1996) state that “In the mental force field hypothesis only the unconscious part of mind is explicitly interpreted in field terms”. They correctly point out that Libet (1996) mistakenly assumed that the Popper force field hypothesis applied to the conscious mind. Popper left open the question of thethe nature of the conscious mind open. However, he did except to say that the mind in its general form emerges from the body, somehow, but is not reducible to it. What Libet misunderstood and it might be not clear enough in Lindahl &amp; Arhem response is that the unconscious in question should be properly named aconscious as it is referring not to something repressed and to be possibly recalled to consciousness, but something embedded in the psychomotor database via psycho-physiological storage. As a temporary conclusion, following Libet: “One should add that, if the Popper hypothesis for this kind of mediation by an electromagnetic field were to be found invalid, the possibility would still be open for a conscious mental force field to exert its influence directly on appropriate nerve cell functions.” Libet, more recently (2006), has summarisesummarized and defined his view on Mind ForceMind Force. He starts recognising that if there is a generally held assumption that mind and brain can interact this indicates, “Two phenomenological entities exist”. Unfortunately, he starts with the questionable assumption that mind, in his view, is just a subjective experience, accessible only by individual introspection. This point of view, on which Libet is still not alone, discards all the psychological and linguistic research studying psychomotor, perceptual and linguistic manifestations or derivatives of mind functioning. If there is a part of mind functioning which might be considered “private”, it is something which triggered the so - called “private language” paradox proposed by Ludwig Wittgenstein [FO21]  just to conclude that every form of language and thinking (even the so -called inner dialogue) relies on our shared forms of communication. Language is pre-existing to any individual though its communicative or private usage for thinking can be much “personalised”. Libet recalls the interest that Sir John Eccles derived from Sherrington [FO22]  for the interactions between brain and mind. When the physicist, Henry Margenau, provided a view of the mind as a field that could interact with the brain even with no energy expenditure (Margenau, 1984), this supported Eccles’ bias on the nature of mind–brain interaction. Libet notes, “It is especially noteworthy that Eccles’ models of mind–brain interaction were presented without any experimental evidence or experimental designs for testing. That was due at least partly to the untestability of the models. Curiously, an absence of experimental testability did not bother Eccles. When asked if his view that a field of ‘‘psychons’’ (his units of mental function; see Wiesendanger, 2006) could mediate the unity of subjective experience (Eccles, 1990) was untestable, Eccles replied that he knew of no way to test that hypothesis (personal communication). Nevertheless, he argued that the hypothesis had explanatory power, and, as such, he believed it had some usefulness and even validity. Eccles produced a stimulus further contribution to work in the direction of an MF definition [FO23]  , but his models remained untested, and, apparently, he was not bothered about it. Libet raises the testability issue also about the approach proposed by Hiromi Umezawa and his followers: as theyhe proposed a mental field model, which they termed a ‘‘Quantum Field Theory.’’ It was claimed by this group ofe authors that this theory is distinguishable from ‘‘quantum mechanics’’ (Umezawa, 1993). In Libet’s opinion, “Their model is mostly mathematical, however, and it is not clear how it can be tested.” (Libet, 2006: 323). Libet is raising a [FO24]  similar objection against the quantum mechanics approach as in the interpretation of quantum theory by Nils Bohr (1885–1962), mind and matter are two aspects of one undivided process. David Böhm (1917–1992) adopted this idea (see Böhm and Factor, 1985). However, this does not solve the problem of how the neuronal activity aspect relates to the subjective, non-physical aspect of mind. If subjective experience is a non-physical phenomenon, what is it? The merit of the Bohr-Böhm approach is recognising that there is a physical process behind and beyond mind and brain. Libet claims that his CMF theory is potentially testable as he described a design for conducting such tests. The proposed experimental test is simple in principle but difficult to carry out, a small slab of sensory cortex, which keeps the tiny cortex island alive by preserving the blood vessels providing blood flow from the arterial branches that dip vertically into the cortex. “The prediction is that electrical stimulation of the sensory slab will produce a subjective response reportable by the subject. That is, activity in the isolated slab can contribute by producing its own portion of the CMF.” (Libet, 2006: 324). He states, and we agree with him, that his CMF is an emergent and localizable system property. Libet is also referring to the functioning of the CMF as the delay in sensory awareness of 0.5 s [FO25]  after the initial response of the cortex as well as the other very interesting phenomenon related to readiness for action, which is preceding actual actions by about 300 ms. [FO26]  So, both perceptual and motor activities have significant delays with consciousness. This points to the autonomy of aconscious MF from consciousness processes. This landmark, (though still partially controversial ) findings by Libet, re-design entirely the role of conscious and unconscious processes. The term unconscious here can be mistakenly confused with the traditional (repressed) unconscious. In this case, we are dealing with events without any conscious representation. Indeed, most mental events are unconscious, or we might better say, aconscious (see Velmans, 1991). The chief difference between conscious, unconscious and aconscious events could be the duration of the processes giving rise to them. If the duration is too brief, the event remains aconscious; it only reaches the mere possibility to reach [FO27]  awareness (possibly remaining in the unconscious) or it becomes part of our conscious processes (and ithe might be repressed or forgotten or not). Libet concludes his review mentioning in vivo and brain imaging research supporting his findings. Anyway, he states “If an experimental test of the CMF was to be carried out, like that described above, it might confirm or contradict the kind of alternatives possible for a mind–brain interaction” (Libet, 2006: 326). INSRT SCHEME ON CS UCS AND ACS Walter J Freeman, after his landmarks contributions on mass action in the nervous system, chaos dynamics in perception and even social dynamics, has more recently come to propose a Mind ForceMind Force approach (Freeman, 2007). He first defines the framework of this approach: “Consciousness fully supervenes when the 1.5 kgm [FO28]  mass of protoplasm in the head directs the body into material and social environments and engages in reciprocity. While consciousness is not susceptible to direct measurement, a limited form exercised in animals and pre-lingual children can be measured indirectly with biological assays of arousal, intention and attention.” It is a remarkably non-deterministic and interactionistic approach [FO29]  . After ae general description of the multiple levels of interactions involved, from the molecular to the social levels, including their intermingling, hHe states, “Every reflex and intentional act and thought is based on the exchanges of matter and energy through neural activity at every scale.” (Freeman, 2007: 1022). There is a need for a