Ap dung cac cong cu PRA
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Ap dung cac cong cu PRA

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Áp dụng các công cụ PRA khi khảo sát nhu cầu của cộng đồng

Áp dụng các công cụ PRA khi khảo sát nhu cầu của cộng đồng

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Ap dung cac cong cu PRA Ap dung cac cong cu PRA Presentation Transcript

  • Capacity building project for central region poverty reduction projects ( CACERP) -------------------------------------------------- Application of PRA tools in village development planning and Commune development planning ( VDP & CDP) (Training manual for district and commune staff)
  • Foreword The Capacity building for central region poverty reduction project (CACEP) is an ADB/dfid/MPI financed project located in the provinces of Kon Tum, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Binh and Quang Tri. In each province two pilot districts are involved and in each pilot district one commune is selected. The goal of TA is to facilitate the creation of the condition for improved decentralized poverty reduction initiatives in Vietnam. The objectives are to (II) improve local service delivery performance in selected pilot areas and (II) develop a set of key policy and practice changes aimed at enhanced poverty -focused service delivery modalities. The main indicators of success will be adoption by the Government of an agreed set of key policy and practice changes, creation of a management structure able to deliver these changes. The TA has two components: (I) design, test and implement decentralized service delivery arrangement and outcomes in 8 pilot communes with resulting models for wider replication; and (II) develop an active policy and practice network, leading to the development of key principles that will serve as basis for Government to improve decentralized service delivery for poverty reduction in Vietnam. The successful trials and demonstrations in Technical Support Project frame will be applied wide in Credit Project - ‘Central Region Livelihood Improvement Project (CRLIP). The demonstrations will be improved step by step in 3 years cycle of Project and the experiences from implementation process should be applied in CRLIP and in activities for enhancement on capacity of authorities. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is a process that TA was applying after research and learning experiences from other projects carrying out in these areas. The PRA process was discussed and agreed by Central Project Management Unit. In order to have participation of community in this process, the Training courses were organized in all of 8 pilot communes. The method of training is mainly learning by doing the practical exercise . The trainees of each training course are Province representatives , District staff, commune staff and informants at village level. Training material used in the course includes 2 kinds: (i) Detailed PRA material including all PRA tools and (ii) Basic material including simplified PRA tools. The contents presented below have been used as a referen document for both trainers and trainees during the courses in 8 pilot communes. After courses have finished, it had been improved for wider use of other courses in next phase of the project model_sard_annex3_en.doc 2
  • Table of content Foreword...............................................................................................................................2 Chapter I - Analysis methods, rural appraisal ..................................................................5 1. Traditional Method.................................................................................................................5 2. Changed by another methods .............................................................................................5 3. Method “Rapid Rural Appraisal” (RRA).............................................................................5 4. Method “Participatory Rural Appraisal” (PRA) ..................................................................6 5. Principles and application of PRA.......................................................................................6 6. What are the main characters of PRA................................................................................7 Chapter II – Techniques of PRA tools use ........................................................................9 Tool 1: Time line ...........................................................................................................................9 Tool 2: Village mapping .............................................................................................................10 Tool 3: Transect walks and Transect map...............................................................................11 Tool 4: Season calendar............................................................................................................13 Tool 5 : Time line diagram ......................................................................................................14 Tool 6: Priority ranking...............................................................................................................15 Tool 7: Venn diagram.................................................................................................................16 Tool 8: Wealth ranking ................................................................................................................17 Tool 9: Household economic semi-structure interview ..........................................................21 Chapter III- Village development plan .............................................................................22 1. Appraisal , making plan on agriculture ...............................................................................22 2. Appraise , make plan on forest trees and fruit . ................................................................23 3. Appraise, make plan on rural infrastructure ........................................................................24 4. Appraise , make plan on off-farm activities .........................................................................26 5. Appraise , make plan on water supply and sanitation, environment .............................27 6. Appraise , make plan on rural credit ....................................................................................28 7. Gender issues.........................................................................................................................30 8. Appraise, make plan on communication activities ............................................................31 9. Appraise, make plan on education and health ..................................................................32 10. Analysis , consolidation of PRA results and appraised information of each aspect. .33 Chapter IV - Consolidation of commune development plan (CDP)..............................36 1. What is commune development plan base on farmer needs...........................................36 2. Objective of commune development planning : ................................................................36 3. Process of commune development planning......................................................................36 Chapter V - Several necessary skills in application of PRA tools in making village development plan ..............................................................................................................40 5.1 Skills needed to carry out PRA tools..................................................................................40 5.2 . Some skills needed for planning ......................................................................................42 model_sard_annex3_en.doc 3
