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Tập huấn cho các thôn g hoạt viên khi khảo sát cộng đồng theo phương pháp PRA

Tập huấn cho các thôn g hoạt viên khi khảo sát cộng đồng theo phương pháp PRA

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PRA facilitator Training PRA facilitator Training Presentation Transcript

  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Integrated Commune Development Planning Participatory Rural Appraisal Training Manual Integrated Commune Development Planning (Integrated CDP) in Quang Ngai Prov- ince merges household and community needs with available Programs, Projects and funding sources. This Participatory Rural Appraisal ‘Training Manual’ is used by Commune People’s Committees and District People’s Committees. This Manual outlines the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) training course outline, training sessions and training approaches applied in Integrated CDP to train Facilitators in PRA. Quang Ngai Province—2006
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual FOREWORD Integrated Commune Development Planning (Integrated CDP) aims to improve planning in Quang Ngai Prov- ince through merging community needs with available projects, programs and funding resources. Integrated CDP Guidelines were developed and approved by the Provincial People’s Committee on 6 July 2006 (PPC Deci- sion No. 1611/QD-UBND). Integrated CDP will be conducted in 76 Communes in 7 Districts in Quang Ngai Province in 2006. Nine Steps are conducted under Integrated CDP: • Step 1: PRA Training to Facilitators and PRA Field Exercises • Step 2: Provincial and District Orientation Plan Workshops to outline available projects, pro- grams and funding sources for Communes for the following year • Step 3: The Commune People’s Committee reports the implementation status of 2006 Plan and drafts mandatory targets (including State revenue/expenditure) and Guidance targets for the fol- lowing year’s Plan • Step 4: Village Planning Meetings to identify priority household and community problems and activities • Step 5: The Commune People’s Committee finalises the Commune Plan at a Commune Plan Preparation Meeting and submits the Plan to the Commune Communist Party Committee and Commune People’s Council Standing Committee for ratification • Step 6: The Commune Plan is submitted to the District People’s Committee via the District Plan- ning and Finance Division for approval • Step 7: The Commune Plan is prepared for implementation with a Commune Plan Feedback Meeting • Step 8: Monitoring and Evaluation of the Commune Plan by the Commune People’s Committee • Step 9: The Commune People’s Committee prepares a list of priority projects not funded under the current Commune Plan and submits to the Commune People’s Council for consideration and possible funding in the following year. This Participatory Rural Appraisal ‘Training Manual’ was prepared for Commune and District People’s Committees to train Facilitators that will conduct Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Field Exercises con- ducted under Integrated CDP. Guidance is given on the PRA Training Course outline, training approaches, fa- cilitation skills and methods to teach Facilitators on how to conduct PRA Tools. Facilitators will conduct PRA Field Exercises with households in Villages. The PRA results are presented to households at Village Planning Meetings and form a foundation for the preparation of the Commune Plan. Department of Planning and Investment—DPI Quang Ngai Rural Development Program — RUDEP Funded by the People of Viet Nam and Australia 96 Nguyen Nghiem Street 37 Pham Van Dong Street Quang Ngai City Quang Ngai City Quang Ngai Province Quang Ngai Province Socialist Republic of Viet Nam Socialist Republic of Viet Nam Telephone: 055—055—822 868 Telephone: 055—816 265 Fax: 055-825 701 Fax: 055-816 260 Email: skhdt@quangngai.gov.vn Email: adminqnrdp@dng.vnn.vn Website: www.quangngai.gov.vn Website: www.rudep.org The printing of this Manual was funded by the Quang Ngai Rural Development Program. All illustrations were drawn by Mr. Duong Huu Nghia. Integrated Commune Development Planning 2
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual PRA Training Course Agenda DAY 1 Duration Session Time Topic (Minutes) 1 8:00 30 Welcome, Introduction of Trainees and Ice-Breaker Introduction to PRA Training Course for Facilitator 2 8:30 40 Overview of Integrated Commune Development Planning 3 9:10 20 Agenda and Trainer/Trainee Agreement - 9:30 15 MORNING TEA 4 9:45 45 Introduction and Purpose of PRA 5 10:30 60 Roles and Purpose of Facilitators - 11:30 120 LUNCH 6 13:30 60 Historical Timelines 7 14:30 60 Village Resource Mapping - 15:30 15 AFTERNOON TEA 8 15:45 60 Transect Walks 9 16:45 15 Day 1 Review and Conclusions DAY 2 10 8:00 20 Day 1 Review and Day 2 Activities 11 8:20 60 Wealth Ranking - 9:20 15 MORNING TEA 12 9:35 60 Seasonal Calendars 13 10:35 60 Linkage Diagrams - 11:30 120 LUNCH 14 13:30 60 Matrix Scoring and Ranking 15 14:30 60 Problem-Cause-Effect-Solution Trees - 15:30 15 AFTERNOON TEA 16 15:45 30 Review of PRA Tools 17 16:15 45 Preparation for PRA Field Exercises (Morning Day 3) DAY 3 Welcome and introduction to Integrated CDP and PRA Field Exer- 18 7:30 20 cises 19 7:50 130 PRA Tool Exercises 20 10:00 60 PRA Field Exercise Review with households - 11:30 120 LUNCH 21 13:30 90 Review of PRA Field Exercise - 15:00 15 AFTERNOON TEA 21 15:15 30 Review of PRA Field Exercise 22 15:45 45 Presentations at Village Planning Meetings 23 16:15 45 Training Course Review, Conclusion and Closing Integrated Commune Development Planning 3
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Participatory Rural Appraisal: Tools PRA TOOLS PURPOSE • Understand the history of the Village and Commune • Identify key points and trends throughout history of a Historical Timelines Commune or Village—either positive or negative • Discuss the effect (influences) of key points in history • Visual map to represent the Village and different re- source types and how these are used Village Resource Mapping • Identify resources that are scarce or abundant and propose opportunities to develop • Facilitates discussion on the status, problems and potential of different land types Transect Walks • Discuss problems and the causes of problems associ- ated with land use • Identify household perceptions of wealth classes in a Village or Hamlet Wealth Ranking • Identify the resources and characteristics of each wealth class • Wealth class of individual households in a Village • Exercise to identify and discuss seasonal events and Seasonal Calendars activities (cropping, livestock, migration, income/ expenditure) • Identify and analyse household farming systems, re- sources and their uses Linkage Diagrams • Identify options and activities to improve household farming systems, resource productivity and income • Analyse preferences of households of different income generating activities and reasons for preferences Matrix Scoring and Ranking • Analyse common problems or issues and score or rank these in order of importance (e.g. health or so- cial problems) • Highlights the compounding causes and effects of a Problem-Cause-Effect-Solution specific problems faced by households in a Village Trees • Propose activities to overcome some of the causes and effects of problem faced by households in a Village Integrated Commune Development Planning 4
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual PRA Training Course for Facilitators: Preparation Integrated Commune Development Planning 5
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual PRA Training Course for Facilitators—Preparation Training Courses require a great deal of preparation. You need to prepare well for the PRA Train- ing Course for Facilitators to ensure that the Course runs well. Here are some items that you should prepare before the Training Course. Facilitators • Facilitators are required to conduct PRA Field Exercises • Facilitators need to be identified in each Commune • This Training Course is delivered to Facilitators in each Com- mune Timing and Dates • Trainers and the Commune People’s Committee need to ar- range a date for the Training Course • Ensure that the Commune People’s Committee confirms the date and sends invitation letters to the Facilitators (‘Trainees’) Training Materials • Each Training Course requires materials—you need to prepare sufficient pens, A0/A4 paper, chalk and refreshments for the Training Course • Presentations are required for the Training Course —prepare these in advance carefully PRA Field Exercise • The morning of Day 3 involves are PRA Field Exercise with households—this provides an opportunity for the Facilitators (Day 3) (Trainees) to practice the PRA Tools with households • Arrange this PRA Field Exercise with the Commune People’s Committee in one of the Villages in the Commune • Confirm the number of households that will attend—and en- sure that there are sufficient number of women Roles of Trainers • Three Trainers conduct the Training Course • It is best when the Trainers share training responsibilities • Go through the Agenda of the Training Course and discuss which trainer will be the Trainer for each part of the Agenda 6
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Identifying Facilitators in each Commune Facilitators are extremely important and you need to be careful about people from each Commune that will play the role of a Facilitator. Facilitators need to be identified before PRA Training Courses for Facilitators. Here is some background information to help you and the Commune Peo- ple’s Committee identify good Facilitators. • The number of Facilitators required for each Commune will How Many vary Facilitators are • Communes that have few households or a small number of Vil- Required for each lages don’t need many Facilitators (only 10-15 Facilitators) • Communes with a large number of households and many Vil- Commune? lages will require up to 20 Facilitators • Collect background information on each Commune— particularly the number of Villages and households—this will help you and the Commune People’s Committee identify an ap- propriate number of Facilitators Facilitators—Quality • It is better to have a small number of good and enthusiastic Facilitators—don’t go for quantity! is Better than • It is always better to have 5 dedicated and enthusiastic Facili- Quantity! tators rather than 10 unenthusiastic and lazy Facilitators • Pay close attention to the ‘Characteristics of Good Facilitators’ —this should provide a foundation for selecting Facilitators in each Commune and Village Discuss Criteria of • Facilitators have to dedicate a lot of time to attend Training Courses and facilitate PRA Field Exercises and Village Plan- Facilitators before ning Meetings—make sure that you invite people that reliable and dedicated Selecting • Mistakes are often made when people select their friends or relatives to act as Facilitators—this will cause problems if they don’t possess the characteristics of good Facilitators • Women need to be encouraged to be Facilitators—each Com- mune should have at least 40% of Facilitators being women Encourage Women! • Female Facilitators will conduct PRA Field Exercises with groups of women to identify issues and opportunities according to women Integrated Commune Development Planning 7