universal language to comprehend all the incredible mesh of interactions involved. We are not yet sure if these mathematical tools are already developed, but we are going towill discuss this matter further further on in thise book.ok [fen30] . Despite there beingThough there is no real universal definition of what consciousness is and, no physiological or cognitive index of consciousness, and many discussions on consciousness still tend to confuseound it with self-consciousness. In any case, Freeman states that he wants to consider the perceptual and behavioral derivates of consciousness that we might find even in infants and animals, “I leave the hard problem (Chalmers, 1996) to philosophers.” He wants to stress that the stream of consciousness is cinematographic, as we have seen in chapter (?) rather than continuous. Consciousness role in human behavior is judgmental rather than enactive, so that its prime role is not to make decisions but to delay and defer action and thereby minimize premature commitment of limited resources. Just as we use to say in the adage, “stop and think before acting”. Following this path, Freeman comes to a clear statement: “consciousness is not merely ‘like’ a force; it is a field of force that can be understood in the same ways that we understand all other fields of force (and energy) within which we, through our bodies, are immersed, and which we, through our bodies, comprehend in accordance with the known laws of physics.” (Freeman, 2007: 1022 [FO31]  ). The models that Freeman has implemented are schematised in two ways: one is the so called Katchalsky model (or K-sets) (Freeman, 1975; Kozma et al., 2003); the other one is the quantum field model he more recently developed in a collaboration with Giuseppe Vitiello [FO32]  (). We are going to will discuss both models in more technical terms, in the appendix atin the end of this book. What is important in the general framework of Freeman’s approach is its constant effort to avoid determinism, though . His description of the action perception cycle is acute and very original. The activity in the action–perception cycle of Piaget (1930) and Merleau-Ponty (1942) begins with a macroscopic state in the brain that embodies a goal. It emerges in the brain by extrapolation from recent and current input that isalready embedded in the context of athe knowledge base. This predictive state implicitly contains nested mesoscopic activity patterns, which are constructed in corticostriatal and corticocerebellar modules (Houk, 2005), and which mediate the control of the body movements. Going through different levels of complex patterns “the descending action patterns include controls of the postural, autonomic and neuroendocrine back-ups for the expected action (commonly identified with expressions of emotions).” (Freeman, 2007: 1025). The expectations in sensory cortices are described as landscapes of chaotric attractors in the brain state space. The dynamic memory embodied in nerve cell assemblies is manifested in spatial pattern of amplitude modulation, msostly in the gamma band range. An interesting property of the system is that these dynamical landscapes lack invariance, as they change wether the same stimulus is reinforced or not, or the context is different or the sequence of stumula is different. PLACE FG WITH BASIN HATS ABOUT HERE “ The attractor governs the neural interactions that generate an oscillatory field of neural activity called a wave packet” (Freeman, 1975). Fields are not fixed representations of the stimuli, and stimuli are not grounded in any fixed way. Each action-perception frame is separated from the others by phase transitions. Freeman cites Wolfgang Köhler who was (1940: 55) quite explicit about this: “Our present knowledge of human perception leaves no doubt as to the general form of any theory which is to do justice to such knowledge: a theory of perception must be a field theory. By this we mean that the neural functions and processes with which the perceptual facts are associated in each case are located in a continuous medium”. Regrettably, Köhler identified his perceptual field with the epiphenomenal electric field of the EEG, of which the Coulomb forces are much too weak to synchronize the observed oscillations in wave packets (Freeman &amp; Baird, 1989). Sperry (1958) and Pribram (1971) easily disproved this subsidiary hypothesis, with the unfortunate outcome that mainstream neuroscientists largely abandoned field hypotheses. Complexity theory has provided the empirical and mathematical tools to prove that the brain patterns correlated to the cine-like frames in the action-perception cycle are like bubbles in a pan of boiling water at the critical temperature. They can be seen also as the avalanches ofn a sand pile, as in the model of self-organiseorganized criticality proposed by Per Bak (). From this neurodynamical point of view, the personal identity is “embodied in the entirety of the brain-body dynamics”, this is the reason why we have been speaking about a biophysical comprehensive identity. This kind of approach has been suggested also in the form of “embodiment [FO33]  ” (Varela, ), proto-self (Damasio, 1999) or global workspace (Baars, 1999 [FO34]  ). Following the history of the Mind Force construct we might see how it come comes gradually to take the shape of a new theory, a theory that is approaching a stage in which it could be formalised. We might summarise some of the necessary requisites of this theory. In order to recognise the existence and operability of MF and its related phenomena we need to accept and stabilise a definitive transcending of the notorious Cartesian dichotomy. The current discussion on Descartes’ error is often missing two important points: the heuristic value that his position has had for centuries in the advancement of science; and a full recognition of all the implications that discarding his approach will have on our new scientific approaches. Not to mention that many crypto and non crypto-Cartesians are still at work.  [FO1] Freud Jung James   [FO2]See Lewin   [FO3]See Lindahl)   [fen4]Explain Animal Magnetism please…   [fen5]Maybe a short sentence or two to describe the differences between these tree terms just mentioned.   [fen6]Let’s say remedies here or that they’re therapeutic for the sake of not sounding repetitive.   [fen7]When did he introduce it? Is it significant for the reader to know?   [fen8]When did he establish it?   [fen9]Let’s talk about this phrase.   [fen10]Don’t forget to cite   [fen11]Are we capitalizing Mind Force throughout the text correct? I’ve gone ahead and made the changes throughout the text.   [fen12]Maybe the year of the lecture? Or if it’s not relevant, let’s leave it out   [FO13]INSERT FIELD AND PSYCHOANALYSIS (CFR NERI)   [FO14]Don-t forget citation   [FO15]You may plan to add an example here or change the sentence   [fen16]Please rework these sentences   [FO17]explain   [fen18]why do you capitalize it here but not when you spell it out?   [fen19]Have we made reference to this author before in the text? First reference needs his first name please   [fen20]Don’t forget to cite   [FO21]Please produce year if you   [FO22]Please add first name for first reference   [FO23]Remind readers with a short phrase what MF is.   [FO24]see Freeman   [FO25]this would read better if you please write it out   [FO26]spell out   [FO27]please find another word to say this for sake of not sounding repetitive.   [FO28]Please spell out   [FO29]here Freeman has good material for the introduction   [fen30]later on in the book correct?   [FO31]independently we arrived at the same conclusion, similarities and differences   [FO32]cite here   [FO33]see also synaptic self and biochemical self   [FO34]my points…the story of my research…see if you want to include here the Zanette model or leave it for the appendix?