  • Abbreviations ADB: Asian Development Bank CACERP: The Capacity Building for Central Region Poverty Reduction Project CDP: Commune Development Plan CRLIP Central Region Livelihood Improvement Project DFID: Department for International Development RRA: Rapid Rural Appraisal PRA: Participatory Rural Appraisal VDP: Village Development Plan MPI : Ministry of Planning and Investment model_sard_annex3_en.doc 4
  • Chapter I - Analysis methods, rural appraisal 1. Traditional Method Recently, most analysis concentrates on the rural situation in developing country that have the following bearing common following characteristics + Time is long, it take some years + The steps of work are stable and regular. + Scope is limited that concentrating on single problem and there is little relation to fact. + Level of diversity is poor, although there are a lot of officers in many different fields taking part in assessment. + The result of assessment are likely to be good + The main guidance from level to level is to work directly with state enterprise and some organizations, and indirectly with households + The participatory role of peasant in project area is rare + High cost that wastes time and human resources + The methods consist of economic analysis, inventory land and crop in detail, testing in the field , interview by using a list of prepared social economic questions. Because this technique has no characters that can be changed , so it is not sensitive to local conditions, that lacks of flexibility and consolidation, and so is not suitable to be recommended. 2. Changed by another methods The defects in common analysis methods showed in years 1970. Up to now, the trying on development work is raise productivity of crops, making much of uniform environment, enrichment resources and checkable. After that they take care of poor farmers problems and difficult economic conditions. Hence there is a need to learns the working systems of farmer and developappropriate technology for various agricultural systems. Method “ Research of farming system ” was set up from those understandings. The general target of method is to describe cultivation, livestock, awareness, and extension activities. These developed by many forms, research plans and extension activities. Many different forms including rural research centers of Consultant Group International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and national institutes develop it. General of that office is repeating. At the beginning the method “ Research of farming system ” used many old ways to survey farmers and experimenting in the fields. But RFS also was encourage to have new techniques are faster and more exact 3. Method “Rapid Rural Appraisal” (RRA) The term “ Rural Rapid Appraisal” in agricultural field can be described by any new method that using researcher group in many fields to work together with farmers and community leader in order to develop quickly and systematically. The following activities can be used by RRA method 1) To evaluate the demands of rural development and other common development of community model_sard_annex3_en.doc 5
  • 2) To determine the priority tasks for developing work 3) To assess capacity of implementation (by social aspect and technical aspect) 4) To find out priority characters in developing activities 5) To implement development activities. 6) To monitor development activities RRA operated in 1970, with FSR movements. Among the persons to contribute to the first of creation were Robert Chambers, Peter Hildebrand, Robert Rhoades and Michael Collinson. They were the first persons to apply RRA to have a workshop in development research institute of Sussex University in England dated Oct. 1978 and Dec. 1979. At that time documents and the press were popularised the term PRA and introduced it to readers widely. In mid 1980s there were many experiences to find out by applying in many regions in the world. There was an international workshop in Sep. 1985 in Khon Kaen Thailand to test application of PRA and to perfect PRA term. 4. Method “Participatory Rural Appraisal” (PRA) The advantages of PRA when compare to traditional methods are participation of community is higher, time is short and low cost. Collection of data by pilot survey, in some cases may need less investigation but data analysis consumes much time. Collected data must be coded in the computer and analyzed by separate steps in research communes. When collection of data is completed it is difficult and high cost is needed to collect missing data , because it need to back to the field. The cost for information is always high. Participatory Rural Appraisal is specially suitable for community development because it allows participation of community and research groups in all research activities and data analysis . The data collected by PRA supports group and community participants for their tasks as well as information collected by hard works of participants for research, will be ensured that collected information are correct and useful. The analysis at the field ensures collected information are reliable and it can be adjusted before leaving village . 5. Principles and application of PRA 5.1. What is PRA? PRA is a process of flexible learning of each to others between community people and outsiders. It is a ‘Group” of approach and tools create local people to have opportunity for exchange and analysis of life awareness and their condition to planning of development and action . This process is to support community people to be able: : - To determine main their needs - Giving priority to above needs - To help them to have necessary actions, based on taking maximum advantage of their existing resources 5.2 Objectives of PRA PRA assist participants to be able to - Understand methods and be able to could plan and implement local development activities - Get aware more about community capacity - Use participatory methods in real activities (by independent group) To support community people to make VDP, based on taking maximum advantage of existing local resources model_sard_annex3_en.doc 6