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Setting a Date for the PRA Training Course for Facilitators You need to set a date with the Commune People’s Committee for the PRA Training Course for Fa- cilitators. Confirm the number of Facilitators (Trainees), the Training Course location and prepare for the PRA Field Exercise conducted on the morning of Day 3. Here is some useful information to help you and the Commune People’s Committee prepare. Meet with the • Meet with the Commune People’s Committee to confirm a date for the PRA Training Course for Facilitators Commune People’s • The Training Course is 3 full days in duration—confirm these Committee dates don’t clash with other activities Confirm the Number • Confirm whether any Commune People’s Committee or Mass Movement Officials will also attend the Training Course of Facilitators • Request the names of all Facilitators and confirm the number (Trainees) of Trainees Training Location • Agree with the Commune People’s Committee on the Training Course location • Check that the location is suitable and appropriate for the num- ber of Trainees • Visit the location with the Commune People’s Committee and think about any additional materials or equipment that you might need (e.g. chairs, etc.) Preparation for PRA • The Morning of Day 3 of the Training Course involves a PRA Field Exercise Field Exercise (Day • This is conducted with 20-25 households in one Village in the 3) Commune and provides an opportunity for Facilitators to test the PRA Tool and their facilitation skills • Discuss with the Commune People’s Committee about a Village and location where the PRA Field Exercise will be conducted • Check the location of the PRA Field Exercise with the Com- mune People’s Committee and confirm that it is suitable • Remember to request the Commune People’s Committee to in- vite households to participate in the PRA Field Exercise—make sure that 50% of people invited are women 8
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Preparation of Training Materials It is very important to prepare sufficient Training Materials for the Training Course. Here is some useful information on the Training Materials required and their purpose. A0 Paper • About 50 A0 sheets of paper are required for the Training Course • These are used record discussion during the Course and the re- sults of PRA Field Exercises A0 PRA Tools • You need to prepare A0 presentations of PRA Tools—these are used to demonstrate to Trainees how to conduct each PRA Tool • These need to be prepared by the Trainers in advance—make sure that they are colourful and easy for Trainees to see Marker Pens • You will need a box of Marker Pens for the Training Course • Make sure that you have blue, black and red Marker Pens • Look after the Marker Pens—they will run out if you don’t take good care of them. Coloured Cards • Coloured Cards are small pieces of coloured paper about one- third A4 size • The different coloured cards are used to record ideas and results of Trainees/Trainers and are stuck on A0 paper during the Training Course • Coloured Cards are also used to highlight difficulties, opportuni- ties and activities proposed by households during PRA Field Exercises A4 Paper, Pens and • A4 paper and Folders are required for Trainees during the PRA Field Exercises Folders • The A4 paper and Folders are used to record the results of the PRA Field Exercises Chalk and • Coloured chalk is used to conduct some of the PRA Tools (e.g. Village Resource Mapping and Linkage Diagrams) - use the Coloured Pens chalk to draw items on the ground • Coloured pens are used for drawing on A0 results of PRA Tools and make results more visual and easier for households to un- derstand Additional • Rope is sometimes needed to hang A0 paper at the front of the room Materials • Clips are needed to attach A0 paper on rope to present results • Masking tape is used to stick Coloured Card and other items on A0 paper and PRA Tools Integrated Commune Development Planning 9
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Roles of Trainers You are now nearly prepared for your PRA Training Course for Facilitators. Before you start, the Trainers need to discuss training roles. Here are some suggestions that you might want to consider: Review the Training • The 3 Trainers need to review the Agenda of the PRA Training Course for Facilitators Course Agenda • Go through the Agenda with each other and make sure that you all understand the Training Session Plans and the steps in- volved Agree on Training • The Agenda of the PRA Training Course Facilitators is outlined on Page 3 and 4. Roles • Nominate a ‘Lead Trainer’ for the Training Course—this person will guide all Training Sessions, the Trainers and Trainees • Go through the Agenda and agree on which Trainer will train each Training Session • The nominated Trainer of each Session is helped by the remain- ing two Trainers Preparation of • The nominated Trainer for each Session is responsible for the preparation of all materials and preparation required for that Training Materials Session • Check the materials and preparation required for each Ses- sion—make sure that it is all prepared before the Training Course Integrated Commune Development Planning 10
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual PRA Training Course for Facilitators: Training Sessions 11
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Introduction to the Training Course Session Plans The PRA Training Course for Facilitators is divided into 23 Training Sessions. Each Training Session has ‘Session Plan’ that is contained in this Manual. Use the Session Plans to guide you through each Training Session. Here is some information to guide you through how to use the Session Plans: Session Plan Learning Outcomes • These are the main points that the Trainees should know or understand at the completion of each Training Session. Duration: Materials: • This outlines the materials required for each This is the time al- Training Session located for each par- • Make sure that these are prepared in advance ticular Training and ready when you start each Training Ses- Session. sion. TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials • The training methods and materials used to deliver training Time required for on each particular topic each particular The main topics of each Topic of the Train- Training Session • This Method and Materials Column will guide you step-by- ing Session step through each Training Session and Topic Tips for the Trainer: • This section provides you with some useful suggestions to help you through Session • Difficulties that you might encounter are sometimes highlighted and tips are given on how to overcome these. • Always take time to read this section of the Session Plans—it can be very useful for you! 12
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 1: Welcome and Introduction Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the Trainers and the other participants in the Training Course • Feel welcome and are ready to start! Duration: Materials: • Coloured cards • Marker pens 30 minutes • Box of matches TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Welcome the Trainees and thank them for their attendance Welcome to Facilitators and Explain briefly the objectives of the Training Course and the activities to be con- 10’ Trainees ducted Introduce the Trainers and other relevant people to the Trainees Begin by conducting an Ice-Breaking Exercise to introduce all Trainees to one- another and create a comfortable atmosphere to start the Training Course! Make sure that each Trainee is wearing a name tag written on a Coloured Card There are 3 Ice-Breaking Exercise options to use for Trainees to introduce each other: • Ask each person to light a match and introduce themselves in the time it takes for the match to go out 20’ Ice-Breaking Exercise • Throw a ball from person-to-person and ask each Trainee to intro- duce themselves when they catch the ball • Split the Trainees into pairs—each Trainee in a pair will find out some information about the other Trainee—they will then introduce each other Give a round of applause when everyone is finished—you now request the Train- ees to be seated and prepare for Session 2. Integrated Commune Development Planning 13
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 1: Welcome and Introduction Tips for the Trainer! • Make sure people stand in a circle when introducing one another during the Ice-Breaking Exercise • You can use an Ice-Breaking Exercise at the beginning of each half-day session—you will find that Train- ees will respond more enthusiastically during the Training Course • Check the seating arrangements when Trainees are seated. Make sure that Trainees are sitting in a cir- cle—no writing or desk work is required during the Training Courses Integrated Commune Development Planning 14
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 2: Introduction to the Training Course and Integrated CDP Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will know: • The content of the Training Course and activities to be conducted • Steps involved in Integrated CDP and the role of PRA in the planning process Duration: Materials: • A0 sheet with the Steps involved in Integrated CDP 30 minutes • A0 Planning diagram to summarise Integrated CDP TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Use the A0 sheet with the Steps involved in Integrated CDP to inform the Train- ees on the planning process • Highlight the previous methods to prepare a Commune Plan • Highlight improvements to the Planning Process initiated through Overview of Integrated Integrated CDP 15’ Commune Development Planning Summarise Integrated CDP by using the A0 planning diagram • Ask the Trainees what they think the diagram shows about making the Commune Plan Facilitate discussion between the Trainees and answer that Integrated CDP aims to merge available projects, programs and funds with household needs. Use the same two A0 sheets to outline and emphasise the steps that involve the participation of households • PRA Field Exercises • Village Planning Meetings Explain briefly the activities that are conducted during the PRA Field Exercises Household Participation in and the Village Planning Meetings 15’ Integrated Commune Devel- opment Planning Emphasize once again that PRA Field Exercises and Village Planning Meetings are Steps under Integrated CDP that collect information on the difficulties and priority activities of households • This information is used to prepare the Commune Plan Quickly review the information that you presented and ask questions to check that Trainees understand the content. Integrated Commune Development Planning 15