  • CH 8 HUMAN ATTRACTIONS The presence of strange and specific patterns of human attractions which might be due to what we [FO1]   came to call Mind Force came to our attention for empirical and theoretical reasons. From the empirical point of view there is a paper we published in 1996 (Orsucci 1996) where I reported clinical description of a healing process in a severe immunological disease which was apparently mediated a by a deep change in a marital relationship. The patient, during this process, changed his patterns on thinking (including sleep and dreaming) following his spouse deep psychological sharing of his physical suffering and cognitive disorder in what we might call a successful therapeutic symbiosis. There was a merger of minds and a following partial decoupling which left the patient with an almost complete healing of his life threatening disease and his wife with some minor ‘collateral damage’ (low back pain and a transient depression) from the shared process of change. A detailed account of this clinical case can be found in the original paper mentioned in bibliography. Almost in the same period I was treating in a psychoanalytical psychotherapy setting a psychotic male patient which was in serious phase of merger-and-change: a not so easy experience I had to metabolize. During a phase preliminary to a separation we had several synchronized experiences. For example, I dreamt of having a quite long beard (which I hadn’t) and on the same day the patient came to the psychotherapeutic session having shaven his long beard (something he hadn’t mentioned before). This was the most “ exotic” episode but there were many others like this which represented hints of something deep and strange happening in the therapeutic relationship. These experiences and others were directing my research to the dynamic role that might have in a standard relationship, and in psychotherapy, which is a specialized form of relationship, to the immense bulk of communication stream involved, most of it made of body information. A stream exceeding by far the explicit verbal content we are used to study in standard psychotherapeutic and psychiatric training. Sigmund Freud was acquainted with this problem when he used to stress that every verbal act has an over-determined meaning, made of intermingled layers of experience, thinking and culture; some private, some shared. Unfortunately he and many of his followers decided to simplify and give a deterministic version of his technical instructions. At the same time, as we will see, other psychoanalysts were trying to describe, in some sort of philosophical and conceptual terms the relational force fields and its evolutions. We might follow some embryonic thoughts on Mind Force present within the psychoanalytical movement. Freud has had a long correspondence with his friend, Wilhelm Fliess, which is considered to be an incubation of the construction of psychoanalysis and many works he published later (Freud 1896). Included in this correspondence there is a rather long manuscript now called “G Draft, Melancholy”. In the manuscript we can find a scheme which is strangely similar to a phase space, in physical terms, and it represents the trajectory of a vector describing and interpersonal, sexual, relation. The elements of the model are allocated in a space divided by the intersection of two boundaries (the Ego border, and the psychosomatic border): 1) an object, in the external world; 2) an object in a favorable position, outside the Ego, within the body; 3) an end-organ, a somatic source, and a spinal center, in the body-Ego; and 4) a psychic sexual group, in the psychic Ego. These elements are the main stations in a circuit performed by a vector: sexuality, with its drive, goal, source and eventual obstacle, or repression. It is amazing how this dynamical and complex model has been neglected in the history of psychoanalysis and psychosomatics. This model is clearly dynamic, while other famous Freudian models are more deterministic and static. It is probable that this model has influenced by the psychophysics school, as Freud had been trained in the school of Weber and Fechner (Orsucci 199). SEE FIGURE Melanie Klein, one of the main psychoanalysts of the 40s, had a strong intuition of the way MF might forge interpersonal dynamics. Her main contribution to the psychoanalytic theories should be considered the concept of projective identification , which she considered a psychological way a person might use to expel unpleasant fantasies and emotions and push them within a partner. This concept was also a mix of two classical Freudian concepts: 1) identification, a way to fin a similar trait in another and by this way to assimilate the reciprocal identities and 2) projection, a way to push in fantasy and language, parts of own identity to the outside reality and partners. She considered this way (which in modern terms we might consider as a distortion of the mirror function) as an aggressive way to express “an omnipotent fantasy to control the other from the inside” (Cit). Klein’s proposals never received a scientific testing though she was the leader of one of the key post-Freudian schools. She was also criticized because she reached the maybe paradoxical conclusion that the projective identification was just a pathological way to stay in a relationship and the correct clinical strategy was to “tame” and reduce it. INSERT KLEIN FIG HERE Wilfred Bion, one of her most important followers, reached a more balanced position by recognizing that the projective identification can be also realistic : a way to test emotional reactions in partners and a primitive form of empathy. He gave us inspiring clinical descriptions, introspections and speculations (cit) in which he presented his acute perception of the immense heterogeneity of components in mind/body processes. Donald W. Winnicott, another contemporary master in psychoanalysis, was the discoverer of transitional objects, later popularized in the “Linus blanket [FO2]   ”. He recognized in transitional objects and phenomena the satellites of the main love relations and a way for a personal development from attachment to social involvement. INSERT WINNICOTT FIG HERE More recently the psychoanalytic context has provided a very interesting contribution proposed by Madeleine and Willy Baranger: the bi-personal field theory . They evolved the Kleinian construct including contributions from Gestalt psychology and Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1964) phenomenological psychology. They describe their approach stressing that the analyst and the patient share the same dynamical process; they are immersed in the same field which might be considered as a third element in the psychoanalytic process. They propose that within the field operates an unconscious bi-personal fantasy produced by the crossover of reciprocal projective identifications. The bi-personal fantasy, in their opinion, is the core of the psychoanalytical process which develops via the activation of the dynamical field which would mobilize blocked activities of projections and introjections, as a cause of mental suffering. This contribution has some pros and cons. It brings a remarkably non deterministic approach in considering subject and object as embedded in a dynamical field and producing a third element (though it is somewhat unclear if this third is the field itself and/or the bi-personal fantasy). The result, in any case, is an important step towards recognition of MF force lines whose derivatives might be very heterogeneous: non verbal, extra verbal, ultra verbal (Corrao; Neri). On this same line Thomas Ogden (1997, 1999) defines an intersubjective third as a third identity generated by a deep relationship between the members of the analytical partnership. A further crucial step along this line is proposed by Daniel Stern when he focuses on the present moment and its role for the subject and relationship: ‘the sharing creates a new intersubjective field between the participants that alters their relationship and permits them to take different directions together. The moment enters a special form of consciousness and is encoded in memory. And, importantly, it rewrites the past. Changes in psychotherapy (or any relationship) occur by way of these nonlinear leaps in the way-of-being-with-another.’ (Stern 2004: 22). It is evident in Stern’s contribution an interesting synthesis from recent advancements in neuroscience (procedural memory and mindfulness), and resonances from nonlinear dynamics and phenomenology. He explicitly cites Husserl, William James, Merleau-Ponty, Kandel and Varela. The result is what he calls intersubjective matrix , ‘a mutual interpenetration of minds that permits us to say, “I know that you know that I know”. It is a step from a one person psychology to a bi-personal or even a multi-personal psychology [FO3]   . Stern stresses that intersubjectivity should be considered as a ‘basic, primary motivational system’ (2004: 97). He also adds that while attachment theory is based on two poles of motivation, security/proximity and distance/curiosity (physical closeness and group bonding for survival) intersubjectivity adds the dimension of intimacy and emotional sharing. Stern is finally stressing on the importance of implicit knowledge in intersubjective dynamics. ‘Implicit knowledge is non-symbolic, nonverbal, procedural, and unconscious in the sense of not being reflectively conscious. Explicit knowledge is symbolic, verbalizable, capable of being narrated, and reflectively conscious’ (2004: 113). The importance of implicit knowing poses a major challenge for traditional psychoanalysis and the whole area of psychotherapies mostly based on verbal language in its narrative dimension. Implicit knowledge is at most a-conscious, non verbalizable and embodied [FO4]   . SEE Kandel fig Following Bowlby [FO5]   ’s observations (Bowlby, 1978 &amp; 1982) on attachment behavior , psychosomaticists mainly studied the mother-infant bond: a strong coupling organization regulated mainly by its “inner” emotional signals. The strength of this coupling make it so protected and differentiated from influences coming from the environment, to make it an ideal sample for the study of psychobiological couplings. In a series of studies on rodents and primates, Myron Hofer and other developmental biologists demonstrated many hidden regulatory mechanisms (Hofer, 1984; Hofer, 1994). These hidden multiple and pre- and intra-emotional factors act on different sensorial channels: nutritional, olfactory, tactile, thermal, visual and vestibular. For example, the importance of bodily contact and tactile stimulation was demonstrated by the finding that a decrease in the levels of growth hormone, GH, in separated rat pups can be prevented by stroking their skins with a brush. Also, a 30% reduction of heart rate following separation could be prevented by providing the pups with a feeding. Other, the body temperature of infant rats, which is determined largely by the body temperature of the mother, has been shown to regulate levels of brain peptides, nucleic acids and neuro-amines. All of them are reduced, if the young rats are prematurely separated from their mother. The olfactory stimuli are also involved in the regulation of crucial aspects: for example infant rats are unable to locate the nipple in absence of a pheromone secreted from the mother’s areolar glands, whose secretion is stimulated by the suckling (interesting learning recurrence). There is evidence of a multiplicity of regulatory mechanisms. Most of them remain hidden from a passive third observer, outside of the “nursing-couple”, and can only be discovered in experimental contexts. Also in humans these kinds of regulatory mechanisms are operated on different levels than overt emotional expression and language. They are supposed to continue in adult life, but their functioning becomes intermingled with other emotional, cognitive and social factors. They, anyway, play a basic role in growth and health. More recently, Jan Winberg (2005) reviewed 30 years of work demonstrating that interactions between mother and newborn infant in the period just after birth influence the physiology and behavior of both. Close body contact of the infant with his/her mother helps regulate the newborn’s temperature, energy conservation, acid–base balance, adjustment of respiration, crying, and nursing behaviors . Similarly, the baby may regulate—i.e., increase—the mother’s attention to his/her needs, the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding, and the efficiency of her energy economy through vagus activation and a surge of gastrointestinal tract hormone release resulting in better exploitation of ingested calories. The effects of some of these changes can be detected months later. Researchers from Emory University, Atlanta, with colleagues in Boston and Tallahassee, Fla., found that boosting the expression of one gene switched meadow voles, a type of rodent, from a promiscuous to a monogamous lifestyle.[1] &amp;quot;For a new behavior to evolve, you might think a lot of different genes would have to evolve in concert, but I don&apos;t think it works that way,&amp;quot; says Larry J. Young, associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Emory. He says it&apos;s possible that this gene, which encodes the vasopressin V1a receptor, lies in a pathway homologous to one underlying human love. Andreas Bartels, a research scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany, says he&apos;s nearly certain that Young&apos;s suggestion is correct, because his study &amp;quot;fits like a glove&amp;quot; with Bartels&apos; neuroimaging findings with humans. Bartels and Semir Zeki of University College London ran functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of couples who professed to be deeply in love, as they viewed photographs of their beloveds.[2] The researchers found significant activations in brain networks rich in receptors for the hormones vasopressin and oxytocin. These are the hormones identified as crucial for pair bonding in a series of animal studies,[3] including Young&apos;s work with voles, Bartels adds, suggesting the pathways are homologous. &amp;quot;For me this is an absolutely clear-cut story.&amp;quot; One part of the tale to be clarified, though, is the difference in roles between vasopressin and oxytocin. Researchers have found that the hormones have largely similar effects in facilitating pair bonding, although each has different additional functions. Some have suggested vasopressin is more important in male pair bonding, and oxytocin in female pair bonding, but this remains obscure, writes Zuoxin Wang of Florida State University.[4] An observation that may lead to greater clarity, says Bartels, is that brain regions rich in oxytocin and vasopressin receptors overlap strongly with those rich in dopamine, the The Scientist : Love is Like an Addiction http://www.the-scientist.com/2005/02/14/20/1/ 4 of 8 22/01/2006 16:11 neurotransmitter classically associated with the brain&apos;s reward system. Young and colleagues propose that long-term partner preference occurs when the vasopressin circuits, which are also known to mediate individual recognition, somehow connect with the dopamine pathway, causing an animal to associate a specific individual with a sense of reward. In key dopamine-rich brain regions, vasopressin V1a is expressed more highly in monogamous than in promiscuous mammals. Its upregulation might be the evolutionary event or events that caused the pathways to connect, they suggest.[1] Again, Bartels concurs: &amp;quot;I think it&apos;s emerging that the mechanism of attachment preference uses the dopamine pathway to make attachment a rewarding experience.