  • 5.3. Principles - Observation - Semi-structured interview - Group discussion by subject - Assign tasks to farmers to do - Cross checking - Suitable information reliability - Living with community PRA is a continuous process which using the tools, Its result is total dependent on behaviours method or attitude of implementman. 6. What are the main characters of PRA 6.1. Triangle This is a method used to crosscheck the reliability of information which are different and collected from different resources. It is presented by: - Group component - Information resources - Use of tools for information collection a. Group component - Professional skills from different places are needed, that make different point of views, and all of these will add each to other into perfect result - Access to different topics by using new way of observation deeply. - Women must be included in the group - The group must have community people to exchange skills and awareness each to others b. Different Information resources - The group members have different backgrounds so that information collected by them is more diversified. Carry out combination of appropriate technology In order to help you to use a package of PRA techniques quickly and correctly , We would show a package of PRA tools. These tools have to be used harmoniously in the PRA process. model_sard_annex3_en.doc 7
  • 6.2. Flexibility character of PRA The research plans and methods are not fixed, they could be modified to to fit real condition 6.3. Community character - It is useful for analysis of collected information - To evaluate the community difficulties correctly and to create the main elements for VDP, CDP process - Members of PRA group should consist of rich, medium, poor households and , female and male 6.4, Quantitative character Request ourselves always: • What information is needed • What information must be collected • Who will analyze and use these information , What the objective is • What level of accuracy of these information, 6.5. Analyze in the field - The selected information will be analyzed immediately - The collection and analysis of information are done continuously and interactivety (collect information - Analyze at the field - collect information - Analyze at the field) - If it necessary the analysis focus, could take place open through out the implementation process - During PRA process, analysis focus can be expanded if necessary . Bag of PRA tools chart map Ven- Season calendar n Wealth ranking Group Village discusion history Semi - structure inerviewiew model_sard_annex3_en.doc 8
  • Chapter II – Techniques of PRA tools use Tool 1: Time line 1.1. Objective: • To be acquainted, increase good acquaintance between PRA staff and villagers • Help villagers to remember historical events in the village, through that villagers can review village development process correctly and encourage the solidarity and support of each villager to others in coming time. 1.2. Methodology : • Select a village informant group consist of 5-7 villagers ( Elders who have been living in the village for long time and understanding village history, should be selected) • A comfortable place for group discussion is selected to do the tool • PRA staff facilitate villagers to discuss amongs themselves the time when historical take place in the village. The collected information is noted on Ao size paper to help villagers easily to discuss or add other necessary information. • During discussion process, PRA staff could make open questions to help villagers remember and adding events of village. • Selected information is written on A4 paper. Example: a completed time line. Years Events affect life and production of villagers 1973 There are two households reside at village 1974 Local Government does settlement for minority ethnic group in the village 1980 Slash and burn is a major production of villagers, productive risk appears cause villagers are hungry. 1993 Epidemic disease of animal appear; livestock husbandry are facing many difficulties 1999 Local Government does not allow to harvest natural forest, villagers are supported budget for forest management and protection. 2002 The village is supported small scale irrigation system and electric power. model_sard_annex3_en.doc 9
  • Tool 2: Village mapping 2.1. Objectives : • Assess, analysize general village situation to expose difficulties, solutions for each field related poverty reduction in the village • Village map will be used for making VDP and village meeting discussion . 2.2. Methodology • Form a group consist of 5 to 7 villagers including female and male • Select of a high site from where it is convenient to review the village, the select place should be good for traffic, attracting villagers' participation. • Villagers discuss and draw up their village map on ground . They could use color chalk, small leaves, branches of tree, ... to present the terrain characters, land use, roads, ... on village map. During mapping process, PRA staff help villagers to discuss with appropriate questions. • After map is completed , the villagers make a copy of the map on lage size paper (Ao) • Remark sites of each households on the map , result of wealth ranking is used to mark households categoried . Each type of household is remarked by one color on village map Note : Village map need to be included: Information concerning: Roads, rivers/streams. Rice, corn, ...fields, canal; forest, grazing-land; ... of village For example: A village map drew up by villagers model_sard_annex3_en.doc 10
  • Tool 3: Transect walks and Transect map 3.1. Objective: • Transect walks provides necessary information and general picture on potential of natural resources, land use structure, animal, crops and hidden potential.. of the villager • The above findings will be used for VDP. 3.1. Methodology : • Form a group, at least consist of 5 to 7 villagers including men and women • Village map, chart are used to discuss and identify transect direction ; chart, map, compass, view and measure equipments, pen, papers are need to be prepared. PRA staff explain clearly the objectives of this transect walks and suggest farmers to assist the group to transect walk and discuss on the way. • Walking is need to be done from low area to high area, at the convenient area of village, the group can stop to discuss. PRA staff draw up topography and characters of each area in the village to help farmers in group discussion. PRA staff could ask farmers more. • Drawing transect map on big size paper or on land floor by chalk or local material • The map can be copied on A4 papers model_sard_annex3_en.doc 11
  • Example: Transect map of Luong nang village, Hoa son commune, Tuyen Hoa¸ district, Quang Binh province Natural forest Sloping land Home garden Paddy rice Bare land Natural Good soil, covered by Bad soil, have been used for long Land surface is thick, quite flat, home One rice crop with low Yellow color soil and good condition different natural tree time, slope garden located around house. yield soil species. Managem Partly allocated to Plant maize, upland rice, land is not Plant mango, lemon, and other mixed tree No application of No people manage, bare -ent commune for allocated to household, are not valuable. fertilizer, lack of tending land with brush and management, Forest is invaluable tree; being exploited Difficulties Large area, located far Bad soil, lack of cultivation techniques Lack of valuable species and land use plan Lack of high yield Far from house, lack of resident area, it varieties, intensive labor caused protection of techniques. forest is difficult. Forest has not been allocated to individual households yet. Expectati- Budget for protection Productivity is increased Home garden is used effectively Yield is increased Land to be covered by on of forest, Forest is forest tree species with high allocated to economic value households.
