Aprendizaje invisible alfabetismos para un mundo plano

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Aprendizaje invisible: alfabetismos para un mundo plano.

Cristóbal Cobo,coautor do libro "Aprendizaxe invisible, hacia unha nova ecoloxía da educación", preséntanos o webinar : "Aprendizaxe invisible: alfabetismos para un mundo plano".

Estás preparado para desaprender e enfrentarte a un nov remix de innovadoras paradigmas de aprendizaxe e desenvolvemento do capital humano?

Cristóbal Cobo é investigador do Oxford Internet Institute. Entre 2005 e 2010 foi profesor-investigador de FLACSO-México.Na Universidade Autónoma de Barcelona titulouse aos 29 anos cunha distinción "cum laude " de doctorado, ao desenvolver modelos experimentais para optimiza a interación entre persoa e máquina.Foi evaluador de políticas públicas para o goberno Mexicano en novas tecnoloxías e educación. Xunto a Hugo Pardo publicou "Planeta Web 2.0" que a día de hoxe rexistra máis de 170.000 descargas. No ano 2009 conseguíu unha beca pola Universidade de Oxford para realizar unha investigación sobre políticas públicas europeas e o desenvolvemento de competencias dixitais. En 2010 nombrárono membro do consello asesor do Informe Horizon Iberoamérica, estudo global que desenvolve o "The New Media Consortium".

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  • Spokane Daily Chronicle - Oct 29, 1948. Television as a significant in its future affect upon the American way of living…something that every educator must take into consideration […TV] open ups a brand new world. […] Radio is a poor medium …ear is not as reliable as the eye […] students learn better reading that listening.
  • Spokane Daily Chronicle - Oct 29, 1948. Television as a significant in its future affect upon the American way of living…something that every educator must take into consideration […TV] open ups a brand new world. […] Radio is a poor medium …ear is not as reliable as the eye […] students learn better reading that listening.
  • “The current system is too focused on teaching students how to use specific software packages and fails to allow for development of more advanced computer skills“. Necessity to embrace a wider ICT skills and greater creativity, where interactive content and multimedia technology should be used across all lessons.
  • The relationship between students’ computer use at school and performance in digital reading tends to be negative with a slight curve.NAVIGATION: “After accounting for students’ performance in print reading, the relationship between digital reading performance and the frequency of browsing the Internet at home for schoolwork is close to linear” (p.189).”Navigation is a key component of digital reading, as readers “construct” their text through navigation. Thus, navigational choices directly influence what kind of text is eventually processed. Stronger readers tend to choose strategies that are suited to the demands of the individual tasks. Better readers tend to minimise their visits to irrelevant pages.” (p.20)SEARCHING FOR INFORMATION: “The more frequently students search for information on line, the better their performance in digital reading. Being unfamiliar with online social practices, such as e-mailing and chatting, seems to be associated with low digital reading proficiency”LACK OF INTEGRATION: “It is likely that the low level of ICT use at school indicates that ICT has not yet been fully integrated into pedagogical practices” (p.153)MODERATE FREQUENCIES OF USE: “The relationship between the frequency of computer use at home for leisure and for schoolwork and digital reading performance is not linear, but rather mountain-shaped: in other words, moderate users attain higher scores in digital reading than both rare and intensive users”.POSITIVE EFFECT OF ICT AT HOME: “The frequency of computer use at home for leisure is positively related to navigation skills, which is an essential and unique part of digital reading, while the frequency of computer use at school is not. These findings suggest that students are developing digital reading literacy mainly by using computers at home to pursue their interests [...] it is important to encourage students to develop navigation skills and to foster self-confidence through using computers at home, while providing guidance on how to balance the amount of time students spend using computers with time for other activities.”NEGATIVE EFFECT OF THE SCHOOL: “Computer use at school is not positively associated with digital reading performance [...] access to computers at school is not the sole determinant of performance; students who use computers at school must also develop the knowledge and skills needed to locate and use the range of information available through the computer.”NOT TO BRING OUT-OF-SCHOOL-KNOWLEDGE:“In some lessons at school, students were frustrated about not being able to suggest different or better ways of using technologies, saying they got told off. Students also said that some teachers did not welcome students’ out-of-school knowledge more generally into the classroom: “if you try to link it [out of school activities] with something in lessons, it’s always wrong and they’ve got to be always right.”Bringing in out-of-school knowledge into the classroom can be seen as undermining teachers’ authority when it is framed as a question of who is ‘right’, or which knowledge is ‘legitimate’, but for other teachers it is simply a case of working with whatever students bring to a particular task.After identifying the gap between the ICT practices at the school and at home, Grant states a question that we think is quite important: “How schools could foster particular skills and components of digital literacy?, rather than How they [teachers-students] could build connections between home and school digital literacy practices?“.