&amp;quot; FIGURE LOVE LOST IN THE BRAIN:The images show brain regions that are deactivated when subjects viewed pictures of their friends compared to when they viewed pictures of loved partners. Deactivations are right lateralized within the prefrontal cortex, the middle temporal gyrus and the parietal cortex as is apparent in (A), the projections onto cortical surfaces and in (B), the glassbrain projections. In (C), the sagittal section (X = 4 mm) shows deactivations in the posterior cingulate gyrus (pc) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mp). In (D), the coronal section (y = -8 mm) shows deactivation in the left amygdaloid region. (From A. Bartels, S. Zeki, Neuroreport , 11:3829–34, 2004.) Attachment is one of three neural systems Fisher distinguishes in connection with reproduction.[7] The other two are romantic love, characterized by increased energy and focused attention on a preferred partner, and lust. Each can operate independently, she says, and is associated with a different neurochemistry: attachment with vasopressin and oxytocin, love with dopamine and norepinephrine, and lust with testosterone. &amp;quot;In prairie voles they have been studying attachment,&amp;quot; she says, because the research focused on the creatures&apos; lifelong bonds. &amp;quot;We have been studying love.&amp;quot; Like Bartels, Fisher has conducted neuroimaging studies of lovers as they view photographs of their beloveds.[7] Her results highlighted brain areas associated with dopamine and norepinephrine, in patterns similar, though not identical, to those Bartels found. Both say the differences might have arisen because Fisher&apos;s studies required that participants had just fallen in love, whereas Bartel&apos;s studies didn&apos;t impose this requirement. Thus Bartels could have picked up more signs of what Fisher calls attachment [FO6]   . In a very interesting continuity Walter J Freeman (2001) focuses on the complex biological and cognitive techniques for inducing change in attachment patterns, a process which he calls as dissolution . Individuals separate themselves or are isolated from their normal social surroundings and support systems. They engage in or are subjected to severe physical exercise as in dancing, sports, and military drills, lack of sleep, chemical stresses of their brains through purgatives and fasting, and the induction of powerful emotional states of love, hate, fear or anger. At some threshold the customary structure of the individual begin to crumble, and a collapse may occur that was described by Ivan Pavlov as &apos;transmarginal inhibition&apos;, the stage of physiological arousal beyond which further excitation leads to paradoxical depression. The experience may range from ecstatic visions of angels and blinding illumination through degrees of elation or discomfort to the stark terror of psychic free fall (Sargant 1957). There is regression to successively earlier levels of assimilation as the structure of intentionality dissolves, particularly with resurfacing of old patterns of relations to parental care. There is a loss of normal constraints on behavior, and, in extreme instances, of language, locomotion, posture and even consciousness as the individual collapses. Recovery from collapse is followed by a state of extreme suggestibility, in which the skills of language and the competencies of daily living are regained, yet new values and habits can be established. This is done in a social setting of succor and loving care by attendants who induce by example and exhortation the cooperative behaviors that lead to shared beliefs and, above all, to blind trust in the new companions and the social organization they embody and provide. This is a two-way process, because the caregivers get strong feelings of satisfaction from their supportive actions, and the recipients have strong sensitivity to peer pressures experienced as feelings of need for approval. The process is frequently referred to as being reborn (Verger 1954). In the absence of support there is re-establishment of the status quo ante, meaning that the opportunity for change can be lost, attesting to the high degree of dynamic stability that characterizes intentional structures in normal circumstances. The most likely candidate for a leading role in dissolution is a chemical neuromodulator named oxytocin (Pedersen et al. 1992). This neuropeptide has been known for many years as the agent in the female body that induces labor in parturition and subsequently lactation in nourishment of the young. More recently oxytocin has been found to be released by the brain into itself during sexual intercourse, particularly during orgasm in both men and women, and to be implicated in pair bonding not only of the parents to the child but also of parents to each other. The neurochemical actions of oxytocin in the brain are widespread, extremely complex, and difficult to study, so that much remains to be explored, but present knowledge shows that this neuropeptide is capable of inducing the meltdown of past learning that enables new learning. A simple example is the release of oxytocin flooding the brain of the multiparous ewe during delivery of her second and later litters, following which the dam refuses to nurse her earlier litters, having expunged the olfactory imprint required for maternal recognition of them as her offspring (Kendrick et al. 1992). This primitive but well documented instance of dissolution serves also to explain its biological utility. Oxytocin is not likely to act alone, rather in concert with other neuropeptides, the neuroamines, and an array of amino acids from the brain stem nuclei and periaqueductal gray matter, all known to mediate states of emotion and levels of affect and disposition (Panksepp 1998; Pert 1997). However, existing data and theory are alike inadequate to the task of modeling neurochemical systems of this complexity. I postulate that affiliation (Carter et al. 1997) is realized through new learning by cooperative behaviors driven by brains that have been prepared by the neurochemical changes precipitating dissolution, a chaotic state transition that leads to regression and clears the way to formation of new brain circuits. Cooperative action is the bedrock of social bonding for the same reason that brains work by creating and testing hypotheses as their means for information processing. The reason is that each individual in a social group is infinitely complex and can never be known completely by any other individual. The limitation is ever more severe as the size of groups grows larger than the nuclear family. Inadequacy of knowledge is compensated by the development of blind trust, which transcends language and provides unquestioning life-long bonds and allegiances. The social technology of bonding is well known, having been explored by anthropologists in studies of tribal rites of passage, ordeals, and ceremonies (Verger 1954), invariably accompanied by use of music, drumming, dance, and other forms of predictable repetitive actions, and by symbols such as flags, icons, totems, and, in modern times, corporate logos, military insignias, and the colored armbands of teenage gangs. I suggest further that the examples from the conversions cited above may be extremes, and that dissolution may be occurring episodically throughout infancy and childhood, and perhaps in minimal degree every night during sleep and dreaming. In their recent review (2005) on a neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding, Richard Depue and Jeannine Morrone-Strupinsky, propose a differentiation of three different systems regulating affiliative behaviors , social bonding and romantic love. The first is a dopamine system, regulating appetitive processes and incentive rewards; the second is an opiate system, regulating consummatory processes and reward; and the third is a system involving gonadal steroids, oxitocin and vasopressin.   [FO1] Use a more formal register   [FO2] expand   [FO3] Hofer ‘The work of Hofer provided a sort of neurobiological complimentary research on the intersubjective matrix. A two rat-biopsychology which seems strongly model similar deep relations in humans (infant-mother, lovers etc.).   [FO4] Kandel scheme   [FO5] You need to write about Bowlby   [FO6] See also Insel 1996
  • Change plots Add discourse
  • For example: the English word ‘disagreement’ can be decomposed into three morphemes, viz. the prefix ‘dis’, the base morpheme ‘agree’, and the suffix ‘ment’.