  • Tool 4: Season calendar 4.1. Objectives: • To help villagers understanding all of frequent activities of the village in a year. • Season calendar is a basis for village development planning and giving tasks to villagers 4.1. Methodology : • Establish a villager group consist 5 to 7 villagers including men and women and villagers who have long experiences on production in the village • Finding a good site for people to participate in discusion • Villager group discusses about crop season in village. PRA staff encourage, promote farmers to discuss. • Villagers can use local available materials ( Stick, leaf, chalk ) to draw up season calendar on land floor, each material shows each activity in the village or months of the year. • Use square paper to take note information discussed Copying all of discussed information in A4 size paper. For example: Crop and season calendar of Ha village, Thanh Hoa¸ commune, Tuyen Hoa district Quang Binh province Temperature Rainfall 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Spring rice Tending Harve Planting sting Disease Stem disease, yellow leaf Winter tending harvesting Plantin g Disease Stem disease, yellow leaf Maize Sowing seeds Tendi ng Collection of forest 100 % products PRA - VDP 13
  • Tool 5 : Time line diagram 5.1. objectives: • To help villagers understanding some of variations in village by time such as variation of crop yields, or what population changed, how is land use structure changed • Time line diagrams help villagers to undersatnd reasons make negative changes so that their negative awareness can be changed . 5.2. Methodology: These diagrams show the quantitative changes by time. These diagrams could show many type of changes by time such as: − Crop production − Area of crop cultivation − Number of animal heads − Population and household numbers − Price changed − Child-bearing and death ratio in village − Rainfall − The changes of natural forest, plantation forest and lad use situation. − Disbursement of Project − ... Guide villagers to do the following issues − square or normal paper are prepared − Exchange with village informant about your thinking − Let them have some time to think, remember and make comparison. − Try to encourage them to collect the data changed of specific field within a last 10 years − To combine 2 or more of variable data in one diagram. − To combine the new reviewed information and base information − The villages draw themselves the diagram changed by time on land floor or on board, big size papers For example: Diagrama of land use % 60 60 Natural forest Resident land 42.2 Crop land 40 35.6 Pady rice land 28 Planted forest 23 Other land 20 13.5 11 13.5 11 11 Maize area 9 5 5 5.5 5 5 5.5 5.7 5.5 Forest restoration 0 n¨m 1970 1980 1995 PRA - VDP 14
  • Tool 6: Priority ranking 6.1. Objectives: • Giving priority to development activities • Evaluation of farmers' interests 6.2. Methodology . There are several types of priority ranking: - Ranking base on priority set - Double ranking pripority ranking by using matrix - Wealth ranking methods of Ranking for priority; Double ranking; Direction matrix ranking are similar: Priority ranking allows PRA to determine major farmer needs or priority set by villagers quickly, it also make comparison of villager ideas more easily Normally, a ranking priority can be done by apply the following steps: • Select some issues that need to be given priority . For example: crops, rice varieties, firewood, fruit trees, or difficulties effected to community development. etc. • Select some villagers who have proven experiences on village situation to collaborate with PRA team • Suggest the villagers show their point of views to give priority to selected issues and how to give priorities. The villagers decide what categories can be used for ranking or giving score to ask each villager, the questions should be quot; what do you think morequot; Continue to ask other villagers for the same issues. • To synthesize all discussed results on a table for making comparison . See example: Matrix ranking means that each criteria is given score, the villagers can use stones, maize seeds, rice seeds to show score that they want to give. This way allows illiterates to be able for ranking. Double ranking: There are 2 types or 2 issues compared each to other and rank by priority. Double ranking of the wealth classification for villages in a commune No of Ord 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 appeara Priority nces 1 Village 1 X 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 1 1 10 2 2 Village 2 X 2 4 5 2 7 8 9 2 2 12 4 8 3 Village 3 X 4 5 3 7 8 9 3 3 12 3 9 4 Village 4 X 5 4 7 8 9 4 4 12 5 7 5 Village 5 X 7 8 9 5 5 12 6 6 6 Village 6 X 7 8 9 6 6 12 2 10 7 Village 7 X 8 9 7 7 12 7 5 8 Village 8 X 8 8 8 8 11 1 9 Village 9 X 9 9 12 8 4 10 Village 10 X 10 12 1 11 11 Village 11 X 12 0 12 12 Village 12 X 9 3 On the table, Village 8 is the best wealthy, Village 11 is the poorest in commune. PRA - VDP 15
  • Tool 7: Venn diagram 7.1 Objectives: • To assist villagers in discussing different importance level of organisations and its impacts to villagers' life.. • Through implementation of the tool both PRA staff and villagers can find out necessary change need to be made to support organizations to help villagers more effectively. Villagers' demands can also be reflected to exiting organizations, it makes organizations to know what should be changed to satisfy the need of villagers. . 7.2.Methodology : • Form a group consist of 5 to 7 villagers in cluding men and women, elder is promoted • PRA staff guide villagers to list organisations which have activities related to villagers life, the villagers show their point of views , to determine responsibility, importance levels as well as impact of those organizations to village . • Suggest villagers to use color paper cards and comparison method to determine the important levels of each organization. Biggest circle card shows the community and it is put at the center. Bigger circles show important organizations and smaller circle show less important organizations. Distance from center to circles show impact levels of organizations to village ( a circle far from center show impact of that organization to village is weak and opposite) After work is finished Venn diagram need to be copied on A4 paper. Example: An organization diagram (Vene) made by villagers Village Managem- ent Board Commun Agriculture e people Bank committe Villag- ers Extension 135 Farmers progr associate am -on Heath care PRA - VDP 16