  • Education experts predict full-time learning in future. The Leader Post. June 14, 1967.Home: Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI)  >Canadian scholars predicted predicted: “Learning experiences will become more and more recognized”. “We will be seeing more use of devices, various mechanical devices such as TV and programmed learning machines to make the most effective use of technologies to make the most effective use of highly trained teachers”. “The greatest challenge education faces is to deal with the new importance of radio, television, recording and other changing devices”. “Technologies make retraining essential and additional leisure creates opportunities for learning new skills”. “There will be so much knowledge available that the primary problem will be to teach students how to find what they need”. “Keep learning to keep up to date… Education is no longer terminal”. The explosion of knowledge will cause sweeping curriculums changes”.” Computers will be a crucial factor”.
  • This graph published by Roger Fogel in the American Economic Review illustrate in the big picture of some of the majors events in the history of technology (from 9,000 BC to present), where the growth in incomes was accompanied by unprecedented increases in population and exponential increase in the rate of scientific discoveries.
  • I pretty sure that most of you remember the revolution in Egypt. At the end of January, Mubarak's’ government decide to shut down (BLACK OUT) the internet.As you know the whole world was horrified because that was a massive censorship.Unfortunately this is not something that happens only in Egypt, In schools of the whole world are computers blocked to access to “dangerous” websites such us: facebook, wikipedia, twitter or youtube. This blackout is happening as I speak.
  • Why don´t try with a backward perspective of what has been happening so far.I would like to discuss what are the strategies used by educational institutions and what are the strategies required to do it better
  • Sometimes the way that we embed technologies in the classroom is inflexible way, linear, (painfully) boring
  • PLAY VIDEOSkinner, from U of Harvard, at the middy of the XX century was releasing his “learning machine”.A horrible piece of metal (that looked liked a toaster) were kids were supposed to learn (and even get excited)Can you see how excited does this kid look?After that, as Picasso said, all was decadence…
  • PLAY the AUDIOLet me start with my personal story. When I went to the university I had the luck (or the bad luck if you like) that the Internet (as we now it today) was the big new thing.That was the same years when Al Gore was announcing the “super highway of information”.So, we saw this great division between the rhetoric (announcing this brave new world) and that horrible technology. Classes were boring, silly task and technologies were used only to hide yourself from the professor meanwhile you were talking with your mattes.
  • Now 70 years later, we seem to have the same problem.Old schools with new technologies. Teaching strategies only focused on transfer as much information as possible (Freire, ’60)With very disaggregated disciplines, kids organized as workers in a factory and prehistoric instruments of evaluation.We can call it “post modern school” or better said, “post morten schools”.Based on Negroponte, we need to forget the laptos (the little green ones) and we need to buy now tables, this is going to be the cool thingLets be fair, don´t kill the messager, the fault is not of Negroponte but of those who think that only with this tools we will improve the education
  • My second statement has to do with the integration of literacies. The traditional literacy (usually measured as the amount of people who read and write, over 15 years old)And the 21st century literacies which has to do with a higher order and and more complex skills.Here, you can see this mobible teaching-technology used almost at the same time than the “learning machine” but used in the farms of China.
  • We have done a pretty good job. Reducing significantly the illiteracy around the world. Based on the UN Millenium Development Goal, this is how the illiteracy will look in 2015, where the problem will be much more focalized than in the past.As can be seen in this map that illustrates the illiteracy at the beginning of the 20th century illiteracy was as high as 50% of world population and was spread all around the world apart from US, UE and Au (SOURCE??).Now, in this second map elaborated by UNESCO, we can see that the level of illiteracy has decreased dramatically and it is expected to drop until 15% of world population.Map of 1900 http://users.rcn.com/mwhite28/literacy.htmMap 2015 http://www.uis.unesco.org/en/stats/statistics/literacy2000.htmHOWEVER, A LOT HAS TO BE DONE TO REDUCE THE DIFFERENCESS BETWEEN THE MALE AND FEMALE POPULATION- AND ALSO, TO SOLVE THE A REAL CAPABILITY TO UNDERSTAND IN A MININGFUL WAY WHAT ITS READ Progress of Literacy in Various Countries (1953. UNESCO) first time data concerning literacy as reported in national censuses carried out since 1900.[UNESCO’s International Literacy Statistics 1950-2000. John A. Smyth 2005]
  • According to the UNESCO, the World Illiteracy rate (of people over 15 year s old) has droppedparticularly fast in the last 40 years.However, now we have a different world. This grapgh made by the International Telecommunication Union, show us how fast has grown the internet (30%) and the mobile subscription (reaching almost 80% of the world)
  • YouTube:+ de 2 billones de ‘views’ al día.Cada minuto se suben 24 horas de video Promedio al día x persona 15 min.70% tráfico es de US10x incrementan los Ad el último año100 millones de viedos vistos al mes.Content ID escannea100 años de videos cada díaFB consume casi 50 años de videos al día.http://www.website-monitoring.com/blog/2010/05/17/youtube-facts-and-figures-history-statistics/
  • So meanwhile we have a world of remix (“out there”), with more flexible licenses to RE-CREATE information, our teachers are fighting with the students because the suffer when they copy information from Wikipedia, …. Instead of promote combination of contents and formats."…toofocused on teaching students how to use specific software andfails to allow for development of more advanced computer skills… wider ICT skills and greater creativity…used across all lessons".