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  • In a letter from Christiaan Huygens to his father Constantyn, dating back to 1665, he wrote about his first discovery of synchronization: “ While I was forced to stay in bed for a few days and made observations on my two clocks of the new workshop, I noticed a wonderful effect that nobody could have thought before. The two clocks, while hanging [on the wall] side by side with a distance of one or two feet between kept in paces relative to each other with a precision so high that the two pendulums always swung together, and never varied. While I admired it for some time, I finally found that this happened due to a sort of sympathy : when I made the pendulums swing at different paces, I found that half an hour later they always returned to synchronism and kept it constantly afterwards, as long as I let them go. Then I put them further away from one another hanging one on one side of the room and the other one fifteen feet away. I saw that after one day, there was a difference of five seconds between them, and consequently their earlier agreement was only due to some sympathy that, in my opinion, cannot be caused by anything other than the imperceptible stirring of the air due to the motion of the pendulums. […] and the vibrations of the pendulums when they have reached synchronism are not such that one pendulum is parallel to the other, but on the contrary, they approach and recede by opposite motion.” Steve Strogatz, in his brilliant book on synchronization, noted: “At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat: the sound of cycles in sync. It pervades nature at every scale, from the nucleus to the cosmos” (Strogatz, 2003 912 /id). Even our bodies are participating at every scale to these rhythmic symphonies. Oliver Sacks in his recent book on musicophilia reminded how our nervous system is exquisitely tuned for music. But how much of this is due to the intrinsic physical characteristics of music itself and its complex sonic patterns woven in time? Its logic, momentum, sequences, rhythms, repetitions and the mysterious way in which it embodies emotion, all play an important role. Just how much depends on special resonances, synchronizations, oscillations, mutual excitations, and/or feedback in the immensely complex, multi-level, neural circuitry that underlies musical perception and replay, it is an intriguing matter for research (Sacks, 2007 29 /id). E. T. Hall (1983) has been important in noticing that humans in all cultures are engaged in a rhythmic dance. He documented the variety of rhythms by studying films of people interacting in a wide range of different situations, from laboratory to everyday life (Hall, 1983 993 /id). The role of music in the social technology of bonding is well known, having been explored by anthropologists in studies of tribal rites of passage, ordeals, and ceremonies, invariably accompanied by use of music, drumming, dance, and other forms of predictable repetitive actions. Robert Jourdain (1997) explored the various possibilities in which music exploits our brain and body rhythms. He highlighted two different notions of rhythm: meter consists of a regular pattern of beats; while phrasing consists of organic and seemingly irregular, but structured organizations of musical shapes. These different kinds of rhythm are usually superimposed but there may be prevalence to it (Jourdain, 1997 992 /id).
  • For example: the English word ‘disagreement’ can be decomposed into three morphemes, viz. the prefix ‘dis’, the base morpheme ‘agree’, and the suffix ‘ment’.
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  • Mind Force 2008

    1. 1. Mind Force Human Attractions Franco Orsucci
    2. 2. Complexity vs Ockam
    3. 3. Complexity vs Ockam 2
    4. 4. Phylosophy and the arts <ul><li>Plato, Symposium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Androginus mith, narrated by Aristophanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of Eros: mediating and facilitating attractions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Johann W. von Goethe, The Elective Affinities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Every time he observed again that those experiments [on human attractions] not always succeeded but it wasn’t a good reason to give up, that research instead had to be pursued with a serious methodology, revealing relations and affinities of inorganic matters, and those between organic and inorganic, or inside organic itself, which now were hidden.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Imagine an A closely bound to a B and by a variety of means and even by force not able to be separated from it; imagine a C in a similar relationship with a D; now bring the two pairs into contact…” </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. MF modern story 1 <ul><li>Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>Every time we think we change our brain, W. James </li></ul><ul><li>Mesmer and Animal Magnetism </li></ul><ul><li>Freud </li></ul>
    6. 6. MF story 2 <ul><li>Kurt Lewin, Lewin, who was well known for his terms &quot;life space&quot; and &quot;field theory”, proposed to view the social environment as a dynamic field that affected human consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>HS Sullivan </li></ul><ul><li>Wertheimer, Kohler, & Koffka </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Popper </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Libet, CMF </li></ul><ul><li>Sir John Eccles, psychons </li></ul><ul><li>Bohm & Bohr </li></ul><ul><li>WJ Freeman </li></ul>
    7. 7. Bipersonal field
    8. 8. MF story 3 <ul><li>“ Minds are located, unextended, incorporeal, capable of acting on bodies, dependent on body and capable of being influenced by bodies. (…) Now, I say, things of this kind do exist, and we all know it. So, what are these things? These things are forces.” (Popper, 1993: 168). </li></ul>
    9. 9. Psychoanalysis <ul><li>G draft </li></ul>
    10. 10. Object relations & attachment
    11. 12. Freeman <ul><li>“ consciousness is not merely ‘like’ a force; it is a field of force that can be understood in the same ways that we understand all other fields of force (and energy) within which we, through our bodies, are immersed, and which we, through our bodies, comprehend in accordance with the known laws of physics.” (Freeman, 2007). </li></ul>
    12. 13. History of Synchrony <ul><li>Androsthenes, scribe of Alexander the Great, gave a first written description during the fourth century b.C. while on the march to India observed the leaves of tamarind trees always opened during the day and closed at night. </li></ul><ul><li>February 1665 the great Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens, inventor of the pendulum clock, was confined to his room by a minor illness… </li></ul>
    13. 14. Sync: a powerful paradigm <ul><li>The theory of coupled oscillators (dynamic attractors) . Coupled oscillators can be found throughout the natural world, but they are especially conspicuous in living things: pacemaker cells in the heart; but also sync of rhythms between breathing and hearth frequency; hormones at many different levels; genes; and neural networks in the brain and spinal cord that control such rhythmic behaviors as breathing, running and chewing. Indeed, not all the oscillators need be confined to the same organism: consider crickets that chirp in unison and congregations of synchronously flashing fireflies </li></ul><ul><li>Synchrony harmonizes complex interacting variables . Sync comprehends a vast body of knowledge created by scientists working across disciplines, continents and centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Sync Theory synthesize complex data in the same and different domains: self-organized order in time and space . </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamical Systems Theory includes sync as it allows finding order where seeing just disorder and noise because of the amount of complexity we couldn’t deal with. </li></ul><ul><li>Sync is a powerful paradigm for psychotherapies because it studies how different systems continuously interact during a certain amount of time. </li></ul>
    14. 15. Biological Evidence <ul><li>Fireflies have a cluster of neurons in their brains which allow sync. </li></ul><ul><li>Menstrual periods: a silent conversation mediated by pheromones. </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Brain waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormons </li></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul>
    15. 16. Examples of Biological Evidence <ul><li>Fireflies have a cluster of neurons in their brains which allow sync. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormons within and between. </li></ul><ul><li>Menstrual periods in confined groups: a silent conversation mediated by pheromones. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain waves, the so-called binding issue. </li></ul>