  • Tool 8: Wealth ranking 8.1. Objectives: • To help villagers to do wealth ranking in the village by themselves determining and discussing methods to improve livelihood of the poor in village. • To support monitoring and evaluation on effectiveness and impact of project/program in next years. 8.2. Methodology: • To establish a group of 5 to 7 villagers including the poor and woman. • PRA staff support farmers to determine criteria for wealth ranking, each household category ( rich, medium, poor..) has own criteria. Base on village condition, the villagers can categorize households into 3-4 groups, categorized ones should be called household category 1, category 2, category 3..It is should not call rich household group or poor household group. A table on paper Ao size is prepared as table 1, the criteria are indicated based on house, family property, food/person, animal. Table 1: Household indicators Household Categories breakdown categories House Property Food/person Animal …………….. Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 • Prepare small paper cards with different colors, the number of cards is equal to the number of households in the village, the name of each householder is noted in each card. • Villagers discuss to categorize households base on criteria identified, households will be categorized according to categories mentioned in above table • Villagers put cards with name of households at type of category they want • At the end of the process, checking the agreement of participants, whether they agree or not. • Prepare a similar table (as table 2) on AO paper and the result of discussion of all of participants. After that, the result is noted on A4 size paper. Table 2: Household wealth ranking Ord. Category I Category II Category III Category IV 1 2 3 ... • Discuss main difficult issues that poor households are facing. What do villagers think? Suggest discussion group to give scores according to the importance level of these difficulties. The most important is 10 score and the scores are from 1 to 10, The result of discussion is noted in model table (table 3). PRA - VDP 17
  • Table 3: Difficult issures of the poor Give score Difficult issu Reason Solution 1 to 10 • PRA staff assist villagers in discussion to put forward activities for solution of difficult issues of the poor. Each activity could be showed includes advantage, difficulties, and quantity, especially the responsibility of village in these tasks. The end, PRA group discusses about priority ranking for activities. The results of discussion are noted in table 4. Table 4: The activities for solution of difficulties for poor households Quantity Estima Responsibility Prio Adva- Diffic- Soluti Objec Plac Activity Unit te rity ntage ulty -on -tive 2004 2005 2006 e budget village outside PRA - VDP 18
  • Example: Wealth ranking result made by villagers; Tu Ma Rong village, Tu Ma Rong commune, Dak To district, Kon Tum province: Criteria for wealth ranking formulated by villagers: Category I Category II Category III - One month surplus food/year - Food is enough - Lack 3-4 month food per year - Have average 3 cattle - Have average 1-2 cattle - Have no cattle -There are 1 motorcycle or TV - Have TV set - Have no motorcycle, Ti vi set set - House (metal roofing, - House (leaf roofing, bamboo - Have stable house (roof cover Bamboo wall) wall) by tile; timber wall) - Most families send their - Children are not sent to - Children are sent to school children to school school Wealth ranking result made by villagers 1. A §inh 1 A Ban Y Lý 2. Y Ngäc 2 A Ph−¬ng A Móa 3. Y T©m 3 A D«n A MÐa 4. A Dòng 4 Y Hå A Man 5. Y S¸o 5 A Ninh A T¨ng 6. Y Bóc 6 Y Thu A Nhiªn 7. A Lîi 7 Y Nai A Liªm 8. Y Bung 8 Y Ch¨m A PhÝt 9. A Bin 9 A Miªn A Hiªng 10 A Han Y Th¶o Y Thñy PRA - VDP 19
  • Social village mapping After wealth ranking made, the group draws up their social village map: Base on natural village map that have been made by tool 1, draw up village map ( boundary of the village, main roads, compound area..) on A0 paper size. Mark households sites on the map by using different color; for example: Households categorized 1, mark red color, households categorized 2, mark yellow color... Final discuss households sites marked on the map, and evaluate where household category 1 located and where category 4 located give ideas to help the poor and indicate which area in the village need to be supported. Example: A social village map made by PRA group PRA - VDP 20
  • Tool 9: Household economic semi-structured interview 9.1. Objectives : • To evaluate, analyse current livelihood of households, • this is a basis to be used for follow-up evaluation activities 9.2. Methodology : • To form a discussion group consist of at least 4 persons • The result of wealth ranking is used as a basis to select households for interview. Several households represented each type of household category , will be selected for interview • Discuss household economic status. Suggest households to analyze itself according to model table prepared . Note: Before household economic analysis, PRA staff need to and explain clearly objective of interview The discussion must be welcome, comfortable. To ensure that the farmers do not feel as if they are being crossexamined . During interview process, PRA staff should try to apply opening questions to discover necessary information. The use of hard question will make interview boring and collected information to be idea of PRA staff Table 5: Example for household economical analysis Head householder name : No of people : Household category : No of labor : Village : commune : district : Income resorces Income Spend balance Solution $ VND material $ VND materials Food Crop Rice Maize Other Pig Chicken Laber rent PRA - VDP 21
  • Chapter III- Village development plan 1. Appraisal , making plan on agriculture 1.1. Objective • Appraise current situation of agriculture production including productively that can be indicated . • Problems, obstacle which are facing by villagers then find out solutions • Raising activities base on villagers' demands 1.2. Methodology • Form a villagers' group consist of 5-7 people, male and female should be included ( People who have proven experiences should be selected) • The group visit field where activities are need to be appraised. • Discuss and answer questions concerning situation, problems, obstacle of agriculture production. Result of discussion is completed in to the following table • Table 6 Table 6: Situation of agriculture production Items Situations Problems Reason Methodology Crops Paddy rice ......... Plant protection Livestock Buffalo Pig ... Veterinary Other service • Discuss proposed activities for agriculture production, giving priority for proposed activities and complete the following table Table 7 Table 7: Proposed activities for agriculture Quanlity Responsibility Prio Soluti Object Estimat Activity Unit 200 200 200 Place . on ive ed cost Villag Outsider 4 5 6 ers s Crop Livestock PRA - VDP 22