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 2: Introduction to the Training Course and Integrated CDP TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (Continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Emphasize two of the main Steps under Integrated CDP where households par- ticipation is high: • PRA Field Exercises and Village Planning Meetings Ask the Trainees about possible methods to gather household ideas at PRA Field Exercises and Village Planning Meetings • This is conducted through Facilitators PRA Training Course for • Facilitators work with groups of households and collect their ideas 10’ raised at PRA Field Exercises and Village Planning Meetings Facilitators Conclude that the Trainees were nominated to be Facilitators in the Commune • This is a very important job—they should be congratulated for being nominated This Training Course aims to equip Trainees with the necessary skills to act as Facilitators for PRA Field Exercises You are now ready proceed to Session 3 on the Agenda and Trainer/Trainee Agreement Tips for the Trainer! • Try to summarise the Integrated CDP Steps—don’t go into too much detail and confuse the Trainees on specific items. Integrated Commune Development Planning 16
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 3: Training Times, Agenda and Trainer/Trainee Agree- ment Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the Agenda of the PRA Training Course for Facilitators • Agree with the Trainer on start times, Course rules and obligations of the Trainer/Trainees Duration: Materials: • Blank A0 Paper • Marker Pens 20 minutes TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Each of the Trainees should have a copy of the Training Course Agenda Agenda of the Training 5’ Read through the Agenda with the Trainees—you might need to elaborate on Course some items or topics A Trainer/Trainee Agreement sets the rules for the Training Course! All Trainees (and Trainers) agree to adhere to the rules! Start by asking the Trainees to agree on preferred start times, lunch times and finish times for each day • Write these times on A0 Paper Discuss things that Trainees and Trainers should not do and discuss some penal- 15’ Trainer/Trainee Agreement ties if these rules are broken! • Late to arrive • Missing a Training Session • The Trainees will think of some more! Once you have written all items on the Trainer/Trainee Agreement and you con- firm that everyone agrees—request everyone to sign the Agreement before start- ing Morning Tea! Integrated Commune Development Planning 17
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 3: Training Times, Agenda and Trainer/Trainee Agree- ment Tips for the Trainer! • Prepare an A0 copy of the Agenda before the Training Course—you can hang this on a wall for the dura- tion of the Training Course so that Trainees know time limits and the duration of different Training Ses- sions • The Trainer/Trainee Agreement is very important—this sets rules for the Training Course. Keep this up on a wall so that all Trainees can see—and of course, you have to enforce the punishments! Integrated Commune Development Planning 18
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 4: Introduction and Purpose of PRA Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the purpose of PRA and how PRA is conducted • Understand basic concepts and terms used in PRA Duration: Materials: • Blank A0 Paper • Coloured Cards 45 minutes • Marker pens TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Hang a sheet of A0 Paper at the front of the room with the word ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal’ written on a card (in Vietnamese) - explain the abbreviation ‘PRA’ 5’ What is PRA? Using Coloured Cards, emphasize the main point of ‘What is PRA?’ • Set of Exercises conducted with households Emphasise using Coloured Cards on the same A0 sheet ‘The Purpose of PRA’ • Gather and analyse information on community resources • Analyse current situation and potential in a Village • Analyse problems and their causes • Support households to identify activities that respond to difficulties What is the Purpose of 10’ and opportunities PRA? Ask the Trainees ’How could PRA be useful in Integrated CDP?’ • Record their answers and write them on Coloured Cards to place on the A0 Paper Refer to the Integrated CDP A0 diagram and explain that PRA supports the iden- tification of difficulties and needs of households—these are considered when de- veloping the Commune Plan Write the word ‘PRA Tools’ on the A0 Paper and start to slowly explain what PRA Tools are to the Trainees • PRA is actually many different exercises or activities—these are called ‘PRA Tools’ • Each PRA Tool is conducted differently • Each PRA Tool has a different purpose and outcome 15’ PRA Tools Explain that there are many PRA Tools—this Training Course will only focus on 8 of these PRA Tools Refer to the information you provided the Trainees at the beginning of the Session about the purpose of the PRA • These 8 PRA Tools are used to gather and analyse information on the community resource status, problems, potential and needs. Integrated Commune Development Planning 19
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 4: Introduction and Purpose of PRA TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (Continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Write the words ‘How is PRA Conducted’ on the A0 Paper and start to slowly ex- plain how PRA is conducted PRA is conducted with households from a Village or Hamlet • 20—25 households • Half-day in duration in each Village or Hamlet • Each half-day in a Village or Hamlet is called a ‘PRA Field Exercise’ 15’ How is PRA Conducted? PRA Field Exercises are conducted with households and Facilitators • Facilitators are people that guide discussion between households— we will learn more about Facilitators in Session 5 • Facilitators work with groups of households to conduct the PRA Tools Review the content learnt in Session 4 and refresh the information for the Train- ees—check that Trainees have an understanding of what you discussed. Tips for the Trainer! • Don’t be too concerned if Trainees find it hard to understand the content of Session 4—this information will be consolidated as you proceed through the Training Course and following Training Sessions. • Use Coloured Cards to highlight the main points that you make in Session 4—remember Coloured Cards should only have 1 main idea and be easy for all Trainees to read. • Don’t go into too much detail in Session 4—one of the most important Learning Outcomes of Session 4 is that Trainees understand PRA terminology (e.g. PRA, PRA Tools, PRA Field Exercises, Facilitators, etc.) and the difference between these. Integrated Commune Development Planning 20
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 5: Roles and Purpose of Facilitators Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the roles of a Facilitator in Integrated Commune Development Planning • Understand good Facilitation behaviours and behaviours to avoid Duration: Materials: • Blank A0 Paper • Coloured Cards 60 minutes • Marker pens • A0 Integrated CDP Diagram (used in Session 2) TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Place an A0 Paper at the front of the room with ‘Facilitators’ written on the top Ask the Trainees • What is a Facilitator? • What might the role of a Facilitator be? Record the answers of Trainees on Coloured Cards and place them on a sheet of A0 Paper and continue discussion 15’ What are Facilitators? Review the responses of the Trainees, congratulate correct responses and write the correct answer on Coloured Cards: • Facilitators guide discussion between households • Facilitators are not teachers • Facilitators work with households to identify community needs and link households to the planning process On the A0 Paper write ‘Characteristics of Good Facilitators’ and ask the Trainees ‘What do think are characteristics of a good Facilitator’? Record the answers of Trainees on Coloured Cards and place them on the A0 Pa- per and continue discussion Review the responses of the Trainees, congratulate correct responses and write the correct answer on Coloured Cards: What are Characteristics of • Enthusiastic 15’ a Good Facilitator? • Respect ideas raised by households • Someone people like and respect • Have some background knowledge of the people and the Commune • Understand and respect the local culture • A good listener Integrated Commune Development Planning 21
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 5: Roles and Purpose of Facilitators TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Write ‘Behaviours that Facilitators should Avoid’ on the bottom-half of the A0 Paper and ask the Trainees ‘What do think are behaviours a Facilitator’ should avoid? Record the answers of Trainees on Coloured Cards and place them on a sheet of A0 Paper and continue discussion Review the responses of the Trainees, congratulate correct responses and write What Behaviours should the correct answer on Coloured Cards: 15’ Facilitators Avoid? • Prejudice or possess a negative attitude towards people • Use complex terms with households • Project one’s own idea all the time • Lecture or teach households • Reject ideas or comments raised by households Use the A0 Planning Diagram used in Session 2 to discuss the roles of Facilitators in Integrated CDP and help the Trainees to visualize • PRA Field Exercises • PRA Field Exercises Review Meeting Role of Facilitators in Inte- 15’ grated CDP and Review of • PRA Presentations at Village Planning Meetings Session 5 • Village Planning Meetings—Facilitating household groups • Participation at Commune Plan Preparation Meetings Review the content of Session 5 with the Trainees—ask questions to confirm that Trainees understand the content Tips for the Trainer! • The Trainers can use simple examples to demonstrate behaviours that Facilitators should avoid—you can do this by acting some of these behaviours. Ask the households if these behaviours are good or not—and how should Facilitators act? • Emphasize the important role that Facilitators play and give them some praise to make them feel impor- tant—this will increase their level of confidence and enthusiasm in the Training Course. 22
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 6: Historical Timelines Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the methods used to conduct Historical Timeline exercises • Understand the use of Historical Timelines and how to analyse results Duration: Materials: • Blank A0 Paper • Coloured Cards 60 minutes • Marker pens • A0 Historical Timeline Exercise • Chalk TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are going to conduct a Historical Timeline exer- cise together—you can either do this on the floor of the Training Room or outside Follow the Method outlined in the ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal: Manual for Facilitators’ • Work through slowly and carefully—make sure all Trainees can see and understand what you are doing Example of a Historical Remember to ask the Trainees about key positive and negative events throughout 25’ Timeline Exercise history • Record ‘events’ and ‘influences’ on the Timeline for each event Record the results on an A0 sheet of Paper with 3 columns: Date, Event and Influ- ence • Facilitate discussion between the participants on key events and trends in History and look at future vulnerability to events Discuss the results of the Historical Timeline exercise with the Trainees Show the Trainees the results of the A0 Historical Timeline you prepared before the Training Course Review of Historical Time- • Discuss the similarities and differences between the two exercises 15’ line Results Ask about the facilitation skills that Facilitators should use to do Historical Time- lines • Can the Trainees think of any difficulties that they will face doing Historical Timelines? If so—how can these be overcome? Integrated Commune Development Planning 23