  • We need more versatile and multi-format use of the digital technologies … "If it's not written doesn't count.“Where teachers many times rejected the possibility to explore new formats (audio visual, 3D, HTML)
  • We need teacher who promote a critique perspective of the contents found online.Google is NOT the end of the Internet.Not all what you see is what you get.
  • Many of our teacher ignore the existence of tools like: OCW+KHAN+ITUNESUENCOURAGE RSEARHCHERS TO PUBLISH/RELEASE WITH CREATIVE COMMONSTEACHER TO DO NOT AVOID TO SHARE THEIR LEARNING MATERIALS / SYLLABUS
  • SCOLARI, C. COBO, C. and PARDO, H. (forthcoming) Should We Take Disintermediation In Higher Education Seriously? Expertise, Knowledge Brokering, and Knowledge Translation in the Age of Disintermediation. In Takševa, T. (coord.) Social Software and the Evolution of User Expertise: Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination. IGI Global (Idea Group Reference).
  • Let me propose a trilogy of tree key dimensions: that articulate contents, with containers and the adequate context.Here the challenge is not only to through technology away but also work in the context (here the invisible learning is the KEY)
  • Eugene Register-Guard - Sep 5, 1963. An outlook to the future of the US education. Scientific technology has been taking place in the classroom in the form of educational television, teaching machines,… electronic computers […] Home television has had a tremendous impact on education […] There is so much to learn and so little time in which to learn it… Tape recorders, earphones and phonographs [give students] individualized instruction”.
  • Aprendizaje invisible alfabetismos para un mundo plano

    1. 1. Cristóbal Cobo, phdOxford Internet Institute<br />
    2. 2. “My grandmother wanted me to have an education, so she kept me out of school.” Margaret Mead.<br />
    3. 3. <ul><li>… as a significant in its future affect upon the American way of living…something that every educator must take into consideration.
    4. 4. …. open ups a brand new world. </li></ul>ipad<br />ipad<br />
    5. 5. […TV] <br /><ul><li>… as a significant in its future affect upon the American way of living…something that every educator must take into consideration.
    6. 6. …. open ups a brand new world. </li></ul> […TV] <br />Spokane Daily <br />Chronicle –<br />Oct 29, 1948. <br />
    7. 7. Changing the rules<br />http://media.photobucket.com/image/recent/cheater001/martin_luther_king_jr.jpg<br />Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929 –1968)<br />“the vision of a color blind society”<br />a technology mature education<br />
    8. 8. Intellect Technology Association> Department for Education (DfE) in the UK: <br />"El sistema actual está demasiado centrado en enseñar a los estudiantes cómo utilizar software específicos y no favorece el desarrollo de habilidades informáticas más avanzadas".<br />Existe la necesidad de adoptar una capacitación más amplia en el uso de TIC que favorezcan una mayor creatividad, donde contenidosinteractivos y tecnología multimedia se empleen transversalmenteen distintas clases.<br />
    9. 9. Intensity of computer use in school lessons, and digital reading performance[OECD average-15]<br />http://tinyurl.com/pisa2009<br />
    10. 10. 1895<br />Herbert George Wells,<br />
    11. 11. “Education is no longer terminal”. <br />The explosion of knowledge will cause sweeping curriculums changes”.<br />“There will be so much knowledge available that the primary problemwill be to teach students how to find what they need”. <br />“Technologies […] opportunities for learning new skills”. <br />“The greatest challenge education faces is to deal with the new importance of radio, television, recording … will be a crucial”. <br />2010<br />1967<br />Inspired by Technology,<br />Driven by Pedagogy<br />The Leader Post.<br />
    12. 12. http://people.bu.edu/wwildman/WeirdWildWeb/media/galleries/philosophy/philosophy_gallwancient.htm<br />370 BC<br />Plato critiques the writing because it weakens the memory and leads people to forgetfulness…. <br />{Phaedrus(275a)}<br />
    13. 13. info-nano-eco-cogno era > new literacies<br />Source: Foguer.1999. Catching Up with the Economy. American Economic Review. 89(1)<br />http://cgd.s3.amazonaws.com/GrowthReportAppendix.pdf<br />World Population<br />http://www.mitchellteachers.org/WorldHistory/AncientRome/DiscoveringEtruscanGreekInfluences.htm<br />Time (Years)<br />
    14. 14.