  • 2. Appraise , make plan on forest trees and fruit 2.1. Objective : • Appraise current situation of forest production and management • Indicate problems, obstacle and find out solutions for forest production and management . 2.2. Methodology • Form a group consist of 5-7 villagers who have long experiences on forest production and management, male and female should be included. • Visit forest area which represent different forest types in the village. • Discuse and analyze current situation and propose solution, discussion results completed in the following table (Table 8) Table 8: Situation of forest management and fruit trees . Items Situation Problems Causes Solution Forest planting Forest restoration Forest protection Fruit trees - Mango - Grapefruit - ..... • Discuss solution to solve problem, giving priority for proposed activities . Consolidate information gained in to the table 9. Tool 9: Proposed activities for forest production and fruit trees. Quanlity Cost Responsibility Solutio- Objec Uni Prio. Activities Place estimat Villager Ousider n -tive -t 200 200 200 4 5 6 e s s Forest Fruit trees PRA - VDP 23
  • 3. Appraise, make plan on rural infrastructure 3.1. Objective: • Through analyses of situation of current constructions in the village, to indicate problems on both technical situation and current use of contractions, propose solution. • Propose constructions need to be updated or new built to reduce problems facing by villagers 3.2. Methodology: • Form a group of villagers consist of 5- 7 villagers who have long experiences on rural infrastructure in the village, the group do appraisal of current constructions . • Collect information and data of exiting constructions and complete the following table and indicate constructions' place on the map. Table 10: Situation of infrastructure Name of Year Finan Capacity Number Current Problems Pri constructions of cial (technical of manageme o. buildin resou data) beneficia nt -g rces tes Exiting works I- Irrigation 1) Reserve 2) Dams. 3) Canal II- Rural road 1- Inter-village roads: a) Road b) Bridge c) Culverts 2- Road inside village: a) Road b) Bridge c) ... III School: a) Primary b) Nursery IV- Health station V- Electric VI- Drinking water IV Sanitation, environment hygiene PRA - VDP 24
  • • Problems being faced by villagers are the basis to raise discussion and to propose works needing invest and solutions. Visiting the field is a good way for PRA staff and villagers to find out unfeasible works that will be deleted in proposed plan by villagers. Couple comparison tool is used to priotize proposed activities and indicate responsibility of contributors. • Discussion result are completed on the following • Table 11 Table 11: Proposed activities for infrastructure Prio. Works proposed ( Estim Future Numb Type Availa Working Year Contributors solution , number, ated capacity er of of ble conditions of Benefi Outsider size) cost benef house local (Problems, impl ci- s iciarie hold materi road access eme aries s in catego als to works) ntati future ries to on be benefi ciaries . I- Update and repairer II- New building PRA - VDP 25
  • 4. Appraise , make plan on off-farm activities 4.1. Objective: • Assist villagers in appraising current situation, problems, obstacle and potential of off-farm activities. • Discuss solutions to raise feasible off-farm activities 4.2. Methodology: • Form a villagers' group consist of 5-7 villagers, female and villagers who have long experiences on off-farm are prioritized. • Discuss and answer questions related to : “ what are potential, problems and obstacle of off-farm activities in village ”.discussion results are summarised in Table 12. Table 12: Situation, solution and important level of proposed activities. Important level ( 1-10) Current Off-farm activities Problems Solution level 1 is low important, level 10 is most important • Discuss and answer the second question: “What should be proposed to outsiders to support off-farm activities ” ask villagers to give priority to proposed activities. Put discussion result in to Table 13 Table 13: Proposed off-farm activities Quantity Responsibility Prio Soluti Objec Estimat Activities Unit 200 200 200 Place . -on tive ed cost Villagers Ousider 4 5 6 s PRA - VDP 26
  • 5. Appraise , make plan on drinking water supply and sanitation, environment 5.1. Objective : • Assist villagers in raising solutions to improve water supply system, sanitation and environment in the village . • Propose activities to update current situation 5.2. Methodology • Form a group consisting several villagers who have long experiences on water supply system and sanitation, environment • Discussion: Current problems of water supply system, sanitation, environment. Propose villagers to discuss and give score to proposed activities based on it's important level. Most important level has 10 score and low important level has 1 score, discussion result is put in Table 14 Table 14: Situation, problems of water supply system and sanitation and environment. Description of works of Place Numbe Number of water supply system r of exiting Problems facing by villagers and environment in the benefi works village ciaries • Discuss to raise activities to solve problems, discussion results are consolidated in to Table 15 Table 15: Proposed activities on water sypply system and sanitation environment Responsibili Quanlity Prio Soluti Objec Estimat ty Activities Unit Place . on tive 200 200 200 ed cost Villag Outsi 4 5 6 ers ders PRA - VDP 27
  • 6. Appraise , make plan on rural credit 6.1. Objective : • Assist villagers in discussing and formulating problems, obstacle, the need of villagers, potential , related to credit issues. • Raise issues need to be supported to reduce problems of budget for production 6.2. Methodology: • Form a villager group consist of 5-7 villagers • Discuss questions : “ Where do villagers get loan ?. Why do villagers get loan? How much (average) can villagers get from existing credit sources ? Discussion result can be consolidated in to Table 16 Table 16: Current situation of credit in the village Credit sources Purpose of use of loan Maximum Credit Intere Target group loan can cycle st rate be got • Discuss: “ what problems do villagers face to get loan from exiting credit sources ?” Encouge villagers to discuss problems of loan procedure ( Attitude, documentation, interest rate, credit cycle..) Discussion results can be consolidated in to table 17 (Picture: Villagers are discussing rural credit activities ) Table 17: Problems of loan procedure in the villagers Broblems Reasons Solutions 1. Credit sources 2. Use of loan 3. Credit line 4. Credit cycle 5. Interest rate 6. Credit staff PRA - VDP 28
  • • Discuss proposal to solve problems of credit and the way to use loan effectively. Proposal activities can be consolidated in to table 18 Table 18: Proposed activities for credit issues Responsibili Quanlity Prio Soluti Objec Estimat ty Activities Unit Place . on tive 200 200 200 ed cost Villag Outsi 4 5 6 ers ders PRA - VDP 29
  • 7. Gender issues 7.1. Objective : • Help female villagers to discuss and indicate ways to improve their working conditions, life • Propose activities to integrate gender issues into communal development activities 7.2. Methodology This work should be guided by a female villager with participation of female villager group. Discuss and formulate daily work of both female villagers and male villagers in the village, answers can be written on big size paper with form described at Table 19 Table 19: Daily works Working Daily works time Female Male • Discuss and answer question: “What problems make female difficult in their life ” ask group members to give score to problems raised according to important level. The group also discuss and answer question “What need to be done to solve females' problems ” Table 20: Difficulties facing by female villagers Problems of female Solution to solve problems Important level • Female villagers discuss to propose what sould be done to reduce their difficulties. Table 21: Proposed activities for gender equal Prio Soluti Objec Estimat Responsibili Activities Unit Quanlity Place . on tive ed cost ty 200 200 200 Villag Outsi 4 5 6 ers ders PRA - VDP 30