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 6: Historical Timelines TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Look at the Historical Timelines, ask the Trainees ‘How can the results of Histori- cal Timelines be used?’—record and discuss answers Historical Timelines can be used to: • Provide orientation to development plans • Learn lessons on events that have happened in the past and their Application of Historical effects 20’ Timelines • Identify issues associated with livestock/crop production and their effects • Identify community vulnerability to events (e.g. natural disasters) and their frequency Review the activities conducted in Session 6 and clarify any questions or difficul- ties that Trainees have with Historical Timelines. Tips for the Trainer! • Historical Timelines are very interesting—you can learn a lot about the history of the people and the Com- mune—show your interest when you are conducting the exercise with the Trainees • Start the Historical Timeline exercise on the floor of the Training Room or outside on the ground—using this method means that the Trainees are likely to use a similar approach when facilitating the exercise with households. Integrated Commune Development Planning 24
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 7: Village Resource Mapping Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the methods used to conduct Village Resource Mapping exercises • Understand the use of Village Resource Mapping and how to analyse results Duration: Materials: • Blank A0 Paper • Coloured Cards 60 minutes • Marker pens • A0 Village Resource Map • Chalk and local materials TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are going to conduct a Village Resource Mapping exercise together—do this on the ground outside the Training Room Follow the Method outlined in the ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal: Manual for Facilitators’ • Work through slowly and carefully—make sure all Trainees can see and understand what you are doing Remember to keep all Trainees active and participate in the Mapping exercise Example of a Village Re- 25’ source Map • Use some locally available products to stick on the Map (e.g. sticks, stones, leaves, etc.) Facilitate discussion between the Trainees on the resources/land types, which resources are abundant/scarce, current problems and potential activities • Show the Trainees how to transfer the results from the Village Re- source Mapping exercise onto an A0 Matrix highlighting land/ resource type, status, problems, potential and solutions Discuss the results of the Village Resource Mapping exercise with the Trainees Show the Trainees the results of the A0 Village Resource Mapping you prepared before the Training Course • Discuss the similarities and differences between the results of the Review of Village Resource two exercises 15’ Mapping Results Ask about facilitation skills that Facilitators should use to do Village Resource Mapping • Can the Trainees think of any difficulties that they will face doing Village Resource Mapping? If so—how can these be overcome? Integrated Commune Development Planning 25
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 7: Village Resource Mapping TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Look at the Village Resource Mapping results, ask the Trainees ‘How can the re- sults of Village Resource Mapping be used?’—record and discuss answers Village Resource Mapping can be used to: • Identify issues associated with local resources and land types • Identify appropriate solutions and opportunities to improve land use management • Develop simple land use management plans Ask the Trainees to think of times when you can use Village Resource Mapping— Application of Village Re- 20’ record and discuss the answers source Mapping • Planning large-scale activities in a community (e.g. roads, irrigation, etc.) • Assessing different land types, their uses and opportunities • Doing farming systems or forestry surveys to assess land use and potential Review the activities conducted in Session 7 and clarify any questions or difficul- ties that Trainees have with Village Resource Mapping It is now time for Afternoon Tea! Tips for the Trainer! • Having a beautiful map is not the most important result of Village Resource Mapping—discussion on re- source issues and opportunities is the most important element of Village Resource Mapping—you need to demonstrate this when you are conducting this exercise with the Trainees! • Remember to make the map on the ground first using local materials (rocks, sticks, grass, etc.) - this makes it easy to make changes to the Map—the Map can then copied onto A0 paper and coloured in. • Keep the Village Resource Map and the results close by—this will be needed for Session 8 (Transect Walks) - Village Resource Mapping and Transect Walk results complement each other. Integrated Commune Development Planning 26
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 8: Transect Walks Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the methods used to conduct a Transect Walk exercise • Understand the use of Transect Walks and how to analyse results Duration: Materials: • A0 Village Resource Map • A4 Paper and Folder 60 minutes • A0 paper • Marker Pens • A0 Transect Walk Matrix TIME, CONTENT AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are going to conduct a Transect Walk exercise together Follow the Method outlined in the ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal: Manual for Facilitators’ • Make sure that you actually conduct a small Transect Walk with the Trainees—pick a route on the Village Resource Map • Walk slowly and stop at each location discuss carefully 25’ Example of a Transect Walk Remember to keep all Trainees active and participate in the discussions at each site • Record the discussion on the Matrix on the A4 Paper Facilitate discussion between the Trainees on the resources and land types and their current status/uses, issues, potential and suggested activities • Show the Trainees how to transfer the results from the Transect Walk exercise onto an A0 Matrix highlighting land type, status, problems, potential and solutions Discuss the results of the Transect Walk exercise with the Trainees Show the Trainees the results of an A0 Matrix you prepared before the Training Course Review of Transect Walk • Discuss the similarities and differences between the results of the 15’ two exercises Results Ask about facilitation skills that Facilitators should use to do Transect Walks • Can the Trainees think of any difficulties that they will face doing Transect Walks? If so—how can these be overcome? Integrated Commune Development Planning 27
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 8: Transect Walks TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Look at the Transect Walk results, ask the Trainees ‘How can the results of Tran- sect Walks be used’? - record and discuss answers Transect Walks can be used to: • Identify issues associated with local resources and land types • Discuss and visualize issues associated with local resources and land types • Develop simple land use management plans Application of Transect • Transect Walks also contribute to the land and resource status, is- 20’ sues and potential outlined in Village Resource Mapping! Walks Ask the Trainees to think of times when you can use Transect Walks—record and discuss the answers • Planning activities in a community (e.g. roads, irrigation, etc.) • Assessing different land types, their uses and opportunities • Planning farming systems of agricultural activities with households Review the activities conducted in Session 8 and clarify any questions or difficul- ties that Trainees have with Transect Walks Tips for the Trainer! • Emphasize that Transect Walks are best conducted after Village Resource Mapping—these two Tools are similar • As you walk with the Trainees through the Village, take some small samples of leaves of crops—you can place these on your Village Resource Map • Remember that Transect Walks are a Tool that households and Facilitators can learn together—ask ques- tions about why households do/don’t do certain cropping or land use practices Integrated Commune Development Planning 28
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 9: Day 1 Review and Conclusions Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Review and consolidate knowledge learnt on Day 1 • Outline any difficulties or areas requiring some further information or understanding Duration: Materials: • A0 PRA Results and Session Materials • Marker Pens 15 minutes • Coloured Cards TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are quickly going to review the Sessions on Day 1 and information provided • Use the A0 Session Presentations or A0 PRA Results to do this Go through each Training Session briefly highlighting the main points that Train- ees should remember • Session 2—Introduction to Integrated CDP and PRA • Session 3—Agenda and Trainer/Trainee Agreement 10’ Review of Day 1 • Session 4—Introduction and Purpose of PRA • Session 5—Roles and Purpose of Facilitators • Session 6—Historical Timelines • Session 7—Village Resource Mapping • Session 8—Transect Walks There is no need to go into great detail—remember that you will review Day 1 again at the beginning of Day 2 It is now time to conclude Day 1! 5’ Conclusion and Closing • Thank the Trainees for their attendance and enthusiasm • Remind them of the starting time for Day 2 Integrated Commune Development Planning 29
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 9: Day 1 Review and Conclusions Tips for the Trainer! • Collect all the Training Materials for Day 1 and prepare for the Session 10 on Day 2—you will need these Materials for this Session • It is often good for Trainers to have a brief discussion at the end of the Training Session to review Day 1 and prepare for Day 2—think about information or PRA Tools that Trainees do not understand well—you could focus on these in Session 10 of Day 2. Integrated Commune Development Planning 30