    15. 15. Internet blocked in schools<br />"shut down"<br />
    16. 16. statements<br />“We drive into the future using only our rear view mirror.” Marshall McLuhan<br />
    17. 17. Statement #1<br /> imposing technologies in a fairly inflexible way<br />
    18. 18. http://www.cognitivetechnologies.net/90-years-since-pressey/<br />Have we focused too much on the technology (since Skinner)?<br />Skinner and teaching machine<br />Frederic Skinner, <br />Harvard University<br />List of questions.<br /> Mechanism to respond.<br />1958<br />http://tinyurl.com/aprendizajeprogramado<br />
    19. 19. 1995<br />Unreliable, boring, more technology to do the same.<br />Memorization. Mechanical Task. Limited in time/space.<br />http://tinyurl.com/interneten1995<br />future><br />
    20. 20. 1920/2010<br />post modern schools<br />http://tinyurl.com/tabletolpc<br />http://www.guardian.co.uk/government-computing-network/2011/apr/21/intellect-crticises-ict-curriculum-schools<br />
    21. 21.
    22. 22. ¿Quées lo que no queremos?Nuevastecnologíasparahacer lo mismode siempre<br />http://tinyurl.com/educaciondistancia<br />
    23. 23. Statement #2<br />traditional literacy + 21st century literacies<br />illiterate educational institutions<br />1950<br />Literacy: number of people (+15) who can read and write<br />
    24. 24. World (traditional) illiteracy<br />Matthew White (1997) <br />Increase 3 times Afghanistan/Niger<br />
    25. 25. United Nations Millennium Development Goals<br />Increase adult literacy by 50%<br />2015<br />
    26. 26. World Illiteracy Rate 1970 – 2000 (prognosis for 2005 – 2015), age 15 years and over. Source UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).<br />
    27. 27.
    28. 28. 8<br />Television: Total Revenue by Category,<br />as % of GDP, 1970-2009<br />Sources: U.S. Census; trade associations; industry analysts; 10-K reports; author estimations<br />Preliminary data (Waterman/Ji, March, 2011)<br />
    29. 29. 9<br />Movie Theaters/Video: Total Revenue by Category <br />as % of GDP, 1970-2009<br />Sources: U.S. Census; trade associations; industry analysts; 10-K reports; author estimations<br />Preliminary data (Waterman/Ji, March, 2011)<br />
    30. 30. http://www.ragtag.info/2011/feb/2/history-world-100-seconds/<br />telegeography.com<br />Access only 2 every 7<br />One (random) day in Wikipedia…<br />Digital divide > connectivity<br />424,000 articles + 14,200 geo-tagged events. <br />[by Gareth Lloyd and Tom Martin.]<br />Graham, M., Hale, S. A. and Stephens, M. (2011) Geographies of the World’s Knowledge. London, Convoco! Edition. Oxford Internet Institute.<br />More Articles of Antarctica than any other country in South America or Africa<br />84% articles from EU and US<br />
    31. 31. OECD - [digital reading skills] 2011<br /><ul><li>Capability to evaluate information from several web-based sources, assessingthe credibilityand utility of what they read using criteriathat they have generated themselves.
    32. 32. Ability to work out a pathway across multiple sites to find information without explicit direction: </li></ul> that is autonomousand efficiently.<br /><ul><li>These two capabilities – critical evaluation and expertise in locating relevant information – are key skills in a medium in which there is virtually unlimited material available, and in which the integrity of the sources is often dubious.”</li></ul>Digi-Log: "Briefcase Portability" (1976)<br />
    33. 33. 3 basicliteracies<br />http://tinyurl.com/competenciadigital<br />Content creation<br />Sharing of <br />knowledge <br />Translation/<br />integration<br />Literacy: capacity to apply knowledge and skills in key areas to analyse, communicate effectively, solve problems in different situations(OCDE, 2004).<br />
    34. 34. http://www.flickr.com/photos/passetti/5468641095/sizes/o/in/photostream/<br />less Copyright and more right to copy<br />Basic literacy #1 <br />Create/ Connect / Aggregation<br />
    35. 35.