  • 8. Appraise, make plan on communication activities 8.1. Objective : • Appraise situation of communication in the village, the way that villagers communicate information sources.( source, channel, message, audience) Assist villagers in raising problems of communication in the village, special communication types related to villagers' production are emphasised. • Assist villagers in raising problems/obstacle of communication as well as propose activities to strengthen communication at village level 8.2. Methodology : • Form a group consist of 5-7 villagers who understand communication activity in the village, communication village staff should be included • Interview: PRA staff assist villagers in raising existing communication, each type of communication should be clarified its channel, message, source, audience. Discuss linkage between villagers and information sources and how can villagers receive information from information sources (by what channel), appraise situation and category, score each communication type according to important level for villagers. • Discussion result is consolidated into table 22 Table 22: Analysis and synthetization of communication issues Type of communication Channel Situation Problems Solution 1. Extension communication 2. Marketing information 3. Credit information 4. Policy information 5. Technology information 6. Education information 7. Agriculture service information • Discuss to propose what should be done to strengthen communication network at local level Table 23: Proposed activities to strengthen communication at village level Prio Soluti Objec Estimat Responsibili Activities Unit Quanlity Place . on tive ed cost ty 200 200 200 Villag Outsi 4 5 6 ers ders PRA - VDP 31
  • 9. Appraise, make plan on education and health 9.1. Objective: • Appraise situation on education and health service in the village • Assist villagers in identifying the ways to improve current situation as well as seeking contribution of villagers to implement proposed plan. 9.2. Methodology • Discuss: Problems, constraints, obstacle of exiting activities and propose solutions. Giving score to each activity base on its importance level, is required. ( 10 score give to most important level, 1 score give to low important level), discussion result is consolidated into the following table Level of Situation Problem Solution important Health care Education • The villagers are proposed to raise activities, their proposal can be consolidated into the following table. Table 24: Proposed activities on health and education Estimat Prio Soluti Objec Responsibili Activities Unit Quanlity Place -ed . on tive -ty cost 200 200 200 Villag Outsi 4 5 6 ers ders Health Education PRA - VDP 32
  • 10. Analysis, consolidation of PRA results and appraised information of each aspect a. PRA result . Each implemented PRA tool has its specific results, these results presented by maps, diagrams, matrix and tables containing discussion results of villagers and minutes recorded by PRA staff during PRA process. Results above mentioned are recorded on A 4 size papers and have been presented at village meeting, after that it is requested to be converted into A 4 size paper. These are real PRA results that recorded by PRA staff. b. Analysis, consolidation of PRA results. This is an important step to analyse and consolidate PRA results gained into summarised PRA and VDP that is used for village meeting with participation of all villagers. This work including: + Consolidate potential, problem, current indicators + Solutions to solve problems + Propose activities of each aspect related to poverty alleviation in the village Table that can be used for consolidation of problems, potential, and solution, proposed activities . Items Problem/obstacle Solutions Proposed activities Crops Livestock Fruit trees Forest management Rural credit Drinking water, sanitation, environment hygiene Gender equal Off-farm ... PRA - VDP 33
  • Three years village Development Plan ( 2004-2006) Ord Objective plan Solutions er. Items Unit Curren Plan Activities Indicat Priority Unit Quanl Place Time Contributors t ors of ity Begin Finish Amo Villager Outsiders succe unt s ss A. Agriculture a- Crop (Rice, maize….) 1 Paddy rice - Area - Productivity - Production 3 Up-land rice - Area - Productivity - Production 4 Maize 5 Cassava 6 Peanut 4 Home garden b- Livestock 1 Poultry, cattle Number of heads Growing B. Forestry Area Forest cover PRA - VDP 34
  • Three years village Development Plan ( 2004-2006) Ord Objective plan Solutions er. Items Unit Curren Plan Activities Indicat Priority Unit Quanl Place Time Contributors t ors of ity Begin Finish Amo Villager Outsiders succe unt s ss Land use planning/allocation C. Infrastructure a- Irrigation b- Road D. Credit E. Health - Eduction F. Environmental hygiene PRA - VDP 35
  • Chapter IV - Consolidation of commune development plan (CDP) 1. What is commune based development plan • This is a plan consolidated base on farmer needs and from village development plans • Proposed activities mention in CDP are given priority and submitted to donors, Government project/programs for getting supports and integration of implementation. • Contribution of villagers is committed in CDP 2. Objective of commune development planning : • Synthesize urgent needs of farmers . • Create base to policy makers, development organizations, Government projects/programs to respond to farmers' requirement, CDP help donors to share their responsibilities and to integrate its activities. • Raise community commitment to contribute to implement plan 3. Process of commune development planning • Carry out PRA tools to collect baseline information, identify problems/obstacle and farmers' needs as well current basic indicators for planning. • Making village development plan of all villages of the commune • Analyse, consolidate all VDPs into commune development plan (CDP) • Hold commune meeting to comment and arrive agreement of CDP CDP process PRA VDP 1 VDP 2 VDP 3 VDP 4 Analyze and consolidate VDP into CDP Commune meeting PRA - VDP 36
  • 4. Steps to synthesize CDP • Village informants and PRA staff are divided into small groups, (each group consist of 5- 7 people) T • Each group synthesize plan on each specific subject (agriculture, infrastructure, forestry..) • Specific subject is synthesized according to the following steps: - Analyze basic information collected from PRA exercise, planning indicators are emphasized: Agriculture: Area, productivity, and production. Irrigation: Irrigated area /Area without irrigation Look at real technology, farmers' needs Propose situations and activities Set up priority • Each group synthesize specific aspect assigned • Whole commune meeting with participation of representative from all villages and commune to commune plan made and setting up priority to proposed activities at commune level. • CDP is revised base on meeting comments. Consolidation of CDP by using available forms: PRA - VDP 37