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 10: Day 1 Review and Day 2 Activities Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Review and consolidate knowledge learnt on Day 1 • Understand the activities to be conducted on Day 2 of the Training Course Duration: Materials: • A0 PRA Results and Session Materials • Marker Pens 20 minutes • Coloured Cards • A0 Agenda TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are quickly going to review the PRA Tools on Day 1 and information provided • Make sure that you have the A0 PRA Results to do this Go through each PRA Tool briefly highlighting the main points that Trainees should remember—ask questions and request Trainees to give answers! 10’ Review of Day 1 • Historical Timelines • Village Resource Mapping • Transect Walks Think about PRA Tools and facilitation approaches that Trainees had difficulties with on Day 1—you can refresh their knowledge in this Session It is now time to inform the Trainees on the activities that will be conducted on Day 2 Training will be delivered on 5 PRA Tools • Wealth Ranking • Seasonal Calendars 10’ Day 2 Activities • Linkage Diagrams • Matrix Scoring and Ranking • Problem-Cause-Effect-Solution Trees Time will be allocated to review all of the PRA Tools A PRA Field Exercise will be conducted on the morning of Day 3—the final Train- ing Session on Day 2 will prepare for this Field Exercise Integrated Commune Development Planning 31
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 10: Day 1 Review and Day 2 Activities Tips for the Trainer! • The Review of Day 1 activities should focus mainly on the PRA Tools from Day 1—ask a lot of questions and answers to check the Trainees’ understanding Integrated Commune Development Planning 32
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 11: Wealth Ranking Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the methods used to conduct a Wealth Ranking exercise • Understand the use of Wealth Ranking and how to analyse results Duration: Materials: • Blank A0 Paper • Coloured Cards 60 minutes • Coloured Cards with household names • Marker pens • A0 Wealth Ranking Results TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are going to conduct a Wealth Ranking exercise together Follow the Method outlined in the ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal: Manual for Facilitators’ • Work through slowly and carefully—make sure all Trainees can see and understand what you are doing Remember to ask Trainees about the different characteristics of each Wealth Class • Record the different characteristics on the A0 paper—use drawings 25’ Example of Wealth Ranking and pictures to show these characteristics Explain to the Trainees that you record the names of households from a Village on small Coloured Cards • Give some examples of methods to facilitate discussion to place households in a separate Wealth Class • Once you have completed placing households in a Wealth Class, demonstrate how the names of households and their Wealth Class are recorded on A4 paper Facilitate discussion on the results of the Wealth Ranking exercise Discuss the results of the Wealth Ranking exercise with the Trainees Show the Trainees the results of the A0 Wealth Ranking exercise you prepared before the Training Course Review of Historical Time- • Discuss the similarities and differences between the two exercises 15’ line Results Ask about facilitation skills that Facilitators should use to do Wealth Ranking • Can the Trainees think of any difficulties that they will face doing Wealth Ranking? If so—how can these be overcome? Integrated Commune Development Planning 33
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 11: Wealth Ranking TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Look at the Wealth Ranking results, ask the Trainees ‘How can the results of Wealth Ranking be used?’—record and discuss answers Wealth Ranking can be used to: • Identify the characteristics and resources of different Wealth Classes in a Village or Hamlet Application of Wealth Rank- • Target poor households for assistance 20’ ing • Design suitable activities for different Wealth Classes (especially the poor) based on their available resources • Monitor and evaluate development assistance over time to observe changes in asset ownership Review the activities conducted in Session 11 and clarify any questions or difficul- ties that the Trainees have with Wealth Ranking. Tips for the Trainer! • You need to prepare some names of households on small Coloured Cards before the Training Session— these are used to provide an example for the Trainees on methods to place households in a Wealth Class • Trainers should emphasize to Trainees that households are sometimes shy or afraid to place households in a Wealth Class—you can then discuss with the Trainees that Facilitators have to be very patient and em- pathetic • In the ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal: Manual for Facilitators’ some suggestions are given on how Wealth Ranking can be combined with Linkage Village Resource Mapping. Demonstrate how the names of poor households can placed on the Village Resource Map and facilitate discussion on what is interesting about the results. Can further information be added to the Wealth Ranking results based on the locations where poor household live??? Integrated Commune Development Planning 34
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 12: Seasonal Calendars Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the methods used to conduct a Seasonal Calendar exercises • Understand the use of Seasonal Calendars and how to analyse results Duration: Materials: • Blank A0 Paper and Marker Pens • Coloured Cards 60 minutes • Sticks and Stones • A0 Seasonal Calendar Results (Income and Ex- penditure and Household Consumption) TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are going to conduct a Seasonal Calendar exer- cise together Follow the Method outlined in the ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal: Manual for Facilitators’ • Work through slowly and carefully—make sure all Trainees can see and understand what you are doing Remember to ask households about the different activities or items required for each topic of the Seasonal Calendar • It is best to use two different Seasonal Calendars as an example: Example of a Seasonal Cal- 25’ Cattle Raising Seasonal Calendar and a Rice Paddy Seasonal Calen- endar dar Use local materials (sticks and stones) to highlight the intensity of activities or availability of resources • Facilitate discussion between the households and use sticks and stones to complete the Seasonal Calendar • Make sure you demonstrate how women’s and men’s priorities can be identified through men and women using different objects Facilitate discussion on the results of the Seasonal Calendar exercise Discuss the results of the Seasonal Calendar exercises with the Trainees Show the Trainees the results of the A0 Seasonal Calendar exercises you pre- pared before the Training Course on Income and Expenditure and Household con- sumption Review of Seasonal Calen- • Discuss methods on how this can be conducted and how to modify 15’ dar Results Seasonal Calendars for other topics Ask about facilitation skills that Facilitators should use to do Seasonal Calendars • Can the Trainees think of any difficulties that they will face doing Seasonal Calendars? If so—how can these be overcome? Integrated Commune Development Planning 35
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 12: Seasonal Calendars TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Look at the Seasonal Calendar results, ask the Trainees ‘How can the results of Seasonal Calendars be used?’—record and discuss answers Seasonal Calendars can be used to: • Identify appropriate timing and duration to plan different activities • Identify seasonal problems and issues • Identify activities to solve potential problems or issues Ask the Trainees about the different topics you can use Seasonal Calendars to Application of Seasonal Cal- investigate and plan: 20’ endars • Cropping • Livestock • Income/Expenditure • Household consumption • Social or community issues or events Review the activities conducted in Session 12 and clarify any questions or difficul- ties that Trainees have with Seasonal Calendars Tips for the Trainer! • It is important for the Trainers to emphasize that Seasonal Calendars can be used for a range of different topics—you need to facilitate discussion between the Trainees on methods to do this and give some exam- ples. • Remember to use local materials and pictures when doing the Seasonal Calendars—the Trainees will learn this from you and will apply this method when facilitating with households Integrated Commune Development Planning 36
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 13: Linkage Diagrams Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the methods used to conduct a Linkage Diagram exercises • Understand the use of Linkage Diagram and how to analyse results Duration: Materials: • Chalk • Blank A0 Paper 60 minutes • Coloured Cards • Marker pens • A0 Linkage Diagram Results TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are going to conduct a Linkage Diagram exercise together Follow the Method outlined in the ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal: Manual for Facilitators’ - conduct the Linkage Diagram outside on the ground • Work through slowly and carefully—make sure all Trainees can see and understand what you are doing Remember to ask households about the resources in typical households and in- clude these in the Linkage Diagram Example of a Linkage Dia- • Use local materials (sticks, rocks, grass, flowers, etc.) to highlight 25’ gram different objects on the Linkage Diagram Discuss the resource flows and use of resources in the Linkage Diagram—use the chalk to highlight the direction of these resource flows • Remember to demonstrate how it is possible to highlight women’s and men’s roles—you can use different coloured chalk or different materials (e.g. different coloured flowers) Facilitate discussion on the results of the Seasonal Calendar exercise—use col- oured cards to identify any problems discussed or opportunities identified Discuss the results of the Linkage Diagram exercise with the Trainees Show the Trainees the results of an A0 Linkage Diagram exercise you prepared before the Training Course Review of Linkage Diagram • Discuss the similarities and differences between the results of the 15’ two exercises Results Ask about facilitation skills that Facilitators should use to do Linkage Diagrams • Can the Trainees think of any difficulties that they will face doing Linkage Diagrams? If so—how can these be overcome? Integrated Commune Development Planning 37
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 13: Linkage Diagrams TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Look at the Linkage Diagram results, ask the Trainees ‘How can the results of Linkage Diagrams be used?’—record and discuss answers Linkage Diagrams can be used to: • Analyse farming systems and the flow of resources in the local area • Analyse labour divisions and gender roles in household farming sys- tems • Identify resource constraints, problems and opportunities Application of Linkage Dia- 20’ Ask the Trainees about other possible uses of Linkage Diagrams—discuss the grams comments raised by Trainees • Economic analysis of household farming systems (quantities and unit costs of inputs and outputs) • Comparing and analyzing household resources of different Wealth Classes—which PRA Tool can this be combined with? Review the activities conducted in Session 13 and clarify any questions or difficul- ties that Trainees have with Linkage Diagrams Tips for the Trainer! • Remember that Linkage Diagrams can be combined with Wealth Ranking—you should look at the Wealth Ranking results and discuss how a Linkage Diagram could be done for a particular Wealth Class (e.g. poor households) Integrated Commune Development Planning 38