    16. 17. Hidden regulators
    17. 18. Couplings <ul><li>We used RQA and KRQA (Cross Recurrence) also to measure the coupling and synchronization during the conversation (linguistic interaction) of different subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>We measured a series of text samples derived from transcriptions of a natural, spontaneous, conversation (NAT) and a clinical conversation (CLIN) held in an organized and stable setting. While the first one was supposed to evolve following its inner co-evolutionary dynamics; the second one is supposed to be finalized towards controlled and partially pre-defined dynamics by one of the agents (therapist). In both cases RQA presents a reliable way to show and measure the evolution of synchronization. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample 1. A dialogue between two friends: they are talking about “the meaning of life”. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample 2. A dialogue between a patient and a psychotherapist. </li></ul><ul><li>Both represent a semiotic interaction each dot in the plot being a turn in conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Measures were already realiable at embedding 3! </li></ul>
    18. 19. Inter vs Intra Synchronization <ul><li>Inter -Subject synchronization is what makes possible a dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>Intra -Subject synchronization is what makes possible perception and thinking, in minds and brains. </li></ul>
    19. 20. Linguistic Evidence <ul><li>Conversation synchrony: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information, discourse, turn taking, movement. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Discourse
    21. 22. Foundation semiotics <ul><li>Structural coupling is a process that occurs when two structurally plastic systems repeatedly perturb one another’s structure in a non-destructive way over a period of time. This leads to the development of structural ‘fit’ between the systems. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an intimate relationship between this process and the emergence of ‘appropriate’ behaviour from the interplay between interacting systems, because the structure of a system determines its responses to perturbatory environmental events. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Language is a manner of living together in a flow of coordinations of coordinations of consensual behaviours or doings that arises in a history of living in the collaboration of doing things together”. (Maturana 1988) </li></ul>
    22. 23. Results: Natural conversation
    23. 24. Results: Clinical interview
    24. 25. Adult Attachment Interview, evolution sample AAI181
    25. 26. Speech and rhythmic behaviour
    26. 27. Categorical Recurrence Analysis of Child Language Rick Dale and Michael J. Spivey, Department of Psychology, Cornell University
    27. 28. Some conclusions on foundation semiotics <ul><li>We were be able to detect determinism in mesoscopic dynamics (embedding 3-5). The unit involved is defined in linguistics as morpheme : a term which refers to the smallest component of a word that: (a) contributes to the meaning, or grammatical function of the word to which it belongs, and (b) cannot itself be decomposed into smaller morphemes. A morpheme is composed by more than one phoneme (and by several letters, or informational micro-units). </li></ul><ul><li>Coupling and sync start at a meso level in a-conscious ways. This might be related to the effect of rhythmic and musical resonances, which are mostly active at this level. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective function receives evidence and measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Psycho-Chrono-biology and related hidden regulators. </li></ul>Orsucci F, Giuliani A, Webber C, Zbilut J, Fonagy P and Mazza M, (2006) Combinatorics & synchronization in natural semiotics, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications – Elsevier 361.
    28. 29. Psychomotor sync
    29. 30. Implicit knowledge
    30. 31. Mirrors (reflex, reflect)
    31. 32. Psycho-Social Evidence <ul><li>Sociogram </li></ul><ul><li>3 Women </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>and dreaming </li></ul><ul><li>ESP ? </li></ul>
    32. 33. Evolution
    33. 34. Perspectives: coevolution
    34. 35. Modeling Attractions <ul><li>We are like wheels within wheels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro level: molecules and cells, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodies and minds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World and bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entrainment </li></ul><ul><li>of many wheels. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Dynamics (individual) <ul><li>Dynamics comprehend the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation semiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Epigenesis & Neuroplasticity </li></ul><ul><li>Biophysics </li></ul>Found Meta Biophys Epigen Dynamics
    36. 37. 2D Cycle of change Reflective cascading Decoupling Entrainment signals Synchronization E-Mergence
    37. 38. 3D Cicle of change
    38. 39. MF definition <ul><li>MF is beyond Res Cogitans and Res Extensa in dynamical and structural terms. We might say that it constitutes a superior unity. </li></ul><ul><li>New physics and new biomedicine gave us some crucial tools to transcend Descartes. The immense complexity and dimensionalities of human systems, if considered in a post-Cartesian view, must be studied in the modern terms of complexity theory, nonlinear dynamics, field theory, quantum mechanics, molecular biology and cognitive science. These seemingly different approaches would be integrated in order to reach a real view of MF nature and operations, beyond the dichotomies and appearances we a re used to see. </li></ul>
    39. 40. MF definition 2 <ul><li>A logical consequence is that MF, in its structure (that we are going to recognize in random networks) and dynamics (that we are going to recognize in fields, waves of synchronizing nonlinear oscillators), would be heterogeneous. Dynamics, fields and hyperstructures of MF would span through molecular domains, neural domains, cognitive domains and even socio-cultural domains. We might need to consider how MF fields might “pack” specific dynamics “vertically” ranging across these different domains, just we have considered dynamical fields spanning within a single domain. </li></ul>
    40. 41. MF def 3 <ul><li>If we are able to accomplish this reframing of our perceptual and cognitive habits in order to recognize MF, we might see how it forms a dynamical “glue” ensuring the inner and outer attractions in bodies, minds and social ensembles and the cohesion of our inner and outer bio-psycho-social realities. </li></ul><ul><li>A definition of Mind Force would be as the hyperstructure formed by random self-organizing networks of synchronized linear and nonlinear oscillators coupled and recruited in waves and fields spanning trough heterogeneous domains . Bio-psycho-social oscillators would act as nodes or hubs in this dynamical hyperstructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Each oscillator might act as a master hub and/or as a slave or a free (self-organizing) node within the hyperstructure dynamics. Waves of massive and eventually heterogeneous transient entrainment would form attractors and fields. These waves of massive synchronizations propagate through different media, domains and dimensionality scales. A logical consequence is that MF transient or steady fields would interfere and interact each other, but there would be MF resultant forming MF dynamical landscapes. </li></ul>
    41. 42. trees create the form of the wind Zenrin Kushu
    42. 43. Mind Force Models Franco Orsucci Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. Albert Einstein
    43. 44.  Sympathy of clocks <ul><li>The origin of the word synchronization is an ancient Greek root, sun-cronos, which means “to share time”. </li></ul><ul><li>The history of synchronization goes back to the 17th century when the famous Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens (1673) reported on his observation of synchronization of two pendulum clocks. Systematic study of this phenomenon, experimental as well as theoretical, was started by Edward Appleton (1922) and Balthasar van der Pol (1927). They showed that the frequency of a triode generator can be entrained, or synchronized, by a weak external signal with slightly different frequency. </li></ul><ul><li>These studies were of high practical importance because such generators became basic elements of radio communication systems . </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual synchronization of two weakly nonlinear oscillators was analytically treated by Mayer (1935) and Gaponov (1936. </li></ul><ul><li>An important step was done by Stratonovich (1958, 1963) who developed a theory of external synchronization of a weakly nonlinear oscillator in the presence of random noise. </li></ul>