  • Consolidation form: Commune Development Plan Year 2004 - 2006 Objective plan Solutions Pri Time Estimated cost (1000 VND) Contributors Qua o. Items Unit current Planed Activities Unit Place Amoun Com Distri CRLI Oth Village Ousid nlity Begin Finish CACERP t mune ct P ers r ers I. Capacity building II. Activities A Crops 1 Paddy rice 2 Maize 3 Peanut B Livestock
  • Objective plan Solutions Pri Time Estimated cost (1000 VND) Contributors Qua o. Items Unit current Planed Activities Unit Place Amoun Com Distri CRLI Oth Village Ousid nlity Begin Finish CACERP t mune ct P ers r ers - C Credit D Off-farm E Health care/educat ion F Infrastructu re PRA - VDP 39
  • Chapter V : Several necessary skills in application of PRA tools in making village development plan 5.1 Skills needed to carry out PRA tools PRA is a process with participation of many people with different background and their awareness are also different. If strong points of PRA members are promoted and their conservative thoughts are limited then PRA process can be implemented effectively, otherwise, probably we meet many difficulties. The following are several skills can be used for reference during PRA process a. Communication skills PRA staff should be open, listening and honest while working with villagers. It is nesessary to take care about issues that villagers focus on. Speak slowly, clearly and easy to understand. Try to listen what villagers say, never interrupt villager speaking, if it is unclear please give them suggestion to help them answer, litening with recording villagers' opinion is required, behaviour shows support their opinion and compliment to them are also needed. The way to introduce and ask questions is easy to understand, ask question with good behaviour, humble, ask question one by one, try to create good conditions to villagers' anwser. It is necessary to invite diffident villagers to present their opinion, avoid some ones speak for long time, the other ones do not have chance to speak. It is necessary to attract concentration of everybody, because their concentration is an indication of interest Villagers' interest is encouraged Create desire of villagers. Promote villagers to listen and understand, then their activity makes them believe that their activities will be satisfied It is necessary to take note issues concerning minority ethnic groups, religion, customs, culture, elder, gender, to have suitable communication. It is avoid to use top-down communication . Questions shoul be related to local condition b. Skills to collect information . PRA is process to collect, appraise information with participation of villagers, so that skills to collect information, are play a very important role for PRA staff.
  • A available information and data such as productivity, production, area of agriculture crops, data and information related to livestock, crop, e.t map available, diagram can be collected at district level: Planning unit, agriculture management division, cadastral unit, economic unit.. These data and informations are useful to carry out PRA tools in villages • When collect information, it is necessary to collect information related to ongoing projects/program in the village as well as projects have done to consider future plan to avoid overlap in formulating activities • Local staff are need to be used to provide information because they away work with villages and are quite familiar with local condition. • Observation : Through observation PRA staff can collect intuition information such as: Slope, vegetation, situation of water supply system, irrigation, road. • Direct survey : In order to have qualitative data PRA staff can use tools as balance, ruler... this method is usual used when we need data on productivity, area, head number of livestock .. • Visit and obser exiting farming system to have real data • Interview individual local staff and villagers • Small experiment in the farm may be made for baseline information. Some methods need to be focused for information collection Collection of information without distribution of survey form, include: Use data available made by former trials or other experiments Use available basic information . Observation . Directly survey. Collection of information by using survey forms : Interview people who have long experience related to specific subject . Structure interview villagers who living in the village . In-depth interview Interview farmer groups ( group interview) c. Cross check collected information Information collected from different sources and people so that it may be not correctly. It is necessary to cross check collected information, after each PRA exercise is completed, PRA staff need to cross check information that collected by each group. Final information is consolidated after checking. Some experiences to cross check collected information : Discuss doubtful information in group meeting to arrive agreement. Check information collected by paying visits to the field. PRA - VDP 41
  • Compare information collected to available maps, diagram, documents. Checking with people who have proven experiences. Measures for checking . Remove overlaping informations and wrong information. Skills to hold meeting In order to hold group meeting effectively, it is necessary to arrange good conditions and follow the following principles: • Meeting place and time, as well as meeting subject, contents, must be clear and announced to everybody before the meeting. • Meeting contents and discussion subjects must be prepared before meeting • It is necessary to select meeting facilitator and secretary. • Meeting contents must be simple and easy to understand. • Meeting group should be small ( Number of meeting member should not exceed 20 people ) • Promote participation of members in raising their own ideas, avoid some ones speaking long so other ones do not have chance to share their own experiences. It is necessary to move people who sit at the back to raise their ideas. • It is necessary to flexible facilitate conflicts appeared during the meeting • It is necessary to arrange Material supported for meeting such as color cards, board, big size papers, color pen, map, diagram for meeting to make everybody easy understanding. • Before going to next subjects, it is necessary to summarise previous subjects that have been agreed • Elder, gender equal, diffrent bakground levels are should be taken note during the meeting • The meeting should be finished in time. 5.2 . Some skills needed for planning Identification of farmers' needs . Giving priority to proposed activities . Find out reasons of farmers' needs that they formulated Skills to use matrixes and diagrams to present linkage between problems and reasons. List solution to solve problems . Select appropriate solutions to be listed into VDP. PRA - VDP 42
  • PRA - VDP 43