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 14: Matrix Scoring and Ranking Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the methods used to conduct a Matrix Scoring and Ranking exercises • Understand the use of Matrix Scoring and Ranking and how to analyse results Duration: Materials: • Blank A0 Paper • Sticks and Stones 60 minutes • Coloured Cards • Marker pens • A0 Matrix Scoring and Ranking Results TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are going to conduct a Matrix Scoring and Rank- ing exercise together Follow the Method outlined in the ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal: Manual for Facilitators’ • Work through slowly and carefully—make sure all Trainees can see and understand what you are doing Conduct the exercise for two different topics: Livestock and Crops • Identifying criteria to rank is the most difficult part of Matrix Scor- ing and Ranking—remember to ask the Trainees what is good about Example of a Matrix Scor- each variety—the answers can be used as the criteria 25’ ing and Ranking Exercise • Emphasize the importance of having criteria that are clear and easy for the Trainees (and households) to understand Now proceed to score each livestock or crop variety—make sure all Trainees par- ticipate • Remember to demonstrate how it is possible to highlight women’s and men’s priorities—you can use different materials for women’s and men’s priorities (e.g. men use sticks, women use stones) Facilitate discussion on the results of the Matrix Scoring and Ranking exercise— use A0 cards to identify any problems discussed or opportunities identified Discuss the results of the Matrix Scoring and Ranking exercise with the Trainees Show the Trainees the results of the A0 Matrix Scoring and Ranking exercises you prepared before the Training Course—this should demonstrate how Matrix Scoring and Ranking can be used for community problems or issues • Discuss methods on how this can be conducted and how to modify Review of Matrix Scoring Matrix Scoring and Ranking for other topics 15’ and Ranking Results Ask about facilitation skills that Facilitators should use to do Matrix Scoring and Ranking • Can the Trainees think of any difficulties that they will face doing Matrix Scoring and Ranking? If so—how can these be overcome? Integrated Commune Development Planning 39
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 14: Matrix Scoring and Ranking TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Look at the Matrix Scoring and Ranking results, ask the Trainees ‘How can the results of Matrix Scoring and Ranking be used?’—record and discuss answers Matrix Scoring and Ranking can be used to: • Identify household preferences and reasons for these preferences • Identify problems associated with different varieties (crops/ livestock) or community issues • Understand household-perceived importance of community prob- Application of Matrix Scor- lems and reasons for their importance 20’ ing and Ranking Ask the Trainees to think about times that they can use Matrix Scoring and Ranking—discuss the answers: • Planning activities with households to identify preferred activities or varieties (crops or livestock) of households • Identifying the household-perceived importance of community prob- lems and reasons for their importance Review the activities conducted in Session 13 and clarify any questions or difficul- ties that Trainees have with Matrix Scoring and Ranking Tips for the Trainer! • The most difficult part of Matrix Scoring and Ranking is to identify criteria to score and rank each activity or variety against. Remember to start by asking the Trainees ‘What is good about each variety?’. Trainees will respond with ‘Little…., easy to ….., etc.). Make sure that you use a similar sentence for each of the cri- teria—this won’t confuse the Trainees and will make the Scoring and Ranking easier to conduct. • Remember to demonstrate clearly how Matrix Scoring and Ranking can be used for community problems (social, health, women’s, etc.) - simply choose a topic (e.g. women’s health), identify the health problems, discuss some of the impacts (these become your criteria to score and rank) and start the exercise! Integrated Commune Development Planning 40
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 15: Problem-Cause-Effect-Solution Trees Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Know the methods used to conduct a Problem-Cause-Effect-Solution Tree exercise • Understand the use of Problem-Cause-Effect-Solution Tree (’Problem Tree’) and how to analyse results Duration: Materials: • Blank A0 Paper • Coloured Cards 60 minutes • Marker pens • A0 Problem Tree TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are going to conduct a Problem Tree exercise together Follow the Method outlined in the ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal: Manual for Facilitators’ • Work through slowly and carefully—make sure all Trainees can see and understand what you are doing Conduct the exercise for a health problem in the community—remember that the Example of a Problem Tree ‘Problem’ has to be specific 25’ Exercise • Cause and Effects of the problem need to be as specific as possible • Work with the Trainees to discuss links between causes and effects and contributing/flow-on causes and effects Facilitate discussion on the causes, effects and solutions—use A0 cards to high- light the results • Make sure the causes, effects and solutions use different coloured cards Discuss the results of the Problem Tree exercise with the Trainees Show the Trainees the results of the A0 Problem Tree exercise you prepared be- fore the Training Course Explain to the Trainees that Problems Trees can be used for any particular prob- lem or issue Review of Problem Tree 15’ Results • Discuss methods on how this can be conducted and how to conduct Problem Trees for other problems or issues Ask about facilitation skills that Facilitators should use to do Problem Trees • Can the Trainees think of any difficulties that they will face doing Problem Trees? If so—how can these be overcome? Integrated Commune Development Planning 41
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 15: Problem-Cause-Effect-Solution Trees TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Look at the Problem Tree results, ask the Trainees ‘How can the results of Prob- lem Trees be used?’—record and discuss answers Problem Trees can be used to: • Identify household perceptions of causes of problems facing house- holds • Identify household perceptions of effects of problems facing house- holds • Identify linkages between causes and effects of problems facing households Application of Problem • Propose solutions and activities households can do that will contrib- 20’ Trees ute to solving the problem and its causes Ask the Trainees to think about times that Problems Trees can be used—discuss the answers between each other: • Planning activities with households—especially social programs (health, education, gender and women’s issues) • Analysing social and community problems • Looking at issues and problems facing women in a Commune Review the activities conducted in Session 15 and clarify any questions or difficul- ties that Trainees have with Problem Trees Tips for the Trainer! • Problem Trees can also be used with Matrix Scoring and Ranking (if you have done Matrix Scoring and Ranking for a social, community or health problem) - you can use the Problem Tree to analyse in more de- tail the most serious social, community or health problem ranked in the Matrix Scoring and Ranking Exer- cise. You should explain this simple suggestion to the Trainees! • Remember to demonstrate that Problem Trees can be used to analyse almost any type of problems raised by households—you can use Problem Trees to investigate livestock, cropping, natural disaster or rural in- frastructure problems as well! Integrated Commune Development Planning 42
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 16: Review of PRA Tools Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Consolidate knowledge on the use of PRA Tools and facilitation skills • Review any difficulties identified during the Day 2 of the Training Course Duration: Materials: • Blank A0 Paper • Coloured Cards 60 minutes • Marker pens • A0 PRA Tool results TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are quickly going to review the Sessions and PRA Tools on Day 2 and information provided • Make sure that you have the A0 Session Presentations and A0 PRA Results to do this Go through each Training Session briefly highlighting the main points that Train- ees should remember • Session 11—Wealth Ranking 20’ Review of Day 2 PRA Tools • Session 12—Seasonal Calendars • Session 13—Linkage Diagrams • Session 14—Matrix Scoring and Ranking • Session 15—Problem Trees Ask questions to the Trainees to check that they understand the PRA Tools • Think about difficulties that Trainees faced during each Session and try to consolidate this knowledge Explain to the Trainees that they now know the 8 PRA Tools—this is now an op- portunity to further consolidate their knowledge and understanding of each of these Tools Ask the Trainees if they have any questions or concerns about some of the Tools Review and Discussion on • Provide advice and answer questions or concerns 10’ the 8 PRA Tools Summarize by stating that the results each time you conduct a PRA Tool is differ- ent • The results and exercises conducted in this Training Course are ex- amples only—results will be different when Trainees facilitate with households Integrated Commune Development Planning 43
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 16: Review of PRA Tools Tips for the Trainer! • Before conducting Session 16, the Trainers should sit together during Afternoon Tea break and think about which Tools the Trainees might be struggling with—you can pay more attention to these when con- ducting Session 16 and reviewing the PRA Tools Integrated Commune Development Planning 44