    36. 36. repliers > connectors<br />in.reuters.com<br />Basic Literacy # 2 <br />Translation (meaning-format), Transformation, Contextualization, <br />
    37. 37. ‘everybody lies’<br />in.reuters.com<br />Where is Hillary Clinton?<br />www.DiTzeitung.com<br />Retrieve, select, analyze, contextualize <br />
    38. 38. Basic literacy #3 <br />Knowledge distribution, low cost, decentralization<br />http://mindshift.kqed.org/2011/05/10-open-education-resources-you-may-not-know-about-but-should/<br />
    39. 39. http://tinyurl.com/Khan2011<br />SCOLARI, C. COBO, C. and PARDO, H. (forthcoming) Should We Take Disintermediation In Higher Education Seriously? Expertise, Knowledge Brokering, and Knowledge Translation in the Age of Disintermediation. In Takševa, T. (coord.) Social Software and the Evolution of User Expertise: Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination. IGI Global (Idea Group Reference).<br />
    40. 40. El aula comolaboratorio o sala de prensa<br />
    41. 41. Statement #3<br />content<br />container<br />technical innovation<br />360º<br />social innovation<br />context<br />
    42. 42. contenido: librería<br />continente: dispositivo<br />contenido + contexto: escuelaanalógica<br />contenido + continente: laptops subutilizada<br />contenido+ continente + (multi)contexto: aprendizaje invisible<br />http://tinyurl.com/creatividad2011<br />
    43. 43. Committee for Democracy in Information Technology <br />(1995, Santa Marta -slum-, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)<br />Using Internet to attack young people at risk<br />slum children, indigenous, former prisoners, physically & mentally disables.<br />Regional offices in 20 Brazilian States, + Colombia, Uruguay, Chile, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Japan, Angola, South Africa & Argentina (5000 café – 850 community centers)<br />
    44. 44. To build new bridges between different kinds of learning<br />Project: To develop an IT project relevant for the community<br />{ 1 }<br />
    45. 45. Experimentalcommunities> <br />trial/error + combine disciplines + <br />Problem based learning<br />[real world] ICT outside of the classroom<br />{ 2 }<br />
    46. 46. We learn….<br />10% of what we read.<br />20% of what we hear.<br />30% of what we see.<br />50% of what we both see and hear.<br />70% of what is discussed with others<br />80% of what we experience<br />95% of what we teach<br />-William Glasser-<br />Peer based learning<br />micro-transference (exchange of experiences)<br />– (different ages, uses context)<br />“doesn´t matter if kids don´t have a great IT teacher” (SugataMitra)<br />{ 3 }<br />
    47. 47. Lifelong learning > DIY (time/spaces)<br />‘we need to engineer new technologies to help them HOW to learn, not WHAT to learn’<br />(Moravec)<br />70/20/10<br />70% work/experience.<br />20% interaction with others.<br />10% formal learning.<br />90% of what we learn come informally<br />Princeton´s center for creative leadership<br />{ 4 }<br />
    48. 48. More flexibleinstrument of assessment<br />Recognize tacit knowledge + soft skills.<br />“Life is not a multiple choice test, it's an open-book essay exam” <br />Alan Blinder (Princeton) <br />"Recognition of Non-Formal and <br />Informal Learning" OCDE. Werquin. 2010<br />{ 5 }<br />
    49. 49. John Moravec, phd<br />DocenteEstudiosde Innovación<br />Posgradode EstudiosLiberales,<br />Universidad de Minnesota.<br />Cristóbal Cobo Romaní, phd<br />Oxford Internet Institute<br />University of Oxford<br />www.aprendizajeinvisible.com<br />
    50. 50. From hardware to the mindware<br />Lets dream with an education that includes technology no to make old thing faster but to trigger creativity and innovation<br />
    51. 51. 360º:Visióncrítica inn. tecnológicaModelos de generación.Modelos de distribución - OER.Redeficinición de espacios.Repensari. evaluación.Rediseñar m. acreditación.Mayor movilidad.DIY + LLL.Experimentation continua.Habilidadesblandas.Laboratorios de colaboraciónCompetencias + madurez digital<br />San Francisco Exploratorium<br />
    52. 52. Eugene Register-Guard – Sep 5, 1963. <br />… the future of the US education. Scientific technology has been taking place in the classroom in the form of educational television, teaching machines, electronic computers […] There is so much to learn and so little time in which to learn it… Tape recorders, earphones and phonographs [give students] individualized instruction”.<br />
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