    44. 45. Sync & Complexity <ul><li>The theory of coupled oscillators (dynamic attractors) . Coupled oscillators can be found throughout the natural world, but they are especially conspicuous in living things: pacemaker cells in the heart; insulin secreting cells in the pancreas; and neural networks in the brain and spinal cord that control such rhythmic behaviors as breathing, running and chewing. Indeed, not all the oscillators need be confined to the same organism: consider crickets that chirp in unison and congregations of synchronously flashing fireflies. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything displaying a periodic behavior is an oscillator (not just pendulums!?) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase, frequency & amplitude </li></ul><ul><li>Synchrony harmonizes complex interacting variables . Sync is an attempt to synthesize a vast body of knowledge created by scientists working across disciplines, continents and centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Sync Theory synthesize complex data in the same and different domains: self-organized order in time and space . </li></ul><ul><li>“ At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat: the sound of cycles in sync. It pervades nature at every scale, from the nucleus to the cosmos” (Strogatz, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver Sacks in his recent book on musicophilia reminded how our nervous system is exquisitely tuned for music. But how much of this is due to the intrinsic physical characteristics of music itself and its complex sonic patterns woven in time? </li></ul><ul><li>E. T. Hall (1983) has been important in noticing that humans in all cultures are engaged in a rhythmic dance. </li></ul><ul><li>Menstrual sync: case studies </li></ul>
    45. 46. Movement, music, dance! <ul><li>E. T. Hall (1983) has been important in noticing that humans in all cultures are engaged in a rhythmic dance. </li></ul>
    46. 47. Complex Systems <ul><li>When more than two oscillators are coupled , however, the range of possible behaviors becomes much more complex. The equations governing their behavior tend to become intractable. </li></ul><ul><li>Henri Poincaré, a virtuoso French mathematician who lived in the early 1900s founded the modern qualitative theory of dynamical systems. He created topology , the study of shapes and their continuity, and used this new mathematical tool to attempt to answer the question &quot;Is the solar system stable?&quot;, a question posed by King Oscar II of Sweden. Poincare won the prize with his publication of On The Problem of Three Bodies and the Equations of Equilibrium . These three bodies are an excellent example of a dynamical system. In his attempt to solve this problem Poincare introduced the Poincare section and saw the first signs of Chaos . </li></ul><ul><li>Synchrony is the most obvious case of a general effect called phase locking : many oscillators tracing out the same pattern but not necessarily in step. </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, coupled oscillators often fail to synchronize. The explanation is a phenomenon known as symmetry breaking , in which a single symmetric state such as synchrony is replaced by several less symmetric states that together embody the original symmetry. </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic motion can be represented in terms of a time series or a phase portrait (or phase space ). The phase portrait combines position and velocity, thus showing the entire range of states that a system can display. Any system that undergoes periodic behavior, no matter how complex, will eventually trace out a closed curve in phase space. </li></ul>
    47. 48. Molecular oscillators
    48. 49. Ultradian rhythms Rhythm Period, Frequency, Amplitude Coupling Comments heart rate 3 hour [FO1]   newborn sleep cycle during development human heart rate 3 hour newborn circadian 15-30 days of age human sleep architecture newborn old age REM 80% REM 20% human luteinizing hormone puberty sleep + GNRH/LH burst human: lh increases 39 fold “ nasal cycle” 1-5 hours autonomic tone and (right or left) cerebral dominance decreases with age blood glucose insulin 6 hour blood glucose 24 hour circadian mealtime dependent endogenous healthy adults insulin in elderly irregular release pulsatile release lost pulsatile release is lost in elderly
    49. 50. Daily rhythms
    50. 51. Attractors
    51. 52. Examples of Biological Evidence <ul><li>Fireflies have a cluster of neurons in their brains which allow sync. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormons within and between. </li></ul><ul><li>Menstrual periods in confined groups: a silent conversation mediated by pheromones. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain waves, the so-called binding issue. </li></ul>
    52. 53. Recurrence Quantification Analysis <ul><li>A recurrence plot is a 2-dimensional N x N pattern of points where N is the number of embedding vectors obtained from the delay coordinates of the input signal. </li></ul><ul><li>From the occurrence of lines parallel to the diagonal in the recurrence plot it can be seen how fast neighboured trajectories diverge in phase space. Therefore, the average length of these lines is a measure of the reciprocal of the largest positive Lyapunov exponent. </li></ul><ul><li>REC =Percent recurrence = #RECURS / triangular area . </li></ul><ul><li>DET =Percent determinism = #recurrent points forming upward diagonal lines / #RECURS </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrence plots help revealing phase transitions and instationarities. Visible rectangular block structures with a higher density of points in the recurrence plot indicate phase transitions within the signal. </li></ul>
    53. 54. Basic structures <ul><li>Figure shows a combined analysis of American poems (AMP), Italian poems (ITP), American transcriptions (AMS), and Italian transcriptions (ITS). Scaling of texts along a linear relationship between REC and DET ( r = 0.87, p < 0.001). This scaling suggests a possibility of using the position on the REC-DET plane as a simple numerical index of the relative complexity of a text . </li></ul><ul><li>RQA technique provides a reliable quantitative description of text sequences at the orthographic level in terms of structuring, and may be useful for a variety of linguistics-related studies. </li></ul><ul><li>F. Orsucci, K. Walters, A. Giuliani, C. L.Webber, J. P. Zbilut, Int. J. Chaos Theory Applications. 42 , 80 (1999). </li></ul>
    54. 55. Conversation
    55. 56. Results: Natural conversation
    56. 57. Results: Clinical interview
    57. 58. Adult Attachment Interview, evolution sample AAI181
    58. 59. Speech and rhythmic behaviour
    59. 60. Categorical Recurrence Analysis of Child Language Rick Dale and Michael J. Spivey, Department of Psychology, Cornell University
    60. 61. Some conclusions on foundation semiotics <ul><li>We were be able to detect determinism in mesoscopic dynamics (embedding 3-5). The unit involved is defined in linguistics as morpheme : a term which refers to the smallest component of a word that: (a) contributes to the meaning, or grammatical function of the word to which it belongs, and (b) cannot itself be decomposed into smaller morphemes. A morpheme is composed by more than one phoneme (and by several letters, or informational micro-units). </li></ul><ul><li>Coupling and sync start at a meso level in a-conscious ways. This might be related to the effect of rhythmic and musical resonances, which are mostly active at this level. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective function receives evidence and measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Psycho-Chrono-biology and related hidden regulators. </li></ul>Orsucci F, Giuliani A, Webber C, Zbilut J, Fonagy P and Mazza M, (2006) Combinatorics & synchronization in natural semiotics, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications – Elsevier 361.
    61. 62. Modeling Attractions <ul><li>We are like wheels within wheels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro level: molecules and cells, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodies and minds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World and bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entrainment </li></ul><ul><li>of many wheels. </li></ul>
    62. 63. Perspectives: coevolution
    63. 64. Reflective cascading in sync Pecora & Carroll
    64. 65. Network theory
    65. 66. 6 degrees of separation
    66. 67. Fields & landscapes
    67. 68. MF: a global challenge of co-evolution
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