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 17: Preparation for PRA Field Exercise (Day 3) Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will: • Understand the activities conduct during the PRA Field Exercise on Day 3 • Prepare for the PRA Field Exercise and agree on which Trainee (Facilitator!) will conduct each PRA Tool Duration: Materials: • Blank A0 Paper • Coloured Cards 45 minutes • Marker pens TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that on the Morning of Day 3 there is a PRA Field Exer- cise in one Village in the Commune Explain what a PRA Field Exercise is and how it is conducted: • A PRA Field Exercise is conducted with 20—25 people (‘households’) in a Village or Hamlet • The households break into groups of 4—8 households per group • Each household group works with a Facilitator Introduction to PRA Field 15’ • The household groups and Facilitators conduct different PRA Tools Exercises • The results of the PRA Tools conducted by each group are reviewed and discussed Explain that household groups and Facilitators conduct different PRA Tools • Each household group and Facilitator conduct 2 PRA Tools • The 2 PRA Tools that household groups and Facilitators conduct have a similar topic—ask the Trainees some PRA Tools that could be conducted together! Give the Trainees some background information on the PRA Field Exercise that will be conducted on Day 3: • Location • Number of households attending (men and women) • Starting time Agenda and Other Items to 5’ Explain that items that have to be prepared before the PRA Field Exercise on Day Prepare 3: • Materials (A0 paper, marker pens, coloured cards, etc) • Presentations on PRA and Integrated Commune Development Plan- ning • Agenda Integrated Commune Development Planning 45
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 16: Review of PRA Tools TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Use A0 paper to prepare the Agenda for the PRA Field Exercise on Day 3 You need to ensure all Trainees understand the activities that will be conducted at the PRA Field Exercise • Prepare a simple Agenda that Trainees can copy down and take with them to the PRA Field Exercise Introduction to PRA and Integrated Commune Development Planning • Encourage one of the Facilitators to do this—go over the Presenta- tion with the chosen Presenter to make them feel more comfortable Based on the number of households and number of Facilitators, households groups and Facilitators will now be outlined 20’ PRA Tools and Facilitators • Each Group should have a Topic (e.g. livestock, women’s health, natural resources, household farming systems, household resources, etc.) • Outline the PRA Tools that each group will conduct based on the topic—each group should only perform 2 PRA Tools • Make sure that you group common similar PRA Tools together Identify which Facilitator will work with which household group • Nominate a Facilitator for each PRA Tool • Remember to nominate a Recorder Review the Agenda with the Trainees—make sure everyone understands their role Explain the roles that the Trainers will play at the PRA Field Exercises Agreement on the PRA • Support and assist Trainees (Facilitators) when needed 5’ Field Exercise Agenda • Assist in the Review of the PRA Results Thank everyone for their attendance on Day 2 and remind them not to be late the following morning! Tips for the Trainer! • Before conducting Session 17, Trainers should think about the number of household groups in advance— choose a topic for each group and think about the PRA Tools that will be conducted. Ask the Trainees to think about the PRA Tools that should be used for each topic to test their knowledge! Integrated Commune Development Planning 46
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 18: PRA Field Exercise—Introduction to the PRA Field Exercise and Integrated CDP Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, households will know: • Steps involved in Integrated CDP and the role of PRA in the planning process • The application of PRA results in Integrated CDP Duration: Materials: • A0 sheet with the Steps involved in Integrated CDP 20 minutes • A0 Planning diagram to summarise Integrated CDP TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Welcome the Households and thank them for their attendance Overview of Integrated Use the A0 sheet with the Steps involved in Integrated CDP to inform the house- 5’ Commune Development holds on the planning process Planning Summarise Integrated CDP by using the A0 planning diagram Use the same two A0 sheets to outline and emphasise the steps that involve the participation of households • PRA Field Exercises Household Participation in • Village Planning Meetings 5’ Integrated Commune Devel- Explain briefly the activities that are conducted during the PRA Field Exercise opment Planning Emphasize once again that PRA Field Exercises and Village Planning Meetings are Steps under Integrated CDP that collect information on the difficulties and priority activities of households • This information is used to prepare the Commune Plan Explain that Households will split into Groups • Each group will work on a different topic (e.g. livestock, natural re- sources, health problems, household resources, etc.) Steps Involved in PRA Field 5’ • Each group will conduct 2 PRA Tools—these a exercises to identify Exercises the current status, difficulties and opportunities according to house- holds in the Village • Each group will work with a Facilitator Integrated Commune Development Planning 47
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 18: PRA Field Exercise—Introduction to the PRA Field Exercise and Integrated CDP TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Introduce the Facilitators that will work with household groups—make sure that all households can see the Facilitators Explain the number of household groups there will be and the topic that each group will work on 5’ PRA Tools and Facilitators • Introduce the Facilitators for each of these groups Read out the names of households that will work in each group and request that move to a location with each Facilitator Tips for the Trainer! • The Trainers and Trainees (Facilitators!) should discuss before the PRA Field Exercise on the number of households groups and review any modifications to the Agenda. • Discuss with the Facilitators before the Introduction about the locations where they will conduct their PRA Tools—this will make it much easier to split households into groups Integrated Commune Development Planning 48
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 19: PRA Field Exercise—PRA Tool Exercises Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, the households and Trainees (Facilitators) will have: • Conducted the PRA Tools for the topic the group will analyse • Identified the status, issues, opportunities and activities to conditions and resources in the Village Duration: Materials: • A0 Paper • Coloured Cards 130 minutes • Marker Pens • Folders and A4 paper TOPIC AND METHOD Topic Method and Materials This is designed to assist Trainers when Trainees are conducting the PRA Field Exercise on Day 3. Trainers should follow the work of each Trainee (Facilitator) and household group. It is important to support Trainees—not criticize them— remember that Trainees respond better to a supportive Trainer. Record any problems or issues that you find Trainees encounter. You can go through some of these issues at the Review that will be conducted in the afternoon. It is important for Trainers to keep a little notebook and record problems or difficulties that Trainees face—you will use this to facilitate discussion when reviewing the PRA Field Exercise Check that Facilitators are comfortable with the PRA Tools and are applying them correctly • Record any problems and write down methods to overcome these PRA Tools • Identify any facilitation improvements that could be made for each of the PRA Tools Assist the Trainees if they are having troubles—the Trainer facilitates for a short period of time and then encourages the Trainee (Facilitator) to take over. • Remember to show enthusiasm and encourage the Trainee (Facilitator) and house- holds Observe the overall facilitation skills of the Trainees when conducting the PRA Tools • Look at the interaction of Trainees (Facilitators) with the households—are all households participating and involved in the PRA Tools? • Are seating arrangements adequate and create an environment for all households Facilitation Skills and the Facilitator to interact? • Are the households enthusiastic and is the Facilitator encouraging enthusiasm among the households Observe if men and women are participating equally—it might be helpful for you (the Trainer) to help the Facilitator and encourage the participation of women Integrated Commune Development Planning 49
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 19: PRA Field Exercise—PRA Tool Exercises TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Topic Method and Materials Watch the interaction between each Trainee (Facilitator) and the households • You want to observe their behaviour towards households • Observe their general facilitation skills and approach Trainee Evaluations It is important to record the observations about each individual Trainee • Choose an appropriate time when the Trainee is alone and give them some advice on methods to improve • Make some overall conclusions on all the Trainees and discuss with them at the Review Session in the afternoon Tips for the Trainer! • Providing appropriate advice and encouragement to Trainees requires a lot of skill—always be positive when first giving someone advice—then follow-up with a recommendation of how they can improve. • Never tell a Facilitator in front of households that they are doing a PRA Tool wrong or are not doing a good job—instead, join in the PRA Tool and assist the Facilitator with the Tool. Be positive and encour- age them—you can leave once the PRA Tool is being conducted correctly again. Integrated Commune Development Planning 50
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 20: PRA Field Exercise—Review with Households Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, Trainees and households will: • Understand the main issues/difficulties, potential/opportunities and activities identified through PRA Tools • Consolidate the results of all PRA Tools to identify the main issues and opportunities Duration: Materials: • A0 paper • Coloured Cards 60 minutes • Marker Pens • PRA Tool Results TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Each household group should nominate one person to present the results of their PRA Tools to all households • Hang the A0 results of each of the PRA Tool up the front—make sure that all the households can see • Request each person to present the main findings of their PRA Tools Presentations of Group Re- 40’ sults The Trainers may need to guide the presenters on what they should present • Request the households not to go into too much detail • The Trainers may also give a quick summary after each presenter to consolidate the results Encourage the presenters—make sure you give them a round of applause after each person has presented! One of the Trainers should record some of the main findings from results of the PRA Tools while the people are presenting—you can use a simple Matrix to do this • Write or draw a picture of each of the resource types, plant/animal varieties or social issue • In the first column, write ‘Status/Uses’ and fill in the consolidated findings from the PRA Tools 15’ Consolidating PRA Results • In the second column, write ‘Issues/Difficulties and fill in the main findings from the PRA Tools • In the third column, write ‘Opportunities/Potential’ and fill in the main findings from the PRA Tools • In the fourth column, write ‘Activities’ and fill in the main activities proposed through the PRA Tools Once completed, you can fill this in and present to the households • Ask if there are any final comments or questions Integrated Commune Development Planning 51
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 20: PRA Field Exercise—Review with Households TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials It is now time to conclude and close the PRA Field Exercise • Thank the households for their effort, enthusiasm and attendance • Thank the Facilitators (Trainers) for their effort Closing and Thanking 5’ • Emphasize the importance of PRA Field Exercises in Integrated Households Commune Development Planning and how the results are used to develop the Commune Plan • Congratulations! You have now finished the PRA Field Exercise! Tips for the Trainer! • Some presenters are often a little shy or afraid—you may sometimes have to offer further encouragement and assistance • Always nominate one of the Trainers to record some of the main findings of the PRA Field Exercises— this is done while groups are presenting results. This Trainer summarises the main findings from the PRA Field Exercises—this is a nice way to close the morning’s activities! Integrated Commune Development Planning 52
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 21: Review of the PRA Field Exercise Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, Trainees and households will: • Identify difficulties associated with conducting PRA Tools and propose methods to improve • Consolidate the results of all PRA Tools to identify the mains issues and opportunities Duration: Materials: • A0 paper • Coloured Cards 120 minutes • Marker Pens • PRA Tool Results TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that you are going to review the PRA Tools conducted at the PRA Field Exercise in the morning • Hang the A0 results of each of the PRA Tool at the front of the room—make sure that all the Trainees can see • Request the Trainees responsible for each PRA Tool to present the results and findings of their PRA Tools • Encourage the Trainees to go through the steps they used to con- Review of Results of PRA duct the PRA Tool 60’ Tools The Trainers should look at the PRA Tool results and listen carefully to the steps the Trainee used to conduct the Tool Use a Coloured Card to write down your observations—pay attention to the fol- lowing • Trainers should take turns to give their comments and suggestions Remember to be positive when giving comments and recommendations—Trainees will respond better to your encouragement The PRA Tools Matrix is designed to facilitate discussion between the Trainees and Trainers on methods to improve PRA Field Exercises and PRA Tools For each of the PRA Tools, outline the following: • The conclusions of the PRA Tool and the results obtained 20’ PRA Tools Matrix • The difficulties faced while conducting the PRA Tool • Methods to improve facilitation skills and the PRA Tool • Recommendations to Facilitators for each PRA Tool Facilitate discussion between the Trainees on the Matrix Integrated Commune Development Planning 53
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 21: Review of the PRA Field Exercise TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials It is now time to conclude the Review of the PRA Field Exercise • Highlight the main problems and methods that can be used by Fa- cilitators to improve the PRA Tools 10’ Conclusion • Emphasize the results and recommendations for Facilitators in the Matrix Conclude once again by thanking the Trainees for their effort once again in the morning Tips for the Trainer! • Sometimes it can be appropriate to use individual Trainees (Facilitators) as examples of good or bad fa- cilitation skills—this needs to be conducted in a very sensitive way—remember you are trying to deliver a message, not humiliate someone! • You can nominate one Trainee as the best Facilitator! Give a clear explanation on why this Facilitator was nominated as the best—hopefully the other Trainees will learn and adopt the same approach! Integrated Commune Development Planning 54
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 22: Presentations at Village Planning Meetings Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, Trainees will: • Know the method used to present PRA Field Exercise results and Village Planning Meetings • Practice PRA Field Exercise results presentations for Village Planning Meetings Duration: Materials: • Coloured Cards • Marker Pens 45 minutes • PRA Results Matrix • Village Resource Map TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Explain to the Trainees that PRA Field Exercise results are presented to house- holds at Village Planning Meetings The PRA Field Exercises are reviewed at the PRA Field Exercise Review Meeting • This Meeting also allocates time to prepare PRA results presenta- tions at Village Planning Meetings Introduction to PRA Field The PRA Field Exercise results are presented using two A0 sheets: 10’ Exercise results presenta- tions • Village Resource Map—highlighting difficulties and opportunities • PRA Results Matrix—highlighting the land, plant/animal variety or social issue, the status/use, difficulties, opportunities/potential and activities Explain to the Trainees that you are now going to prepare and practice the PRA Field Exercise results presentations Split the Trainees into 2 groups—each group will work with one Trainer • One group will prepare the presentation using the Village Resource Map • One group will prepare the presentation using the PRA Results Matrix Make sure that you have all the A0 results of the PRA Tools from the morning’s PRA Field Exercise hanging on the walls so Trainees can see The Village Resource Mapping group will look at each of the PRA Tools and iden- Preparation of PRA Results 15’ tify difficulties and activities Presentations • Use Coloured Cards to write the difficulties and activities • Use one colour for the difficulties and a different colour for the ac- tivities The PRA Results Matrix group will also look at each of the PRA Tools and iden- tify the different land type, animal/crop variety or social issue • Trainees will look at each of the PRA Tools and identify the status/ uses, difficulties/issues, opportunities/potential and activities and record these on the PRA Results Matrix Integrated Commune Development Planning 55
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 22: Presentations at Village Planning Meetings TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials When finished, bring the two groups together • Allow some time for the Trainees to look at the results of the other group Ask one Trainee from each group to give a quick summary of the presentation and how it was prepared Practice of PRA Field Exer- 20’ Nominate one Trainee from each group to give a presentation—emphasize that cise Results Presentations they should pretend they are at a Village Planning Meeting! • Offer some assistance if the Trainees have some difficulties or there are points they are not clear about When presentations are completed, provide some advice and recommendations on methods to improve the presentations Tips for the Trainer! • Use pictures on the PRA Results Matrix for each of the land types, plant/animal varieties or social is- sues—this makes the presentation more visual and easier for households to understand at Village Plan- ning Meetings • Remember to emphasize that the presenters at Village Planning Meetings need to give a brief overview on PRA, the PRA Field Exercise and the purpose of PRA before starting. Integrated Commune Development Planning 56
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 23: Conclusion and Course Closing Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, Trainees will: • Review the PRA Training Course for Facilitators • Know the draft schedule for the PRA Field Exercises Duration: Materials: • Marker Pens • A0 Evaluation Circle 45 minutes TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD Time Topic Method and Materials Welcome the Trainees to the final Session of the Training Course! It is now time to collect comments and questions from households on the PRA Training Course for Facilitators Use a simple A0 sheet with a circle divided into 5 or 6 sections—each section has a different topic: • Trainers, Agenda and Time, Training Materials, PRA Tools, Train- ing Approach, Content, etc.—you can choose different topics if you Comments on the PRA want! 15’ Training Course for Facili- Request the Trainees place a ‘dot’ in the each section of the circle for each of the tators topics • ‘Dots’ close to the centre of the circle indicates the Trainees thought this was ‘good’ or they understand the content • ‘Dots’ far away from the centre of the circle indicates the Trainees thought this was ‘not good’, could improve or do not understand the content Request comments from Trainees on topics that were marked away from the cen- tre of the circle and request recommendations to improve Provide information on the PRA Field Exercises that will be conducted in the Commune • One person from the Commune People’s Committee might be able to help you with this Explain that Trainees—who will be Facilitators—will be informed in advance and 15’ PRA Field Exercise their attendance is highly requested Inform the Trainees on the allowances that Facilitators receive for their assis- tance at PRA Field Exercises Welcome comments and suggestions from the Trainees (e.g. locations, appropriate times, etc.)—this will help the Commune People’s Committee to finalise the PRA Field Exercise schedule Integrated Commune Development Planning 57
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal: Training Manual Session 23: Conclusion and Course Closing TIME, TOPIC AND METHOD (continued) Time Topic Method and Materials Congratulations! You have now completed the PRA Training Course for Facilita- tors! It is now time to thank Trainees • Thank the Trainees for their enthusiasm and attendance at the Training Course • Emphasize the important role they play in the Commune and Vil- 15’ Course Close lage • Thank that the Trainers for their time and effort • Thank the Commune People’s Committee for their assistance in arranging the Training Course and the PRA Field Exercise Make any necessary concluding statements and close the Training Course! Tips for the Trainer! • You will need to explain clearly how the Trainees use the Evaluation Circle—explain clearly what a ‘dot’ close the centre of the circle means for each topic and what a ‘dot’ far from the centre means • It is time now to hand the Trainees (who are now Facilitators!) their ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal: Manual for Facilitators’ - you could turn this into an award ceremony. You can make this a lot of fun and a good way to end the Training Course! Integrated Commune Development Planning 58